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Analysis of Guidance Laws for Manouvering and

Rawalpindi, Pakistan *


Muhammad Ilyas*, Abdul Razzaq and Syed Shaukat Hussain

Abstract Selection of Guidance law is an important factor that affects the tactical performance of surface to air missiles. In order to select a suitable guidance law, a method of comparing the normal available acceleration with demanded or required acceleration is formulated. Two guidance laws i.e., Proportional Navigation guidance law (PNG) and Augmented proportional Navigation guidance law (APNG) are tested by this method. These guidance laws are studied by the comparison of normal available acceleration and demanded acceleration. In order to simulate the missile-target engagements for maneuvering and non maneuvering targets, a mathematical model is formed and then it is simulated in SIMULINK/MATLAB to carry out extensive simulations to analyze the PNG and APNG against maneuvering and non maneuvering targets. By observing the simulation results, it can be seen that PNG is suitable for nonmaneuvering targets and it is incapable for maneuvering targets. However, the APNG is an optimal guidance law for maneuvering and non-maneuvering targets both.

S Cxo


ax ay, az m H

Reference surface area of missile. Zero lift drag coefficient Induced drag coefficient Lift force coefficient Lateral force coefficient Tangential acceleration of missile Normal accelerations of missile
Mass of missile Flight height Fin deflection angle Velocity of target Trajectory tilt angle and deflection angle of target respectively. Initial position of target Position of missile Elevation angle and Azimuth angle of line of sight Angle between vertical component of line of sight (LOS) with velocity vector in vertical plane, also called as vertical lead. Angle between horizontal component of LOS with velocity vector in horizontal plane,also called as horizontal lead. Distance between missile and target and its rate of change Navigation constant in vertical and


Ot Ivtt
Xt , Yt , Zt

Symbols used in the paper

Jx, Jy,Jz

Mx ,My,M"


my ,mz

y z

The rotational inertia of the missile around axis ox1,oy1,oz, respectively. Aerodynamic moment components of three axis about air frame coordinate system. Attack angle and Side Slip angle. Velocity of missile Yawing moment coefficient, pitching moment coefficient respectively. Thrust force Including angle between velocity vector V with horizontal plane. Including angle between projections of velocity vector V in horizontal plane with the Ax axis of earth coordinate system. Aerodynamic Drag Aerodynamic Lift force Aerodynamic Lateral force Relative air density

Xm, YmIn Zm





Ko, K,
ayc, azC
ayd, azd

horizontal planes respectively. Required accelerations given by guidance law Required or demanded normal accelerations in vertical and horizontal plane;

Proceedings of International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences & Technology Islamabad, Pakistan, 8th- 11th January, 2007


aza aya a

ay az

or Normal Usable available accelerations in vertical and horizontal plane. Actual accelerations of missile in vertical and horizontal plane

m-= P cosa cos,/ dt


X - mgsin 0




I. INTRODUCTION Proportional navigation, parallel pursuit, three point guidance law, augmented proportional guidance law etc. are common guidance laws used in surface to air missiles [1]. The method of guidance should ensure the required guidance accuracy of missile to approach the target under various firing conditions. It is necessary to emphasize, that an aerial target, having detected the missile launch, strives to keep from being hit, will make extensive use of antimissile maneuver, i.e., change the parameters of its movement sharply. Therefore, during the selection of guidance law, special attention must be focused on its suitability for firing on a maneuvering target. The maneuvering of a target should not lead to substantial lowering in the accuracy of guidance of the missile to the target. In order to analyze the guidance law two main requirements should be kept in mind [1,4], that is, (i) The required normal acceleration of the trajectory in the guided flight (especially in the vicinity of hit point) should be less. If it is required that the missile should always fly along the theoretical trajectory, than the required normal acceleration, at each point of the trajectory, must be less than the available normal acceleration of the missile. (ii) The guidance law should ensure the minimum effect of target maneuverability on missile trajectory. The normal acceleration that can be created by an antiaircraft guided missile with the maximum deviation of the vanes is called as the normal available accelerations of the missile. It is determined under the assigned conditions of flight and at the assigned velocity of the missile. The nature of trajectory is determined by the demanded accelerations of the missile, i.e., the accelerations that should be possessed by a missile for flight on this trajectory. The magnitude of the demanded acceleration at the assigned parameters of the target and the velocity of the missile is the function of the guidance law. The method of guidance should ensure the least curvature of trajectory on all sectors of flight, especially in the region of the point of impact. Demanded normal acceleration of the trajectory should be less in quantity as compared to available acceleration, especially in the vicinity of hit point.

