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Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

Chapter 1

WCDMA System Overview

1.1

Development of Mobile Communications


as e"perience! two

Up till now t e mo!ern mobile communication

#enerations an! evolve! into t e t ir! #eneration t at is on#oin# wit pre$commerciali%ation. Many manufacturers ave alrea!y carrie! out t eir commercial trials in &urope an! Asia. ' e first #eneration is t e analo# cellular mobile communication networ( in t e time perio! from t e mi!!le of 1)*+s to t e mi!!le of 1),+s. ' e most important brea(t rou# in t is perio! is t e concept of cellular networ(s put forwar! by t e Bell -abs in t e 1)*+s. as compare! to t e former mobile communication systems. ' e cellular networ( system is base! on cells to implement fre/uency reuse an! t us #reatly en ances t e system capacity. ' e typical e"amples of t e first #eneration mobile communication systems are t e AMPS system an! t e later en ance! 'ACS of USA. t e 0M' an! t e 0''. ' e AMPS 1A!vance! Mobile P one System2 uses t e ,++ M3% ban! of t e analo# cellular transmission system an! it is wi!ely applie! in 0ort America. Sout America an! some Circum$Pacific countries. ' e 'ACS 1'otal Access Communication System2 uses t e )++ M3% ban! an! inclu!es two versions4 &'ACS 1&n ance! 'ACS2 in &urope an! 0'ACS 10arrowban! 'ACS2 in 5apan. 6t is wi!ely applie! in Britain. 5apan an! some Asian countries.
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Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

' e main feature of t e first #eneration mobile communication systems is t at t ey use t e fre/uency reuse tec nolo#y. a!opt analo# mo!ulation for voice si#nals an! provi!e an analo# subscriber c annel every ot er 9+ (3%:7; (3%. 3owever. t eir !efects are also obvious4
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-ow utili%ation of t e fre/uency spectrum -imite! types of services 0o i# $spee! !ata services Poor confi!entiality an! i# vulnerability to interception 3i# e/uipment cost -ar#e volume an! bi# wei# t

an! number embe%%lement


;2 <2

'o solve t ese fun!amental tec nical !efects of t e analo# systems. t e !i#ital mobile communication tec nolo#ies emer#e! an! t e secon! #eneration mobile communication systems represente! by =SM an! 6S$); came into bein# in t e mi!!le of 1),+s. ' e typical e"amples of t e secon! #eneration cellular mobile communication systems are t e DAMPS of USA. t e 6S$); an! t e &uropean =SM system. ' e =SM 1=lobal System for Mobile Communications2 is ori#inate! from &urope. Desi#ne! as t e 'DMA stan!ar! for mobile !i#ital cellular communications. it supports t e <8 (bps !ata rate an! can interconnect wit t e 6SD0. 6t uses t e )++ M3% ban! w ile t e DCS1,++ system uses t e 1,++ M3% ban!. ' e =SM system uses t e >DD an! 'DMA mo!es an! eac carrier supports ei# t c annels wit t e si#nal ban!wi!t of 7++ (3%. ' e DAMPS 1Di#ital A!vance! Mobile P one System2 is also calle!
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Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

t e 6S$;8 10ort America Di#ital Cellular System2. Usin# t e ,++ M3% ban!wi!t . it is t e earlier of t e two 0ort America !i#ital cellular stan!ar!s an! specifies t e use of t e 'DMA mo!e. ' e 6S$); stan!ar! is anot er !i#ital cellular stan!ar! of 0ort America. Usin# t e ,++ M3% or 1)++ M3% ban!. it specifies t e use of t e CDMA mo!e an! as alrea!y become t e first c oice amon# t e tec nolo#ies of American PCS 1Personal Communication System2 networ(s. Since t e 7= mobile communication systems focus on t e transmission of voice an! low$spee! !ata services. t e 7.;= mobile communication systems emer#e! in 1))< to a!!ress t e me!ium$rate !ata transmission nee!s. ' ese systems inclu!e =P?S an! 6S$);B. ' e CDMA system as a very lar#e capacity t at is e/uivalent to ten or even twenty times t at of t e analo# systems. 6t also re#ions suc as USA. @orea an! 3on# @on# as #oo! compatibility wit t e analo# systems. Currently some countries an! ave put t e CDMA system into operation to provi!e services for subscribers. As t e narrowban! CDMA tec nolo#ies come into maturity at a time later t an t e =SM tec nolo#ies. t eir application far la#s be in! t e =SM ones an! currently t ey ave only foun! lar#e$scale commercial applications in 0ort America. @orea an! C ina. ' e maAor services of mobile communications are currently still voice services an! low$ spee! !ata services. Wit t e !evelopment of networ(s. !ata an! multime!ia communications ave also witnesse! rapi! !evelopmentB t erefore. t e tar#et of t e 9= mobile communication is to implement broa!ban! multime!ia communication.
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Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

