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Diesel particulate filter

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A diesel particulate filter (top left) in a Peugeot

Off-road - DPF Installation A diesel particulate filter (or DPF) is a device designed to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine. Wall-flow diesel particulate filters usually remove 85% or more of the soot, and under certain conditions can attain soot removal efficiencies approaching 100%. Some filters are single-use, intended for disposal and replacement once full of accumulated ash. Others are designed to burn off the accumulated particulate either passively through the use of a catalyst or by active means such as a fuel burner which heats the filter to soot combustion temperatures. This is accomplished by engine programming to run (when the filter is full) in a manner that elevates exhaust temperature or produces high amounts of NOx to oxidize the accumulated ash, or through other methods. This is known as "filter regeneration". Cleaning is also required as part of periodic maintenance, and it must be done carefully to avoid damaging the filter. Failure of fuel injectors or turbochargers resulting in contamination of the filter with raw diesel or engine oil can also necessitate cleaning.[1] The regeneration process occurs at road speeds higher

than can generally be attained on city streets; vehicles driven exclusively at low speeds in urban traffic can require periodic trips at higher speeds to clean out the DPF.[2] If the driver ignores the warning light and waits too long to operate the vehicle above 40 miles per hour (64 km/h), the DPF may not regenerate properly, and continued operation past that point may spoil the DPF completely so it must be replaced.[3] Some newer diesel engines, namely those installed in combination vehicles, can also perform what is called a Parked Regeneration, where the engine increases RPM to around 1400 while parked, to increase the temperature of the exhaust.

Contents
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1 History 2 Variants of DPFs o 2.1 Cordierite wall flow filters o 2.2 Silicon carbide wall flow filters o 2.3 Ceramic Fiber Filters o 2.4 Metal fiber flow through filters o 2.5 Paper o 2.6 Partial filters 3 Maintenance 4 Safety 5 Regeneration 6 Diesel Oxidation Catalyst 7 Retrofit homologation 8 Notes 9 See also 10 External links

History[edit]
Particulate filters fitted on cars with diesel engines have been known to cause engine problems due to high back pressure and soot back up. New particulate filters capture 30 to greater than 95% of the harmful soot. Soot particles from diesel cars pollute the air and are harmful to health. These particles contribute to the concentration of particulate matter. They are smaller than a thousandth of a millimeter (one micron).

Soot particles are caused by the incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. The quality of the fuel, for example, the sulfur content has an influence on the formation of these particles. The injection pressure of diesel is decisive for the formation of fine particles. With a good DPF soot emissions will decrease to 0.001 g / km or less. Particulate filters have been in use on non-road machines since 1980, and in automobiles since 1985.[citation needed] Diesel engines during combustion of the fuel/air mix produce a variety of particles generically classified as diesel particulate matter due to incomplete combustion. The composition of the particles varies widely dependent upon engine type, age, and the emissions specification that the engine was designed to meet. Two-stroke diesel engines produce more particulate per unit of power than do four-stroke diesel engines, as they burn the fuel-air mix less completely. Historically medium and heavy duty diesel engine emissions were not regulated until 1987 when the first California Heavy Truck rule was introduced capping particulate emissions at 0.60 g/BHP Hour. Since then, progressively tighter standards have been introduced for light- and heavy-duty roadgoing diesel-powered vehicles and for offroad diesel engines. Similar regulations have also been adopted by the European Union and some individual European countries, most Asian countries, and the rest of North and South America.[4] While no jurisdiction has explicitly made filters mandatory, the increasingly stringent emissions regulations that engine manufactures must meet mean that eventually all on-road diesel engines will be fitted with them. In the European Union, filters are expected to be necessary to meet Euro.VI heavy truck engine emissions regulations currently under discussion and planned for the 2012-2013 time frame. PSA Peugeot Citron was the first company to make them standard fit on passenger cars in 2000, in anticipation of the future Euro V regulations. As of December 2008 the California Air Resources Board (CARB) established the 2008 California Statewide Truck and Bus Rule whichwith variance according to vehicle type, size and usagerequire that on-road diesel heavy trucks and buses in California be retrofitted, repowered, or replaced to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions by at least 85%. Retrofitting the engines with CARB-approved diesel particulate filters are one way to fulfill this requirement.[5] In 2009 theAmerican Recovery and Reinvestment Act provided funding to assist owners in offsetting the cost of diesel retrofits for their vehicles.[6] Other jurisdictions have also launched retrofit programs, including:

2001 - Hong Kong retrofit program.

2002 - In Japan the Prefecture of Tokyo passed a law banning trucks without filters from entering the city limits. 2003 - Mexico City started a program to retrofit trucks. 2004 - New York City retrofit program (non-road). 2008 - Milan Ecopass area traffic charge a hefty entrance tax on all diesel vehicles except those with a particulate filter, either stock or retrofit. 2008 - London Low Emission Zone charges vehicles that do not meet emission standards, encouraging retrofit filters.