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The State and Phenomenon of Landslides

The State and Phenomenon of Landslides: A Study from Bhutan1


Abstract
The civil society and growth pattern in the subsistence-oriented agricultural farming community in the hills have also been equally responsible for the recent increase in frequency and intensity of landslides. Given the higher density of permanent settlement of humans and live stocks the commerciali!ed deforestation and inundation the over-gra!ing in the forest and trampling over vegetations by cattle"s and the defense-strategic construction of motor-able transportation network the natural calamity has increasingly assumed the character of man-made ha!ard. This is supposedly the standard scientific-technical e#planation of natural-cum-manmade ha!ards like landslide and would complete the picture of causations process involved with landslides in the subtropical !one of $orth-east %ndia Sikkim and &hutan in the eastern 'imalayas. (t best the reasoning is however universal in application and abstract in nature. %t is arguable that the particular form and nature of political governance under the despotic monarchy in &hutan itself is to a large e#tent instrumental in maintaining the unwarranted scope for landslides and the unchecked negative consequences of such a disaster on the civil society.

Key

Words:

landslide natural disaster civil society state bureaucracy man-made ha!ard monarchy livelihood farm production consumption eastern region

Introduction
The 'imalayas is the most recently formed mountain range in the world. %t is claimed to be still rising changing and evolving. %t is consequently characteri!ed by highly unstable geo-morphological forms and structure. Such an evolutionary process is equally shared by the )astern 'imalayas. The geology of subtropical !one between altitudes of *++ to ,-++ meters above the sea-level in the eastern side of the 'imalayas in particular is known for its highly comple# structural features. .assive over thrusting of the crystalline strata has quite often
%t was originally published in a book edited by G / Sharma entitled 0Status of Landslides in $orth )ast %ndia and $atural /isaster .anagement" (ssam 1niversity Silchar ,22- with an e#tended title.
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occurred and the partial metamorphism has been an ongoing phenomenon here. There are at places even remnants of the original sedimentary deposits 4$)S ,22* pp.,,-,*5. The natural instability in the )astern 'imalayas unfailingly makes it often relatively more vulnerable to the natural ha!ards. The ma6or seismic movements and disturbances though are observed to be rare 4$)S ,22* p.,*5. $onetheless the geo-morphological evolution and associated ecological dynamism has often manifested itself in a specific category of natural disasters comprising mainly of soil erosion hiss-slope movement and landslides. The category has over the centuries got e#acerbated though the heavy intensity of rainfall received during monsoons in the foothill and sub-montane ranges of the eastern and southern population settlements in the 'imalayas. The civil society and growth pattern in the subsistence-oriented agricultural farming community in the hills have also been equally responsible for the recent increase in frequency and intensity of landslides. Given the higher density of permanent settlement of humans and live stocks the commerciali!ed deforestation and inundation the over-gra!ing in the forest and trampling over vegetations by cattle"s and the defense-strategic construction of motor-able transportation network the natural calamity has increasingly assumed the character of manmade ha!ard 4$)S ,22* p.,75. This is supposedly the standard scientific-technical e#planation of natural-cum-manmade ha!ards like landslide and would complete the picture of causations process involved with landslides in the subtropical !one of $orth-east %ndia Sikkim and &hutan in the eastern 'imalayas. (t best the reasoning is however universal in application and abstract in nature. %n the present work it is argued that the particular form and nature of political governance under the despotic monarchy in &hutan itself is to a large e#tent instrumental in maintaining the unwarranted scope for landslides and the unchecked negative consequences of such a disaster on the civil society. The masses almost helplessly keep on simply innovating the survival strategies and devising the reproduction scheme in the marginali!ed and threatened geographical space of southern and eastern regions of &hutan in particular. (bstractions set aside a concrete analysis of a concrete situation is thus in order. The chapter is divided into three sections. ( brief profile of &hutan is furnished in the first section. The informational failure of the State is e#amined in the first part of second section8 the second part analyses the foreign aid-syndrome parasitic nature and callous apathy of the State toward national pro6ects on mapping of topography and forest and road
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management. The State-orchestrated uneven economic growth across regions of agrarian subsistence economy in eastern and southern regions of &hutan 4and consequences of landslides there in5 is picked up as a case study to strengthen the main thesis in the third section. 9onclusion follows at the last.

1.

