 1. Integers,Vibratory Mechanics and ancient Indian
Music ; An analysis of Psychoacoustics and
Mathematics of India and comparison with the west
 2. Gyrotelescope
 3. Thrippaloor Inscriptions (Malayalam)


 Integers,Vibratory Mechanics and ancient Indian Music
An analysis of Psychoacoustics and Mathematics of India and
comparison with the west.
Dr Suvarna Nalapat
When a string (Rajju) is divided into 9 equal parts 1/9 fraction of the string length (called a major
second in western music) has a harmonic number 9, and the interval above the open string will be
twentythird ( 22 +1 but 24—1) and this integer function and fractionisation was known to the west
very late .We have this knowledge at least from Indus Valley Harappan Mehrgarh period ( as
demonstrated by their weights and measures) and even the Mayan civilization knew it before the west.
Musical sruthi speaks about this integer functions and fractions of sound wave mechanics , the changes
in vibratory speed due to this , and the change in sound by number of vibrations. The very first division
of sound into aahatha and anaahatha ( audible and inaudible) demonstrates how thourough they were
about the property of vibratory mechanics and in the cognizing power of a human ear ( a trained
musician and a lay man differ in this) for detecting sound waves above and below a certain level.They
further knew the difference in sound wave and vibrations produced by different materials and by
different thickness of the same material. All these are described in texts as early as the time of Hanuman
(Ramayana happened almost at the same time as the last ice age of earth) .Comparison of a sound wave
to a wave in ocean is important , since India due to its particular geographic location has been
experiencing the clockwork monsoons, the peeling thunder waves and lightening and rains and its effect
on the growth of races and biodiversity of the land .It is because of millennia of experience the ancient
scientist of India formulated his/her theories which were experimented and demonstrated with
instruments like the stringed yazh, or veena, santhoor ( Kata Upanishad) and with flute and conch and
by metal bell in temples etc. It is science by experience and by experiments done millennia back by
human consciousness .The observation that the subtlest subatomic paramaanu of sound itself is the
aakaasa ( spacetime) deserves special mention, since in modern astrophysics this part of knowledge is a
new one . The translation of the media (aakaasa) as ether by the ancient west was the beginning of all
confusion from the abyss of its chaos modern science is slowly emerging out slowly . Akaasa classified as
dravya and adravya means sound also is classifiable like that . The unmanifested and manifested sound
are thus the adravya and dravya aspect of it .For cognizing the sound not only the external ear but also
the mind and nervous energy of an electrical impulse type is needed and this is explicitly stated by the
music text. To make sounds audible to human ear, the medium ( akaasa )needs air (praanavaayu) and

then it is called the Anthariksha (atmosphere) .In aakasa beyond the earth’s atmosphere also the
medium is sound wave but that does not reach human ear.
One has to understand that the vibratory number is according to the Kaalavibhajana (time division ) of
the ancients.
1/8 of a second= 1 nimesha
8 seconds (8 nimesha)=1 kaashta (1 second)
30 kaashta =30 sec =1kala
8 kala=1kshana ( 240 sec=4 mt )
12 kshana = 1 Muhoortha ( 2 nazhika) =48 minute
That makes 1 nazhika as 24 minute and ½ nazhika as 12 minute.
30 muhoortha is 1440 minute or 24 hours which is a day and night (Ahorathra) whe middle 2 letters
make up Rahu ( node ) and Hora ( hour ).In one nimesha ( 1/8 second) , any number between 4 and
5000 vibrations are audible . So assess the number of vibrations possible to be heard in 24 hours .(If
vibrations are less than 4 the string is loose and more than 5000 it is too tight in a veena . That is why
we don’t hear the waves. Apply this to infrared and ultraviolet light rays and sound waves in that
spectrum .)
An interesting feature of Indian science is that the scientist classify all objects according to the number
of vibrations present .The general classification of Naada to 5 types and all human beings into 5 types (
including the panchama which is a mixture of the first 4 in different gradation) is based on the number
of sound vibrations that produce a prominence of one or the other emotion within.Thus the
Naadaparampara ( series of sounds) are expressed as the biodiversity of the land as well as the
continuous races of people who inhabit the land in their morphological, anthropological, physiological,
psychological taxonomy .Such a comprehensive and integrated approach did not exist anywhere else on
earth in that distant timespan.
Only the number of vibrations change and the ratio never changes according to the law of vibrations
and thus creativity ( creation) is changing , but the root cause for creation which is the law of nature or
Brahman never changes . The sphota and the naada created are endless , but they have a beginning and
an end, while the Law or the Thathwa remains the same, changeless, anaadi and anantha .This is the
Naadabrahman concept of creation and origin of cosmos and its structure.This is demonstrated by the
number of endless raga and its creation in different time,space by different objects (human beings) with
different cognitive powers and intellectual activity due to their vibrations ( electrical impulses) in the
nervous system and this makes every one a unique musical person . This continuity of series of new
naada is endless as is the sruthi of the Nadabrahman created in every epoch and space . From this
endless sruthi, one hear and cognize only a few at a timespace and this difference is only that which we
find in Venkatamakhin and Ramamatya etc . No one is to be blamed for what he/she can cognize due to

his/her cognitive ability which is dependent on the vibratory series he/she is composed of. Each human
being is a beautifully created series of vibrations making a Raga and if sung properly each will bring out
the best in them.
The air pressure in space depends upon the position and time. P or pressure in space vary according to
position x,y,z ... and time t .
P(x,y,z x t).It is this variation in pressure that the human era perceive and the sounds are propagated as
audible waves in atmosphere. Certain frequencies are singled out /filtered out by ear and propagation is
in any direction ,depending upon presence or absence of objection in its path. Air pressure p is
independent of y and z Therefore p(x,t). The same principle is used inside a tube , pipe etc. This
harmonic wave equaltin of musical notes of ancient India uses Newtons second law just as Euler’s
equation did. It takes into account a harmonic plane wave and a spherical harmonic wave. The nodes in
the wave equation we have already seen.
Pitched musical instruments are based on a harmonic oscillator, either a string , or a column of
air,which oscillates at numerous frequencies simultaneously .At these resonant frequencies , waves
travel in both directions along the string or air column, reinforcing or cancelling each other to form the
standing waves.Interaction with surrounding air causes audible sound waves, which travel away from
the instrument .Because of the typical spacing of the resonances, these frequencies are mostly limited to
Integer multiples, or Harmonics, of the lowest frequency , and such multiples form the Harmonic series.
Without knowing these Integer multiples and their property , music and musicology cannot be created
and the fact that it was created and flourished at a high level even several millennia before the origin of
civilizations shows the antiquity of human consciousness and intelligence in a bygone past which we can
take to Neanderthal and even before that from the instruments like Flute made of bone and horn got
from many parts on the globe.
The musical pitch of a note is usually perceived as the lowest partial present (The fundamental
frequency) which may be the vibration created by vibration over the full length of the string or air
column or a higher harmonic chosen by the musician/ the player .The musical timber of a steady tone
from an instrument is determined by the relative strength of each harmonic.
The terminology into 5 is thus Partial,Harmonic,fundamental,Inharmonic, and overtones.Many simple
periodic waves ( sine waves ) or partials can combine each with its own vibration, amplitude and phase.
Then it is a complex Tone.A partial is any of the sine waves by which a complex tone is described.A
harmonic or harmonic partial is any of a set of partials that are whole number multiples of common
fundamental frequency .This set includes the fundamental, which which is a whole number multiple of
itself ( 1 time itself ).
Inharmonicity is a measure of the deviation from the closest ideal harmonic typically measured i n cents
for each partial.Typical pitched instruments are designed to have partials that are close to being
harmonics with very low inharmonicity.Therefore in music theory ,and in instrument tuning,partials are
conveniently spoken of as harmonic sounds of that instrument even if they have some inharmonicity .

Some pitched instruments like the percussion instruments contain nonharmonic partials ,yet can give
the ear a good sense of pitch.Nonpitched or indefinite-pitched instruments (cymbols,gongs etc) make
sounds rich in inharmonic partials.An overtone is any partial except the lowest .Overtone does not imply
harmnicity or inharmonicity and has no other special meaning other than to exclude the
fundamental.This can lead to numbering confusion ,when comparing overtones to partials.The first
overtone is the second partial.
The harmonic series is an arithmetic series f, 2f,3f,4f,5f .....where f is the fundamental frequency
.Frequency is measured in cycles per second , now called Hertz.The difference between consequtive
harmonics is constant and equal to the fundamental.But , because our ears respond to sounds
nonlinearly , we perceive higher harmonics as closer together than the lower ones.
On the other hand the Octave series is not an arithmetic progression but a geometric progression 2f, 4f,
8f, 16f ,32f, 64 f and so on.We hear the distance as the same,in the sense of musical interval.In terms of
what we hear , each octave in the harmonic series is divided into increasingly smaller and more
numerous intervals.The second harmonic ( first overtone) twice the frequency of the fundamental
,sounds a perfect fifth above the second.4
harmonic vibrates at 4 times the frequency of the
fundamental and sounds a perfect fourth above the third ,( 2 octave above the fundamental).Double the
harmonic number means double the frequency (which sounds an octave higher).The combined
oscillation of a string with many of its lowest harmonics can be demonstrated .Variation in the
frequency of harmonics alters the perceived fundamental pitch.These variations are even perceived in
brass instruments.
The strength of the antharakkol or interval strength , consonance and stability , dissonance etc were
determined by south Indian music as we see from the Indian texts.It is determined by its approximation
to a lower or stronger , or a higher and weaker position in a harmonic series as we noticed in the various
veena experiments of ancients , including Bharatha .In the west it was only in 1997 , that David Cope
suggested this and proved it .The equal tempered perfect 5
is stronger than an equal tempered minor
third since they approximate a just perfect fifth and just minor third respectively .The just minor third
appears between harmonics 5 and 6 while the just 5
appears lower between harmonic 2 and 3.
The travelling wave can be either clockwise or anticlockwise along a unit circle’s circumference ( in a
Thaalavritha ) and function f indicates this . The cos and sin with a negative and positive sign have a
frequency always >_ 0.
Cos (-x)=cos (+x)
Therefore f >-0For all points ( a set of integers) for which the sin is 0 , the pressure is constant and equal
to P0 .The points are called vibration modes .The points with maximum amplitude variation are the
antinodes. These are the standing waves.