c = _p cos a sin,8 + Z, (3) dt where dV/dt is the projection of C.G. acceleration of missile trajectory tangential axis (OX3 axis) and called as tangential acceleration. V dO/dt is the projection of C.G acceleration of missile in the plumb plane (Ox2y2 axis) along trajectory normal line (OY2 axis) and it is called as normal acceleration. -mVcosO(dqf,jdt) is the horizontal component of C.G acceleration of missile and it is also called as normal acceleration. [1,4]. Equations (1), (2) and (3) can also be written in the acceleration form as

-mV coso

V =a -gsinO


=-(a,- gcosO)
ax =
a, V cosO"


Pcosacos8 - X


m - P cosa sin,8 + Z a:= m

ay =



X, Y and Z are the drag force, lift force and lateral force and can be calculated as

X pv2S(CO + Ci ) 2 X = 1-PVSC 2 Y =-pv SC~

Z -p2SC 2


(1 1)

II. MATHEMATICAL MODEL C. G. motion equations of missile (i) The motion equations of missile acting as a controllable mass point can be described as:

P is the thrust force of rocket motor. Its magnitude is determined by the following relation

Proceedings of International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences & Technology Islamabad, Pakistan, 8th- 11th January, 2007


=mTU+fa(Pa P)



where mT is consumption of propellant in unit time. u is flow speed of gasses with respect to missile air frame. fa is cross-sectional area of nozzle of rocket motor. pa is gas flow static pressure of nozzle of rocket motor. p is atmospheric pressure of height at which missile is flying. (ii) Kinematics equations ofmissile C. G. motion The position of missile at any instant can be calculated by trajectory calculations. Thus the position equations of missile C.G with respect to ground coordinate system can be written as

t A



d= VsinO dt

dx dt


dz-= VcoOScosqi,


Balance conditions (iii) It is considered that missile lies in balance state at any instant of time, i.e. when the control surfaces of missile deflects then moments acting on the missile lies in the balance state at all instants of time. This is called as "instantaneous balance" supposition [1,4]. It is known that pitch and yaw moment is usually shown as:
Mz Mz(V,y,/a,3j,zw znw /) cx^49 y) My =MY(V,Y,fl gynwy^

Missile inertial-less supposition means that when the control surfaces deflects, the a and ,6 instantaneously approach their balance values. After using these suppositions, the motion of missile about C.G. is mostly simplified. The dynamic equations of missile about the C.G. motion can be replaced by moment balance relationship. For axially symmetric missiles, as the rotation of missile about oxt axis does not affect the forces acting on the missiles, thus they can be neglected, i.e. oc, =0, y =0. Moreover, the ratio ma/m& besides having relation with Mach number, also have relation with the aerodynamic configuration of missile. The balance equations are given as:

Maa+MyY 3sy=o


Mj783+ mly 6


After solving the above equations, amax and fimax can be obtained, which in turn used to calculate Ymax the max lift force and Zmax max drag force respectively.
Motion equations of target

Obviously, under majority of cases, the effect of angular velocities , cot, oj and derivatives &, ,8, 3z, 3y on moments M and M is secondary when compared with the effect of angles a,A,fz,,a y on moments Mz and M.So the effects of the previous can be completely ignored during the supposition of "instantaneous balance". Therefore,

Motion equations of targets are given as:

Vt cos Ot cosyft
t =



vt Sin


(25) (26)


= Vt cosot cosq't

a 6) = O m, = m,(VY, y,

My = My(VY,ct,ay) = 0

(18) (19)

= a,t







These relations are generally called as instantaneous balance relations .As far as the axially symmetric missiles are concerned, it posses linear aerodynamic force characteristics under the condition when attack angle and side-slip angles are not large.


