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FlawPRO Version 3:

USER MANUAL

FLAWPRO

TM

Version 3: FATIGUE LIFE ASSESSMENT

OF WELDED PIPES WITH AND WITHOUT

REELING ON-SHORE

A program for determining the effects of reeling and

conventional installation on the service lifetimes of

reeled pipes containing weld flaws.

Prepared by:

Dr. G. Graham Chell

Southwest Research Institute

San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A.

In collaboration with:

INTERPRO

Boerne, Texas

March 2009

ii

*****************************************************************************************************************************************

Copyright 2009

Southwest Research Institute

(SwRI

)

All Rights Reserved

*****************************************************************************************************************************************

Acknowledgments

The full-scale validation of FlawPRO

TM

, as well as certain software enhancements, were performed under a Joint Industry

Program (JIP) entitled "Validation of a Methodology for Assessing Defect Tolerance of Welded Reeled Risers", which was

conducted by SwRI for the offshore industry. SwRI is pleased to acknowledge the advice, encouragement, and financial

support received from the following JIP member companies: ChevronTexaco, ExxonMobil, Shell, Technip, Tenaris, and

Total. Special acknowledgements are also due to Paulo Gioielli and Jaime Buitrago of ExxonMobil who championed the

JIP formation, as well as to Frans Kopp of Shell who had the vision to initially support the development of FlawPRO. The

clad pipe version of FlawPRO was developed with support from Shell.

iii

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments .......................................................................................................................................................................ii

GETTING STARTED WITH FlawPRO......................................................................................................................................... 1

Overview of FlawPRO................................................................................................................................................................ 1

Computer and Hardware Requirements.................................................................................................................................... 1

Installing and Un-installing......................................................................................................................................................... 1

Installation............................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Uninstalling FlawPRO ............................................................................................................................................................ 1

Registering Your Copy of FlawPRO.......................................................................................................................................... 2

Setting Units in FlawPRO .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

Change Request and Error Report Form.................................................................................................................................. 4

Nomenclature ............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

View Menu: Viewing FlawPRO Input Screens .......................................................................................................................... 5

Help Menu: Using FlawPRO's On-line Help.............................................................................................................................. 5

ANALYSIS FILE OPERATIONS................................................................................................................................................... 6

Creating A New Analysis File .................................................................................................................................................... 6

Opening An Existing Analysis File............................................................................................................................................. 6

Saving Or Copying An Analysis File.......................................................................................................................................... 6

GRID AND PLOT PROCEDURES................................................................................................................................................ 7

Deleting A Row From The Grid.................................................................................................................................................. 7

Adding Row To Grid................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Deleting All Rows From The Grid .............................................................................................................................................. 7

Importing Data From A File........................................................................................................................................................ 7

Exporting Grid Data To A File.................................................................................................................................................... 8

Export Plot .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

Print Plot ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

ENGINEERING CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS ................................................................................................................. 9

ANALYSIS OPTIONS SCREEN................................................................................................................................................. 11

VARIABLES SCREEN................................................................................................................................................................ 12

Setting Up Sensitivity Analysis Variables ................................................................................................................................ 12

Establishing the Range of Primary Independent Variables (PIV)........................................................................................... 13

Defining Discrete Values for Secondary Independent Variables (SIV) .................................................................................. 14

GEOMETRY SCREEN (Unclad Pipe)........................................................................................................................................ 15

Defining Pipe and Crack Geometry (Unclad Pipe).................................................................................................................. 15

Defining Initial Crack Size Distribution (Unclad Pipe) ............................................................................................................. 16

Exporting Initial Crack Size Distributions (Unclad Pipe) ......................................................................................................... 17

Plotting Initial Crack Height Versus Length Distributions (Unclad Pipe) ................................................................................ 18

GEOMETRY SCREEN (Clad Pipe) ............................................................................................................................................ 19

Defining Pipe and Crack Geometry (Clad Pipe) ......................................................................................................................... 19

Defining Initial Crack Size Distribution (Clad Pipe)..................................................................................................................... 20

Exporting Initial Crack Size Distributions (Clad Pipe)................................................................................................................. 21

Plotting Initial Crack Height Versus Length Distributions (Clad Pipe)........................................................................................ 22

MATERIALS SCREEN................................................................................................................................................................ 24

Material Properties ................................................................................................................................................................... 24

Reeling and Installation (Ferritic Material)............................................................................................................................... 24

Specifying Pipe Material Behavior for Reeling and Installation Fatigue (Ferritic Material)................................................ 24

Defining Pipe Weld Strength and Fracture Properties for Installation and Reeling Fatigue (Ferritic Material)................. 25

Plotting The JR Curve (Ferritic Material) ............................................................................................................................. 26

Defining and Plotting The True Stress-Strain Relationship for Reeling and Installation (Ferritic Material) ...................... 27

Defining Reeling Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants (Ferritic Material) ............................................................................. 28

Plotting Reeling Fatigue Paris Equations (Ferritic Material) ............................................................................................... 30

Defining Installation Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants (Ferritic Material) ........................................................................ 30

Plotting Installation Fatigue Paris Equations (Ferritic Material) .......................................................................................... 32

Reeling and Installation (Clad Material) .................................................................................................................................. 33

Specifying Pipe Material Behavior for Reeling and Installation (Clad Material) ................................................................. 33

Defining Clad Strength and Fracture Properties for Installation Fatigue (Clad Material)................................................... 35

iv

Plotting The JR Curve (Clad Material) ................................................................................................................................. 36

Defining and Plotting The True Stress-Strain Relationship for Reeling and Installation (Clad Material) .......................... 37

Defining Reeling Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants (Clad Material)................................................................................. 39

Plotting Reeling Fatigue Paris Equations (Clad Material) ................................................................................................... 40

Defining Installation Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants (Clad Material)............................................................................ 41

Plotting Installation Fatigue Paris Equations (Clad Material).............................................................................................. 42

Service (Ferritic Material) ......................................................................................................................................................... 43

Specifying Pipe Material Behavior for Service Fatigue (Ferritic Material) .......................................................................... 43

Defining Pipe Weld Strength and Fracture Properties for Service Fatigue (Ferritic Material) ........................................... 43

Defining and Plotting The True Stress-Strain Relationship for Service (Ferritic Material)................................................. 44

Defining Service Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants (Ferritic Material) ............................................................................. 45

Plotting The Service Fatigue Paris Equations (Ferritic Material) ........................................................................................ 46

Service (Clad Material)............................................................................................................................................................. 48

Specifying Pipe Material Behavior for Service Fatigue (Clad Material).............................................................................. 48

Defining Clad Strength and Fracture Properties for Service Fatigue (Clad Material) ........................................................ 49

Defining and Plotting The True Stress-Strain Relationship for Service (Clad Material) .................................................... 50

Defining Service Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants (Clad Material) ................................................................................. 51

Plotting The Service Fatigue Paris Equations (Clad Material)............................................................................................ 52

LOADS SCREEN ........................................................................................................................................................................ 53

Defining Pipe Loads ................................................................................................................................................................. 53

Reeling and Installation............................................................................................................................................................ 53

Defining Reeling Loads ........................................................................................................................................................ 53

Defining The Pipe Installation Fatigue Spectrum................................................................................................................ 54

Scaling the Pipe Installation Spectrum................................................................................................................................ 56

Displaying The Scaled Installation Spectrum...................................................................................................................... 56

Specifying the Worst Case Installation Stress..................................................................................................................... 57

Service...................................................................................................................................................................................... 58

Defining The Pipe Service Fatigue Spectrum..................................................................................................................... 58

Scaling the Pipe Service Spectrum ..................................................................................................................................... 59

Displaying The Scaled Service Spectrum........................................................................................................................... 60

Specifying the Number of Service Periods.......................................................................................................................... 61

Specifying the Worst Case Service Stress.......................................................................................................................... 62

Weld Geometrical Discontinuities............................................................................................................................................ 62

Defining Normalized Membrane Stress Due to Weld Discontinuity ................................................................................... 63

Defining Normalized Pipe Bend Stress Due to Weld Discontinuity.................................................................................... 64

Defining Normalized Stress Due to Misalignment Discontinuity......................................................................................... 66

Defining Weld Details for BS 7910 Stress Calculations...................................................................................................... 66

CALCULATION AND RESULTS SCREEN............................................................................................................................... 68

Analyzing and Generating Line Plots ...................................................................................................................................... 68

Creating A Damage History ..................................................................................................................................................... 68

Using The Error Messages Memo........................................................................................................................................... 68

Warnings and Errors ................................................................................................................................................................ 68

Using The Calculation Parameters/Results Table .................................................................................................................. 75

Creating and Using The Run Details Report ........................................................................................................................... 75

EXAMPLE DATA FILE................................................................................................................................................................ 76

GLOSSARY................................................................................................................................................................................. 77

Analysis Options....................................................................................................................................................................... 77

Applied Axial Loads.................................................................................................................................................................. 77

Brittle Failure ............................................................................................................................................................................ 78

BS 7910.................................................................................................................................................................................... 78

Clad Material ............................................................................................................................................................................ 79

Clad Pipe .................................................................................................................................................................................. 79

Crack Geometries .................................................................................................................................................................... 79

Crack Tip Driving Forces ......................................................................................................................................................... 79

Crack Transitioning .................................................................................................................................................................. 79

Critical Crack Size.................................................................................................................................................................... 80

Cycles Factor............................................................................................................................................................................ 80

Cyclic Stress Range................................................................................................................................................................. 81

Cyclic Threshold....................................................................................................................................................................... 81

Damage Accumulation............................................................................................................................................................. 81

Default Values for Inputs.......................................................................................................................................................... 81

Dependent Variables................................................................................................................................................................ 81

DNV-RP-F108 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 81

Ductile Failure........................................................................................................................................................................... 82

End-of-Life Conditions.............................................................................................................................................................. 82

Fatigue Crack Growth During Installation................................................................................................................................ 83

v

Fatigue Crack Growth During Reeling..................................................................................................................................... 83

Fatigue Crack Growth During Service..................................................................................................................................... 83

Fatigue Crack Growth Library.................................................................................................................................................. 84

Ferritic Material......................................................................................................................................................................... 87

Final Crack Size ....................................................................................................................................................................... 87

Flaw Offset ............................................................................................................................................................................... 87

Geometrical Discontinuity ........................................................................................................................................................ 87

Initial Crack Sizes..................................................................................................................................................................... 88

J-integral Crack Tip Driving Force........................................................................................................................................... 88

JR-Curve................................................................................................................................................................................... 89