The sinusoidal pattern is when plotted versus time –that is the Hamonic waves. Now we use the
Helmholtz and Laplacian equaltion to prove this. The ancient musical texts are speaking of this Harmonic
of wave mechanics and its mathematical proof and demonstration experiments with string instruments
in detail .The spheroidal harmonic waves from a punctual source assumed to be placed at the origin ,
called spheroidal, because for a set value of it, given a sphere which canter at its origin, the pressure is
same at every part of the sphere. ( earth/ or cosmos). They are not standing waves .
Sound intensity causes a sensation in human ear and this sensation is proportionate to the logarithm of
stimulus ( Gustav Fechner’s Law). The 3 parameters of the music note is discussed in ancient texts.
Pitch (sruthi) duration ( kaalam) and intensity ( from anumandra/ to thaarathara ).Pitch is related to
frequency ( low frequency low pitch. High frequency high pitch). A tuning fork sound has a reference
frequency of 440 Hz .
Interval between 2 different notes is the distance . Ears estimate the ratio of frequency , not the
difference in frequency . Sensation of pitch vary with the logarithm proportionately .
2 musical intervals between 10 Hz and 220 Hz ; and between 220 and 440 Hz
These are perceived as equal because their frequency ratio is equal. 220/110=440/220=2
The interval between 2 notes , when frequency ratio is equal to 2 is called an octave ( as
Sarigamapadhanisa in Indian music with 7 swara and the thaarashadja as 8
swara ). This difference of
2 notes being very similar is heard as same note.
A2 110 Hz
A3 220 Hz
A4 440 Hz
A5 880 Hz
A6 1760Hz and so on . That is above A , an 880 Hz also is an A but at a higher pitch . For this distinction
the pitch notation or the sruthiswaramandala is used .
There are 12 equal intervals or semitones the frequency ratio 2
~¯ 1.0595
Start with a note of frequency f and go up a semitone 12 times the note with frequencies , then you
reach 2f .
2 ½ f , 2 ½ X 2 ½ f ,
f ......2
Frequency 2
f = 2f

These 13 notes are called a chromatic scale .When the 7 swara are arranged in 12 swarasthaaana this
chromatic scale is being arranged as well. The Chinese knew this 4000 yrs back , but after Mehrgarh,
Indus Valley and Harappan times .Raising a note by a semitone the resulting note is altered and the
modern western system of Calaude De Bussy is based on this. The use of semitones, diatonic scales and
ascending and descending notes with 7 swara, 22 sruthi, and 12 swarasthaana forming endless Raga
with pleasing character by permutation nd combination is the most interesting way of demonstrating
the sound wave and its creativity in cosmos from the Naadabrahman which is a philosophical as well
as scientific artistic and mystical preoccupation of Indians from time immemorial. The confusion
comes when we try to separate the music theory from other systems of the land.It has an integrated
origin and existence with the other science and art systems of India .

In a string of length L , with mass per unit length µ bound at both ends , subjected to tension T 1 , the
three possible vibrations are :-
1 in Transverse plane XOY plane
2 Longitudinal
3. Torssional
These are the first 3 natural nodes . The fundamental C is
Second harmonic C 1 is ∞
Third harmonic G is

If we use a tone with a ratio 9/8 semitone is with a ratio 256/243 . ( note that 256 is 16 X 16 and is a
multiple of 8 while 243 is a multiple of 9 . )
The minute differences in a sruthimandala is difficult to perceive in a melody ( Raga) especially for a
untrained ear . Therefore , the number of the integers in a harmonic series are endless ( anantha ) but
those used in raga which is sampoorna ( using all 7 swara and 22 sruthi ) there is a definite number
possible for a trained musician . There is no contradiction in such a statement as Attoor

Krishnapisharody thinks (In his Sangeethachandrika). In 4
century BC Aristoxenus , musician and pupil
of Aristotle ( who learned much from the texts and Brahmins of India brought by his disciple King
Alexander of Macedonia) said : Trust our ears than the mathematics.. His major chord was adapted in
century by Zarlino as Zarlino chord.The frequency ratio in this major chord is :-
1 9/8 5/4 4/3 3/2 5/3 15/8 2
The 3 major chords F,C,and G are the consonents and produce no beat .
It is said that in 2600 BC Lin-Louen a Chinese musician knew the chromatic scale , that is the entire
Melakartha scheme /temporal scale. He used it to transpose the typical 5 permutations scales of
oriental music. Starting with F , the cycle is F,C,G,D,A,E,B,F#,C#,G#,D#,A#,E#, leads to frequency ratio
between first and last note equal to ( 3/2 )
If E# is equal to enharmonic F , it would be a nice sound. But enharmonic F of E# corresponds to ratio 2

=128.There lies the problem.
129 .75 ~- (3/2)
≠ 2
=128 making it mathematically impossible to have both consonant
octaves and consonant fifths .
Equality of 3
=128 X 2
is simply impossible .On the left the number is odd . On right it is even. This
impossible ( 3/2 )1
~-1.014 is thus called a comma or an impossible Vivadhi.
A compromise is needed for this .Only in 1695 Werkmeister found a compromise for Pythagorean
Actually if we tune all fifths , starting with major C, to attain a ratio 3/2, and also the octaves to achieve
consonance , this is actually possible since we do have
X (3/2)
=128.006.... ~- 128
Each tonality has its own sonoriety , as opposed to what happens with equal temperament .The
opinions of the ancient Indian musicians on this matter , to achieve the pleasing nature of each ,
practically, experimentally , mathematically , logically is what we find in the various authors and their
methods and opinions from time to time.It is people who does not understand this , who has
confused the issue more and more .

Tuning forks and naming of the musical notes.

In the Neanderthaal world of human beings bone flutes were used for tuning replaced by bamboo flutes
. By 3500 BC , during the time of Krishna , flute has become a major instrument through which 16008

raga could be played .In 1711 Luther John invented tuning fork and showed that it is more accurate
than tuning flutes which were used before. We have to ask two questions.
1 .Was the tuning fork invented by Luther John in 1711 ? Answer is an emphatic no.Because in BC 1500
Egyptian statue of a Pharaoh has tuning fork in his hand. Its structure and sound wave is shown in a
separate sculpture nearby .
2 Is the tuning fork better than a flute in accuracy ? The answer again is no. The flute is a sophisticated
later wind instrument for playing raga and tuning fork is a metallic instrument which produce a simple
harmonic series , but cannot play a complex raga .For vocal singing it is really difficult to determine by
analysis the exact pitch of every note .The tuning of a tuning fork by different people in the west will
show how they were using different values .
Maria Callas set tuning fork at 441 Hz , the Fourrier analysis over 1.8 s of A5 (theoretically 882 Hz ) at t=7
s .This lead to a graph for which the average pitch seems closer to 900 Hz . The gap between the simple
models actually describe the complexity of it in reality. Luther John’s tuning fork’s A4 changed over
centuries from one phase to next ,which caused problems of travelling musicians of the west . In1704
the Paris opera’s tuning fork with 405.3Hz ( below the current Ab) gradually went up to 449 Hz in 1858.
In 1859 it was 435 Hz. In 1885 this was accepted by Vienna congress. In 1953 the International congress
in London decided it as 440 Hz .Now it is between 440-444 Hz depending upon the orchestra .Baraque’s
music A 415 ( with an ancient string instrument) play safe .
What critics like Aattoor Krishna Pisharody fails to see among the various opinions of the ancient people
is this change in time and space, depending on the person used, and the string instrument used , and its
qualities . If we understand the views of the ancient people like Bharatha, Sarngadeva, Narada,
Mathanga, and even Venkatamakhin and Ramamatya etc there is no controversy at all.
The Indian music has named the notes as shadja to Nishada , with abbreviations of Sa, Ri,Ga,Ma,Pa,Dha
,Ni, and Sa as the last . These 8 abbreviations of swara existed from Vedic period as we see from
Samaveda . Naming of notes in west was done only in 11
century AD by Guy d’Arezzo. Their naming is ,
Ut or Do (C); re (D) ;mi(E); fa (F);sol (G);la(A); and Si( B). Si B appeared only later .
Latin Anglosaxon German Indian
do C C Sa
re D D Re
mi E E Ga
fa F F Ma
sol G G Pa
la A A Dha
SiB Bb B Ni
Si B H Sa
do C C
The melody and rhythmic depths of scales are complex in Indian culture and comprises of vast number
of intervals with varying width ,quarter tones , ¾ tones with subtle differences that are difficult to

