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Ex : sodium (Na), oxygen (O) Element : An element contains only one kind of atom. Ex : oxygen (O2) Compound : contains atoms of different elements joined together by chemical reaction. Ex : carbon dioxide (CO2) Periodic Table : an address book for elements. Most of the elements are metals. Metals in one group have similar properties. Period 1
Group 1 More about atoms Nucleus neutron (none), proton (1+) Electrom (1-) an atom consists
Nucleon number = proton +neutron
Isotopes and radioactivity Isotopes : are atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons, but the same number of electrons and protons. Ex:
12 13 14 6C, 6C, 6C
Radioactive : means its nucleus is unstable. when the atom breaks or decay, it gives out radiation. 14 Ex : 6 , other two isotopes of carbon are non-radioactive
Radioactive isotopes are called radioisotopes Half-life : is how long a half of a given amount of a radioisotopes is going to decay. Ex : if we have 100 carbon-14 atoms, 50 of them will decay after 5730 years. Radioisotopes cause radiation sickness. But, it is also used to check for leaks, in cancer treatment, and to find the age of old remains (using carbon dating).
How electrons are arranged The outer a shell is, the higher the energy level is.
Electronic configuration : arrangement of electrons in an atom Ex : Chlorine : 2,8,7 Valency electrons: all elements of the same group and the same number of electrons in their outer shells
Why compounds form Group 0 do not ususally form compound, because they are unreactive or stable (full outer shell). They are called noble gases. Atoms are reacting together to make their out shell full or stable. When aan atom loses or gain electron, they form their ion. Ion has charge. Ion : is a charged particle. It is charged because it has an unequal number of protons and electrons Loses electron positive (cation) Gain electron negative (anion) To find the charge of an atom, calculate how much it loses or gains depending on how much atomic number it has Ex :
Sodium loses 1 electrom to form sodium ion, therefore it has a positive ion (Na+) Chlorine gains 1 electrom to form chloride ion, therefore it has a negative ion (Cl-) The ionic bond
Two ions have opposite charges, they attract each other. Their bond is called ionic bond. When an atom reacts, billions of ions are formed. Each ion is surrounded by many ions of opposite charge, which will form a giant 3D structure. This giant structure is the compount sodium chloride or common salt. When metal (positive charged ion) reacts with non-metal (negative charged ion), it form an ionic compound. Total charge of a compound must be zero. Ex: Sodium ion 1+ Chloride ion 1Magnesium ion 2+ Chloride ion 1equal to zero need 1- more magnesium ion 2+ 2 x chloride ion 2equal to zero MgCl2 NaCl