' e 9= mobile communication systems are a (in! of communication system t at can provi!e multiple (in!s of roamin#. ' ey are compatible wit portable terminals. Put forwar! in 1),; by t e 6'U 16nternational 'elecommunication Union2. t e 9= mobile communication system was calle! t e >P-M'S 1>uture Public -an! Mobile 'elecommunication System2 an! was later rename! as 6M'$7+++ 16nternational Mobile 'elecommunication$7+++2. ' e maAor systems inclu!e WCDMA. c!ma7+++ an! UWC$19<. On 0ovember ;. 1))). t e 1,t conference of 6'U$? '=,:1 passe! t e ?ecommen!e! Specification of ?a!io 6nterfaces of 6M'$7+++ an! t e 'D$SCDMA tec nolo#ies put forwar! by C ina were incorporate! into t e 6M'$7+++ CDMA 'DD part of t e tec nical specification. ' is s owe! t at t e wor( of t e '=,:1 in formulatin# t e tec nical specifications of ra!io interfaces in 9= mobile communication systems a! basically come into an en! an! t e !evelopment an! application of t e 9= mobile communication systems woul! enter a new an! essential p ase.
1.1.1

i#

/uality multime!ia

services an! implement #lobal seamless covera#e an! #lobal t e fi"e! networ(s an! can implement any (in! of communication at any time an! any place wit

Stan!ar!i%ation Or#ani%ations

' e stan!ar!i%ation of 9= mobile communication systems are in fact pus e! forwar! an! implemente! by two stan!ar!i%ation or#ani%ations4 9=PP 19r! =eneration Partner ProAect2 an! 9=PP7. &stablis e! in December 1)),. t e 9=PP is compose! of t e
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Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

&uropean &'S6. t e 5apanese A?6B. t e @orean ''A an! t e American '1. 6t a!opts t e WCDMA tec nolo#ies of &urope an! 5apan to construct a new ra!io access networ( an! smoot ly evolves a core switc in# networ( from t e e"istin# =SM mobile switc in# networ( to provi!e more !iversifie! services. ' e U'?A 1Universal 'errestrial ?a!io Access2 is use! as t e ra!io interface stan!ar!. 6n 5anuary 1))). t e 9=PP7 compose! of t e American '6A. t e 5apanese A?6B an! t e @orean ''A also formally came into bein#. ' e c!ma7+++ an! UWC$19< tec nolo#ies are applie! for ra!io access an! t e c!ma7+++ tec nolo#ies a!opt t e Cualcomm patents to a lar#e e"tent. A0S6:6S$81 is use! for t e core networ(. One formal member of t e above two stan!ar!i%ation or#ani%ations is t e C ina Wireless 'elecommunications Stan!ar! =roup 1CW'S2 an! two C inese companies 13uawei an! Datan#2 are two in!epen!ent members of t e 9=PP or#ani%ation.
1.1.7

9= &volution Policies

6n #eneral. t e evolution policies formulate! by 9=PP an! 9=PP7 are pro#ressive. ' is as t e followin# benefits4

=uaranteein# t e e"istin# investment an! operatorsD >acilitatin# t e smoot transition of t e e"istin#

benefits

tec nolo#ies >rom t e perspective of !evelopment. t e process of evolution from t e e"istin# 7= mobile communication systems to t e 6M'$7+++ is a
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Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

vital issue. 6t relates to t e reuse of t e e"istin# networ(s 1t e construction of new networ(s s oul! not be t e optimal solution2 an! t e !evelopment of multiple 7= !i#ital networ( systems towar!s t e same stan!ar!.
1.

Policies of evolution from =SM to WCDMA

' e policies of evolution from =SM to WCDMA s oul! be as follows4 ' e present =SM E 3SCSD 13i# Spee! Circuit Switc e! Data at t e rates from 18.8 (bps to <8 (bps2 E =P?S 1=eneral Pac(et ?a!io Service at t e rate of 188 (bps2 E Smoot seamless evolution from t e networ( service covera#e ultimately to 6M'$7+++ WCDMA 1DS2.
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3SCSD4 3i# Spee! Circuit Switc e! Data

3SCSD is a feature to allocate multiple full$rate voice c annels to t e 3SCSD structure. 6ts purpose is to provi!e t e mi"ture of multiple services at !ifferent air interface subscriber rates wit t e sin#le p ysical layer structure. 6ts benefits lie in t e i# er !ata rates 1up to <8 (bpsB t e ma"imum !ata rate !epen!s on t e manufacturers2 an! t e use of t e e"istin# =SM !ata tec nolo#ies by sli# tly mo!ifyin# t e =SM system.
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=P?S4 =eneral Pac(et ?a!io Service

' e maAor benefits of =P?S are as follows4

Stan!ar! ra!io pac(et switc in# 6nternet:6ntranet access Fariable pea( !ata rate t at ran#es from several bits per

applicable to all t e places of =SM covera#e

secon! to 1*1.7 (bps 1t e ma"imum !ata rate !epen!s on t e manufacturers2


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Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