perceive for an untrained ear . Understanding this, if we approach the various opinions of Indian
scientists become comprehensible and scientific , and not just a pack of controversial theories of
confusion, as Aattoor KrishnaPisharody blames them to be.
Study of perception of sound is called Psychoacoustics. The sound processing done by ear and brain
being extremely complex its study involves subjectivity. Two aspects which are of use to musician,
musicologist and music therapist alike to understand it are the intensity and pitch of sound. Sound
intensity in decibels is physical measurement of acoustic pressure. We have only sounds for range of
frequencies between 20Hz and 20 KHz . But even inside this interval the loudness vary depending upon
frequency. Sensitivity of man is between 3000-4000Hz. Two units of loudness that render subjectivity of
our hearing are the Phon and the Sone. Intensity of Phone is pure 1000Hz.
X dB =x phons at 1000 Hz .For a pure sound ( sudhaswara) with frequency f, its intensity in phons is by
definition the intensity in phons of pure 1000Hz sound that would produce the same loudness. This
depends on the listener .( There are variable factors like lack of conductivity and disease in various parts
of ear and Nervous system etc ) Therefore the experiments on a large number of listeners/subjects is
needed . Then to average the results .
Sone :- According to Fechner’s law the perception of intensity follows logarithmic law. Subjects find the
loudness doubled when sound intensity is increased by 10 Db
. Which accounts to multiplying acoustic
pressure by √ 10 ~-3.16 .This relation is conveyed by the second unit of loudness , the sone.Pure
1000Hz sound with intensity 40 dB has attributed it with the loudness of one sone. Using Fechner’s Law
for equal loudness contours the pure sound with frequency 100Hz and intensity L1 =70dB or LN =60
phones , therefore, has a loudness level N=4 sones. ( L for phone and N for sone).
In a concert hall background sounds /noise is close to 40 dB . Or roughly 1 sone. Rather than a
logarithmic law , afractional exponent law N ~- αn
N is the number of instruments and α = log 2 ~-
0.301 and α is a constant that depends on the instrument used. If 10 instruments are used 10 dB
increased in sound intensity is obtained.If 5 instruments , then it should be 5 dB increased intensity . ( as
in a kutcheri situation). How do we get or tell the difference in frequencies apart , with revolution of 5
cents between 300-3000 Hz ?
Our cochlea is a thin tube 32 mm long and it is our vibrator. Filled with lymph , attached to a thin strip of
bone partly bounded by two membranes –the basilar and the Reissner’s membranes. The tube lined on
sides with 4 rows each comprising of 3500 cursors ( The hair cells which send electrical impulses to brain
through acoustic nerve). Each cell can reach an estimated maximum rate of 1000 discharges per second ,
not enough to account for the discrimination of sounds with frequencies above 500 Hz. It is the combined
action of the hair cells that give the discriminatory power.
0= absence of impulse
1=electric impulse of one cell

4 X 3500 =14000 cells provide simultaneously 1000 impulses per second .Therefore one ear 14 M bit /s
value . (Mono) . If the ear is a good performer in good condition , a monotrack of audio cd sampled at
44KHz using 16 bits has a bit rate of 0.7 M bits or 20 times less than that ear’s maximum rate .High
frequencies vibrations are maximum at that part of cochlea close to the elliptical window and low
frequencies maximum in the part at the extremity. In 19
century Physician H.Helmholtz foresaw the
localisation of these frequencies .Each haircell like a string ( of piano) associated with a specific property
If we take this literally , 14000 cells in one ear and 14000 in the other makes a total 28000 and so many
strings are there in a human being with specific properties to detect as many impulses. So for each
sound a “sound signature “ is produced on our cochlea. This is sent to brain by hair cells .The parts of ear
work as a medium between the outside world ( with 28 star clusters in a mandala of spacetime ) and
cochlea , and then between cochlea and brain. The 28 star clusters of spacetime mandala (aakaasa ) and
the 28000 vibrating strings ( hair cells ) in ear are in perfect harmony , and that is why human beings are
able to cognize even the spacetime vibrations ( anaahatha ) naada though they are inaudible .
The outer ear pick up sound waves through pinna, and carry through auditory canal to tympanic
membrane. Middle ear has a mechanism to decrease amplitude of vibration and increasing its efficiency
( leverage effect). The chain of ossicles stimulated by the ear drum transit vibrations to elliptical
window.The acoustic nerve extend from the hair cell to brain .
Frequency and pitch : Pitch sensation is related to frequency and pitch vary with Logarithm of frequency
.(Fechner law).The gap we perceive between 100Hz and 200Hz is the same as between 200 and 400 Hz
.This is the Octave interval . ( A ratio ). Equivalent to a two-fold increase in frequency .The interval
measured in octaves between 2 pure sounds is therefore equal to difference of the base 2 logarithms of
their frequencies. This is not applied to high frequencies and a pure 6000Hz seems much lower than the
pure octave of 3000 Hz sound.What accounts for this distortion ? A pure sound 125 Hz ( or 131 or 1000
depending upon the source ) has a 2x mels (Mel’s scale ) and it is exactly one octave above pure sound x
mels. For example the sequences of octaves pure sound x mels and for sequences of octaves.
500....1000....2000.....mels is equivalent to frequency
This is questionable due to 2 reasons. 1 Variability of individual 2. Apply only to pure sounds which are
nonexistent for acoustic instruments .
Pitch of sounds composed of harmonics :- It is the frequency of the fundamental .A listener perfectly
recognise the notes played , even if the fundamentals of some notes are missing, Listening to a radio set
which cannot deliver any frequency below 150 Hz. To cognise an aadhaarasruthi, presence of a few
harmonics multiples of f (fundamental) is sufficient. Coming to pitch of sounds composed of partials, the
pitch become uncertain as is the case with drums (percussion sounds). Some sounds are heard with
different pitch by different people. Not every body hear the same partial or interpret their frequency
ratio the same way. This ambiguity occur with bells also. The second partial called the principal gives the

bell’s pitch and not the first located one octave below and refered to as the hum. This is useful when a
katcheri ( with string, percussion instruments and idiophones etc are used along with vocal music ) and in
a pancharimela ( with 5 instruments of different class but no vocal ) and the various ancient teachers
when they speak of equalling the different pitches , they are also talking about the use of different
instruments together . An acoustic illusion in pitch :- When 2 pure sounds are produced simultaneously
one is heard and the other is not. The unheard sound is the masked sound. The inaudible sound, the
audible sound ( the masking sound ) and an audible differential between them is thus recognised. A
masking threshold is produced by a masking sound with frequency 1000 Hz and intensity 80dB . Any
sound below this full line is masked and hence inaudible. The listener can perceive the differential
produced by the beat between the 2 sounds. For example if the masked sound has 1200 Hz the intensity
is 60dB. Differential heard 1200-1000 =200Hz
An intense low pitched sound easily mask a faint high pitched one. Intense high pitched have more
difficulty in masking a low pitched sound. The reason is the frequency localisation in the cochlea. Low
frequency has to go through the area that receive the high frequency to stimulate the extremity of
the cochlea .Therefore has an effect on perception of high frequency .High frequency located at
beginning of cochlea , near elliptical window , do not affect the extremity of cochlea where low
frequency are picked up. Women sing one octave high than men. The reason why a choir /group song
takes more number of women than men is explained by this factor.
The three types of radiowave modulations are :
Amplitude modulation ( AM )
Phase modulation (PM)
Frequency modulation (FM)
In each of these we deal with 2 signals. 1: A carrier wave (sinusoidal) with high frequeny of around 1MHz
for AM and 100 MHz for FM .Used as a transport vehicle or the form of v(t)=sin(2 π ƒot)
(Except for a phase shift).
2.Amodulating wave . m(t)which is information transported by the carrier usually a (-B;B) limited wave
with B <ƒo.
Frequencies in modulating waves are lower than the carrier’s frequency.
Time effects:- Echo and reverberation apply equally to the time signal. Simple echo is the easiest effect
to programme. Add to the initial sound , same sound,with a delay r and attenuated by a factor o <g<1
called the gain. R is the integer multiple of T:r =mT ,resulting signal y is yn=xn+gx

This is the echo produced by reflection of sound on a perfectly reflecting wall located at a distance.
D=cr/2 with g ≅1(2d),if we assume that the listener and the source are placed at the same point.

Multiple echo: Two walls face each other and generate a sequence of increasing echoes.Listener and
source of sound close to one of the walls. After first reflection on the opposite wall ,the sound returns
,go back again to reflect a second time, then a third ..let y be the resulting sound. Yn=xn+gy
leads to yn=xn +gx
Successive reflections increasingly damped ( 0<g<1)but it is useless computationwise because the
number of necessary operations increase with n(roughly three n/m operations to calculate yn) whereas
the computation of yn requires atthemost an addition and a multiplication .
Reverberations: A room with several walls ,or a cave, several replacements at different times
eventually merging together leads to reverberation. In echo chambers like a cave , there is amplication
of sound waves .We can modify the effect either based on the room’s impulse response, or based on the
spectrum modification (instead of time modification) .Either the relative weights of the harmonics or
partials , or the frequency themselves .This is what is said by the ancient texts. In modern times we
speak about it in English language and understand. But in ancient times Indians spoke about the science
of this sound in Sanskrit and understood perfectly well , and they experimented, discussed ,scientifically
applied in practice too. The mathematical differences spoken of by different authors is due to
differences they had in the instrument type, their application, the mathematical models etc .These
depend on various factors and there are endless mathematical models for them, but in practice the
simplest alone is useful.
Omkara has the vowels O , Ah in it , followed by the M (madhyama) . Add to the initial sound obtained
by pressing this initial sound through a filter with band that varies with Kaalam (time). It will be low for
O sound and high for Ah sound. But this does not modify the pitch of the sound.The only change the
relative weight of the different frequency components like the O,and Ah of the human voice.
When a kutchery is performed , voice of human beings ( with sahitya carrying different varna/letters
having different weights) is combined with many instruments – a minimum of 5 –and this produce a
vibralto frequency varing between 4 and 12 Hz . Actually we can write each of the harmonics in the
same way.