Back round Profile

&hutan is a landlocked sovereign territory in the eastern 'imalayas. %t is a small least-developed nation in the South (sia. $inety years have passed since the official declaration of the end of a long era of feudal nobility rule under theocracy. The political system of hereditary monarchy was established in ,2+: 4'asrat ,2-+5. %t has never been sub6ugated by the &ritish metropolitan capital in the course of history. There was no e#ogenous interference in domestic governance. $onetheless the national economy still stands at the very periphery of the world system. %t remains principally a subsistence-oriented agrarian society and economy. The human population is appro#imately ; ++ +++ with an average density of ,< persons per square kilometer 4=.(& ,22*58 and livestock population appro#imately 7 <> 7+++ with an average density of +2 live stocks per square kilometer 4=G?& ,2->5. The country has merely *;:7 kilometers of pucca tar-coal road network till date 4$)S ,22* p.*>5. @ith a total gross area of land standing at 7; >++ square kilometers in the country the above quantitative figures are very low by all standards. These pose no threat to the environmental balance. The forest cover over >2 percent appro#imately of the total area is still intact. The grasslands river and alpine glaciers cover *> percent and the land area under crop cultivation is confined to appro#imately ,; percent of the total area in the country 4$)S ,22* p.,75. These are again welcome features for keeping ecological harmony. Given the favourable numerical values of significant variables the frequency and intensity of landslides must not be anymore higher than that warranted by the geo-morphological and ecological instability characteri!ing the fragile structure parameters of the eastern 'imalayas. The frequency of landslides are however much higher and accelerating over the years in &hutan. The e#planation is sought in the callous inefficiency of a long regime of semi-feudal public bureaucracy under the despotic monarchy.

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!. Information "ailure
The monarchical State has continuously been failing in providing vital information"s. Airst the vehicle drivers and commuters as yet are ultimately the principal source of information on natural disasters. The radio transmission occasionally covers the news on landslides and the only government weekly maga!ine-cum-newspaper The Buensel furnishes the Cselectively detailedD story on the ma6or landslides. There is no television station and the television viewing is legally banned in the country. Second the 9entral Statistical ?rgani!ation of &hutan is the ape# public institution having mandated to collect tabulate and publish quantitative information"s and data on society and economy. The Publication does not cover the natural calamity like landslides. The &order =oads ?rgani!ation of %ndia has wings of the General =eserve )ngineering Aorce and &order =oad Task Aorce stationed at strategic locations in &hutan for construction and maintenance of national highways across mountains. They keep the records on landslides however under CclassifiedD documents. These are not available for public circulation without high level approval. The oral history on landslides is therefore the last resort in the country. Third the subtropical !one of the eastern 'imalayas comprising of eastern and southern administrative districts of the country receives the highest rainfall. The average ranges from ->+ to >>++ mm of rainfall. The dry administrative districts of .ongar Tashigang Tongsa and @angdiphodrang in the eastern &hutan witness from ->+ to ,*++ mm of rainfall8 the humid ones of Shemgang 9hirang and Pemagatshel from ,*++ to *>++ mm8 and the wet ones of Samchi Geylegphug and Samdrup Eongkhar of southern portion of the country from *>++ to >>++ mm 4=G?& ,22+ p.*5. (lmost :> to 2+ percent of all rainfall does take place during .ay to September months in a year. The highest incidence and frequency of landslides naturally coincide with the period of monsoonal rainfall. The irony is that the disaggregated data on rainfall and temperature pertaining to various stations within the administrative districts are yet not sufficiently available 4=G?& ,22< p.75. The accuracy of data wherever available is also further doubtful even in the eyes of the government functionaries themselves. The climatic variations across the traversing chain of mountains and valleys can therefore not be known. This constrains the potentiality of e#ercises in pro6ection of landslides given the acute deficiency of database on even the other related variables as well in the country. Lastly there were lands for which the permanent heritable and transferable rights did not e#ist in the two regions. The private
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possession and control of these lands were in other words not backed by the traditional ownership document called 0mathram chem". They were all increasingly subsumed under the category of 0reserved forest" and acquired by the state under the first ever Aorest (ct of ,2;2. The $ational Aorest Policy (ct was subsequently passed in ,2:7 aimed at bringing the aspect of forest management to the front. The 1nited $ations /evelopment Programme assistance started the financial and technical support to the forestry sector since ,2:;. $e#t arrived the @orld-level conservation institution like @@A on the scene. The .aster Plan for Aorestry /evelopment came to be formulated after a long gap only in ,22+-2, 4$)S ,22* pp.<:-7,8 ?leson ,2-> p.*,5. %t was tilted in favour of e#ploitation of forest for commercial uses under government aegis and guidance. @hat happened in the course of last couple of decades actually was that the several do!en sawmills logging indiscriminately and e#ploiting the forest almost painlessly came up in the southern &hutan. (long the fragile ecosystem the e#traction industry became active in mining the coal dolomite limestone and gypsum 4$)S ,22* p.7:5. The disturbances to hydrological regime and river basin set aside the forest itself has been robbed of the regeneration capacity under the umbrella of monarchical bureaucracy. The country has lost appro#imately ,: percent of its natural forest cover as compared to the pre-investment survey of ,2>;->- and has lost appro#imately <> percent of the natural forest believed to be intact a hundred years ago 4$)S ,22* p.<-5 . (nd it is yet not the constituent category of the official mind and pro6ect to seek quantitative relationship between deforestation and landslides. %n short the State has continuously been failing in arousing the awareness about furnishing the information"s on and chalking out the policy and planning on landslides over the course of ninety years of political rule down the line. 1nder the monolithic conception of state-its nation the phenomenon of perennial landslides and the consequent problems faced by the masses is actually not at all considered a national problem. (nd therefore development of data-base on landslide rainfall and forestry is not on the national agenda. The State too preoccupied with enticing the international donor agencies with liberal aid grants and managing the disaster potential of political dissidence going on against the .onarchy 4(nsari ,22;5.