C ar#in# by t e actual !ata volume4 ' is c ar#in#

met o! enables t e subscribers to pay t e cost of t e actual !ata volume transmitte! w ile remainin# online all t e !ays

Support for t e e"istin# services an! new application Pac(eti%ation over t e ra!io interfaces to optimi%e t e Pac(et switc in# tec nolo#y to optimi%e t e s arin# of Capability of e"tension to t e future ra!io protocols

services

s arin# of ra!io resources

networ( resources

Base! on t e e"istin# =SM part. t e pac(et switc in# =P?S networ( arc itecture as t e new networ( function part4
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WCDMA4 Wi!eban! Co!e Division Multi Access

' e WCDMA as become a new mature tec nolo#y aimin# at t e UM'S:6M'$7+++. 6t can satisfy all t e re/uirements liste! by t e 6'U to provi!e very effective i# $spee! !ata services an! i# /uality voice an! ima#e services. 6n t e process of evolution from =SM to WCDMA. only t e core networ( part is smoot ly evolve!. As t e c an#e of t e air interface is revolutionary. so is t e evolution of t e ra!io access networ( part.
7. Policies

of evolution from 6S$); to c!ma7+++

After t e 6S$);A 1at t e rates of ).<:18.8 (bps2 is evolve! to t e 6S$ );B 1at t e rate of 11;.7 (bps2 an! ultimately to c!ma7+++ 1G. t e system can provi!e i# er capacity an! a i# er !ata rate 1188(bps2 an! can support t e burst mo!e as well as a!!in# new supplemental
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WCDMA System Overview

c annels. ' e c!ma7+++ 1G &F wit provi!e i# er performances.

en ance! tec nolo#ies can

' e 6S$);B is !ifferent from t e 6S$);A in t at multiple c annels can be boun! in t e 6S$);B system. ' ese two are basically t e same in essence can t ey can coe"ist in t e same carrier. 6n contrast. t e c!ma7+++ 1G as #reater improvements an! its system e/uipment can support 1G terminals an! 6S$);A:B terminals simultaneously. ' erefore. t ese t ree systems 16S$);A:6S$);B:1G2 can coe"ist in t e same carrier. >or t e c!ma7+++ system. t e #ra!ual replacement met o! can be applie! in t e transition from 7= systems to 9= systems. 6n ot er wor!s. one carrier of t e 7= systems can be compresse! to become a 9= carrier to provi!e t e services of me!ium an! i# er rates to t e subscribers. As t e 9= systems ave more an! more subscribers. t e number of carriers use! in t e 7= systems can be #ra!ually re!uce! w ile more carriers can be a!!e! to t e 9= systems. ' rou# t is (in! of smoot up#ra!in#. t e networ( operators can not only provi!e various latest serves to t e subscribers but also well protect t e investment of t e e"istin# e/uipment. 6n t e process of evolution to t e 9= systems. t e evolution of suc wireless e/uipment as B'S an! BSC !eserves special attention. ' e protection of operatorsD investment as been fully ta(en into account in t e formulation of t e c!ma7+++ stan!ar! an! many ra!io in!ices of t e 9= systems are t e same as in t e 7= systems. >rom t e point of view of t e B'S. t e ra!io parts suc as antenna. ?> filters an! power amplifiers are all reusable w ile t e baseban! si#nal processin# part nee!s to be replace!.
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Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

' ere are currently two branc es in t e evolution to t e c!ma7+++ 1G &F4 12 ' e c!ma7+++ 1G &F$DO t at only supports !ata servicesB an! 72 t e c!ma7+++ 1G &F$DF t at supports bot !ata services an! voice services. >or t e c!ma7+++ 1G &F$DO t at only supports !ata services. t e 3D? put forwar! by Cualcomm as been !etermine!B w ile for t e c!ma7+++ 1G &F$DF t at supports bot !ata services an! voice services. t ere are several proposals at present 1one of t em is t e -AS$CDMA tec nolo#y submitte! by C ina2 an! t ese are presently in t e process of review.
9. Policies

of evolution from DAMPS to UWC$19<

' e first step of evolution from 6S$19< 1DAMPS2 to UWC$19< is to implement t e =P?S$19< an! t e secon! step is to implement UWC$ 19< 1Universal Wireless Communications2. ' e &D=&$base! tec nolo#ies 19<H ave been !eci!e! for UWCC an! '6A '?$8;.9. t is

means t at t e =P?S networ( arc itecture will be use! to support t e i# $spee! !ata transmission. ' e =P?S$19< is t e official i# $layer of t e name of t e 19<H pac(et switc e! !ata service an! its =P?S system. consi!erin# t e economical aspect

protocols 1-9 protocols an! above2 are fully t e same as t ose of t e implementation. 6t provi!es t e same capacity as t e =P?S of =SM an! its subscribers can ave access to two forms of !ata networ(s4 6P an! G.7;. 6ts maAor purpose is to re!uce t e tec nical !ifference between '6A:&6A$19< an! =SM =P?S so t at t e subscribers can roam between =P?S$19< an! =SM =P?S networ(s. One of t e policies for t e American '6A to !evelop t e 9= systems is to implement conver#ence of t e 9= systems wit t e =SM system t at
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WCDMA System Overview

also uses t e 'DMA access mo!e. ' is is /uite beneficial for t e economics of #lobal roamin# an! pro!ucts an! it also implements t e coor!ination protocol between UWCC an! &'S6. W atDs more important. it enables t e 'DMA to player a more important role in t e 9= systems.