If we use two rotating loudspeakers facing in opposite directions producing Doppler effect coupled with
a variation of intensity the effect is called a sterio effect. The rotation speed vary roughly 3 to 6 rounds
Doppler effect :-All of us know Doppler effect now and we also know that it is applied in medicine for
echocardiography and in astrophysics in spectrum shifts .The harmonic punctual sound source with a
frequency f located at an origin, generates a pressure wave of the form p(x,y,z,t)=exp(ckr-2i π f t) with
Calculate and plot the instantaneous frequency perceived by the listener .
Did the ancients know the Doppler effect ? What was the name they used for it ? How did they explain it
? Searching for such problematic questions I found the answer in a variety of books , including the
Upanishad, Musicology texts, Literary theories like dhwani , and in Jyothisha and thanthra . This actually
surprised me initially . Because I never thought this possible in the remote past . In my commentary on
Upanishads , I have elaborately discussed how the Upanishadic Dwani and Varna are correctly and
scientifically explained by Sankara as the Doppler effect ( but not in his name ).The effect of sound and
its variations in pitch,intensity, time or rhythms , strength of the musician as well as the listener , and a
variety of instruments played along with Vocal makes the infinite possibilities mathematically . Once we
understand this the ancient music texts become less confusing , and interpretation becomes more

scientific .But for that we must have belief in our own genetic material and its infinite intelligent
potential . We are only the genes of our forefathers .
Now , to the most astonishing and scientific nature of the three sthaayi, 7 swara, 12 swarasthana, 16
divisons and 22 sruthi, 48 to 49 classifications of the ancients. Unless one understands the basic science
of sound as vibrations and its cosmic connotations it is difficult to understand the mathematics behind
such notions. If we know the magic squares of ancient India ( known by children’s play or Leela as Gnaan
choupad) which is also the Ramanujan square, Loshu of China and the Melakartha scales with a number
for each letter , the sarigamapadhani of Indians will not be clear either .
22 sruthi divided by 7 swara gives the transcendental pai π for India ( called Pa since it is the Paridhi
or limit for a circle/sphere). π/4 =1-1/3+1/5-1/7+1/9-1/11+1/13 ..........which is ¾+1/33-3_1/53-
5+1/73-7-1/93-9+1/113-11.......and in improved series its expression 104348/33215 for pai correct for
9 decimals is 3.141592653. I have given a colour each for each letter so that the pattern in a 64 unit
square ( 8 X 8) is easily understood. Each of the letters of the 7 swara has a number . Sa is 7.Ra=2.Ga is
3. Ma is 5. Pa is 1. Dha is 4. Ni is 0. The total number in the 7 swara is thus 22.This is the magic square of
sapthaswara . If you count from left to right or from below up you get 22. If you just add the number of
each swara in the mandala a total of 216 will be available which is one Praanakaala .The seven swara
written as an octave of 8 , gives this magic square. But this is not actually a square .It is a geodesic of a
sphere or a circle and the Vritha as it is called in time cycles. Thus , the 10 sa ( which makes 70 ) is
actually by its geodesic 72 ( and 72 gives 216 when you multiply it with 3). 7 X 7 gives the 49 Praana
Maruths that circle the atmosphere as sound waves creating our monsoons and life on earth. 12 swara
positions are then the 12 positions of the sun in relation to the earth and the fixed star clusters. The 16
is the number of the kala of the moon which makes the position of moon with sun, earth and fixed star
clusters . Thus the entire cosmic and human sound and music are represented in Indian music . This
mandala of sound is the entire Nadabrahman the secret of which each yogin search in their hearts and
when it is revealed there is nothing else to be known or gained ...

Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa
Re Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha N i
Ga Re Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dh

Ma Ga Re Sa Re Ga Ma Pa
Pa Ma Ga Re Sa Re Ga M
Dha Pa Ma Ga Re Sa Re Ga
Ni Dha Pa Ma Ga Re Sa Re
Sa Ni Dha Pa Ma Ga Re Sa

1 ½ ⅓ 2

¼ 1/9

1/8 1/27
1/16 1/81

1/32 1/243
1/64 1/729
1/128 1/2187
1/256 1/6561
This is the scale of division on either side of Pa or panchama . By the 10
division , on the sarigama
side we have 256 divisions ( 16 X 16) and on the dhanisa side it is an exponential 6561 divisions
, the significance of which in astrophysics I have explained in detail in my book Corridors of
Time. http://www.scribd.com/doc/102186932/Corridors-of-Time
The integers of vibrations for these are
4= 2.66
4X2 or 8=16 2.66X 3=7.88
32 23.4
64 70.2
128 631.8
256 1895.4
512 5686.2
These figures are used in the astronomy, vasthuvidya, ayurveda, and in the Indus valley weights
and measures , in music and in the panchavadya type instrumental music also ( panchari mela)
showing the integrated approach of all branches of arts and sciences in india .
Thus in South Indian music , the division is both equal and unequal which Venkatamakhin has
said , but in the next chapter Aattoor says the inequality of sruthi described by Venkatamakhin
is only illusory and illogical.
Just do an exercise with the number designated for each of the swara as follows.The results are
Sa Ri Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni

7 2 3 5 1 4 0
Add the numbers, you get 22.If we multiply we get 0 .
Pa dha ni sari Ga ma Pa dha ni sari
1 4 0 72 3 5 1 4 0 72
If we add we get 36 .If we multiply we get 0
The multiplication is (4)
X ( 15)
X 0
= 16 X 196 X 225 x0 =0 (225 is the first Jyaa or
prathamajya of the geodesic of Indian Astrophysics. The octave or ashta and the thri or thraya
(3) together makes a recurring spheroidal spiral called an octagon or ashtabhuja wheel or
36/7=5.142857,142857 .... the first 2 prime numbers after one, with a recessing decimal value
.72 as sari(shadjarishabha)is 8
+8. It is also written as 7
+ 23 degree shift of the axis of earth
making possible the geodesic to bring the 49 Maruths for lifegiving .
If we multiply the first swara of the first Thaana , by second swara of second thaana we get 2
itself. If we multiply it with next swara of of next thana 2 X3=6 is answer. Continue like this , we
6x 4=24
720X7=5040 .This is the Meruprasthaara ( the modern Pascal’s triangle) and this is the ancient
Thrikonamithi of Indus valley people .If we reduce the first 7 swara from this gopura 5033.If we
reduce all swara except sa and pa it is 5020.The series now is :-
1, 2, 6, 24, 120, 720, 5040,...................—7 or/ –20
For each 22 there are 3 sthaayi for this gopura. It is to get this thristhaana or thristhaayi the
moorchana is used as a 12 swaramandala or field of 12 swara. ( as 12 months in year, 12
zodiacal signs in a sphere).The 7 moorchana in shadjagrama with 12 swarasthaana , each with a
special name is defined well.
Utharamandra :-dhani sarigamapadhanisariga
Rajani:- nisarigamapadhanisariga

sa ri ga ma pa dha ni sa
ri ga ma pa dha ni sa ri
ga ma pa dha ni sa ri ga
ma pa dha ni sa ri ga ma
pa dha ni sa ri ga ma pa
dha ni sa ri ga ma pa dha
ni sa ri ga ma pa dha ni
sa ri ga ma pa dha ni sa

In this mandala the series starts with Utharamandra ( dhani sarigamapadhanisariga) and the 12
swara can start at any place 6
or 1
, 6
position in each f the columns . That
can go on making as many changes in position the singer can do to create a pleasing effect .
Moorchanamandala in madhyamagrama :- Dhanisarigamapadhanisriga , the utharamandra of
Shadjagrama is called Rishika or Hrishika in Madhyamagrama.Utharaayatha of shadjagrama is
called Harinaswa , sudhashadja is called kaalopanatha, malsareekritha is called
sudhamadhyama,aswakraantha of shadjagrama is Maargi in madhyamagrama,Abhirudrutha is
Pouravi.Only Rajani and souveeri differs .The first moorchana of madhyamagrama is Souveeri
and its difference from the Rajani (2
moorchana of shadjagrama) is :-
The 7 swara, 12 sruthi,14 sruthimandalamoorchana( of which 12 are same in shadja and
madhyamagrama with difference only in rajani and souveeri which denotes day and night )is
now drawn as given by Brihaddesi of Mathangamuni .Here only the number for swara is given.