Aid#syndrome$ Parasitism and A%athy


The genesis of %nformation failure is only invoking the facts of underdevelopment of society rugged mountains of the 'imalayas. .a6or part therein the aid- syndrome pervading the corridors
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partly e#plained by and economy in the of e#planation lays of power. The State
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has vigorously pursued the distinct policy in favour of parasitic dependence upon the world community. ( patient wait for the arrival of international aid donors is important constituent element of national problems has become part of the legacy. The conscious State-ist ideology moves in the same direction albeit with relatively aggressive arguments. To quote a government publicationF
It is increasingly accepted that if development in the poorer parts of the World is to be sustainable, the World community must share some of the costs .. An example is deforestation in the Himalayas which probably contributes to the flood problems in Bangladesh and India. erhaps this implies that upstream countries !in this case literally" should be compensated for not exploiting an exploitable resource . #he World community is deeply concerned about the conservation of bio$diversity If conservation of the global bio$diversity is considered a common obligation for man%ind, mechanisms must be found whereby the singly country . is compensated appropriately ! $)S ,22* p. ;75.

Given the nationalist ideology in favour of parasitic aid-dependence the total official development assistance as percentage of gross national product was as high as <*.+ in ,22+ 41$/P ,22<8 %&=/ ,22*5. /espite this considerable delays in the various important national activities have been observed. The Pre-investment Survey in &hutan was undertaken with complete financial and technical assistance from %ndia in ,2>-. ?nly after the e#piry of fourteen years the Survey of &hutan was established in ,2:*. The Landsat Satellite %magery was collected in collaboration with Aood and (griculture ?rgani!ation team in ,2::-:-. The topographical and cadastral surveys began to be focused after ,2-+. %t moreover remained confined to the western part of the country for a long time. The SP?T Satellite %mages Survey was initiated by the /($%/( 4international non-government organi!ation5 sponsored team in ,22+. The Landuse Planning Pro6ect undertaken by the international donors was initiated with aplomb only by ,22*. %t is continuing at a snail"s pace. The need to revise the aerial photography satellite imagery and remote sensing techniques in a comprehensive manner to map the landscape of the country is being talked about now. The computeri!ation of land records and landslides are still awaiting the suitable aid-donor. Given the insistence of aid-donor agencies and a new found cra!e for commercial profits by the native ruling oligarchy emphasis has of late been directed to the themes on agro forestry and community forestry. The plants like 0(rtemisia" get emphasis since it has the possibility of