Load Control ............................................................................................................................................................................. 90

Load Step ................................................................................................................................................................................. 91

Low Cycle Fatigue Crack Growth Due To Reeling ................................................................................................................. 91

Maximum Allowable Initial Flaw Sizes (MAIFS) ...................................................................................................................... 91

Mean Stress Factor .................................................................................................................................................................. 91

Membrane Stress ..................................................................................................................................................................... 91

Misalignment ............................................................................................................................................................................ 92

Misalignment Bend Stress Factor............................................................................................................................................ 92

Misalignment Geometrical Discontinuity ................................................................................................................................. 92

Net Section Yield Load............................................................................................................................................................. 93

Normalized Stress Variation .................................................................................................................................................... 93

Paris Equations for Installation Conditions.............................................................................................................................. 94

Paris Equations for Service Conditions ................................................................................................................................... 95

Paris Equations Adapted for Reeling Conditions .................................................................................................................... 95

Pipe Bend Stress...................................................................................................................................................................... 96

Plastic Strain............................................................................................................................................................................. 97

Pre-Service Reels .................................................................................................................................................................... 97

Pre-Straining............................................................................................................................................................................. 97

Primary Independent Variables (PIV) ...................................................................................................................................... 97

Ramberg-Osgood Equation ..................................................................................................................................................... 98

Range Scale Factor ................................................................................................................................................................. 99

Reeling...................................................................................................................................................................................... 99

Reeling Life............................................................................................................................................................................... 99

Residual Stress Due to Reeling............................................................................................................................................... 99

Residual Stress Due to Welding............................................................................................................................................ 100

Runout .................................................................................................................................................................................... 100

Saturation Tear Length .......................................................................................................................................................... 100

Scaled Spectrum.................................................................................................................................................................... 100

Scenario File........................................................................................................................................................................... 100

Secondary Independent Variables (SIV) ............................................................................................................................... 100

Service Life............................................................................................................................................................................. 101

Service Period ........................................................................................................................................................................ 101

Strain Control.......................................................................................................................................................................... 102

Stress Concentration Factor .................................................................................................................................................. 102

Stress Intensity Factor ........................................................................................................................................................... 102

Stress Ratio, R ....................................................................................................................................................................... 102

Tearing Due to Reeling .......................................................................................................................................................... 102

Tear-Fatigue Due to Reeling ................................................................................................................................................. 102

Threshold................................................................................................................................................................................ 103

Toughness.............................................................................................................................................................................. 103

True Stress-True Strain.......................................................................................................................................................... 103

Unit Sets ................................................................................................................................................................................. 103

Weight Function ..................................................................................................................................................................... 104

Weld Cap Width ..................................................................................................................................................................... 105

Weld Geometrical Discontinuity............................................................................................................................................. 105

Weld Root Width .................................................................................................................................................................... 105

Weld Stress Concentration Factor (SCF).............................................................................................................................. 106

Yield Load............................................................................................................................................................................... 106

1

GETTING STARTED WITH FlawPRO

Overview of FlawPRO

FlawPRO will enable the practicing engineer to assess the effects of pre-service reeling, installation fatigue and service

fatigue on the lifetimes and flaw tolerances of welded pipes that may contain pre-existing flaws, such as crack-like defects,

and are subjected to variable amplitude fatigue loading. The program is designed to facilitate sensitivity analyses in order to

enable the effects of changes in input parameters on the lifetimes and flaw tolerances of reeled and installed pipes to be

readily determined. The results of calculations are displayed in chart and tabular form that can be easily exported and used

in engineering reports.

FlawPRO Help Utility: 3/11/2009 6:47 PM

Version History

V3.50 March-2009: FlawPRO algorithms were extended to clad pipes. Clad pipe analysis features are available only to

selected users.

V3.00.33 13-November-2007: FlawPRO was upgraded to operate under the Vista(r) operating system. There were no

significant changes to its algorithms to make it compatible with the Microsoft Vista operating system.

V3.00.27 07-December-2006: This version incorporated new features, an extended help facility, and improved algorithms.

V2.00.04 9-April-2004: This was a major upgrade with new features and some reorganization of the graphical user interface

V1.01.02 21-August-2003: This version contained minor revisions to the original code and required users to register the

code.

V1.00.00 29-October-2002: This was the original issue of the code to users.

Computer and Hardware Requirements

In order to execute FlawPRO, personal computers must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:

Microsoft Windows XP or greater and Internet Explorer v5.5

Pentium 1GHz microprocessor unit or better

A minimum of 256 megabytes of random access memory (RAM), although more RAM will improve performance

A minimum of 64 megabytes of free disk space on the hard drive prior to installation

A color video display monitor with 800 x 600 resolution or better

A mouse unit compatible with Microsoft Windows

Installing and Un-installing

Warning Note: If you are using previous versions of FlawPRO, you should first backup any analysis files (e.g. scenario or

data files such as *.flp files) that you wish to save and uninstall the old version of FlawPRO prior to installing the new

version of FlawPRO. If you fail to do this, it is possible that the new version of FlawPRO will overwrite some data or code

files during the installation process, and such data will be permanently lost.

Installation

To install the software, insert the CD into the drive of the computer. Select Start, and then choose Run. Type x:

FlawProSetup.exe where x: is your CD drive. The automatic installation process will begin. Follow the instructions that

appear on the screen to complete the installation. The installation is complete when you reach a screen prompting you to

restart your computer.

Uninstalling FlawPRO

To uninstall FlawPRO, exit the program, and select Start. Click on Programs and select FlawPRO. In the sub-list, click

once on the Uninstall icon and follow the instructions that appear on the screen. You must confirm that you want to remove

FlawPRO and all its components from your hard disk. Note that files of the type *.flp are not automatically removed by the

Uninstall program.

2

Registering Your Copy of FlawPRO

In order to use FlawPRO as an analysis tool you must register your copy. If you are only reviewing or evaluating this

product, the DEMO MODE option is sufficient. In DEMO MODE your FlawPRO window will appear as follows:

Registration is a two-part process. First you provide information about yourself in an email message to FlawPROs

administrators. In return you receive a registration code that turns on the analysis features of FlawPRO.

To create the email message with your information, perform the following steps:

1. After launching FlawPRO, click on Help > About.

2. The About Box appears; click on the Register button in the middle of the About Box.

3. The FlawPRO V3.x.x Registration dialog box appears.

4. Complete the form. You must provide:

a. First name

b. Last Name

c. Company

d. Phone Number

e. Complete Address

f. Email address

3

5. Click on the Copy Registration. . . button at the bottom of the dialog.

6. Now open a mail message form in your email application and copy your registration data into the body of the

email. Address the email to Registration Email given at top of the FlawPRO V3.x.x Registration dialog box.

7. A registration code will be sent back to you by email at the address you provided.

To complete the registration process after receiving your registration code, follow these steps:

1. Open the email with the code and highlight it. Be sure to highlight only the code and not any leading or trailing

blanks or other characters.

2. Copy the code to the clipboard.

3. Launch FlawPRO, click on Help > About.

4. The About Box appears; click on the Register button in the middle of the About Box.

5. Paste from the clipboard to the Registration Code text box the code you received.

6. Click the OK button. The FlawPRO Main form should now look like this.

4

Setting Units in FlawPRO

1. English or metric units may be used.

2. Unit selection is done on the Analysis Variables Input Screen.

3. Once unit selection is made, the unit set is "consistent" and will carry over to all input screens.

4. To change the unit selection, you must go back to the Analysis Variables Input Screen and select the other

unit set.

Change Request and Error Report Form

Use this form to create an email report. To create an email report, highlight the text below and use the Copy command to

put it on the Windows Clipboard. Open a blank email message form and paste the text into it. Answer the questions and

email it to the address given at the bottom of this form. Attach to the email any helpful data that may help duplicate the

problem, such as a scenario file(s) of the form *.flp.

For use by technical support staff only:

#__________RD__________FD__________ND__________

Name: _______________________________________

Phone Number: _________________________________

Date: ______________________________________

Program Version & Version Date: ________________ ____________

(Available on the About screen at the beginning of the program or under Help > About menu item)

___Windows XP ___Other (specify) _________

5

Report Type: __ Error Report __ Change Request

__Other________________________________

Can Error Be Duplicated? __ Yes __ No __ NA

Please record text of any user messages given by the program or by Windows OS:

User Message Index ___________, Module Sourcing User Message__________________

Please describe your actions preceding the error OR describe the requested change:

(Provide a quick review of actions since you started the current FlawPRO session and then detail the last few actions.)

Use additional lines if necessary. Deliver this completed form to: flawpro@swri.org

Nomenclature

Bold Non-Italic Type is used to indicate menus, their sub-menus and commands as well as command button names.

Examples: View > Options menu command or the Plot JR Curve command button.

Bold Italic Type is used to specify FlawPRO window or dialog box titles. Example: Geometry window.

Italic Type is used to indicate any type of input that the user has control over in the graphical user interface of FlawPRO or

any miscellaneous feature found on the inputs portion of the window. Example: Dependent Variable drop down list, or the

Crack Transitioning group of inputs.

Bold blue text is used for sub-headings in the help topic to help you locate the relevant text.

Underlined green text is used to delineate jumps or links from the current topic to another topic in the help facility.

Green text with a dashed underline is used to delineate glossary items. Click on this text and the definition of the word(s)

appears in a pop up window.

View Menu: Viewing FlawPRO Input Screens

There are two ways to access the FlawPRO input screens. You can click View on the menu bar and then click the input

screen you need or you can click directly on the applicable tool bar button. The tool bar appears underneath the menu bar.

The tool bar has a button for each of the five input screens.

Help Menu: Using FlawPRO's On-line Help

1. Open the online help files by selecting Help > Contents or Help > Relevant Topic from the menu. The

FlawPRO On-Line Help Facility dialog will be displayed.

2. The Contents tab at the upper left corner of the left side of the dialog lists all the topics, by titles, which are

included in help. A book icon indicates that there are sub-topics under that heading; click File > Open to view

the list of topics. A page icon indicates an individual help topic. Highlight the desired topic and click on it to see

it. Click the Print button at the top of the dialog to print out a topic.

3. The Index tab shows an alphabetical listing of keywords which are in the help file. In the empty text box at the

top of the Index tab type in the first few letters of the subject for which you need help, then select a topic to

display.

4. The Search tab allows you to search for specific words and phrases in a help file. A database is created

containing all the words in the file. The search capability can be minimized, maximized, or customized by the

user. Follow the instructions in the Find Setup Wizard dialog box to set up the database of help content the

first time.