Proceedings of International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences & Technology Islamabad, Pakistan, 8th- 11th January, 2007



Relative Motion Equations ofMissile and Target

Consider the missile- target engagement diagram in Fig 1


_ (Mztj- zm)(Vxt - Vxm) - (Xt - xm)(Vzt - Vzm)

(xt- xm) +(zt- zm)2



Normal acceleration demanded (vi) It is known that acceleration due to gravity g is related to the height H of missile, so the acceleration due to gravity of missile at a certain height is given as:

0(R + H)2


Where g, is acceleration due to gravity on the surface of earth i.e. 9.8m/s2 R is radius of earth 6371 kilometers; H is height of missile from surface of earth; This gravity compensation is added to get normal acceleration demanded (or required normal acceleration) as;

Figure. 1 Missile-Target Engagement

Xm, Yin'

ayc+g cosO







the components of velocity missile along x, y and z axis of coordinates system respectively. ,m sn are elevation angle and azimuth angle of
V., V,m V

missile; vector V, of




Normal acceleration available


line of sight respectively. Similarly,

xt, Yt, zt

is the initial

Usable or available normal accelerations obtained by the (8) and (9) given above.
Actual acceleration of missile

and a., is

position of target; Vx I Vy V, are the components of velocity vector Vt of target along x, y and z axis of coordinate system. D is the relative distance between target and missile. D is Rate of change of distance between missile and target. im,,I are the rate of change of elevation angle and azimuth angle of line of sight respectively. Then the relative kinematics equations can be written as:

Actual accelerations ay or a, of the missile the following ideal relations:

ay =ayc;


obtained by


if ayc < aya if ayc > aya

(36) (37)

az =azc ;

D = ;(tx

Y-Ym.) 2+ (zt - Z.)


(28) (29)



if if




azc >


D=D [(x X.)(V. V.a)

+(YD Ym)+(Vy, Vm)+(Z, Z)(Vz Vzm)

CM atan
( xt

Guidance laws

Yt -Ym
xm ) + ( Zt Zm)


(a) Proportional Navigation Guidance Law

3-D space proportional navigation guidance law is used whose equations are given as:

D(Vyt- Vym) - (Ym)D D (Xt _ X)2 + (Zt _ Z)2



ayc = -KoD&,
acc = K,Dflm cos m

(40) (41)


-(Zt- Zm)
Xt Xm

Proceedings of International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences & Technology Islamabad, Pakistan, 8th- 11th January, 2007


Where KS and KM, are proportionality constants in vertical and horizontal planes; ay,, a , are the required accelerations in vertical and horizontal planes respectively. (b) Augmented Proportional Navigation Guidance Law
The guidance law used in is given as

proper PN constant is also important. The results shows that the normal available acceleration is always greater than the demanded or required accelerations in the complete course of trajectory provided the target parameters remain constant..

K D&m +K2

2 (aTycosf/im ax sin/)m)




=-K, D/Am COSm +

X q, Vertical lead angle Horizontal lead angle

It is assumed that the missile can obtain the exact information about both the missile itself and the target.

III. TRAJECTORY SIMULATION SCHEME It is assumed that initial position, trajectory tilt angle, azimuth and flight velocity of target are already known parameters. In order to find the suitable conditions of launching the missile, program can be run by changing the lead angles and observing the affect on the required accelerations. The phenomenon of launching in Head-on attack mode is shown in Fig. (2) and Fig. (3).In Fig.(2), lead angles are given opposite to the velocity vector of target, whereas in Fig. (3), lead angles are given in the direction of velocity vector of target. Moreover the affect of proportional navigation constants Ko in vertical plane and K. in horizontal plane on the required accelerations in the respective planes will also be noted. 3-D ideal trajectory is simulated using SIMULINK/MATLAB. The model of the system is shown in given in Fig. 4. The same system model is used for both guidance laws by only replacing the guidance block. The overall system model consists of Aerodynamic Calculations Block, Missile Dynamics Block, Relative Kinematics Equations Block, Target Kinematics Block, Guidance Block, Target Kinematics block, missile Kinematics block and Guidance laws etc. In order to calculate aerodynamic constant, data of a certain IR guided missile is used.