1.7

'ypes an! Differences of 9= Systems


Ori#in of t e Multiple Systems

1.7.1

Currently t e 9= researc wor( of 6'U is mainly un!erta(en by 9=PP an! 9=PP7. ' e #oal of 6'U in terms of 9= is to establis t e 6'M$ 7+++ family an! implement #lobal roamin# between !ifferent 9= systems. >amily concept
12

0etwor( part

6n one interme!iate meetin# of 6'U$' S=11 in Marc 1))*. t e 6'M$ 7+++ >amily Concept put forwar! in &urope was passe!. ' is concept was base! on t e e"istin# networ(s an! involve! at least two maAor stan!ar!s4 =SM MAP an! 6S$81.
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?a!io interface part

6n t e 6'U$? '=,:1 meetin# in September 1))*. t e !iscussion on t e ra!io interface family concept starte!. 6n a special meetin# of '=,:1 in 5anuary 1)),. t e concept of suite was put forwar! an! applie! an! t is put t e family concept out of use. ' is means t at t ere may be more t an one ra!io interface stan!ar! but t e concept of more t an
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WCDMA System Overview

one stan!ar! is not yet accepte!. rat er. t ese !ifferent stan!ar!s are e"pecte! to ultimately form a unifie! stan!ar!. ' e followin# two factors ave cause! various tec nical !ifferences4 12 ?elations ip wit 7= ' e networ( part must be compatible wit 7=. t at is. t e 9= networ(s are #ra!ually evolve! from t e 7= networ(s. ' ere are two maAor 7= core networ(s4 =SM MAP an! 6S$81. ?a!io interfaces4 ' e American 6S$); CDMA an! 6S$19< 'DMA operators emp asi%e on t e bac(war! compatibility 1evolutional2 w ile t e &uropean =SM an! 5apanese PDC operators emp asi%e on t e bac(war! incompatibility of t e ra!io interface 1revolutionary2. ' e correspon!ence between t e core networ(s an! t e ra!io interfaces is s own in >i#ure 1$1 below4

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WCDMA System Overview

Core networks

2 !3 access networks
IS-136 UWC-136

IS-41 core network

IS-95 CDMA cdma2000

SM core network

SM W-CDMA "D-SCDMA

PDC core network


#$%&re 2'1 Corres(ondence

PDC

)etween t*e core network and t*e rad$o access network $nter+ace

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' e important role of fre/uency spectrum on tec nical

selection 6n terms of fre/uency spectrum. t e (ey issue is t at t e 6'M$7+++ fre/uencies allocate! by 6'U ave alrea!y been applie! to t e PCS service in USA. Because t e USA re/uires t e s arin# of fre/uency spectrum wit 7= systems. t e bac(war! compatibility of t e ra!io interfaces is especially emp asi%e! an! tec nically t e USA re/uires #ra!ual evolution. 6n contrast. most of t e ot er countries ave new 6M'$7+++ fre/uency ban!s t at feature very lar#e fle"ibility. W atDs more. t e intellectual property ri# ts play a very si#nificant role. for e"ample. Cualcomm
7++8$+,$1)

as its own patent !eclaration. Competition is


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Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

also a maAor factor to contribute to t e tec nical !ifferences.


1.7.7

?'' 'ec nical Proposal


researc #roup of 6'U$?. i.e. t e '=,:1 'as( =roup is

' e ei# t

responsible for promotin# t e assessment an! mer#e of 6M'$7+++ ?a!io 'ransmission 'ec nolo#y 1?''2. Up till September 1)),. t ere ave been up to 1< ?'' proposals inclu!in# t e MSS 1Mobile Satellite Service2. ' ey all come from 1< ?'' assessment #roups of 6M'$7+++ an! are liste! as follows4
12 72 92 82 ;2 <2 *2 ,2 )2 1+2 112 172 192

U'?A WCDMA 1&urope2 D&C' 1&urope2 c!ma7+++ 1USA2 UWC$19< 1USA2 W6MS WCDMA 1USA2 WCDMA:0A 1USA2 WCDMA 15apan2 'D$SCDMA 1C ina2 =lobal CDMA 1Sync ronous. @orea2 =lobal CDMA 1Async ronous. @orea2 -&O satellite system SA'$CDMA &SA wi!eban! satellite system SW$CDMA CDMA:'DMA 6CO ?'' 60MA?SA' satellite system 3ori%ons 6ri!ium --C satellite system 60G
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ybri! ban!wi!t

satellite system SW$

C'DMA
182 1;2 1<2
7++8$+,$1)