5. In addition, this help file contains "Whats This" help, where information is directly available about many

individual screen functions and inputs. Click on the Whats This menu item or the Whats This button and then

click the screen item for which you want more information. A short topic will pop up onscreen; click off the

popup to close the topic.

6

ANALYSIS FILE OPERATIONS

Creating A New Analysis File

You can create a new analysis file at any time.

1. In the FlawPRO Main window, choose File > New Analysis from the menu bar.

2. If you have changed the current analysis file, you will be asked to save the existing scenario. Click on the Yes

or No buttons to indicate your response to the message box that appears.

3. FlawPRO re-configures itself for a new analysis. Begin by selecting the Analysis Options screen, followed by

the Variables, Geometry, Material and Loading screens.

Opening An Existing Analysis File

To open an analysis file that has been previously defined, follow these steps.

1. In the FlawPRO Main window, choose File > Open Analysis from the menu bar.

2. The Select FlawPRO Scenario File dialog box appears. Browse around your system until you find the folder

and filename of the existing analysis file. The default folder for all analysis files is \FlawPRO\Scenarios\.

3. Highlight the filename of the analysis file you want by clicking on it. The name should appear in the File name

text box at the bottom of the form.

4. Click the Open button. The FlawPRO Main window reappears, but now the title bar at the top of the window

indicates the path and name of the analysis file you selected. You may be asked to save the analysis you are

about to overwrite beforehand. Click on the Yes or No buttons to indicate your response to the message box

that appears.

Saving Or Copying An Analysis File

1. In the FlawPRO Main window, choose File > Save Analysis or File > Save Analysis As from the menu bar.

2. You may save your current analysis file at any time with Save Analysis command. All current inputs are

saved to the current file name (shown on the Main window title bar).

3. If you wish to copy the current analysis or save your current work under a different file name, use the Save

Analysis As command. When you select this menu item, the Save File As dialog box appears. Browse

around your system until you find the folder where you want to put your copy of the current analysis. The

default folder is \FlawPRO\Scenarios\.

4. In the File name text box at the bottom of the dialog form, type in your new analysis file name. The default

name for your copy is the current analysis files name.

5. Click the Save button.

7

GRID AND PLOT PROCEDURES

Deleting A Row From The Grid

The Geometry, Material and Load input screens have grids that are generated based on the information that has been

input. Rows can be deleted from the grid by pressing on the Delete Row button.

1. Using your mouse, click on the row you wish to delete. The black arrowhead that appears on the left-hand side

of the grid will move to that row and the row will be highlighted.

2. Press the Delete Row button.

3. A pop-up box will appear asking if you want to delete a row.

4. If you press Yes the entire row that is highlighted will be deleted.

5. Repeat this procedure for every row you wish to have deleted.

Adding Row To Grid

The Geometry, Material and Load input screens have grids that are generated based on the information that has been

input. Additional blank rows can be added to these grids by pressing the "Add Row" button next to the grid. Each click of

the "Add Row" button adds another blank row to the grid. The last row of the grid is marked by an .

Deleting All Rows From The Grid

The Geometry, Material and Load input screens have grids that are generated based on the information that has been

input. All the rows of data can be deleted from the grid by pressing on the Delete All Rows button.

1. Using your mouse, click on the Delete All Rows button.

2. A pop-up box will appear asking if you want to delete ALL rows.

3. If you press Yes the entire data grid values will be deleted.

Importing Data From A File

1. Data can be imported from files into the data grids in the Geometry, Material and Loading windows. In the

bottom of the Geometry window, find the Initial Crack Size Distribution grid. A default set of initial crack height

and length values may be shown in the grid. (In the Material window, a default set of stress-strain data are

shown while In the Loading window, a default set of minimum and maximum stresses and cycles are shown

as well as tables containing default values for the normalized stress variations.)

2. Click once on the Import From File button to the left of the grid. The Select File dialog box appears. Browse

around until you find the folder containing the initial crack size distribution file (or stress-strain file or load

spectrum file or normalized stress variation file) that you want to import. Highlight the file name and click on

the Open button at the bottom right of the dialog box.

3. The distribution data will be imported into the existing grid. If you already have data in the grid, the imported

data will be appended to the existing grid data. If you have no data (blank rows) then the imported data will be

imported and the blank rows deleted.

4. The distribution file you import can be in space-delimited, tab-delimited, or comma-delimited format and should

contain the distributions Crack Height, and Crack Length.. A Sample file, Flaw Size Table.txt, was installed in

the \FlawPRO \Scenarios\ directory. (Sample files for use with the Material screen (Stress Strain Table.txt)

and Loading screen (Load Spectrum Table.txt and Normalized Stress Table.txt), were installed in the

\FlawPRO \Scenarios\ directory.) Note that the aspect ratio values that appear in the Initial Crack Size

Distribution grid are calculated quantities and should not be entered as part of the data.

8

5. To add additional rows of initial crack size (or in any other table), click the Add Row button once. Additional

rows are always added at the bottom of the grid. Click once in any cell of the new row and start typing data.

You must type the Crack Height and Crack Length. The Crack Aspect Ratio cannot be input; it is a computed

value.

Exporting Grid Data To A File

You can re-use crack size distributions or stress-strain data or service spectrum or normalized stress variations that you

create in one scenario analysis in other analyses by exporting the distribution data. As an example, consider the crack size

distribution.

1. Complete the Initial Crack Size Distribution grid in the lower portion of the Geometry window.

2. Click once on the Export to File button to the left of the grid. The Save File As dialog box appears.

3. Browse until you find the folder in which you want to save the current scenarios initial crack size distribution.

Type in the File name input box the name of the file and click the Save button.

4. Your crack size distribution data will be saved as a three-column tab-delimited text file.

Export Plot

1. Click on the Export Plot button.

2. A pop-up box will appear giving you five export file choices for your plot: Metafile, BMP, JPG, PNG, and

"Text/Data only."

3. Based on your selection, further options are enabled or disabled.

4. Clicking the "Help" button that appears in the bottom right-hand corner of the pop-up box will provide additional,

more detailed information on exporting your graph.

Print Plot

1. Click on the Print Plot button.

2. A pop-up box will appear showing the default printer, the current print orientation, and the paper bin.

3. You can select another printer via the dropdown combo box that will display all available system and network

printers.

4. The printer orientation, paper bin, and other printer options can be adjusted by pressing the setup button to

invoke the printers setup dialog.

5. Pressing the "Help" button that appears in the bottom right-hand corner of the pop-up box will provide

additional, more detailed information on printing your graph.

9

ENGINEERING CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS

FlawPRO will enable the practicing engineer to assess the effects of service loading and pre-service reeling on the lifetimes

of welded pipes that may contain pre-existing flaws, such as crack-like defects, and are subjected to variable amplitude

fatigue loading. The program is designed to facilitate sensitivity analyses in order to enable the effects of changes in input

parameters on the lifetimes of installed pipes to be readily determined. The results of calculations are displayed in chart

and tabular form that can be easily exported and used in engineering reports.

FlawPRO addresses the effects of postulated pre-existing circumferential flaws on the service lives of pipes that have either

been conventionally installed or installed after being welded on land and reeled onto a spool. In the case of pre-service

reeling, the program determines the amount of ductile tearing and low cycle fatigue crack growth that occurs from the

reeling process. In addition, fatigue growth from cyclic loads experienced during installation as a pipe hangs overboard

after reeling (but before entering service) and is subjected to wave-induced loads is calculated.

The generation of residual stresses from reeling and straightening processes is included in a FlawPRO analysis as well as

the influence of welding residual stresses on the service life of conventionally installed pipes. The high strains produced by

reeling will wipe out any weld residual stresses that are present prior to reeling and replace them by reeling residual

stresses.

The effects of cladding on the inside surface of pipes can be included in engineering critical assessments (ECAs) performed

using FlawPRO. This aspect of the FlawPRO methodology is based on engineering judgment but has not been validated.

There are nine analysis options in FlawPRO. In four of the analysis options

Option 1 (Service Fatigue Life)

Option 3 (Critical Crack Size: Worst Case Service Load)

Option 5 (Final Crack Size after Service fatigue) and

Option 8 (Maximum Allowable Crack Sizes Service Fatigue)

the FlawPRO code can be applied without evidence that the pipe material is operating above the ductile-brittle toughness

transition temperature (DBTTT). (Ferritic steels can fail by a brittle cleavage mechanism below the DBTTT without

undergoing ductile tearing.) The remaining five analysis options

Option 2 (Service Life Following Pre-Service Reeling and Installation Fatigue)

Option 4 (Reeling Life: Pre-Service Reels)

Option 6 (Final Crack Size following Pre-Service Reeling, Installation Fatigue and Service Fatigue)

Option 7 (Final Crack Size: Pre-Service Reeling) and

Option 9 (Maximum Allowable Flaw Sizes: Pre-Service Reeling, Installation Fatigue and Service Fatigue)

should only be applied to assessments of ductile materials operating above the DBTTT that fail after undergoing some

degree of tearing.

The FlawPRO code contains advanced elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EFFM). These aspects include the estimation

schemes employed to evaluate the effects of reeling on the elastic-plastic crack tip driving force, J, and the cyclic change in

this quantity during load cycling from reeling and straightening, !J. The effect of crack closure on fatigue crack propagation

rates is allowed for in FlawPRO under reeling conditions only. (Crack closure can occur when the two surfaces of a crack

come together under compressive stressing, as occurs during reeling.)

Crack transitioning is allowed in FlawPRO. A crack transitions when one of its tips intercepts with a free surface and the

crack undergoes a change in its geometry as it continues to grow. For example, a surface flaw can grow through the wall of

a pipe and transition into a through-wall crack. This flaw re-characterization feature in FlawPRO should only be used when

the pipe material is ductile, as crack transitioning in brittle materials could be coincident with incipient unstable crack

propagation of the pipe leading to structural failure. The transition option is not available when crack sizes at the end of

service are being calculated.

Crack transitioning can involve a change in crack growth environment as well as a re-characterization of the flaw type. In

the case of embedded flaws, FlawPRO allows for the possibility of different fatigue crack growth rates of a transitioned flaw

corresponding to different environments on the outside and inside of a pipe.

The methodology employed in the FlawPRO code has been quantitatively validated against full-scale test results for

measured lives of welded pipes containing flaws that have been subjected to reeling, simulated service fatigue loading, and

reeling followed by simulated high cycle service fatigue.

The linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) methodology employed to evaluate service lifetimes is similar to the

methodologies that are employed in many other fatigue crack growth computer codes and procedures such as BS 7910.

