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Chapter 5

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NTSG, Part 1, Edition 8, Version 2
EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 For the purpose of this NTSG the term unexploded ordnance (UXO)
applies to all ordnance, munitions and landmines which may be found in Sudan
and which present a significant risk to human life.

1.2 A mine action organisation or a contractor specialising in explosive
ordnance disposal (EOD) may clear UXO. For the purpose of this NTSG all
such activities are included as EOD operations.

2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

2.1 EOD may be undertaken during humanitarian demining when UXO is
encountered in a minefield and also at times when UXO is encountered outside
of mined areas. Such operations may involve a single UXO, a number of UXO
in a specific location or stockpiled ammunition.

2.2 The establishment and preservation of a safe and effective EOD
capability will require varying levels of expertise. EOD operators are only
authorised to deal with those items and situations for which they have been
trained and are qualified. All organisations involved in specific EOD operations
shall have at least one qualified level four EOD Technician within their
organisation.

3. TRAINING AND QUALIFICATIONS

3.1 EOD training and qualifications should be appropriate to the UXO threat
encountered in Sudan. The training and qualifications of deminers carrying out
EOD activities shall satisfy the requirements and policies of the UNNMAO and
be in accordance with IMAS 09.30. The following is a guide:

a. Level One EOD enables a deminer to locate, expose and destroy,
under supervision, in situ mines that the deminer has been specifically
trained on.
b. Level Two EOD enables a deminer to undertake the destruction,
in-situ, of a single small UXO such as sub-munitions, grenades and
mortar ammunition up to 84 mm in diameter including high explosive anti
tank (HEAT) ammunition. The above categories normally represent the
majority of UXO found in or around minefields.
c. Level Three EOD applies to a deminer who has been specifically
trained in the disposal by detonation of larger UXO such as rocket, tank
gun ammunition and artillery ammunition up to 240 mm in diameter
including HEAT charges. Under the supervision and direction of a
qualified EOD supervisor, a level three operator should be qualified and
trained to render safe UXO for safe removal and subsequent destruction:
d. Level Four EOD applies to specialist EOD operators who have
been trained at an internationally recognized institution and are
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subsequently qualified to destroy the remaining EOD hazards using
specialist EOD techniques and equipment. This includes bulk disposal of
rendered safe UXO and other recovered items of ERW. Such specialists
skills would include the render safe of liquid propellant systems, disposal
of depleted uranium and the clearance of conventional munitions with
improvised firing systems. The Level Four EOD qualification shall clearly
indicate the specialist areas of expertise attained by the individual and
level four tasks shall only be conducted if the appropriate technical
reference documentation and supporting specialised tools are available
to the operator.
.
Note1: Where particular items or ERW are frequently encountered,
specific training in the disposal of these items may be given to selected
operators, therefore enabling them to deal with these items rather than
continually referring the problem to the next higher level of expertise. Any
training of this nature is to be approved and accredited by the UNMAO.
This does not include Render Safe Procedures (RSP).
Note 2: Some UXO items present a specific or additional threat.
Examples are items containing white phosphorous, missiles or the need
for bulk demolitions. Consideration is required in regard to the need for
additional training in the disposal of some UXO items that present
additional hazards to the operator or environment.
Note 3: It should be noted that sub-munitions are particularly hazardous
to deal with and should only be dealt with by appropriately trained and
qualified personnel.
Note 4: EOD operators shall only carry out operations and techniques for
which they have been suitably trained, are qualified and for which they
have been accredited.

4. DEFINITIONS

4.1 The following definitions are not included in the glossary but are
applicable in terms of this NTSG:

a. Central Demolition Site an area authorised for the destruction of
bulk UXO
1
. (Annex A details considerations to be taken into account
when choosing the location of a CDS and procedures to be adopted
during its operation).
b. Net Explosive Quantity/Content (NEQ/NEC) the total amount of
explosive material contained within a given item of ammunition
2
.
c. Primary Fragmentation in an explosive event fragmentation that
was originally part of a mine/UXO