1 Sa 2 3 5 1 4 0
2 3 5 1 4 0 1 Sa
3 5 1 4 0 1 sa 2
5 1 4 0 1 sa 2 3
1 4 0 1 sa 2 3 5
4 0 1 Sa 2 3 5 1
0 1 Sa 2 3 5 1 2

Thus the mandala starts with Dha and ends with dha here ( as Utharamandra and Abhirudratha)
. The number square is a magic square .That has aarohana and avarohana in all the planes of
existence, in entire cosmos, sometimes inaudible and invisible, at other times visible and
audible . This energy field of vibratory existence is what we know and experience .There is
nothing else .This is the science of music and science of cosmogony and astrophysics and of a
healthy existence free from hatred, fear and selfishness since we are all parts of a whole and
integrated interconnected in this field of energy .This Mahaadvaitha of India is its unique
culture and is the heritage of entire human race.
In the mandala shown above , if we add from sa to 0 vertically and horizontally we get 16 . If we
add the numbers in the diagonals from below upwards ( below last column single 2; and above
column 4 ( 6 numbers making 24) is the swaramandala. But add all these numbers from
below upwards from lowest 2 to highest 8
column 24 , we get :- 2 + 2+15+12+10+6+0+24= 71 (
which is one less than 72 ).The diagonal columns above this octave yields a figure of total 25.
One from aboce the octave ( cosmos) is taken and added to the 71 of the lower planes ( human
musical field ) and thus a cosmic 24 hours is equalted with a 72 Praananadi of human body . 3
times 24 is 72 and a basic 2, and 3 are used here as factors which can divide the number ( 6 as
well ).
If we pronounce each of the swara carefully and assess the maathra or unit for each we have
following the sa (first unit vibration ) 3 more vibrations. Go to any music class and ascertain
whether this can be verified. Ri has 4 vibrations, ga has 3 and ma has 5 pa has also 5 vibrations
dha has 2/3 vibrations and Ni has 0 + 4 from the next higher saa .
4+4+3+5++5+2 +4 gives 24 to 26 vibrations which a trained ear can recognise and these are
called sruthi. Since the Ni and the saddja share vibrations 2 are reduced from these and we get
22 and 24 .This is another way of obtaining the sruthi number . All these are clearly related to
solar and lunar movements , and energy patterns of the earth and cosmos and has highly
scientific connotations and the wave mechanics of cosmos and harmonic series of octave were
well studied by the ancient Indians is quite evident

Aattoor Krishnapisharody is trying to logically analyse the various opinions of the previous authors and
many a time he fails to notice that in science , different opinions come in different periods of time each
one being corollary to the other and sometimes looking like contradictory. Newton’s work does not
become foolish simply because Einstein grew beyond his ideas. Neither is Einstein a fool in post-
Einsteinian era. Pisharody is unable to assess many authors like Venkatamakhi etc since he fails to notice

the interdisciplinary approach of Indian music, philosophy,ayurveda,yoga and above all astrophysics and
mathematics. I try to analyse the words of the ancient authors in this interdisciplinary way .
The first thing we have to notice is that the ancient Indian scientist had understood the Harmonic wave
mechanics of sound .To make a sound we need something which vibrates. To make musical notes we
need the vibration at an equal constant frequency which we call now a stable pitch (Aadhaarasruthi).
We also need a frequency which can be easily controlled by a singer/player .The stable controlled
vibration in ancient non-electronic instruments was created by a Standing wave.The working of a string
instrument is elaborately described by them to make the students understand this principle .The same
principle work in wind instruments also , but since vibration is better seen and demonstrated in string
instruments a Yaazh /veena is used for this purpose. Thus the teaching technique of each teacher with
his own string instrument may vary and it is this variable teaching method that is being criticized by
Pisharady and people like him.Waves of percussion instruments and metal instruments etc have also
wave form but for demonstration Veena ( string instrument) is the best .Strings and pipes produce
harmonic wave series , bells and tympanii produce partials to be more precisely .
When strings are tightly stretched ,vibration is very fast and we cannot see what is going on.In a simple
experiment , one can clamp one end , and holding the other end stretch it a little .If we pull it a little and
make a kink and let it go in slow motion ( which is the movement in plucking a veena string )we will see
the kink travelling down the string.Then it comes back.It will tug at our hand and then reflect back.speed
of wave increase when you stretch it more.This depends on weight of string also.Wave travels more
slowly in thick heavy string than in light string of same length under same tension.It is the ratio of
tension to mass per unit length that determines the speed of wave .Look at the reflection at the fixed
end.If you pull the string towards left,kink travels to the left away from you,and come back as a kink to
right –the reflection is inverted.This effect is important in string,wind and percussion instruments.When
a wave encounters a boundary with something ,that wont move or change ,the reflection is then
inverted.It is inverted to give zero displacement at the end.However reflection with any phase change
will give a standing wave.

In a string instrument , the string is fixed at both ends.We pull the string out at one point and then
release .The movement that follows is interesting,yet complicated.At the reflection, the phase of the
kink is changed to 180
from up to down and vice versa.The kinks pass through each other when they
meet in the middle.This motion is seen immeadiately after the pluck.As the high frequency
components loose energy ,sharp kinks disappear and shape approaches gradually the fundamental
mode of vibration.

Interaction of 2 waves of equal frequency and magnitude travelling in opposite direction.Blue to the
right and green to left .Red line is the sum.Red wave is the two travelling waves added together (
superposed) .Red wave is teh sum of the 2 interacting travelling waves .The time increases from top to
bottom.If we take quick photographs we will see only the red wave.If the right hand limit is a wall,wave
is reflected as inversion,and the blue and green adds upto zero on right hand boundary.The reflected
green wave has same frequency and amplitude but is travelling in an opposite direction.At the fixed end
they add to make nomovement or zero displacement .It is this immobility that causes the inverted
reflection.At the red line there are other points where the string does not move.They occur ½ a
wavelength apart.These motionless points are called nodes of the vibration.They play a great role in all
musical instrument families.Half way between nodes are antinodes.They are the points of maximum

motion.But these peaks are not travelling along the string.Combination of the two waves travelling in
opposite directions produces a standing wave.Nodes are points where the travelling waves cancel
out.Antinodes are where they add to give an oscillation of maximum amplitude.This is the diagram as
representation of the fifth harmonic on a string whose length is the width of this diagram. Remember
that in the cosmic music of the earth, moon and sun, the two nodes and antinodes for an Indian
astronomer are Rahu and Kethu and this cosmic sound wave function incorporated in the art and
science of Music is perfect integrated knowledge.
The strings of a veena is fixed at both ends.( nodes) Any vibration on string thus produce nodes on both
ends.That will limit the possible vibrations.A string with length L,could have a standing wave with wave
length twice as long as the string. Wavelength λ = 2L .This gives a node at either end and an antinode in
middle.This is one of the modes of vibrations of the string.(mode of vibration means style of vibration or
a method of vibration).There are different modes of vibration possible for a string which is fixed at both
These are the first 4 modes of vibration
for a stretched string fixed at both ends and with fixed length .
Relationship of frequencies of these 4 modes :-The frequency for a wave is the ratio of speed of .wave
to length of wave. String length L , the other lengths are 2L, 2L/3,L/2 .L has frequency of f = v/λ
Fundamental or first mode has frequenc f
= v/λ
= v/2L
Frequency of second harmonics = f
= v/λ
= 2v/2L = 2f
Third harmonics has frequency= f
= v/λ
= 3v/2L = 3f
Fourth harmonics has frequency = f
= v/λ
= 4v/2L = 4f
The general rule is that the nth harmonic has frequency of f
= v/λ
= nv/2L = nf

All waves n a string travel at same speed.So the waves with different wavelengths have different
frequencies.The mode with lowest frequency f
is called the fundamental. Nth mode has n times
frequency than the fundamental.All of the modes and the sounds they produce are called Harmonics of
the string. Frequencies f, 2f, 3f, 4f is called a harmonic series.If the fundamental note is 131 Hz (C3 )
then the pitches that follow will be corresponding to that.The pitches are approximated to nearest
quarter tone.Octaves are exactly octaves but all other intervals are slightly different from intervals in
equal tempered tone.The first 12 harmonic series in a C string ,the 7
and 11
fall halfway between
notes on equal tempered scales and have been notated with half sharps.

These are the 12 swarasthaana spoken about by ancient teachers. How to produce these Naada by a
veena is spoken about by the various teachers according to their practice .But this have the general law
of harmonics followed .This is not understood properly by critics like Aattoor Krishna Pisharody.
When a player stop the string with one finger to produce a desired length to produce a desired nada,and
touch lightly the position where that particular nada is produced (which is 4 notes above /higher in the
scale hence called the touch 4
(1/4 of length above the srting where the note is stopped) and this 4

harmonics has 4 times the fundamental frequency.That means it is 2 octaves higher.The harmonics are
natural for string players.

Pitch of a note is determined by how rapidly the string vibrates.It depends on 4 things .
1.Thick and massive string vibrate slowly.Lowpitched strings are thicker.
2.Frequency increase with tension of string.Tighter gives higher pitch .
3.Length of string that is free to vibrate.Shorter the length the pitch increases.

4.By changing mode of vibration one can change pitch.One can induce the string to produce waves
which are fraction of the length of those produced normally by a string of that length.
The general rule is :- If length of vibrating part is L, mass is M,tension of srting is F, and if n th harmonic
is played resulting frequency will be
= (n/2L)(FL/M)
= (n/2)(F/LM)

To make a string an octave lower , maintaining the same length,you must quadruple t he ratio M/L.The
wave travels distance λ in one period T of vibration , so v = λ/T.The frequency f = 1/T = v/λ
So f = v/λ.
For fundamental frequency f1, string length is λ/. 2.So f
= v/2L. Wave speed determined by string
tension F, and mass per unit length or linear density μ = M/L, v = (F/μ)
= (FL/M)
. So,

= ½(F/LM)
Multiplying both sides by n gives frequencies of harmonics :-.

scale position touched fraction of string length harmonic number interval above open string
octave 1/2 2 octave
fifth 1/3 3 twelfth
fourth 1/4 4 double octave
major third 1/5 5 seventeenth
minor third 1/6 6 nineteenth
augmented fourth 2/7 7 halfsharp 20th
minor sixth 3/8 8 triple octave

major second 1/9 9
twenty third

 Chapter 2: Theodolites in Kerala
In the west , the first name of theodolite was a geometric practice named pantometria ( measuring 5,
the Panjaamga or Indian calendar of measuring 5 limbs of celestial heavens ) in 1571 by Leonard Diggs.
After his death, his son published a book (Thomas Diggs) and later this was renamed Theodolite from
the Greek language. The meaning of the first part of the name is “To behold or look attentively upon”
and that of second part is the evident/ clear,long ,slave,way ,plain . Theo means divine and Theodelitus
in Latin meant ( supine delitus means crossed out) the divine crossed out .The two divine ones crossing
each other.In India , in Sanskrit, it is the Deoputhra, sons of the sky , the two rays /paths crossing each
other at right angles. They are the Aswins, the two wind Gods of Monsoon as sons of God crossing over
Indian subcontinent. It is evident that the name and meaning were derived from India to Greek and
Latin .
Theodolites are precision instruments for measuring angles in horizontal and vertical planes , in
surveying applications , metrology and nowadays in launching a rocket. A movable telescope can be
mounted in 2 perpendicular axes. (Vertical and Horizontal) .When it is pointed at a targeted object ,
angle of each of these axes can be measured with great precision. Typically to seconds of arc. Pocket
transits ( a type of theodolite ) was used by geologists and archeologists . In a transit , telescope is
completely rotated to 360 degree on vertical plane. In nontransit ones, only a semicircle rotation is
possible. Some types of theodolites does not give vertical angle measurements.
A builder’s level transit does not measure horizontal or vertical angle. It uses a sprint level to set a
telescope level to define a line of sight along a level plane. Axes of theodolites are equipped with
graduated circles which can be read through magnifying lenses. Horizontal axix should read 90 degree (