The tear-fatigue methodology employed in FlawPRO to assess crack extension during reeling and straightening has been

validated against results obtained from full-scale cracked pipe tests. Flaw assessment procedures such as BS 7910 do not

explicitly address the high plastic straining conditions associated with the reeling of pipe that can result in flaw extension by

10

tearing and low cycle fatigue (LCF). An attempt to address reeling is made in DNV report Recommended Practice DNV-RP-

F108 titled Fracture Control for Pipeline Installation Methods Introducing Cyclic Plastic Strain. The assessment

methodology under-pinning DNV-RP-F108 differs from the methodology incorporated into FlawPRO. DNV-RP-F108 treats

the effects of reeling on flaw growth as if it was two tearing events that can be addressed by two independent applications of

BS 7910 Level 3B to evaluate the amount of tearing arising from each event. This approach ignores both the history

dependent interaction between the two tearing events and the effects of the LCF cycle that occurs during reeling. The tear-

fatigue model included in FlawPRO takes full account of these phenomena and has been validated against the results of

full-scale and small-scale tests simulating cyclic plastic straining.

The full-scale validation test results used to validate FlawPRO for reeling followed by service loading showed no significant

overload effects on service crack growth resulting from pipe reeling and straightening. (Under some circumstances, it has

been observed that overloads can result in retarded crack growth rates in steels compared with the rates that would have

occurred without the overload.)

11

ANALYSIS OPTIONS SCREEN

The Analysis Options screen must be completed first in order to begin your analysis.

1. Pressing on the Options button at the top of the screen or clicking View > Options will present you with a

screen organized into two categories: Analysis Options and either Crack Transitioning or Reeling History.

2. Crack Transitioning or Reeling History input frames appear on the screen depending upon the analysis option

you choose.

3. Select one and only one of the 9 analysis options by darkening the circle to the left of the choice.

4. For Analysis Options 1, 2, 4, 8, and 9, you may indicate whether you wish to allow crack transitioning effects in

your analysis or not. Darken the circle to the left of Crack Transitioning if you wish to include such effects.

5. If you select option 3, you can indicate whether or not you wish to include effects from prior reels in the

analysis. If you wish to include such effects, darken the circle to the left of Residual Stress Present Due to

Reeling.

6. For analysis types 5 through 7, neither crack transitioning nor reeling history effects are available as an

analysis option.

After completing the Analysis Options screen, you should then move on to the Variables screen.

12

VARIABLES SCREEN

Setting Up Sensitivity Analysis Variables

You must specify the independent and dependent variables in your analysis after you have selected the analysis options.

1. Open the Variables window by choosing either View > Sensitivity Analysis Variables in the menu bar or

clicking on the Variables button in the tool bar.

2. Select the Primary Independent Variable (PIV) for the current analysis by clicking on the self-titled drop down

list at the bottom of the window.

3. Select the Secondary Independent Variable (SIV) for the current analysis by clicking on the self-titled drop

down list at the top of the window. You are not required to have an SIV. If you choose an SIV that is the same

as the previously selected PIV, you must re-select your PIV and vice versa.

4. Select the Dependent Variable for your analysis. Generally speaking, only one DV is available.

If you selected Analysis Options 1, 2, or 4 (Service or Reeling Life) on the Analysis Options screen,

then the Dependent Variable will automatically be Lifetime or Reeling Life.

If you selected Analysis Option 3 (Critical Crack Size) on the Analysis Options screen, then the

Dependent Variable will automatically be Critical Crack.

If you selected Analysis Options 5, 6, or 7 (Final Crack Size) on the Analysis Options screen, then the

Dependent Variable will automatically be Final Crack Size.

If you selected Analysis Options 8, or 9 (Maximum Allowable Initial Flaw Sizes) on the Analysis

Options screen, then the Dependent Variable will automatically be Allowable Crack Size.

5. Choose the Unit Set for This Analysis by clicking on the drop down list in the upper left hand corner of the

window. You may choose your units at any time during the input process by returning to the Variables window

and choosing a new unit set from this drop down list. FlawPRO automatically converts data specified in one

unit set into the other unit set if the unit set is changed.

13

Establishing the Range of Primary Independent Variables (PIV)

Once you have selected which analysis variable is to be the PIV, then the input for that variable is replaced with a Primary

button. This button controls a pop-up form that allows you to indicate the PIV range (minimum and maximum values of the

variable) and the steps within that range where results are to be calculated. FlawPRO will automatically compute DV values

for PIV values that fall within the specified range.

1. When you open the form containing the PIV input, click on the Primary button.

2. A pop-up screen will appear with spaces to type in minimum and maximum values.

3. Type in your values and enter the number of steps in the range where you want results calculated. Click on OK

when you are finished.

4. Your min/max values are now set for your PIV. Should you wish to change them, you will need to come back to

this screen and re-input them.

Example:

If Service Toughness is chosen as the Primary Independent Variables (PIV) on the Variables screen when Option 2 is

selected, then the Material (Service Fatigue) screen will have a button marked Primary next to the input label Toughness in

the Material Data frame. Click on this button and enter example PIV values, such as those shown in the figure below.

14

Defining Discrete Values for Secondary Independent Variables (SIV)

Once you have selected which analysis variable is to be the SIV, then the input for that variable is replaced with a

Secondary button. This button controls a pop-up form that allows you to indicate up to eight discrete SIV values.

1. When you open the form containing the SIV input, click on the Secondary button.

2. A pop-up screen will appear with input boxes in which you type in discrete values. You must enter at least one

value, but you need not provide all eight. SIV values can be entered in any order.

3. Type in your values and click on OK when you are finished. Use the Insert and Delete buttons to re-arrange

your discrete values.

4. Your discrete values are now set for your SIV. Should you wish to change them, you will need to come back to

this screen and re-input them.

Example:

If Service Toughness is chosen as the Secondary Independent Variables (SIV) on the Variables screen when Option 2 is

selected, then the Material (Service Fatigue) screen will have a button marked Secondary next to the input label

Toughness in the Material Data frame. Click on this button and enter example SIV values, such as those shown in the

figure below.

15

GEOMETRY SCREEN (Unclad Pipe)

Defining Pipe and Crack Geometry (Unclad Pipe)

To define Pipe Dimensions on the Geometry screen:

1. Key in the Outside Diameter, OD, and

2. key in the pipes Wall Thickness, t.

To define Crack Locations on the Geometry screen:

1. Select one of the four choices for your crack location. The drawing on the right-hand side of the screen will

illustrate your crack location selection.

2. If you choose Embedded in Wall as your crack location, then you will need to fill in the Offset y box. Look at

the drawing on the right-hand side of the screen for the definition of this dimension.

16

Defining Initial Crack Size Distribution (Unclad Pipe)

You may type initial crack size values, or import them from a file of the correct format.

Typing Initial Crack Size Values

1. In the bottom of the Geometry window, find the Initial Crack Size Distribution grid. Default initial crack heights

and lengths may be shown in the grid.

2. You can accept the defaults, delete the default rows, or type over the defaults with new data. To accept the

default data rows, do nothing. To delete the default rows, click once on any cell in the default data row and

then click on the Delete button to the left of the grid, or use the Delete All Rows button to delete all values in

the grid. To type over the default data, click once on any cell in row. The entire cell contents should be

highlighted. Start typing your new data.

3. To add additional rows of initial crack size data, click the Add Row button once. Additional rows are always

added at the bottom of the grid. Click once in any cell of the new row and start typing data. You must type the

Crack Height and Crack Length. The Crack Aspect Ratio cannot be input; it is a computed value. You may

have up to 200 rows of crack size data.

Importing Initial Crack Size Values From A File

To import data from a text file (often created by using the Exporting Initial Crack Size Distributions feature), follow these

steps:

1. In the bottom of the Geometry window, find the Initial Crack Size Distribution grid. Default initial crack heights

and lengths may be shown in the grid.

2. Click once on the Import From File button to the left of the grid. The Select File dialog box appears. Browse

around until you find the folder containing the initial crack size distribution file that you want to import. Highlight

the file name and click on the Open button at the bottom right of the dialog box.

3. The distribution data will be imported into the existing grid. If you already have data in the grid, the imported

data will be appended to the existing grid data. If you have no data (blank rows) then the imported data will be

imported and the blank rows deleted.

4. The distribution file you import must be in space-delimited, tab-delimited, or comma-delimited format and

contain the distributions Crack Height and Crack Length (it can also contain the aspect ratio, but his will be re-

calculated by the program). A sample crack size file, Flaw Size Table.txt, was installed in the

\FlawPRO\Scenarios\ directory

5. To add additional rows of initial crack size data, click the Add Row button once. Additional rows are always

added at the bottom of the grid. Click once in any cell of the new row and start typing data. You must type the

Crack Height and Crack Length. The Crack Aspect Ratio cannot be input; it is a computed value.

17

Exporting Initial Crack Size Distributions (Unclad Pipe)

You can re-use crack size distributions that you create in one scenario analysis in other analyses by exporting the

distribution data.

1. Complete the Initial Crack Size Distribution grid in the lower portion of the Geometry window.

2. Click once on the Export to File button to the left of the grid. The Save File As dialog box appears.

3. Browse until you find the folder in which you want to save the current scenarios initial crack size distribution.

Type in the File name input box the name of the file and click the Save button.

4. Your crack size distribution data will be saved as a three-column, tab-delimited, text file.

18

Plotting Initial Crack Height Versus Length Distributions (Unclad Pipe)

1. On the Geometry window, find the Initial Crack Size Distribution grid and provide distribution data.

2. Click once on the Plot h-L button in the upper middle area of the window. The Plot window appears showing

the Initial Crack Size Distribution graph.

3. This graph shows each unique combination of initial crack size height (h) and length (L) and typically has a

stair-step appearance.

4. Use the Export Plot, Print Plot and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) or a file, the printer, or to return to the

Geometry screen.

19

GEOMETRY SCREEN (Clad Pipe)

Defining Pipe and Crack Geometry (Clad Pipe)

To define Pipe Dimensions on the Geometry screen:

1. Key in the Outside Diameter, OD, and

2. Key in the pipes Wall Thickness, t.

To define Inside Surface Clad Dimensions on the Geometry screen:

1. Select the Clad Pipe option by clicking on the circle to the left. This enables the Clad Thickness text box.

2. In the Clad Thickness text box provide the thickness of the pipe's cladding.

To define Crack Locations on the Geometry screen:

1. Select one of the four choices for your crack location. The drawing on the right-hand side of the screen will

illustrate your crack location selection.