Figure 2 Engagement when lead is given opposite to velocity vector of target



v/ /
'IH-0 0
z /



Vertical lead angle Horizontal lead



Figure.3 ngagement when lead is given in the direction of velocity vector of target


In the second step Proportional Navigation Guidance law was analysed against manouvering target. Details of the scenario and corresponding results are given in Annexure 2. The initial conditions of target and missile are fixed and suitable lead angle is calculated by keeping in mind the parameters of target, whereas PN constants are varied to analyze the behavior of PN guidance law against maneuvering target.


In the first step, proportional Navigation guidance law was analyzed for non maneuvering target. Details of the scenario and corresponding results are given in Annexure 1. It can be seen that if the lead angle is given in the direction of the velocity vector of missile, then the required or demanded

It can be seen from the results that by the variation of the PN constants in the both planes, the required acceleration is decreased in the initial stage but it is increased in the terminal phase. It means that PN guidance law is not optimal for maneuvering targets.

accelerations of the missile is reduced. Selection of

Proceedings of International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences & Technology Islamabad, Pakistan, 8th- 11th January, 2007


u id a nce

Figure 4 Overall System Model


APNG is a general optimal guidance law which deals with the 3-dimensional missile guidance. It includes the target maneuver accelerations. The guidance law [3] is simulated in SIMULINK/MATLAB as given in Fig 4 and the results are given in Annexure 3. According to the results of the APNG Guidance law simulations, the APNG is quite effective against the maneuvering targets. As shown in the simulation results, the required accelerations are reduced by increasing the PN constant in the respective planes. When the required acceleration is reduced up to considerable amount than the PN constants are fixed and lead angles are added in the directions of flight of the target. As a result, the required accelerations are further reduced. It is also proved that APNG is also effective, if the target starts maneuvering after 2 seconds of the missile launching. It is shown in Simulation 6. In the last, the missile is launched on the non maneuvering target. Results show that the trajectory of the missile is still ideal i.e., the required acceleration is reduced to

almost zero in the terminal phase. The results prove that the APNG Guidance law is optimal guidance law for maneuvering and non-maneuvering targets.

In this research work, Proportional Navigation Guidance law and Augmented Proportional Navigation guidance law are thoroughly analyzed and proved that PNG is effective only against non maneuvering targets. However, modified augmented proportional Navigation Guidance law is authentic against maneuvering targets and non maneuvering targets both. It can be seen from the simulation results that lead angle and its direction play an important role in reducing the required accelerations. If a proper lead is calculated and given in the direction of the velocity vector of target than the required accelerations are reduced considerably. This result is obtained after simulating several different launching angles of missile. Limitations of launching zones and killing zones of a system should also be considered in selecting the initial launching conditions .These conditions are quite important

Proceedings of International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences & Technology Islamabad, Pakistan, 8th- 11th January, 2007


and play vital role in getting ideal trajectories. Analysis also shows that APNG has potential to use in the development of high performance missiles. Most important is to measure the target parameters and target maneuvering accelerations properly. Target parameters can be estimated by Kalman filters. Although this scheme can be realized for the Radar Guided weapon systems but this scheme can also be tested for the 'Fire and Forget systems' like IR homing guidance. Moreover a composite Radar homing guidance with Infra Red guidance can also be tested in which IR guidance can be used for the Guidance in the terminal phase.

Zhou Hui zhong, Li Zhong Ying. Winged Missile Flight Mechanics (Part 1, Part 2);Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics China. [2] Adler, F.P. Missile Guidance by Three- Dimensional Proportional Navigation, Journal of Applied physics, Vol.27, No.5. May 1956. [3] Yongmin Kim,Jin H.Seo The Realization of the Three Dimensional Guidance Law Using Modified Augmented Proportional Navigation. Proceedings of the 35th Conference on Decision and Control Kobe, Japan. December 1996. [4] Missile Flight Mechanics, Beijing institute of technology, China.

Proceedings of International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences & Technology Islamabad, Pakistan, 8th- 11th January, 2007