100 grid) when sight of axis is horizontal. 270 degree when instrument is turned over (plunged),the
second position of the instrument .Half of the difference between the 2 positions is called Index error.
To test a horizontal axis error ( if the 2 axis are not perpendicular)a tubular spirit bubble parallel to a line
between 2 foot screws and then setting the bubble in center. If the bubble runs off the center,when
bubble is reversed (turned through 180 degrees, horizontal axis error is present.To adjust remove1/2
the amount bubble has run off using an adjusting screw.
Optical axis or sight axis of telescope is defined by optical center of the lens .Focal plane must be
perpendicular to horizontal axis. If not,collimation error may happen. These 3 types of errors are
determined by calibration and removal by mechanical adjustment. Eliminating the errors , the
measurements are taken. Theodolites in India were mounted on a Thripadi (Tripod) by a forced
centering plate Thripraak (Tribrach) praak means the east or the part in front . Place theodolite vertically
above the point to be measured using a plumb bob, optical plummet or laser plummet. Then set level
using leveling foot screws , and circular and more precise tubular spiritbubbles. The optical path is
complex and the name Dyoputhra ( sons of the sky) is given to the optical paths (Synonym :
Diopter).Before theodolites Indians used a geometric square , called the magic square and various
graduated circles ( circumferenter) and semicircles ( graphometers) to get vertical and horizontal angle
measurements .An instrument with all these combined was conceived only in 1512 ( Marganta
Philosophica Published in Strasburg ) by the west and it was made by Martin Waldseem in the same year
and named Polimetrum.
Early theodolites were azhimuth or altazhimuth .In Diggs book only horizontal angle is measured. He
calls the instrument which measures both altitude and azhimuth as Topographical instrument. In 1728
encyclopedia compares graphometres to half theodolite. Upto 19
century only horizontal angle was
measured in simple plain theodolite/azhimuth instrument of west. The earliest Azhimuthal instrument
has a base graduated with a full circle at the limb and a vertical measuring angle device most often a
semicircle. On the base , to sight an object for horizontal angle measurement is an alidade and another
one mounted on vertical semicircle. A single alidade(turning board) on vertical semicircle (mounted) can
be used for measuring horizontal angles directly.Though Habermehl in Germany made a complete
instrument with compass and tripod, Germany could not claim the patency for precision instruments. In
1787, UK made all possible precision corrections (after coming in contact with India) and took a patent
for precision instruments and finally when vertical and horizontal circles , finely graduated, replaced the
earlier vertical partial circles the transit telescopes were born in UK with precision. In 1870 its
waterborne version (pendulum to counteract wave movement) invented by US navy to take the first
precision survey of American harbours on Atlantic and gulf coasts.
It was in 1533 , west started Triangulation to measure surrounding landscapes from 2 different
standpoints. These 2 graph papers were then superimposed and a scale model of landscape and targets
in it. True scale measured is the measure one distance both in the real terrain and graphical
representation.In 1780 Jessie Ramsdon made the Ramson Theodolite for mapping the southern Britain
by triangulation . (Trikonamithi in India) .The height of the reference point of theodolite, or the target,
above the ground benchmark must be measured precisely. Transit became popular among railroad
engineers during 19
century. This was later modified and replaced by compass,sextant, octant etc..The

difference is that , telescope is shorter than the base arm, allowing it to be rotated past straight down.
Transit had the ability to flip over on its vertical circle and easily show the exact 180 degree sight to the
user. This facilitated viewing of long straight lines during surveying. The user had to rotate telescope
earlier on its horizontal axis to 180 degree. Then check angle when turned 180 degree. (Now it is done
electronically)To read out dark and white(light)equidistant radial bands ( representing moon and sun)
are used. In the dark , the circles spin rapidly , since moon’s movements are rapid. Reducing the angles
one can measure time. The instrument defined co-ordinate is then transferred to a pre-existing co-
ordinate system in area ,by means of sufficient control points. This technique of free station portion
survey was used in mapping surveys.
Gyrotheodolite :-
When one cannot see the astronomical star sights or even the sunlight, working under a tunnel, or in
making a cave temple (underground mining of metals, in tunnel engineering) one has to make a North
South reference using instruments. When a conduit pass under a river, a vertical shaft on each side of
the river connected by a horizontal tunnel , a gyrotheodolite has to be used. It can operate both on
surface and under the tunnels. The tunneling direction under two shafts is measured correctly by it. This
comprise a normal theodolite with an attachment that contains a gyroscope mounted soas to sense
rotations of earth and from that the alignment of the meridian.( That means the makers of
gyrotelescope knows both types of instruments).Meridian is the plane that contain both the axis and the
earth’s rotationand the observer. Intersection of meridian withhorizontal contain the true north. Can
function both at equator and the 2 hemispheres. ( In poles meridian is undefined. Therefore not used.It
is not used within 15 degree of the pole. )









Chapter 3 Thrippaloor Inscriptions
1.ഹരി : ശുഭമuതു.കാവേരി വാസുേദവu േലാേകാപകാര-
2.úിu [ഗഹി_ി jg വിദ_ പലതുമുതിG തൃ_ാള_m തൃപുേകശJര
3.മഹാസJാമി [ശീപരേമശJര[പസാദാmúം ചി[തmാനം എഴുതി_
4.പിപരം കിരാതപരേമശJരം + കാശി യിG 634 ബുധജനഘjവും
5.[പബലേ±[തവും പúനവും പലകുടിയും പല േദവാലയവും [ബ¬ാ
7 സm _േലാകസ2തബഹുമാനപുണ_പjവും എഴുതി (കൂm2ചി¬ം)
8.സാശയിGഗംഗാപാm_തിസേമതംവാസുകിശയനംവuി_ാu വu േദവuാm
11.ടാഹവിuതാരം സംേ±പിെ_ഴുതിയിതിെലuപിപരം+അGഘടാഹമേm_
12 സൂര_നാപീuഛ രംഗqീപമാദിത_െന അടú്[പദ±ിണംെച_guബുധu
13 പuേകാണുGായിതിനുേമm±് ശു[കuപuേകാണായിതെu+ ധിതീനും
14.േമm±് ഭൂമി ചുററുuു.കuു±പúായി സm _[ഗഹCളgം നാഭി[ഭമമായ
15 ഭിഗമി±യാലm±തിനാG 23 തി(അ)uതമനം കാണുuു.ച[uuഭൂമിെയ [പേത_
16.കം ചുററുuു.േമm±് കുജu ചുററുuു .േമm±് വ_ാഴം ചുററുuു. തuറകuി
17.ഭക±_യിG രാശിെ±ാരു ചുഴിേയാ3 േമm±് ശനിരാശിയിG മൂuുചുഴിേയാ
18.3 [പദ±ിണം വരുuു.രാഹുേകതുയിതി ര[Gുഭൂതം. ശനി±ുേമm±്
19.ക±ി യിതിനുേമm±് സ¬തവിംശന±[തക±ിയിതിനുേമm±് [ഗൃ[mുവ±ി
20.ഈ സൂര_ാദിബിംബCളgെട വ_ാസ[വൃúCളgം നൃക8ാളCളgം.ക

21 ണ±ുക_ വിവരമായി താെഴ എഴുതുuു.സൂര_മGലവ_ാസം
22സൂര_ക±ിവ_ാസംല±úി7367(5)36 േയാജന സമരയി. സൂര_മGലവ_ാസം
23 പഹലി_(ല¸). ഈ സൂര_െന അനCാെത പിടി_gനിറുúിയിരി±ുuു.
24.രയി ഈശJരസഹായംെകാG് സuിധാനംമതിെയuതിG_തിയം ബുധ
25 മGലവ_ാസം ഉയര േയാജനബുധക±ിവ_ാസം 73691
26. 9 േയാജന ശു[കമGലവ_ാസം നൃപഹയായ 2ശു[കമGലവ_ാസം 864
27. ഈ ക±ിവ_ാസം ല±úെധക 639 േയാജന ഉദJഹ
28.വായുതു ഈ ഭൂമിരുംേപാmúൂഭുപjg__uുതjgമേപാെല െവúിG
29.ലകണെ± െദലകീഴായിദടി ഈ പ[uGുരാശീലും നടúിേ_ാരുuു.യിതി
30.നാG ഉദയാuതമനവുംനീപപകGഏറിവരുuതും ഭവി±ുuു. ഭൂമിരൂ
31.പം 363 53 േയാജന സൂ.ക±ി 52 മാസെú വഴി ബുധശു[കഭൂമി
32.ച[uകുജഗുരുശനീശJരം ഗൃഹC_ നാഭി[ഭമമായി ഗമി± കാര
33.ണം ഉദയാuതമനം സGസm_മGലജJരകം ഭവി±ുuു.യിതിനാ±ാലം
34.അറിയുuു,േതJ ഈനയാരുച[uമGലേയാജനാ
36.ക±ിവ_ാസം കനമGലവ_ാസം
(34 മുതG 49 വെര വരിക_ കിjിയിjില¸ )