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Amon# t ese proposals. t e first ten are ?'' proposals for t e 6M'$ 7+++ terrestrial system an! t e last si" reflect t e efforts of incorporatin# t e MSS 1Mobile Satellite Service2 into t e 6M'$7+++. ' ese proposals reflect t e concern of many countries as to t e future mo!e of 6M'$7+++ an! t eir basic wis es to e"ercise effective influence. 3owever. as viewe! from t e mar(et basis. bac(war! compatibility an! overall features. t e U'?A WCDMA of &'S6 an! t e c!ma7+++ of USA are t e most competitiveB t erefore. t e (ey to t e mer#e of ?'' lies in t e pro#ress of effectively mer#in# t ese two proposals.
1.7.9

'ec nical Mer#e

6M'$7+++ inclu!es bot t e 'errestrial Mobile Service 1'MS2 an! t e Mobile Satellite Service 1MSS2. ' e su##estion of one #lobally uniform an! better$mer#e! 9= mobile communication stan!ar! is con!ucive to w et er operators. manufacturers. subscribers an! policy plannin# I mana#ement bo!ies. so it is warmly welcome! by all countries in t e worl!. As far t e si"teen ?'' can!i!ate sc emes are concerne!. t e ultimate result of mer#in# terrestrial mobile communications will brin# t e bi##est competitiveness to t e WCDMA 1DS2 of &'S6 an! t e c!ma7+++ of USA '6A in terms of t e >DD mo!eB w ile for t e 'DD mo!e. t e 'D$CDMA put forwar! by &'S6 U'?A an! t e D$SCDMA put forwar! by C ina CA'' will be t e maAor obAects of furt er inte#ration. At t e en! of Marc
7++8$+,$1)

1))). &ricsson an! Cualcomm


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reac e! a series of a#reements on t e 6P? an! t is act cleare! way


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Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

t e obstacles from intellectual property ri# ts for promotin# a #lobal CDMA stan!ar!. At t e en! of May 1))). t e Operator 3armoni%ation =roup 1O3=2 compose! of 91 #lobal maAor operators an! 11 maAor manufacturers put forwar! a mer#e proposal of t e 6M'$7+++. ' is proposal playe! a positive role in promotin# t e unification of t e maAor parameters 1c ip rate. pilot structure. core networ( protocol base! on =SM$MAP an! A0S6$812. All t e participants unanimously a#ree! t at t e c ip rate s oul! be 9.,8Mcps for >DD$DS$CDMA an! 9.<,<8Mcps for >DD$MC$CDMA. w ic is also calle! >DD$c!ma7+++$ 1MC2. 6n 5une 1))). t e 1*t meetin# of '=,:1 was el! in BeiAin#. 6n t is meetin#. a framewor( a#reement was reac e! on ?ecommen!ations ?ec. 6M' an! ?SPC of t e tec nical specifications of ra!io interfaces. 9=PP. 9=PP7 an! t e Stan!ar!s Development Or#ani%ations 1SDOs2 were encoura#e! to support t e above O3= proposal an! '=,:1 'as( =roup was appointe! to carry out more !etaile! wor( of t e MSS proposal. ' e 1,t meetin# of 6'U '=,:1 was el! in 3elsin(i. >inlan! in

0ovember 1))). an! t e ?ecommen!e! Specification of ?a!io 6nterfaces of 6M'$7+++ was a!opte!. ' is meant t at t e '=,:1Js wor( in formulatin# t e tec nical specifications of ra!io interfaces in t e 9= mobile communication systems a! basically come to an en! an! t e !evelopment an! application of 9= mobile communication systems woul! enter t e essential p ase. 'D$SCDMA. WCDMA an! c!ma7+++ were !etermine! as t e ultimate t ree tec nical systems.

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1.7.8

Comparison Amon# t e ' ree MaAor 'ec nical Systems

1. WCDMA

>ormulate! by t e &uropean stan!ar!i%ation or#ani%ation 9=PP. WCDMA is wi!ely supporte! by t e #lobal stan!ar!i%ation or#ani%ations. e/uipment manufacturers. component suppliers an! operators. 6t will become one of t e mainstream future 9= systems. ' e core networ( evolves on t e basis of an! can t us be compatible wit t e e"istin# =SM:=P?S networ(s. 6t can be base! on t e 'DM. A'M an! 6P tec nolo#ies to evolve towar!s t e all$6P networ( arc itecture. -o#ically. t e core networ( comprises two parts4 ' e circuit !omain an! t e pac(et !omain to complete t e circuit$switc e! services an! t e pac(et$switc e! services respectively. Base! on t e A'M tec nolo#y. t e U'?A0 uniformly processes voice an! pac(et services an! evolves towar!s t e 6P networ( arc itecture. MAP an! =P?S tunnelin# tec nolo#ies are t e core of t e mobility mana#ement mec anism in t e WCDMA system. ' e air interface a!opts t e WCDMA tec nolo#ies wit t e si#nal

ban!wi!t of ; M3% an! t e c ip rate of 9.,8 Mcps. 6t uses t e AM? voice enco!in# sc eme an! supports t e sync ronous:async ronous 0o!e B operation mo!e. Besi!es. t e followin# mo!es are applie! in t e WCDMA system4 Uplin(:!ownlin( close! loop power control plus outer loop power controlB open loop 1S''D I 'S'D2 an! close! loop
7++8$+,$1) Confi!ential 6nformation of 3uawei. 0o Sprea!in# wit out Permission Pa#e1<. 'otal78

Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

1>B'D2 transmit !iversityB pilot$assiste! co erent !emo!ulationB convolutional co!in# an! 'urbo co!in#B CPS@ mo!ulation in bot t e uplin( an! t e !ownlin(.
7. c!ma7+++

system

' e c!ma7+++ system is a 9= stan!ar! put forwar! on t e basis of t e 6S$); stan!ar!. 6ts stan!ar!i%ation wor( is currently un!erta(en by 9=PP7. Circuit Switc e! 1CS2 !omain4 A!apte! from t e 7= 6S); CDMA networ(. t e circuit !omain as intro!uce! a service platform base! on t e W60 infrastructure. Pac(et Switc e! 1PS2 !omain4 A pac(et networ( base! on t e Mobile 6P tec nolo#y. ?a!io Access 0etwor( 1?A024 Base! on t e A'M switc platform. it provi!es abun!ant a!aptation layer interfaces. ' e air interface a!opts t e c!ma7+++ tec nolo#ies an! is compatible wit t e 6S);. ' e si#nal ban!wi!t is 0 1.7;M3% 10 K 1. 9. <. ). 172 an! t e c ip rate is 01.77,,Mcps. 6t uses t e ,@:19@ CC&-P or ,@ &F?C voice co!in# mo!e an! its B'S nee!s to run in t e =PS:=-O0&SS sync ronous mo!e. ' e followin# mo!es are applie! in t e c!ma7+++ system4 Uplin(:!ownlin( close! loop power control plus outer loop power controlB O'D an! S'S transmit !iversion in t e forwar! !irection to improve t e anti$fa!in# capacity of c annels an! t e si#nal /uality of t e forwar! c annelsB pilot$assiste! co erent mo!ulation in t e reverse !irection to improve t e !emo!ulation
7++8$+,$1) Confi!ential 6nformation of 3uawei. 0o Sprea!in# wit out Permission Pa#e1*. 'otal78

Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

performanceB convolutional co!in# an! 'urbo co!in#B BPS@ in t e uplin( an! CPS@ in t e !ownlin(.
9. 'D$SCDMA

system

' e 'D$SCDMA stan!ar! is put forwar! by t e C inese Wireless 'elecommunication Stan!ar! 1CW'S2 =roup an! now it as been mer#e! into t e specifications relate! to t e WCDMA$'DD of 9=PP. ' e core networ( evolves on t e basis of an! can t us be compatible wit t e e"istin# =SM:=P?S networ(s. 6t can be base! on t e 'DM. A'M an! 6P tec nolo#ies to evolve towar!s t e all$6P networ( arc itecture. -o#ically. t e core networ( comprises two parts4 ' e circuit !omain an! t e pac(et !omain to complete t e circuit$switc e! services an! t e pac(et$switc e! services respectively. Base! on t e A'M tec nolo#y. t e U'?A0 uniformly processes voice an! pac(et services an! evolves towar!s t e 6P networ( arc itecture. MAP an! =P?S tunnelin# tec nolo#ies are t e core of t e mobility mana#ement mec anism in t e WCDMA system. ' e air interface a!opts t e 'D$SCDMA mo!e. ' e 'D$SCDMA features 9S4 Smart antenna. Sync ronous CDMA an! Software ra!io. ' e (ey tec nolo#ies use! in 'D$SCDMA inclu!e 6ntelli#ent Antenna H 5oint Detection. Multi$slot CDMA H DS$CDMA. Sync ronous CDMA. C annel Co!in#:Deco!in# an! 6nterleavin# 1t e same as in 9=PP2
7++8$+,$1) Confi!ential 6nformation of 3uawei. 0o Sprea!in# wit out Permission Pa#e1,. 'otal78

Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

an! Baton 3an!over. A comparison of t e above t ree systems is #iven in t e table below. "a),e 1'1 Com(ar$son amon% t*e t*ree ma-or tec*n$ca, s.stems
S.stem WCDMA Us$n% co&ntr$es /&ro(e and 0a(an In*er$tance SM +rom S.nc*rono&s As.nc*rono&s!s.nc mode C*$( rate S$%na, )andw$dt* A$r $nter+ace Core network *rono&s 3'34Mc(s 5M56 WCDMA SM MAP cdma2000 USA and 1orea 2arrow)and CDMA S.nc*rono&s 241'2233Mc(s 241'25M56 cdma2000 com(at$),e w$t* IS-95 A2SI-41 "D-SCDMA C*$na SM S.nc*rono& s 1'23Mc(s 1'6M56 "D-SCDMA SM MAP