5. RESPONSIBILITIES

5.1 UNMAO: The UNMAO shall where applicable establish and/or maintain:


1
Approval for the establishment of a CDS is to be obtained from the Director of Mine Action in Sudan.
Local authorities and affected population (if any) need to be involved in the site selection process and
their agreement sought.
2
Consideration should be given to any donor charge used when calculating the total NEQ.
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a. National standards for the qualification of EOD operators.
b. National standards for EOD procedures.
c. The capability to accredit mine action organisations involved in EOD
operations.
d. The capability to monitor the effectiveness and safety of mine action
organisations involved in EOD operations
e. National systems for EOD incident reporting

5.2 Demining Organisations: Demining organisations shall:

a. Establish and maintain SOPs for EOD operations which comply with
IMAS and this NTSG
b. Recruit, train and maintain appropriate staff to carry out EOD
operations
c. Apply the detail of accredited SOPs during EOD operations in a
consistent, effective and safe manner.
d. Cooperate with UNMAO staff responsible for implementing policy
and monitoring EOD operations.

6. REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES

6.1 The guidelines for setting up demolitions, contained in IMAS 10.30, must
be strictly adhered to. The following requirements and procedures shall be
applied during EOD operations:

a. Neutralization and Disarming
(1) Wherever possible and/or practicable UXO shall be destroyed
in-situ by detonation.
(2) If not possible to destroy in-situ because of safety factors,
environmental considerations or the possibility of unacceptable
damage being inflicted on nearby infrastructure, then alternative
techniques of disposal should be applied. This may include low
order (deflagration) or render safe techniques in which case the
UXO can be removed to a safe location for disposal.
(3) All techniques planned to be used are to be detailed within the
organisations SOPs.
b. Destruction this applies to UXO destroyed in-situ and those
removed for disposal either individually or in bulk:
(1) Appropriate measures shall be taken to contain blast and
fragmentation effects. This includes consideration into the
safeguarding of the general public, their livestock, their buildings
and other such concerns that may be affected by operations by
implementing sufficient safety distances and the isolation of any
danger area by the use of sentries and warnings. IMAS 10.20
should be referred to for clarification of laying down danger areas
however it should be remembered this is only a guide.

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(2) Sites chosen for bulk destruction shall be sited away from
populated areas so as to represent no risk to the local inhabitants,
live stock or infrastructure.
(3) EOD Operators shall only deal with those items and situations
for which they have been trained and accredited.
(4) SOPs shall contain details of the organisations
procedures/methodology for calculating and implementing danger
areas.
(5) EOD operators shall be conversant with all protective works
techniques, calculations and construction methods. Organisations
are to include protective works measures in their EOD SOP.
c. Initiation Methods The following applies to whichever method is
used:
(1) Crimping of detonators, final placement of charges and all
clear checks at the completion of a demolition are a one man risk
and shall only be completed by the OIC of the disposal site.
(2) Firing points shall be sited outside of the fragmentation hazard
zone or be suitably protected against the effects of fragmentation
and blast caused from the demolition.
(3) SOPs relating to demolitions are to be strictly adhered to and
shall include the following safety precautions when conducting
either electrical or non-electrical methods of initiation:
(a) Electrical Initiation This is the preferred method and
should be used whenever possible and/or practicable. When
used:
i. All electrical firing circuits shall be sited a minimum
distance of 300m from the nearest radio or radar
transmitting aerial when the wattage output is unknown.
ii. The minimum safety distance from all HF vehicle radio
transmitters is 160 m.
iii. The minimum safety distance from all VHF radios is
25m.
iv. Anti-static precautions shall be taken prior to handling
any electro-explosive items.
v. A wait time of 10 minutes shall be applied for all
electrically initiated misfires.
(b) Non-electrical Initiation This should only be used when
electrical initiation is not possible and/or practicable. When
used:
i. Minimum length of safety fuse permitted to be used
per firing serial is 600mm.
ii. The first and last 300mm of the safety fuse coil is to be
discarded.
iii. Test the burning time of 300mm of safety fuse noting
the burning rate.
iv. Calculate the length of fuse required to walk from the
demolition site to the safe area.
v. A wait time of 30 minutes shall be applied for all non-
electrical misfires.
d. EOD Reporting Comprehensive reports are required following the
completion of an EOD task. The destruction of a single item of UXO (spot
EOD task) shall be recorded in the IMSMA Dangerous Area Report,
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ensuring the appropriate section on EOD spot tasks is completed. All
other EOD tasks are to be recorded in the IMSMA Progress Report
Form.