അവസാനെú 13 വരിക_
50 ഭൂേലാകജനCെള കരേയററുവാu ദയാലുവായിഈശJരu

51.[സൃ_ി_േവദശാu[തം. ഇതിG േജ_ാതിാu[തം ബുmിവm±് [പ-
52 ത_±ം തെuെയuു [ഗഹി±.സഹ_പm _തമേm_ ആമലകീേ±േ[ത
53.[ബ¬ഗിരിപm _തസ¬തmഷിപാതാെള പുണ_ഗുഹയിG വാഴും മഹാ
54 േയാഗീശJരസJാമിശിഷ_uകാവേരിവാസുേദവനJിേശഷി_gം വിചാരി_-
55 m±റിവാuൈഭമി±്മാപതിബാലശ8രവm2u േജ_ാതിാu[ത ശിഷ_ശി-
56 േരാമണിമഹാരാജസഹാേയന വാസുേദവu എഴുú്.പിഴയുെG8ി
57 G സâനം±മി_് അനു[ഗഹി±. ഹരിണെയuെകാല¸ം (825)
58 മലാഴമാത ഘടംഡപു[uന ക.ത.ചി[ത-റടിപ8ജംഹuതം ഏuച8 ഹരി
59 134 മú ചിCം
60 13 u ശനി 0 ചതയം
61 െപറംചിററിG എഴുú്
62 ആരംഭം ഹരി

2.വിæണു[ഗീവúിെല ലിഖിതം
ഞായിO 3 മകരസാഡവകരസഹജം ഇടെവ(ഋഷെഭ) വmഷmúുകാല
വടുനാവാനാകഭ±ഥെരഴുúു വഴിപാടു ഹരി വടുനാവാനാക എuú വഴുനി
ആവിനാക എuും വായി±ാവുuതാG.
കുറി_്- (കര ഖര പദസാമ_ം. ഉ_ാരണേഭദം. തുm_ശുയദു യയാതിപു[തm. .യദു
നവേയാഗികെള ചാതുmമാസ_കാലം കG കഥ,(ഭാഗവതം). നവേയാഗി
ചാതുmമാസ_ം വിæണുഭജനം െചOത uലú് ഖരu ഭജി_് ശിവദmശനം.
താെഴ ൈസuവലിപിയിെലഴുതിയതിuെറ മലയാളം തmâമയാണിú . .
[പതിæഠ പുറം േ±[തെú±ാ_ പഴ±ം.
പുറം ചുറO ചി[ത_ണി-

134 ചിCം 13 ച[uu പൂm@നായി ചതയúിG. ശനി ഉ[തúിG. ആരംഭം
134 ഇടവം 6 ഉരഗചതുmúി മൂലം ന±[തം ശനി ഉ[തം ( 9 മാസം കഴിG്)
ചി[തെമഴുú് അവസാനം . തൃപാേലശJര[പസാദാmúം(േ±[തനാമം) . വലിയ
ലിഖിതúിG തൃ_ാള_m തൃപാേകശJര[പസാദാmúം എu്.
കാവേരി വാസുേദവu ഹരിഭ±നുമാG. തുട±ം ശാശJതം ഹരി. അവസാനം
നാലുവരി കവിത
അതിനുമുu് നuിയും സുനാദികലാെസാ എuും .
പുരികാനൃഭൂെപല¸ ശയനം കാരുണ_പാരാനിധി
കm__രuഫടിെകൗ സുuരതനു കാത_ായനീലാളിത
ധ_ാേയú ഭ±പരായണം ഭവഭയധJംസം ശിവം
ശാശJതം ഹരി
(പുരിക നാഗരാജധാനിപര_ായം. തൃപാ എuú [ശീനാഗം അനuെനumúം. പാ
പാu്. പാല¸യനം പാuിG ശയനം. പല¸യനം ഇതാവാം [ഗാമനാമúിu
കാരണം. നാഗം മതിGെ±jിനകúായú ഇú ആദ_ം
നാഗ±ാവായി,വിæണുമൂmúികേളാെട അറിയെ_jിരുuതിu െതളിവാG.).
[ശീപരേമശJരu സാഡവu
തിരുെനല¸ിമഹാേയാഗിഗുരുസJാമിഗുഹയി(ഹuതചി¬ം)വാസം ഹരി[ശീ
വടുകപ±ഥാ[ഗിണ ( മുനിരൂപം)
(േമാ±ദJേരശJരം േഗാപുരúിu ചുററും ) ബുധu തൃപു8(തൃപ അ) നുയയിതി
െവGഋപലകശിവാലമ ( െവ8ിനൃപാലക എuുമാവാം) തൃപാ എu
നാഗാനുജനായ െവ8ിനൃപാലകu, െവളgú കാള ,കപിലനാെല പാലിതമായ
ശിവാലയം) .
ലിഖിതúിെല നാമC_
1.കാവേരി വാസുേദവu

2.ൈഭമി±്മാപതി ബാലശ8രവm2uേജ_ാതിാu[തശിഷ_ശിേരാമണി
3.[ശീ പരേമശJരu സാഡവu, 4.കിരാതപരേമശJരം,5.മകരസാഡവകരസഹജം
6.തിരുെനല¸ ിമഹാഗുരു
7.വടുനാവാനാകഭ±ഥ വഴുനി ആവിനാക
8.തൃപു8(പാ അ)നുയയിതി െവGഋപലകശിവാലമ ( െവ8ിനൃപാലക)
തൃപാനുയയിതി െവ8ിരു(നൃ)പാലക .തൃ_ാ എu (തിരു_ാ നാഗം) [ശീനാഗം
അനുജനായ 2 െവ8ികെള (െവ8ിരു) പാലി±ുu നൃപനാG ഉGാ±െ_j
ശിവാലയം മറO അúം.
ൈസuവലിപിയിG 1. ണ [തിപല¸ പാരതനേര(ശ) രവികGരു (കmúാരു)
2. ഓം ഋഷഭനാവവില¸ വ മീനവ നിധി ( ചി[തലിപി) പല
ഓmuാവിമീനിപല (അ±രം) അm@വജലനിധിപാലക
ഋഷേഭശJര,നാവിക,വിGീu നിധിപാല എuുസാരം
(ആെക 10 നാമം. 8 മലയാളലിപിയിലും 2 ൈസuവലിപിയിലും)
ഹരിണ എu വmഷം 825 .അതിേനാ3 134 കൂjി 959 എഡി .കാവേരി വാസുേദവu
കാലം. അu് [തികലിംഗം ഭരി±ുuú െതലു8ാനയിെല ചാലൂ ±ിയ
അ(ഹ)രിേകസരിയുെട മുuഗാമി യുmമല¸ നാG. (പmബനി േ_റO )ദ±ിണാപഥം
തെu [തികലിംഗെമu് ഗുണകവിജയാദിത_ലിഖിതം. ഇവിട െú വനഭൂമി
മുഴുവനും വരാഹചി¬മു ചാലൂ±_രുേടതാG (പuിയൂ m)എuും ആ
ലിഖിതം.. എഡി 959- തൃ_ാള_m ലിഖിതെമഴുതിയവരും അവരാവണം.
ആരാG ബാലശ8രവm2u .സ[ദúനമാലാകാരെന8ിG 1774-1839 കാലം.
(മലബാO വിഭജനകാലമാണú.കൃæണഭ±നാG, ഈuറO ഇu_ാകuനി
യുമായി അടു_ം ഉG്. ബാലവm2u പൂm@വm2uാരുെട കാലെമ8ിG 5 -6
നൂററാGാG. (ഇതാവാu സാm_ത).
സാഡുവകാലം മഹാഭാരതúിെല സാലJനിലാരംഭി±ുuുG്. പല¸വശ±ി
കാലം 5 6 നൂററാGാG. പല¸ വൈശലി േ±[തം അതിuേശഷം ഉGായിjില¸.
കരേവലuാെരu െകാല¸uാരുെട വmഷാരംഭം ഹരിണം (825) കാവേരി
വാസുേദവനറിയാം. ഖര,കര വാ±ുകളgെട ഉ_ാരണúിലു വ_ത_ാസ മാG.
ഖര[പതിæഠ േ[തതായുഗമാG.