1.9
6'U

9= >re/uency Spectrum
as allocate! 79+ M3% fre/uency for t e 9= mobile

communication system 6M'$7+++4 1,,; M3% L 7+7;M3% in t e uplin( an! 711+vL 77++ M3% in t e !ownlin(. Of t em. t e fre/uency ran#e of 1),+ M3% L 7+1+ M3% 1uplin(2 an! t at of 71*+ M3% L 77++ M3% 1!ownlin(2 are use! for mobile satellite services. As t e uplin( an! t e !ownlin( ban!s are asymmetrical. t e use of !ual$fre/uency >DD mo!e or t e sin#le$fre/uency 'DD mo!e may be consi!ere!. ' is plan was passe! in W?C)7 an! new a!!itional ban!s were approve! on t e basis of t e W?C$)7 in t e W?C7+++ conference in t e year 7+++4 ,+< M3% L )<+ M3%. 1*1+ M3% L 1,,; M3% an! 7;++ M3% L 7<)+ M3%. as s own in >i#ure 1$7 below.
7++8$+,$1) Confi!ential 6nformation of 3uawei. 0o Sprea!in# wit out Permission Pa#e1). 'otal78

Basic Principles of WCDMA System


800 850 900 950 1000 1000 1050 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100

WCDMA System Overview


2150 2200 2250

IT# i$e%ti&i'ati(%s IMT 2000 E)r(pe Chi%a *apa%" +(rea ,w-( !S. /(rth Ameri'a
Ce11)1ar GSM

IMT 2000
GSM 1800
DECT

IMT 2000

MSS

IMT 2000 MSS IMT 2000 MSS

IMT 2000 MSS

GSM

GSM 1800" CS

IMT 2000

MSS

IMT 2000MSS

DC

!S

IMT 2000 MSS CS

IMT 2000MSS

Ce11)1ar

A D B &> C

A D B &> C

MSS

Reserve

MSS

/ew IMT22000 terrestria1 3a%$s revi()s IMT22000 terrestria1 3a%$s

#$%&re 1'1 #re7&enc.

s(ectr&m a,,ocat$on o+ W8C-2000

' e &uropean Union 1&U2 also attac e! #reat importance to 9= mobile communication systems an! t e &uropean 'elecommunications Stan!ar!s 6nstitute 1&'S62 starte! t e researc wor( of 9= mobile communication stan!ar!i%ation as early as over ten years a#o an! it establis e! an! a UM'S 1Universal Mobile 'elecommunication System2 >orum t at was compose! of operators. e/uipment manufacturers telecommunication mana#ement or#ani%ations. 6n 1));. t e tec nical proposal for fre/uency spectrum !ivision was submitte! formally to t e 6'U. 6n &urope. t e allocation of fre/uency spectrum is as follows4 1)++ M3% L 1),+M3%. 7+1+ M3% L 7+7;M3% an! 711+ M3% L 71*+M3%. totalin# 1;; M3%. ' e situation in 0ort America is rat er comple". as s own in >i#ure 1$7. ' e 1,;+ M3% L 1))+ M3% ban! amon# t e 9= low ban!s as alrea!y allocate! for PCS use an! it
7++8$+,$1) Confi!ential 6nformation of 3uawei. 0o Sprea!in# wit out Permission

as been !ivi!e! into two 1; as alrea!y


Pa#e7+. 'otal78

M3% an! two ; M3% ban!s. Since t e PCS service

Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

occupie! t e fre/uency spectrum of 6M'$7+++. t e uplin( ban! of t e a!Auste! 6M'$7+++ even nee!s to be s are! to#et er wit t e !ownlin( ban! of PCS. ' is (in! of arran#e is not suitable for t e i# $transmit an! low$receive confi#urations of or!inary base stations. 6n 5apan. t e fre/uency ban! of 1,)9.; M3% L 1)1).< M3% as