2. If you choose Embedded in Wall as your crack location, then you will need to fill in the Offset y box. Look at the

drawing on the right-hand side of the screen for the definition of this dimension.

20

Defining Initial Crack Size Distribution (Clad Pipe)

You may type initial crack size values, or import them from a file of the correct format.

Typing Initial Crack Size Values

1. In the bottom of the Geometry window, find the Initial Crack Size Distribution grid. Default initial crack heights

and lengths may be shown in the grid.

2. You can accept the defaults, delete the default rows, or type over the defaults with new data. To accept the

default data rows, do nothing. To delete the default rows, click once on any cell in the default data row and then

click on the Delete button to the left of the grid, or use the Delete All Rows button to delete all values in the

grid. To type over the default data, click once on any cell in row. The entire cell contents should be highlighted.

Start typing your new data.

3. To add additional rows of initial crack size data, click the Add Row button once. Additional rows are always

added at the bottom of the grid. Click once in any cell of the new row and start typing data. You must type the

Crack Height, and Crack Length. The crack's Aspect Ratio cannot be input; it is a computed value. You may

have up to 200 rows of crack size data.

Importing Initial Crack Size Values From A File

To import data from a text file (often created by using the Exporting Initial Crack Size Distributions feature), follow these

steps:

1. In the bottom of the Geometry window, find the Initial Crack Size Distribution grid. Default initial crack heights

and lengths may be shown in the grid.

2. Click once on the Import From File button to the left of the grid. The Select File dialog box appears. Browse

around until you find the folder containing the initial crack size distribution file that you want to import. Highlight

the file name and click on the Open button at the bottom right of the dialog box.

3. The distribution data will be imported into the existing grid. If you already have data in the grid, the imported

data will be appended to the existing grid data. If you have no data (blank rows) then the imported data will be

imported and the blank rows deleted.

4. The distribution file you import must be in space-delimited, tab-delimited, or comma-delimited format and

contain the distributions Crack Height and Crack Length (it can also contain the aspect ratio, but his will be re-

calculated by the program). A sample crack size file, Flaw Size Table.txt, was installed in the

\FlawPRO\Scenarios\ directory.

5. To add additional rows of initial crack size data, click the Add Row button once. Additional rows are always

added at the bottom of the grid. Click once in any cell of the new row and start typing data. You must type the

Crack Height and Crack Length. The crack's Aspect Ratio cannot be input; it is a computed value.

21

Exporting Initial Crack Size Distributions (Clad Pipe)

You can re-use crack size distributions that you create in one scenario analysis in other analyses by exporting the

distribution data.

1. Complete the Initial Crack Size Distribution grid in the lower portion of the Geometry window.

2. Click once on the Export to File button to the left of the grid. The Save File As dialog box appears.

3. Browse until you find the folder in which you want to save the current scenarios initial crack size distribution.

Type in the File name input box the name of the file and click the Save button.

4. Your crack size distribution data will be saved as a three-column, tab-delimited, text file.

22

Plotting Initial Crack Height Versus Length Distributions (Clad Pipe)

1. On the Geometry window, find the Initial Crack Size Distribution grid and provide distribution data.

2. Click once on the Plot h-L button in the upper middle area of the window. The Plot window appears showing

the Initial Crack Size Distribution graph.

3. This graph shows each unique combination of initial crack size height (h) and length (L) and typically has a

stair-step appearance.

4. Use the Export Plot, Print Plot and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) or a file, the printer, or to return to the

Geometry screen.

23

24

MATERIALS SCREEN

Material Properties

You must provide material properties, such as strength, toughness, stress-strain relations, and fatigue constants for the

three operating regimes applicable to the pipe. These regimes are reeling, installation fatigue, and service fatigue.

In the case of unclad pipes, only the properties of the ferritic pipe material have to be specified. In the case of clad pipes,

sets of material properties for both the ferritic and clad materials have to be specified.

Reeling and Installation (Ferritic Material)

Specifying Pipe Material Behavior for Reeling and Installation Fatigue (Ferritic Material)

To perform a FlawPRO analysis you must specify the pipes stress-strain behavior, toughness properties, and crack growth

behavior. The Material window contains these inputs.

1. Open the Material window by clicking on the Material button on the tool bar or selecting View > Material

Properties from the menu bar.

2. Find the Display Material Inputs frame at the top of the window, choose the Reeling Plus Installation Fatigue

data by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already dark, the remainder of the Material window

will now change.

3. Type in the toughness (including J-R-curve) data inputs appropriate for the Analysis Option you have selected.

The J-R curve can be specified in either of two different ways, as a bilinear curve or as a power law curve.

Click on the Plot JR Curve button to view the defined J-R curve.

4. Provide the Ramberg-Osgood equation constants or the tabular values of stress and plastic strain that define

the true stress-true strain curve of the material. The tabular form of the stress-plastic strain curve can be

imported as data contained in an existing file. Click on the Plot True Stress-Strain Curve button to view the

defined stress-strain curve.

5. Type in the coefficient, C, and exponent, m, for the reeling fatigue Paris Law equation, Or click on the Choose

From Library button to select fatigue law constants from a library of values for steel welds in various

environments derived from data given in BS 7910. Confirm your inputs by clicking on the Plot da/dN versus

Delta K button.

6. Provide threshold, low range, and high range parameters for up to three Paris crack growth equations

governing installation fatigue. You may obtain these values from a library of values for steel welds in various

environments derived from data given in BS 7910 by clicking on the Choose From Library button. Two of the

three Paris equations are relevant only to embedded flaws that transition during fatigue growth to surface flaws

on either the outer or inner pipe surface and become exposed to the environments adjacent to these surfaces.

7. Click on the Plot da/dN versus K to view the selected fatigue crack growth curves for each installation

fatigue regime (up to three if an embedded flaw transitions to surface flaw on the inner or outer pipe wall

surfaces) to confirm the crack growth behavior is what you want for this analysis.

25

Defining Pipe Weld Strength and Fracture Properties for Installation and Reeling Fatigue (Ferritic Material)

In FlawPRO, weld material properties are fundamental strength of materials and fracture mechanics properties necessary

for analysis.

1. In the Material window, find the Material Data input frame in the upper left hand corner of the window.

2. Provide the materials mechanical properties: Yield Stress, Ultimate Stress, Elastic Modulus, and Poissons

Ratio; and the fracture mechanics data: Toughness and Saturation Tear Length. Note that detailed strain-

strain behavior has to be specified in the True Stress - Strain Definition input frame.

3. Most of these inputs are constants for all types of FlawPRO analysis, but a few, such as material Toughness,

may be selected as either primary or secondary input variables. In this circumstance you must provide multiple

values for the input.

4. Find the JR-Curve input frame.

5. Establish the ductile tearing properties of the pipe by providing parameters for the JR-Curve, such as the Curve

Slope, if you adopt a Bilinear form; or the Coefficient and Exponent if you adopt a Power Law form.

6. Click on the Plot the JR Curve button to review the effect of your inputs on the ductile resistance to crack

growth.

26

Plotting The JR Curve (Ferritic Material)

The JR-curve characterizes a materials resistance to ductile tearing and is a measure of its toughness.

1. On the Material window, find the Material Data input frame. Complete all the inputs even though some of the

data are not necessary for the JR curve calculation.

2. At the bottom of the Material Data input group, click once on the Plot JR Curve button. The Plot window

appears, showing the JR Curve graph for your material inputs.

3. Use the Export Plot, Print Plot and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) or a file, the printer, or to return to the Material

screen.

27

Defining and Plotting The True Stress-Strain Relationship for Reeling and Installation (Ferritic Material)

FlawPRO provides two means to specify the true stress-true strain behavior of the welded pipe, either via a Ramberg-

Osgood equation or via a table of true stress versus true plastic strain values.:

Ramberg-Osgood Model

1. Find the True Stress Strain Definition input frame in the Material window.

2. Select the Ramberg-Osgood Equation: Constants by clicking on the circle to the left.

3. Provide the Coefficient () , the Yield (!o) and Exponent (n) by typing values in the labeled text boxes. These

terms appear in the Ramberg-Osgood equation:

n

o

o

E E

+ =

.

True Stress Plastic Strain Table

1. Find the True Stress Strain Definition input frame in the Material window.

2. Select the Tabular Values method by clicking on the circle to the left.

3. Use Add Row, Delete Row, or Import From File buttons to put true Stress and Plastic Strain data in the table

provided.

Plotting

1. You can check the stress-strain relationship you specified by plotting it. Click on the Plot True Stress Strain

Curve button.

2. The stress versus strain relation appears in the displayed graph.

28

3. Use the Export Plot, Print Plot and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) a file, the printer, or to return to the Material

screen.

TIP: If you import your data from a file, the stress-strain pairs should be separated by a delimiter: tab, comma, or space;

tabs are preferred.

TIP: You should organize your stress-strain data so that strain and strain increase monotonically from the top to the

bottom of the table.

TIP: The number of tabular entries is limited to a maximum of 100 data pairs.

Defining Reeling Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants (Ferritic Material)

In FlawPRO, you provide constants for the Paris Equation to account for low cycle fatigue due to the reeling history.

1. In the Material window, find the Display Material Inputs frame at the top of the window and choose the Reeling

Plus Installation Fatigue data by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already dark, the

remainder of the Material window will now change.

2. Find the Reeling Fatigue Constants input frame in the upper right portion of the window.

29

3. Decide if you want to choose fatigue constants from the library or provide your own parameters for this analysis.

4. To select your parameters from the library,

a. Click on the Choose From Library button. The Fatigue Library dialog box appears.

b. Choose a material / environment and click the OK button, or simply double-click on a material /

environment item in the list. Fatigue law parameters will automatically be filled in.

5. To input your own fatigue constants, you must provide the coefficient, C, and exponent, m, in accordance with

the Paris equation form

m

K C

dN

da

= .

6. If you wish to plot the variation in da/dN with !K for these inputs, click on the Plot da/dN versus Delta K

button.

30

Plotting Reeling Fatigue Paris Equations (Ferritic Material)

The Paris equation characterizes the crack growth rate per cycle in terms of the cyclic change in the stress intensity factor

between the maximum and minimum cycle.

1. On the Material window, find the Reeling Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants input frame. Complete all the

inputs.

2. At the bottom of the Reeling Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants input frame, click once on the Plot da/dN

versus Delta K button. The Plot window appears, showing the Reeling Fatigue Growth graph for your Paris

Equation inputs.

3. Use the Export Plot, Print Plot and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) a file, the printer, or to return to the Material

screen.