കിരാതപരേമശJരെനu പരേമശJരവm2കാലം 670 എഡി. 720 വെരയാG
പല¸ വ[പതാപകാലം. 674G ചാലൂ±_പല¸ വ െപരുവലനല¸_m യുmം .ചാലൂ ക_u
കാളീഭ±നും പല¸ വu ശിവഭ±നും . വരാഹവും സിംഹവും െകാടി യിെല
ചി¬ം .രായേ±ാj പല¸ വ[ഗാuറിG പരേമശJര അശJേമധയാജി പര
േമശJരവm2െനuാG. സംബuരുെടയും അ_രുെടയും കാലമാG. പരേമ
[ശപു[തu ഹിരണ_ഗmഭം നടúി സm _്സJദാനം െചOú ഈശJരദാസനാ
യിjgG്. (അഛെനേ_ാെല).
കാവേരിനിu് 30 കി മീ ദൂരം പല¸ന. പല¸ന നാമം പല¸ യനെമu് കാവേരി
വാസുേദവu [പേയാഗി_ിരി±ുuു.
െവ8ി, ക_പാംകുറി_ി നാമC_ പല¸ വതലuാനCളാG.രGും ഉG്
പാല±ാj് താലൂ±ിG. ക_് എuേപm പഴയതാG.ബിസി 325-185 മുതG അú
പരിæകരി_് കാuി എuാ±ിയിjgG്. (െമൗര_ലിഖിതം) അതിനു മുuു േപm
ഭൃഗുക_വും കാ_ാംകുറി_ിയും സൂ±ി±ുേuാ_, കാuീ പുരം പുതിയ
േപരാG സJീകരി±ുuú.(പഴ±ം നിm@യി±ാu ഇú
സഹായി±ും).സാഡുവm തുളgവuാരാG. തമിu,െതലു8്,കuഡ,മലയാളം
സംuകൃതം മണി[പവാളമാണവm±്. 7 -8 നൂററാGിെല േതവാരംപാjിG ക_്
േമúളി ക_േപശJരെരu് കാണാം .േമúളി േകരളീയm±് സുപരി
ചിതമാെയാരു പദമാG. അതിu േമലകം എu് ഐരാവതം മഹാേദവu
വിളി±ുu ൈസuവതലuാനെമumúം. ഇú കാ_ാംകുറി_ിയാG
.പല¸ന±ടുúാG കാ_ാംകുറി_ി.
തൃ_ാള_രിെല നാഗC_ മതിGെ±jിനകúാG,അവ വാuതുനിയമം അനു
സരി_് െത±ുപടിGാറല¸ കാണുuú. ഇതാG വാuതു കാലഗണന±ു നല¸
ഒരു സൂചനയായി എനി±് ലഭി_ú.

േ[തതായുഗúിG ഖര[പതിæഠാകാലú് പുഴ, നാഗം, 2 ൈവæണവ[പതിæഠ
ഉG്. െത±് നuിയട±ം ശിവലിംഗCളgG് . ൈവæണവരായ നവേയാഗി
മാരുെട ആരാധനാേക[uം യദുമഹാരാജാO നGകിയതാെണu് ഭാഗവതം. പഴയ
വാuതുവിuെറ െത±ുപടിGാറു നാഗ[പതിæഠ ഒരു തറവാjിെല
പാuിuകാവുuാനമാകയാG നവേയാഗിവാസuാനമാG പഴയ വാuതു.
അവരുെട തറവാjgകാരു [പതിæഠി_താG 2 ൈവæണവേദവാലയC_
എuതിനാG അവm ൈവæണവരാG.. ( ൈസuവലിപിയിG 1. ണ
[തിപല¸ പാരതനേര(ശ) രവികGരു (കmúാരു) . രവികGെനu നാമം േകരള±ാ
രാG, തല_ി വേuരി വgവനാjgകാരാG അuും [തിപല¸ ഭാ(പാ)രതന
േരശെരu് കാണി±ുuു. ഇú ൈസuവകാലെú േകരളബuúിu ഒരു നല¸
2. ഓം ഋഷഭനാവവില¸ വ മീനവ നിധി ( ചി[തലിപി) പല
ഓmuാവിമീനി പല (അ±രം) അm@വജലനിധിപാലക
ഋഷേഭശJര,നാവിക,വിGീu നിധിപാല എuുസാരം )

ചുമെരഴുúുകാലú് ഇെതാu് മലയാളഭാഷയിലാ±ുകയാG െചOതú.
വടുനാവാനാകഭ±ഥ , വഴുനി ആവിനാക എu വിæണുേ±[തലിഖിതം,
തൃ_ാവ, തൃ_ാ മുതലായ കാളീനാമC_, നാഗനാമC_, പാവ എu u[തീ
പരമായ നാമം ഇവ പuിയൂരിെല ചാലൂ±_രാG ആദ_ം വാuതു ഉGാ ±ിയ
നാഗവംശെമu് കാണി±ുuു. പല¸വയുmúിG ചാലൂ±_m പരാജ യെ_jേ_ാ_
സJയംഭൂ[പതിæഠ കൂടാെത ഖരuെറ ശിവ[പതിæഠ നടúി. ഇu് കാണുu
ശിവേ±[തം പല¸ വപരേമശJരu അതിu ചുററും നിm2ി _താG. അേ_ാ_
നാഗúിu മുuിG െചറിയ കുഴിയിലാG ഖരu [പത_±മായ സJയംഭൂ.
അതിലുംതാെഴയായി കുഴിയിG പല¸ വപരേമശJരu നuിെയ, തuെറ
[പതിæഠെയ അഭിമുഖീകരി_്, െവ_ിരി±ുuു.
ഖരu 3 [പതിæഠ െചOതിjgG്. ഖരെനu വാuതുപുരുഷെന നമു±ിവിെട
ചി[തരൂപúിG കാണാം.
ൈകലൂെരu ൈകേലശJരം (അഖിേലശJരം) നuി (ഋഷഭം,കാള) ശിവെന
അഭിമുഖീകരി_ല¸, െത±ുവശമാG. ൈകലാസെú (വട±്)അഭിമുഖീകരി_്.

അതിuെറ ഉയരം 60 െസ.മീ. ശിവേന±ാളധികം . (ശിവu 45
െസ.മീ). തൃ_ാള_രാെണ8ിG നuി സJയംഭൂവിേന±ാ_
താെഴയാവാനായി ഒരു കുഴിയിലാG. അവിെട
ൈവæണവ[പതിæഠ രGും 90 െസ.മീ ഉയരം. ശിവu 41 െസ മീ.
ഉപേദവu േദവേന±ാ_ ബിംബം െചറുതാെണ u കണ±ിG
തൃ_ാള_രിG വിæണുവും അഖിേലശJരú് നuിയുമാG
േദവuാനú്. അഖി േലശJരെú നuി 3 േ±[തേúയും
അഭിമുഖീകരി_് 60 െസ മീ ഉയരúിG , െത±ുഭാ ഗú്.
ഗായ[തി_gഴ ഒഴുകിവീഴുu തിരുവuി±ുഴി വളെര ഉയരം
കുറG ഭൂഭാഗമാG. അതനുസരി_് ഒരു കുഴിയിലാG
ഖരെനu വാuതുപുരുഷuെറ ഇടംക_് .അകിലൂmപുഴയുെട
ഉ3ഭവuാനú് ഭൂമി ഉയmuിരി±ുuു. നuിയും
ഉയmuിരി±ുuു. അവിെടയു നuി എu
േദവതാuാനúിu (അകിലൂm നിu്) താെഴയാG ശിവലിംഗം.
രGുക_gം നീjിെവ_് ശയി±ുu പല¸(വ)ശയനúിG
കിഴേ±ാj് തലെവ_് (പടിGാj് പാദം) നമuകരി±ുകയാG
വാuതുപുരുഷu ഖരu െച_guú. 3 േ±[തവും കGാേല ഈ
വാuതുപുരുഷതതJം മന_ിലാവൂ.
കിരാതപരേമശJരം എu കലിസംഖ_ െവ_് ഹരിണെമu
വmഷസംഖ_ കിjgu േകരളേജ_ാതിഷസ[uദായം ഇവിെട
കിരാതപരേമശJരം സവ_മായി 12112552 , അപസവ_മായി
25521121 .രGിേനയും പuവmഷൈപതാമഹസംഖ_യാG
1. 69729 വmഷം 307 ദിവസം
2. 33094 വmഷം 148 ദിവസം

ആദ_േúതിG നിu് രGാമേúú കിഴി±ുക.ഉúരം 36635 വmഷം 159
ഇú 36600 എu ഭൂപരമായ സംഖ_ കിഴി_ാG 35 വmഷം 159 ദിവസമാG.
36600 ദിവസം 100 വmഷമാകയാG പതിനായിരം,ല±ം യുഗ±ണ±ിG 100
േനാ3 35 കൂjിയ 135 വmഷം 5 മാസം 9 ദിവസ െമെuടു±ുuു. ഹരിണെമu
825 ഇതിേലാ3 േചmuാG 960. െഭൗമകാ ര,െകാല¸ വmഷെമuú ഈ
വാuതു±ണ±ാG. കാലപുരുഷ, വാuതു പുരുഷuാരുെട
സമനJയമാG.അതായú കലിസംഖ_െയ സവ_ാപസ വ_മായി എടുú് 366
െകാGുഹരി_്, ഉúരCെള പരuപരം കിഴി _് കിjguതിെന
വmഷമാ±ി അതിേനാ3 825 എu uിരസംഖ_ കൂjgക .ഇതാG
െകാല¸ വmഷസംഖ_.
ഹരിണെമu െകാല¸ úിG (825) ഘടെമu(കുംഭം) മലയാളമാസúിG 7
ഹuതം അളവിG പല¸നയിG േ±[തം പുനരുmാരണം. 3,4,5
നൂററാGുകളിലാG േ±[തനിm2ിതി . ഏതാG് ആറാjgപുഴ, െപരുവനം
പൂരം തുടCിയ കാലം തെu. 825 G പുനരുmാരണം. 960 G
പുനmuവീകരണം. 960G ചി[തേലഖനം. വിæണു േ±[ത úിെല
[ഗീവúിG നാവാേയാഗികളgെട പിuലമുറ±ാരനായ തിരു âാന
സംബuെരേ_ാെല ശിശുവായി േയാഗിെയ വര_ിരി±ുuു. ഇതിu
ശിവേ±[തúിെല നാലuലം ചുററുമതിലിലുതിേന±ാ_ പഴ±മുG്.
ശിവ േ±[തúിെലതിരുെനല¸ ിമഹാേയാഗി വൃmനാG. അതിG തിരുെനല¸ി
എu് േപെരടുúുപറകയാG െനല¸ ിയാuതിയല¸ , തിരുെനല¸ ിതെuയാG

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