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being conducive in developing a medicine against cancer * according to the @orld 'ealth ?rganisation. The citrus 4orange5 fruit plant gets heavy pro6ect funding since it earns the foreign e#change from &angladesh through e#port. The community participation in community forestry is however negligible despite slogans of decentrali!ation paid lip-service by the government under the pressure of aid obligation. .oreover there are innumerable number of footpaths walking trails mule tracks suspension and cantilever bridges connecting the villages off the national highways in the country. The %ndian government took up the responsibility of construction of national highways since the ,2;+s. The 1nited $ations /evelopment Programme came forward to finance the construction of suspension bridges with assistance of ,.+ million dollars in ,2-7-->. =ecently the 1$/P aided with *.> million dollars for purchase of bulldo!ers road rollers stone crushers and graders. The machines have however been used mainly to repair the roads connecting to government offices and district headquarter collectorate offices in the name of utili!ation in the maintenance of feeder roads. %t is quite often diverted to be used in the very construction of public buildings as well. The machines and the finance are never used to clear the landslides since the latter is supposedly the duty of paramilitary forces from %ndia. ( pro6ect funding solely for management of landslides is awaited by the bureaucracy and official functionaries. The parasitism is at the height.

&. 'e ional (e)elo%ment * A +ase Study Given the informational failure of the State complemented with the game of waiting and delays forced upon by the very parasitic nature of dependence of the State on aid and assistance the quantitative analysis of magnitude and pattern of the landslide with its attendant socioeconomic consequences is an e#tremely constrained e#ercise 4?leson ,2-> p.*25. The national state funded research institutions suffer from the paucity of data. Alooded with one time populist slogans like Gross $ational 'appiness 4G$' in place of G$P gross national product as a measure of national prosperity5 sustainable environment management system approach to renewable natural resource management and similar terminologies and rhetoricians getting promotions on the bureaucratic ladder there has been no consideration of the necessity to undertake quantitative study on the relationship between the socio-economic
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This information was supplied by /r. Paccock of 1nited $ations /evelopment Programme of .alaysia while delivering talk in the Bhangma Technical Aorum 4B(T)A5 Bhangma in east &hutan during .ay ,227. .ahmood (nsari :3Page

The State and Phenomenon of Landslides

characteristics of a region and the landslides in the country. @ho is responsible for such a state of affair if not the StateG @e nonetheless utili!e the disappointing limited database to highlight the agrarian backwardness of South and )ast &hutan as maintained by the state agrobureaucracy. The limited database still however presents interesting detail on further weaknesses of the state. The population of southern &hutan was a little higher than * lakhs and that of eastern &hutan , 2+ +++ around the beginning of ,22+s. The eastern region has been comparatively sparsely populated than the southern part of the country. The density of population at some places in the south was as high as 7>+ persons per square kilometer. The average density of population per hectare of cultivable land was though as low as 7 persons in the east 4=G?& ,22+5. $onetheless the general demographic profile of two regions is alike and similar. The small acreage under commercial crops negligible application of agricultural capital and general subsistence-oriented crop cultivation and livestock rearing are the characteristics of livelihood pattern of rural masses in both the region. The shifting cultivation tseri constitutes *2 percent of total registered arable land i.e. -> +++ acres in the country 4=G?& ,227 pp.,,-,*5. %n the four districts of southern region alone the tseriland was however >2 percent of total arable land in the region. ( typical e#ample is the district of Hhemgang where 2+ percent of upland rice used to be grown under tseri in the beginning of ,22+s 4Ghimiray ,22< pp.,*-,<5. The government could legally ban the shifting cultivation only in ,22*. @ith the ban the fall out is that the poor peasants and labourers are now seen to be increasingly settling nearby roads. The migration of people toward road settlement is on increase. The encroachment on forest land is also on increase. Since the wild animals are enticed due to encroachment into forest area the damage of harvest by wild boars has also become a perennial problem 4&$$ ,22<5. %n other words pauperi!ed rural masses have been pushed to the marginal spaces of survival with the ban on tseri practice. @ith the incidence of landlessness increasing hundreds of landless households have already been discovered in Samdrup Eongkhar and Pemagatshel 4where land productivity is already very low5 districts in east and south &hutan respectively 4&$$ ,22< /ecember5. The .anas and $yara (ms in Lhuntsi and Tashigang districts are the ma6or rivers in the east. These are partially utili!ed for farm irrigation. Given the malfunctioning and virtual absence in a large number of villages of the @ateruseer"s (ssociation the dominant farmers often keep on diverting the scarce water to their terraces in down slope succession. This simply results in bad land management and water logging apart from generating inequalities in crop yields across the cross.ahmood (nsari -3Page