Defining Installation Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants (Ferritic Material)

Up to three sets of Paris Equation constants may be needed during installation fatigue to account for changes in

environment due to transitioning of embedded flaws into surface flaws. Only one set of fatigue crack growth constants are

required if either No Crack Transitioning is selected on the Options screen, or if an analysis option is selected that does not

involve transitioning, or if a surface flaw or through-thickness flaw was selected on the geometry screen.

1. In the Material window, find the Display Material Inputs frame at the top of the window and choose the Reeling

Plus Installation Fatigue data by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already dark, the

remainder of the Material window will now change.

2. Find the Installation Fatigue Constants input frames in the middle right portion of the window.

31

3. For each set of fatigue law parameters to be input, decide if you want to choose from the library of fatigue

constants or provide your own parameters for this analysis.

4. To select your parameters from the library,

a. Click on the Choose From Library button. The Fatigue Library dialog box appears.

b. Choose a material / environment and click the OK button, or simply double-click on a material /

environment item in the list. Fatigue law parameters will automatically be filled in.

32

5. To specify the fatigue constants yourself, you must provide the coefficient, C, and exponent, m, in accordance

with the Paris equation form

m

K C

dN

da

= .

6. If you wish to plot the variation in da/dN with !K for these inputs, click on the Plot da/dN versus Delta K

button.

Plotting Installation Fatigue Paris Equations (Ferritic Material)

The Paris equation characterizes the crack growth rate per cycle in terms of the cyclic change in the stress intensity factor

between the maximum and minimum cycle.

1. On the Material window, find the Installation Fatigue Constants input frame. Complete all the inputs.

2. At the bottom of the Installation Fatigue Constants input frame, click once on the Plot da/dN versus Delta K

button. The Plot window appears, showing the Installation Fatigue Growth graph for your Paris Equation

inputs.

Use the Export Plot, Print Plot and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the clipboard (for

import in other Windows-compatible application) a file, the printer, or to return to the Material screen.

33

Reeling and Installation (Clad Material)

Specifying Pipe Material Behavior for Reeling and Installation (Clad Material)

To perform a FlawPRO analysis you must specify the clad stress-strain behavior, toughness properties, and crack growth

behavior. The Material window contains these inputs.

1. Open the Material window by clicking on the Material button on the tool bar or selecting View > Material

Properties from the menu bar.

2. Find the Display Material Inputs frame at the top of the window, choose the Reeling plus Installation Fatigue

(Clad) data by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already dark, the remainder of the Material

window will now change.

3. Type in the material strength, elastic behavior, toughness (including J-R-curve) data inputs appropriate for the

Analysis Option you have selected. The J-R curve can be specified in either of two different ways, as a

bilinear curve or as a power law curve. Click on the Plot JR Curve button to view the defined J-R curve.

4. Provide the Ramberg-Osgood equation constants or the tabular values of stress and plastic strain that define

the true stress-true strain curve of the material. The tabular form of the stress-plastic strain curve can be

imported as data contained in an existing file. Click on the Plot True Stress-Strain Curve button to view the

defined stress-strain curve.

5. Type in the coefficient, C, and exponent, m, for reeling fatigue Paris Law equation. Confirm your inputs by

clicking on the Plot da/dN versus Delta K button.

6. Provide threshold, low range, and high range parameters for up to three Paris crack growth equations

governing installation fatigue. Two of the three Paris equations are relevant only to embedded flaws that

transition during fatigue growth to surface flaws on either the outer or inner pipe surface and become exposed

to the environments adjacent to these surfaces. Such equations are appropriately marked.

7. Click on the Plot da/dN versus Delta K button to view the selected fatigue crack growth curves for each

installation fatigue regime (up to three if an embedded flaw transitions to surface flaw on the inner or outer pipe

wall surfaces) to confirm the crack growth behavior is what you want for this analysis.

34

35

Defining Clad Strength and Fracture Properties for Installation Fatigue (Clad Material)

In FlawPRO, clad material properties are fundamental strength of materials and fracture mechanics properties necessary for

analysis.

1. In the Material window, find the Material Data input frame in the upper left hand corner.

2. Provide the materials mechanical properties: Yield Stress, Ultimate Stress, Elastic Modulus, and Poissons

Ratio; and the fracture mechanics data: Toughness and Saturation Tear Length. Note that detailed strain-strain

behavior has to be specified in the True Stress - Strain Definition input frame.

3. Find the JR-Curve input frame.

4. Establish the ductile tearing properties of the clad by providing parameters for the JR-Curve, such as the Curve

Slope, if you adopt a Bilinear form; or the Coefficient and Exponent if you adopt a Power Law form.

5. Click on the Plot the JR Curve button to review the effect of your inputs on the ductile resistance to crack

growth.

36

Plotting The JR Curve (Clad Material)

The JR-curve characterizes a materials resistance to ductile tearing and is a measure of its toughness.

1. On the Material window, find the Material Data input frame. Complete all the inputs even though some of the

data are not necessary for the JR curve calculation.

2. At the bottom of the Material Data input group, click once on the Plot JR Curve button. The Plot window

appears, showing the JR Curve graph for your material inputs.

3. Use the Export Plot, Print Plot and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) or a file, the printer, or to return to the Material

screen.

37

Defining and Plotting The True Stress-Strain Relationship for Reeling and Installation (Clad Material)

FlawPro provides two means to specify the true stress-true strain behavior of the welded pipe, either via a Ramberg-

Osgood equation or via a table of true stress versus true plastic strain values.

Ramberg-Osgood Model

1. Find the True Stress Strain Definition input frame in the Material window.

2. Select the Ramberg-Osgood Equation: Constants by clicking on the circle to the left.

3. Provide the Coefficient (), the Yield (!o) and Exponent (n) by typing values in the labeled text boxes. These

terms appear in the Ramberg-Osgood equation:

n

o

o

E E

+ =

True Stress Plastic Strain Table

1. Find the True Stress Strain Definition input frame in the Material window.

2. Select the Tabular Values method by clicking on the circle to the left.

3. Use Add Row, Delete Row, or Import From File buttons to put true Stress and Plastic Strain data in the table

provided.

Plotting

1. You can check the stress-strain relationship you specified by plotting it. Click on the Plot True Stress Strain

Curve button.

2. The stress versus strain relation appears in the displayed graph.

3. Use the Export Plot, Print Plot and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) a file, the printer, or to return to the Material

screen.

38

TIP: If you import your data from a file, the stress-strain pairs should be separated by a delimiter: tab, comma, or space;

tabs are preferred.

TIP: You should organize your stress-strain data so that strain and strain increase monotonically from the top to the bottom

of the table.

TIP: The number of tabular entries is limited to a maximum of 100 data pairs.

39

Defining Reeling Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants (Clad Material)

In FlawPRO, you provide constants for the Paris Equation to account for low cycle fatigue due to the reeling history.

1. In the Material window, find the Display Material Inputs frame at the top of the window and choose the Reeling

plus Installation Fatigue (Clad) data by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already dark, the

remainder of the Material window will now change.

2. Find the Reeling Fatigue Constants input frame in the upper right portion of the window.

3. If you wish to plot the variation in da/dN with K for these inputs, click on the Plot da/dN versus Delta K

button.

40

Plotting Reeling Fatigue Paris Equations (Clad Material)

The Paris equation characterizes the crack growth rate per cycle in terms of the cyclic change in the stress intensity

factor between the maximum and minimum cycle.

1. On the Material window, find the Reeling Fatigue Constants input frame. Complete all the inputs.

2. At the bottom of the Reeling Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants input frame, click once on the Plot da/dN

versus Delta K button. The Plot window appears, showing the Reeling Fatigue Growth graph for your Paris

Equation inputs.

3. Use the Export Plot, Print Plot and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) a file, the printer, or to return to the Material

screen.

TIP: Note that Reeling Fatigue Constants input frame will not be available for analysis options that do not involve reeling

effects.

41

Defining Installation Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants (Clad Material)

Up to three sets of Paris Equation constants may be needed during installation fatigue to account for changes in

environment due to transitioning of embedded flaws into surface flaws. Only one set of fatigue crack growth constants are

required if either No Crack Transitioning is selected on the Options screen, or if an analysis option is selected that does not

involve transitioning, or if a surface flaw or through-thickness flaw was selected on the Geometry screen.

1. In the Material window, find the Display Material Inputs frame at the top of the window and choose the Reeling

plus Installation Fatigue (Clad) data by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already dark, the

remainder of the Material window will now change.

2. Find the Installation Fatigue Constants input frames in the middle right portion of the window. There may be as

many as three of these.

3. If you wish to plot the variation in da/dN with K for these inputs, click on the Plot da/dN versus Delta K

button.

42

Plotting Installation Fatigue Paris Equations (Clad Material)

The Paris equation characterizes the crack growth rate per cycle in terms of the cyclic change in the stress intensity factor

between the maximum and minimum cycle.

1. On the Material window, find the Installation Fatigue Constants input frame. Complete all the inputs.

2. At the bottom of the Installation Fatigue Constants input frame, click once on the Plot da/dN versus Delta K

button. The Plot window appears, showing the Installation Fatigue Growth graph for your Paris Equation

inputs.

3. Use the Export Plot, Print Plot and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) a file, the printer, or to return to the Material

screen.

43

Service (Ferritic Material)

Specifying Pipe Material Behavior for Service Fatigue (Ferritic Material)

To perform a FlawPRO analysis you must specify the pipes strength of materials and crack growth behavior during the

service life. The Material window contains these inputs.

1. Open the Material window by clicking on the Material button on the tool bar or selecting View > Material

Properties from the menu bar.

2. Find the Display Material Inputs frame at the top of the window, choose the Service Fatigue data by darkening

the circle to the left. If this circle was not already dark, the remainder of the Material window will now change.

3. Type in the material strength, elastic behavior, toughness and stress-strain data inputs appropriate for the

Analysis Option you have selected.

4. Provide threshold, low range, and high range fatigue constants for up to three Paris crack growth equations

governing service fatigue. You may obtain these values by clicking on the Choose From Library button.

5. Plot da/dN versus Delta K for each service fatigue regime (up to three if the crack is allowed to transition to

either the inner or outer pipe wall surface) to confirm the crack growth behavior is what you want for this

analysis.

Defining Pipe Weld Strength and Fracture Properties for Service Fatigue (Ferritic Material)

In FlawPRO, weld material properties are fundamental strength of materials and fracture mechanics properties necessary

for analysis.