alrea!y been allocate! for P3S use an! t e 9= ban!s totalin# 19; M3% 17 N <+ M3% H 1; M3%2 are still available4 1)7+ M3% L 1),+M3%. 711+ M3% L 71*+ M3%. 7+1+ M3% L 7+7; M3%2. At present. 5apan is en!eavorin# to clear t e conflicts wit fre/uencies for 9= mobile communications. @orea as t e same allocate! fre/uency as in 6'U ?ecommen!ations. i.e.. 1*+ M3%. ' e WCDMA >DD mo!e uses t e followin# fre/uency spectrum 1ban!s ot er t an t ose specifie! by 9=PP may also be use!24 Uplin( 1)7+ M3% L 1),+ M3% an! !ownlin( 711+ M3% L 71*+ M3%. &ac carrier fre/uency as t e ;M ban! an! t e !uple" spacin# is 1)+ M3%. 6n America. t e use! fre/uency spectrum is 1,;+ M3% L 1)1+ M3% in t e uplin( an! 1)9+ M3% L 1))+ M3% in t e !ownlin( an! t e !uple" spacin# is ,+ M3%. ' e fre/uency spectrum use! by t e WCDMA 'DD mo!e 1inclu!in# t e i# bit rates an! t e low bit rates2 is as follows 1ban!s ot er t an t ose specifie! by 9=PP may also be use!24 12 Uplin( 1)++ L 1)7+M3% an! 7+1+ L 7+7;M3% 72 America4 Uplin( 1,;+ M3% L 1)1+ M3% an! !ownlin( 1)9+ M3% L 1))+ M3%.
7++8$+,$1) Confi!ential 6nformation of 3uawei. 0o Sprea!in# wit out Permission Pa#e71. 'otal78

t e

Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

92 America4 1)1+ M3% L 1)9+ M3% in bot !ownlin( 6n special cases 1suc

t e uplin( an! t e

as t e boun!ary area of two countries2. t e

'DD mo!e an! t e >DD mo!e may coe"ist in t e same fre/uency ban! an! 9=PP 'S= ?A0 W=8 is currently researc in# t is situation. ' ere is only t e >DD mo!e in t e c!ma7+++ system an! currently t ere are a total of seven ban! classes. of w ic Ban! Class < is t e 1)7+ M3% L1),+ M3%:711+ M3% L 71,+ M3% ban! stipulate! in 6M'$ 7+++. 6n C ina. accor!in# to t e present ra!io fre/uency !ivision. mobile services. fi"e! services an! spatial services are usin# t e 1*++ M3% L 79++ M3% ban!. w ic is currently servin# plenty of microwave communication systems an! a certain number of wireless location !evices. 6n December 1))<. t e State ?a!io ?e#ulatory Committee of P. ?. C ina re$planne! an! a!Auste! some terrestrial ra!io service fre/uencies of 7 =3% to a!apt to t e nee!s of cellular mobile communication !evelopment an! ra!io access. 3owever. t e fre/uency spectrum still conflicts wit t e 9= mobile communication systems. t at is. t e 1.) M3% ban! for public cellular mobile communications an! t e ra!io access ban! ave bot ta(en up some of t e 6M'$7+++ ban!s. ' erefore. t e 9= mobile communication systems ave to s are t e limite! fre/uency resources wit systems. Wit t e e"istin# ra!io communication t e !evelopment of tec nolo#ies an! services. t e

plannin# an! a!Austment of 6M'$7+++ ban!s must be well !one to


7++8$+,$1) Confi!ential 6nformation of 3uawei. 0o Sprea!in# wit out Permission Pa#e77. 'otal78

Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

stimulate t e operators. scientific researc

or#ani%ations:institutions.

manufacturers an! ot er bo!ies to actively !evelop t e 9= mobile communication systems. so as to meet bot t e s ort$term an! t e lon#$term fre/uency spectrum nee!s in C ina mobile communication !evelopment. ' e occupation of t e 6M'$7+++ fre/uency spectrum in C ina is illustrate! in t e followin# fi#ure.
1850 1900 1950 2000 MSS 2025 M!4 2010 M!4 1980 M!4
5DD

2050

2100

2150

2200 MSS

2250

IT#
1885 M!4

IMT 2000
1920 M!4 1880 M!4

IMT 2000
2110 M!4

2100 M!4

Chi%a

TDD

MSS MSS TDD

5DD

MSS 2100 M!4

1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

2100

2150

2200

2250

#$%&re 1'2 9cc&(at$on

o+ t*e IM"-2000 +re7&enc. s(ectr&m $n C*$na

' e ban!s allocate! for 6M'$7+++ in C ina are liste! below4 12 Basic operatin# ban!s >DD mo!e4 1)7+ M3% L 1),+M3%:711+ M3% L 71*+ M3% 'DD mo!e4 1,,+ M3% L 1)7+ M3%:7+1+ M3% L 7+7; M3% 72 Supplementary operatin# ban!s >DD mo!e4 1*;; M3% L 1*,; M3%:1,;+ M3% L 1,,+ M3%
7++8$+,$1) Confi!ential 6nformation of 3uawei. 0o Sprea!in# wit out Permission Pa#e79. 'otal78

Basic Principles of WCDMA System

WCDMA System Overview

'DD mo!e4 79++ M3% L 78++ M3%. s are! to#et er wit t e wireless location servicesB bot are maAor services an! t e s arin# stan!ar! is to be specially formulate!. 92 Operatin# ban! for satellite mobile communication systems 1),+ M3% L 7+1+ M3%:71*+ M3% L 77++ M3%.

7++8$+,$1)

Confi!ential 6nformation of 3uawei. 0o Sprea!in# wit out Permission

Pa#e78. 'otal78