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section of farms. .oreover the 0model farms" established by the government with international financial aids are often situated nearby the roads. The motivation is to have easy access to water sloping down the hills apart from the ease of supervision it affords to the pro6ect directors. The vulnerability to landslides in the microenvironment is an issue often neglected in the process by both the beneficiary farmers and agrobureaucracy. The agricultural land requires a constant input of biomass from the forest for maintenance of farmland fertility in the regions. The forest is e#ploited for leaves which mi#ed with animal manures prepare the fertili!ers for land as well. .oreover the forest is e#ploited for fuel-wood as well. The fuel-wood consumption per capita was ,.- cubic meter per year in the country8 meeting 2+ per cent of the energy requirement of the country 4$)S ,22* p.<:5. The dependence on fuel-wood is relatively more acute in the backward regions of southern and eastern &hutan. The aggregate farm production does not satisfy the food consumption requirements in the two regions. The population is heavily dependent upon imported rice from %ndia. The substitutable staple food crop of mai!e is often diverted to the manufacturing of hot liquor called 0 araa" and a snack called 0%harang". &oth are traditional items of gifts to the neighbors and to elite. Given such a deficit nature of production and supply the dependence on livestock is increased. There live the pastoral communities of 0drogpas" in the areas of .erak and Sakteng near Tashigang district. Their pastoral community lands have been encroached by the population and the rest declared reserved under the forest by the government. The gra!ing in the forest has increased as a result. The forest is a victim of many other social processes. The poor peasant depends on the forest for medicinal plants edible plants and bamboos apart from the fuel wood. Given the altitude and land slopes the plants and bamboos are manually dragged down the valley causing the manmade inundation of small plants and shrubs along the way with meager possibility of regeneration. The prevention of natural regeneration caused by trampling of cattle along the steep slopes is yet another facet. .oreover the large farmer is guided by the traditional value system encouraging the keeping of large herds of livestock"s with poor attention to feed resources. The free gra!ing in the nearby forests is part of the e#tensive method of livestock rearing. The cattle are allowed to run free in the forest 4$)S ,22* p.<;5. This is getting intensified consequent upon the insufficiency of pasture land. %n such a subsistence agricultural economy practicing a combination of terraced cultivation of crops along the slopes and e#tensive system of livestock rearing the deforestation and landslide-proof subsistence
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matri# is 6ust not possible. The discrimination of the ruling oligarchy against minority inhabited Southern and )aster &hutan has continuously been detrimental as well in intensifying the disequilibrium. There has been no attempt on the part of government to establish rural industries electrify villages and supply alternative sources of energy to population of these neglected regions on an e#tensive and systematic scale.

Landslide +onse,uences
The agricultural economic underdevelopment is as well perpetuated due to the negative consequences of unchecked landslides8 the chain reactions set off by the latter tends to perpetuate the same land use and livelihood pursuits resulting in further degradation of the habitats and thus giving rise to situations promoting further landslides and there by reenactment of the whole cycle. The consequences of landslides are the increasing salinity and soil erosion in the farm fields destruction of dwellings and interference in the mobility of man and mail services and irregularities in the supply of necessities like vegetables salt kerosene oil diesel and petrol. %n the most populous and the largest district of Tashigang in the east the supply and sale of two vital food rice and sugar witness the trough during .ay to ?ctober coinciding with the period of landslides. The under-supply is compensated somehow through the local purchases within the district by the commission agent of the Aood 9orporation of &hutan 4Table - -5. Table * Amount of +ommodity Sales: "+B +ommission A ent.s Sho% at Tashi an /Bhutan0$ 111& /in ,uintals5 &alendar 'onths Amount of &ommodities (old !in )uintals" *ice (ugar <;*.-; *:-.22 ,>*.,2 ,>7.<7 ,,<.+, ,<>.:7 ,<+.>* ,;:.*< ,27.;7 ,:*.-*>+.>7 ,-;.,> ,27.*: *,2.<* ,,7.>; 7,.>;
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Eanuary Aebruary .arch (pril .ay Eune Euly (ugust


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September *<7.>, ?ctober *7*.;< $ovember ,<*.+/ecember *+<.;< Source: A9& 9ommission (gent"s Stock =egister Tashigang

2,.>; 7-.+> ,+2.,; ,<,.-+

.oreover the small peasants in the eastern &hutan start bringing the chilies and potatoes produces nearby roads immediately after the harvest and sell at a very low price. The transportation cost and probability of damage to these perishable commodities increase with the frequency of landslides. The largest arrival of these commodities at the auction yards at Samdrup Eongkhar and Phuentsholing at the %ndian border are found to be during .ay- Eune every year. The school and college teachers start hoarding these goods from .arch- (pril itself. The survival has therefore its own matri#.