1. In the Material window, find the Material Data input group in the upper left hand corner of the window.

2. Provide the materials mechanical properties: Yield Stress, Ultimate Stress, Elastic Modulus, and Poissons

Ratio; and the fracture mechanics data: Toughness. Note that you also are required to specify detailed stress-

strain behavior in the True Stress - Strain Definition input frame.

3. Most of these inputs are constants for all types of FlawPRO analysis, but a few, such as material Toughness,

may be selected as either primary or secondary input variables. In this circumstance you must provide multiple

values for the input.

44

Defining and Plotting The True Stress-Strain Relationship for Service (Ferritic Material)

FlawPRO provides two means to specify the true stress-true strain behavior of the welded pipe, either via a Ramberg-

Osgood equation or via a table of true stress versus true plastic strain values.

Ramberg-Osgood Model

1. Find the True Stress Strain Definition input frame in the Material window.

2. Select the Ramberg-Osgood Equation: Constants by clicking on the circle to the left.

3. Provide the Coefficient (), the Yield (!o) and Exponent (n) by typing values in the labeled text boxes. These

terms appear in the Ramberg-Osgood equation:

n

o

o

E E

+ =

.

True Stress Plastic Strain Table

1. Find the True Stress Strain Definition input frame in the Material window.

2. Select the Tabular Values method by clicking on the circle to the left.

3. Use Add Row, Delete Row, or Import From File buttons to put true Stress and Plastic Strain data in the table

provided.

Plotting

1. You can check the stress-strain relationship you specified by plotting it. Click on the Plot True Stress Strain

Curve button.

2. The stress versus plastic strain relation appears in the displayed graph.

3. Use the Export Plot, Print Plot and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) a file, the printer, or to return to the Material

screen.

45

TIP: If you import your data from a file, the stress-strain pairs should be separated by a delimiter: tab, comma, or space;

tabs are preferred.

TIP: You should organize your stress-strain data so that strain and strain increase monotonically from the top to the bottom

of the table.

TIP: The number of entries in the stress-strain table is limited to a maximum of 100.

Defining Service Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants (Ferritic Material)

Up to three sets of Paris Equation constants may be needed during service fatigue to account for changes in environment

due to transitioning of embedded flaws into surface flaws. Only one set of fatigue crack growth constants are required if

either No Crack Transitioning is selected on the Options screen, or if an analysis option is selected that does not involve

transitioning, or if a surface flaw or through-thickness flaw was selected on the geometry screen.

1. In the Material window, find the Display Material Inputs frame at the top of the window and choose the Service

Fatigue data by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already dark, the remainder of the Material

window will now change.

2. Find the Service Fatigue Constants input frame in the upper right portion of the window. You may have to

provide as many as three sets of fatigue parameters for embedded flaws to allow for crack transitioning.

3. Decide if you want to choose from a library of fatigue constants or provide your own parameters for this

analysis.

46

4. To use the library values,

a. Click on the Choose From Library button. The Fatigue Library dialog box appears.

b. Choose a material / environment and click the OK button, or simply double-click on a material /

environment item in the list. Fatigue law parameters will automatically be filled in.

5. If you specify your own fatigue constants, you must provide the coefficient, A, and exponent, n, in accordance

with the Paris equation form

n

K A

dN

da

= .

6. If you wish to plot the variation in da/dN with delta K for these inputs, click on the Plot da/dN versus Delta K

button.

Plotting The Service Fatigue Paris Equations (Ferritic Material)

The Paris equation characterizes the crack growth rate per cycle in terms of the cyclic change in the stress intensity factor

between the maximum and minimum load of a cycle.

47

1. On the Material window, find the Service Fatigue Constants input frame. Complete all the inputs for up to three

different crack growth regimes.

2. At the bottom of the set of fatigue parameter inputs find and click once on the Plot da/dN versus Delta K

button. The Plot window appears, showing the Service Fatigue Growth graph for your Paris Equation inputs.

3. Use the Export Plot, Print Plot and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) or a file, the printer, or to return to the Material

screen.

48

Service (Clad Material)

Specifying Pipe Material Behavior for Service Fatigue (Clad Material)

To perform a FlawPRO analysis you must specify the clads strength of materials and crack growth behavior during the

service life. The Material window contains these inputs.

1. Open the Material window by clicking on the Material button on the tool bar or selecting View > Material

Properties from the menu bar.

2. Find the Display Material Inputs frame at the top of the window, choose the Service Fatigue (Clad) data by

darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already dark, the remainder of the Material window will now

change.

3. Type in material strength, elastic behavior, toughness and stress-strain data inputs appropriate for the Analysis

Option you have selected.

4. Provide threshold, low range, and high range parameters for up to three Paris crack growth equations

governing service fatigue.

5. Plot da/dN versus Delta K for each service fatigue regime (up to three if the crack is allowed to transition to

either the inner or outer pipe wall surface) to confirm the crack growth behavior is what you want for this

analysis.

49

Defining Clad Strength and Fracture Properties for Service Fatigue (Clad Material)

In FlawPRO, clad material properties are fundamental strength of materials and fracture mechanics properties necessary for

analysis.

1. In the Material window, find the Material Data input group in the upper left hand corner of the window.

2. Provide the materials mechanical properties: Yield Stress, Ultimate Stress, Elastic Modulus, and Poissons

Ratio; and the fracture mechanics data: Toughness. Note that you are also required to specify detailed stress-

strain behavior in the True Stress - Strain Definition input frame.

50

Defining and Plotting The True Stress-Strain Relationship for Service (Clad Material)

FlawPro provides two means to specify the true stress-true strain behavior of the welded pipe, either via a Ramberg-

Osgood equation or via a table of true stress versus true plastic strain values.

Ramberg-Osgood Model

1. Find the True Stress Strain Definition input frame in the Material window.

2. Select the Ramberg-Osgood Equation: Constants by clicking on the circle to the left.

3. Provide the Coefficient (), the Yield (!o) and Exponent (n) by typing values in the labeled text boxes. These

terms appear in the Ramberg-Osgood equation:

n

o

o

E E

+ =

True Stress Plastic Strain Table

1. Find the True Stress Strain Definition input frame in the Material window.

2. Select the Tabular Values method by clicking on the circle to the left.

3. Use Add Row, Delete Row, or Import From File buttons to put true Stress and Plastic Strain data in the table

provided.

Plotting

1. You can check the stress-strain relationship you specified by plotting it. Click on the Plot True Stress Strain

Curve button.

2. The stress versus plastic strain relation appears in the displayed graph.

3. Use the Export Plot, Print Plot and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) a file, the printer, or to return to the Material

screen.

TIP: If you import your data from a file, the stress-strain pairs should be separated by a delimiter: tab, comma, or space;

tabs are preferred.

TIP: You should organize your stress-strain data so that strain and strain increase monotonically from the top to the bottom

of the table.

TIP: The number of entries in the stress-strain table is limited to a maximum of 100.

51

Defining Service Fatigue: Paris Equation Constants (Clad Material)

Up to three sets of Paris Equation constants may be needed during service fatigue to account for changes in environment

due to transitioning of embedded flaws into surface flaws. Only one set of fatigue crack growth constants are required if

either No Crack Transitioning is selected on the Options screen, or if an analysis option is selected that does not involve

transitioning, or if a surface flaw or through-thickness flaw was selected on the Geometry screen.

1. In the Material window, find the Display Material Inputs frame at the top of the window and choose the Service

Fatigue (Clad) data by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already dark, the remainder of the

Material window will now change.

2. Find the Service Fatigue Constants input frame in the upper right portion of the window. You may have to

provide as many as three sets of fatigue parameters for embedded flaws to allow for crack transitioning.

3. If you wish to plot the variation in da/dN with delta K for these inputs, click on the Plot da/dN versus Delta K

button.

52

Plotting The Service Fatigue Paris Equations (Clad Material)

The Paris equation characterizes the crack growth rate per cycle in terms of the cyclic change in the stress intensity

factor between the maximum and minimum load of a cycle.

1. On the Material window, find the Service Fatigue Constants input frame. Complete all the inputs for up to three

different crack growth regimes.

2. At the bottom of the set of fatigue parameter inputs find and click once on the Plot da/dN versus Delta K

button. The Plot window appears, showing the Service Fatigue Growth graph for your Paris Equation inputs.

3. Use the Export Plot, Print Plot and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) or a file, the printer, or to return to the Material

screen.

TIP: Note that Service Fatigue Constants input group will not be available for analysis options that do not involve the pipe

service history.

53

LOADS SCREEN

Defining Pipe Loads

Use the Loading window to specify the three types of pipe axial loads and their corresponding spatial stress variations that

are accounted for in FlawPRO during reeling, installation and service. The three types of loads may be roughly classified as

reeling loads, installation fatigue loads (which are cyclic) and service fatigue loads (which are cyclic). Each type of load can

be resolved into membrane and bending components. Superposed on these loads may be static residual stresses that

arise from the reeling process or are present due to welding. The stress variations through the pipe wall that arise due to

each load are influenced by local stress concentration factors due to geometrical discontinuities at the caps and roots of

welds, and by pipe axial misalignments.

Not all of these loads and their defining inputs are required for all analysis options.

1. To define pre-strain and/or reeling residual stresses which arise from pipe reeling, you must either specify the

pre-strain magnitude directly or indicate the spool OD from which a pre-strain will be estimated. You might

need also to specify how many pre-service reels occur in your analysis scenario.

2. You can define pipe installation fatigue loads which can arise because the pipe hangs overboard for some time

during installation and prior to entering service and is subjected to wave-induced loads. You can scale the

fatigue spectrum that corresponds to the installation loading. If you are computing final crack size, lifetime, or

critical crack length you must also specify the worst case stresses that can occur during installation.

3. To define the pipe service fatigue loads, you must supply a service spectrum. You can scale this spectrum. If

you are computing final crack size, lifetime, or critical crack length you must also specify the worst case

stresses that can occur during service, and, if pre-service reeling does not occur, the value of the residual

welding stresses.

4. The actual stress variations induced in a pipe wall by tensile and bending loads can be complex due to the

presence of geometrical discontinuities associated with weld caps and roots. Furthermore, tensile loads

combined with axial misalignments between adjacent welded pipe sections can produce additional bending. To

allow for these effects, the user is required to define normalized stress variations through the pipe wall that

correspond to tensile and bending loads. If no geometrical discontinuities are present at a pipe weld then a

tensile load would induce a uniform axial stress and a bending moment would induce a linear variation in stress

through the pipe wall. The actual normalized stress variations corresponding to tensile and bending loads can

either be input in tabular form or derived within FlawPRO using stress intensity factor magnification factors for 2-

D cracks given in section M.5.1.2 of BS 7910. These magnification factors are functions of the weld cap and

root widths. The user has to provide a misalignment bend stress factor to allow for the effects of axial

misalignment.