+onclusion
The subtropical agro ecological and geological regions in and above the foothills of the )astern 'imalayas in the sovereign &uddhist state of &hutan may not probably escape the heavy showers of long-enduring high-intensity monsoon rainfall on a still evolving and unstable topographical landscape. %t therefore may not escape the natural inundation of forest erosion of soil and meandering of streams and water-basins of lakes and rivers. The disequilibrium manifested time and again in the forms of natural calamity is to some reasonable e#tent an integral component of the dynamic nature. The State embedded in the domain of centrali!ed bureaucracy and oligarchy of power elite could however have aroused awareness furnished information and encouraged community participation in the event of landslides. %t could have given the latter the status of a national problem. %t could have done away with the parasitic dependence on %ndia and the @orld community. %t could have sought the goal of self- reliance with respect to not-so-gigantic day-to day events of landslides to say the least. %n short the State could become a responsible welfare and development oriented organ of the civil society. %t has on the contrary failed in transforming the subsistence agricultural economy of poor alienated and stratified peasantry. %t has failed in reducing the discrimination against the southern and eastern regions and in the plan to narrow down the unevenness of economic development in the country. %t has shown soft policies on deforestation
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caused by fuel wood energy demand free over-gra!ing by cattle and creation of underground mining structures near fragile ecosystem. %t has failed to participate in infrastructural growth and construction of road networks on less ha!ard-prone lines innovated on in other parts of the world. /espite rhetoric"s it could not bring the sustainable economic development with real commitment on the forefront. %n retrospect it seems that the State constrained by the nature and form of politico-economic governance8 failed miserably in transforming nature to be subservient to humans. The humans caught in the vicious circle of biological and social reproduction ethos of economic underdevelopment have evolved survival strategies detrimental to nature.

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'eferences
(nsari .ahmood 4,22;5 CAire &reathing $ewspaper5 *: Aebruary. /ragonD #elegraph 4%ndian

Ghimiray .ahesh 4,22<5 C1pland =ice in HhemgangD Agriculture +ewsletter no. <; SeptemberI?ctober 'asrat &ikrama6it 4,2-+5 'istory of &hutan-Land of Peaceful /ragon )ducation /epartment Thimpu %nternational &ank for =econstruction and /evelopment 4%&=/5 4,22*5 @orld /evelopment =eport ?#ford 1niversity Press $ew Jork. $ational )nvironment Secretariat 4$)S5 4,22*5 &hutanF Towards Sustainable /evelopment in a 1nique )nvironment Planning 9ommission of &hutan Thimpu ?leson Gunnar 4,2->5 4)d5 The 9ase of &hutanF /evelopment in a 'imalayan Bingdom /K$( /enmark =oyal Government of &hutan 4=G?&5 4,2->5 Statistical 'andbook of &hutan Statistical /ivision of Planning 9ommission Thimpu =oyal Government of &hutan 4=G?&5 4,22+5 C(griculture $ewsletterD $o-,2 EulyI(ugust =oyal Government of &hutan 4=G?&5 4,22+5 C(gronomic Survey L ,2-2-2+D 9entral Statistical ?rganisationI Planning 9ommission Thimpu =oyal Government of &hutan 4=G?&5 4,22<5 CAeaturesD ro-ect +ews vol. , no. < =oyal Government of &hutan 4=G?&5 4,2275 CAeaturesD ro-ect +ews vol. * no. * (pril ,anduse ,anduse lanning lanning

=oyal .onetary (uthority of &hutan 4=.(&5 4,22*5 (nnual =eport L ,22,I2* =oyal .onetary (uthority of &hutan Thimpu 1nited $ations /evelopment Programme 41$/P5 4,22<5 'uman /evelopment =eport ?#ford 1niversity Press $ew Jork

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