Reeling and Installation

Defining Reeling Loads

Reeling loads are estimated in FlawPRO from a combination of inputs: the strain imposed during reeling and the number of

pre-service reels that occur. Not all analyses require both inputs.

For Analysis Options 2, 6 and 9, where you compute either lifetime or a final crack size or a maximum allowable initial flaw

size in a pipe subjected to pre-service reels, you must:

Specify in the Reeling Strain input frame, the reeling Pre-Strain or Spool OD (which is used to compute an

estimate of pre-strain), and

Specify in the Reeling History input group, the Pre-Service: Number of Reels, and finally,

Specify in the Reeling Load Type frame whether the load type is Strain Control or Load Control.

For Analysis Option 4, where you compute the number of pre-service reels possible (Reeling Life) for an existing crack you

must

Specify in the Reeling Strain input frame, the reeling Pre-Strain or Spool OD and

Specify in the Reeling Load Type frame whether the load type is Strain Control or Load Control.

For Analysis Option 7, where you compute the final crack size resulting from a specified number of pre-service reels, you

must

54

Specify in the Reeling Strain input frame, the reeling Pre-Strain or Spool OD, and

Specify in the Reeling History input frame, the Pre-Service: Number of Reels and, finally,

Specify in the Reeling Load Type frame whether the load type is Strain Control or Load Control.

Defining The Pipe Installation Fatigue Spectrum

The pipe installation spectrum is required for analysis options 2, 6, and 9. The installation spectrum consists of load blocks

that are comprised of the minimum and maximum values of the membrane and pipe bend stresses, respectively, together

with the number of cycles these stresses are applied.

You may directly enter Installation Fatigue Spectrum values, or import them from a file with the correct data format.

55

Typing Installation Spectrum Values

1. Open the Loads window by clicking on the Loading button on the tool bar or selecting View > Loading from

the menu bar.

2. In the top of the Loads window, find the Display Loading Inputs area. Select the Loading (Reeling plus

Installation Fatigue) option by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already darkened, the bottom

portion of the Loads window will change.

3. A default installation history may be shown in the Installation Fatigue Spectrum grid.

4. To accept the default data, do nothing. To delete the default history, click once on any cell in the default data

row and then click on the Delete button to the left of the grid, or use the Delete All Rows button to delete all

values in the grid. To type over the default data, click once on any cell in a row. The entire cell contents should

be highlighted. Start typing your new data.

5. To add additional rows of installation spectrum data, click the Add Row button once. Additional rows are

always added at the bottom of the grid. Click once in any cell of the new row and start typing data. You must

type the Minimum Stress (Membrane), Minimum Stress (Pipe Bend) Maximum Stress (Membrane), Maximum

Stress (Pipe Bend), and Number of Cycles. You may have up to 200 rows of installation history data.

Importing Installation Spectrum Values From A File

1. Open the Loads window by clicking on the Loading button on the tool bar or selecting View > Loading from

the menu bar.

2. In the top of the Loads window, find the Display Loading Inputs area. Select the Loading (Reeling plus

Installation Fatigue) option by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already darkened, the bottom

portion of the Loads window will change.

3. In the top of the Loads window, find the Installation Fatigue Spectrum grid. A default installation history may be

shown in the grid.

4. Click once on the Import From File button to the left of the grid. The Select File dialog box appears. Browse

around until you find the folder containing the installation spectrum file that you want to import. Highlight the file

name and click on the Open button at the bottom right of the dialog box.

5. The installation spectrum data will be imported into the existing grid. If you already have data in the grid, the

imported data will be appended to the existing grid data. If you have no data (blank rows) then the imported

data will be imported and the blank rows deleted.

6. The installation spectrum file you import must be in space-delimited, tab-delimited, or comma-delimited format

and contain the installation spectrums Minimum Stress (Membrane), Minimum Stress (Pipe Bend) Maximum

Stress (Membrane), Maximum Stress (Pipe Bend), and Number of Cycles. A sample history file, Load

Spectrum Table.txt, was installed in the \FlawPRO \Scenarios\ directory.

7. To add additional rows of installation spectrum data, click the Add Row button once. Additional rows are

always added at the bottom of the grid. Click once in any cell of the new row and start typing data.

56

Scaling the Pipe Installation Spectrum

If you wish to adjust the load history provided in the Installation Fatigue Spectrum grid, you may do so by automatically

scaling the means and/or the cyclic ranges of the stress values and/or the number of cycles in the spectrum. Use the

Spectrum Scale Factors input frame in the lower right corner of the window:

1. To increase or decrease the range between minimum and maximum stresses in all load steps by the same

proportional amount, adjust the Range Scale Factor. Values greater than 1.0 will increase the range between

minimum and maximum stress; values less than 1.0 will decrease the range. The mean stress values are not

changed when this factor is changed.

2. To adjust the mean stress of every load step by the same proportional amount, adjust the Mean Stress, SF

(Scale Factor). Values greater than 1.0 will increase the mean of the minimum and maximum stress; values

less than 1.0 will decrease the mean. The range of stress for any load step is not changed when this factor is

changed.

3. If you wish to increase the numbers of cycles in each load step (horizontal row of the grid) you may supply the

Cycles factor. The number of cycles in each load step will be multiplied by this value, causing the total number

of cycles in the spectrum to be multiplied by this value.

4. It is good practice to review your revised spectrum by clicking on the Show Scaled Spectrum button. This

displays the results of all spectrum scaling factors you have currently implemented.

Displaying The Scaled Installation Spectrum

1. Open the Loads window by clicking on the Loading button on the tool bar or selecting View > Loading from

the menu bar.

57

2. In the top of the Loads window, find the Display Loading Inputs area. Select the Loading (Reeling plus

Installation Fatigue) option by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already darkened, the bottom

portion of the Loads window will change.

3. Find the Spectrum Scale Factors input frame.

4. Click once on the Show Scale Spectrum button. The Scaled Service Spectrum window appears showing the

scaled service spectrum, accounting for range, mean stress and cycles scale factors.

5. Use the Export Grid, Print Grid and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) or a file, the printer, or to return to the Loading

screen.

Specifying the Worst Case Installation Stress

1. Open the Loads window by clicking on the Loading button on the tool bar or selecting View > Loading from

the menu bar.

2. In the top of the Loads window, find the Display Loading Inputs area. Select the Loading (Reeling plus

Installation Fatigue) option by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already darkened, the bottom

portion of the Loads window will change.

3. For Analysis Options 2, 6, and 9 (i.e. analyses involving installation), you must indicate the worst case

installation stresses. Find the Worst Case Installation Stress input area just below the left corner of the

Installation Fatigue Spectrum grid.

4. Type in a Membrane, Pipe Bend values. The membrane and bending stress values should be in excess of or

equal to the maximum stress of the same type found in the installation spectrum.

58

Service

Defining The Pipe Service Fatigue Spectrum

The pipe service spectrum is required for analysis options 1 and 2 (lifetime analyses), 5 and 6 (final crack size analyses),

and 8 and 9 (max allowable initial flaws).

You may directly enter Service Fatigue Spectrum values, or import them from a file with the correct data format.

Typing Service Spectrum Values

1. Open the Loads window by clicking on the Loading button on the tool bar or selecting View > Loading from

the menu bar.

2. In the top of the Loads window, find the Display Loading Inputs area. Select the Loading (Service Fatigue)

option by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already darkened, the bottom portion of the

Loads window will change.

3. A default service history may be shown in the Service Fatigue Spectrum grid.

4. To accept the default data, do nothing. To delete the default history, click once on any cell in the default data

row and then click on the Delete button to the left of the grid, or use the Delete All Rows button to delete all

values in the grid. To type over the default data, click once on any cell in a row. The entire cell contents should

be highlighted. Start typing your new data.

5. To add additional rows of service spectrum data, click the Add Row button once. Additional rows are always

added at the bottom of the grid. Click once in any cell of the new row and start typing data. You must type the

Minimum Stress (Membrane), Minimum Stress (Pipe Bend) Maximum Stress (Membrane), Maximum Stress

(Pipe Bend), and Number of Cycles. You may have up to 200 rows of service history data.

59

Importing Service Spectrum Values From A File

1. Open the Loads window by clicking on the Loading button on the tool bar or selecting View > Loading from

the menu bar.

2. In the top of the Loads window, find the Display Loading Inputs area. Select the Loading (Service Fatigue)

option by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already darkened, the bottom portion of the

Loads window will change.

3. In the top of the Loads window, find the Service Fatigue Spectrum grid. A default service history may be shown

in the grid.

4. Click once on the Import From File button to the left of the grid. The Select File dialog box appears. Browse

around until you find the folder containing the service spectrum file that you want to import. Highlight the file

name and click on the Open button at the bottom right of the dialog box.

5. The service spectrum data will be imported into the existing grid. If you already have data in the grid, the

imported data will be appended to the existing grid data. If you have no data (blank rows) then the imported

data will be imported and the blank rows deleted.

6. The service spectrum file you import must be in space-delimited, tab-delimited, or comma-delimited format and

contain the service spectrums Minimum Stress (Membrane), Minimum Stress (Pipe Bend) Maximum Stress

(Membrane), Maximum Stress (Pipe Bend), and Number of Cycles. A sample history file, Load Spectrum

Table.txt, was installed in the \FlawPRO \Scenarios\ directory.

7. To add additional rows of service spectrum data, click the Add Row button once. Additional rows are always

added at the bottom of the grid. Click once in any cell of the new row and start typing data.

Scaling the Pipe Service Spectrum

If you wish to adjust the load history provided in the Service Fatigue Spectrum grid, ,you may do so by automatically scaling

the means and/or the cyclic ranges of the stress values in the spectrum and/or scaling the cycles. Use the Spectrum Scale

Factors input frame in the lower right corner of the window:

1. To increase or decrease the range between minimum and maximum stresses in all load steps by the same

proportional amount, adjust the Range Scale Factor. Values greater than 1.0 will increase the range between

minimum and maximum stress; values less than 1.0 will decrease the range. The mean stress values are not

changed when this factor is changed.

2. To adjust the mean stress of every load step by the same proportional amount, adjust the Mean Stress, SF

(Scale Factor). Values greater than 1.0 will increase the mean of the minimum and maximum stress; values

less than 1.0 will decrease the mean. The range of stress for any load step is not changed when this factor is

changed.

3. If you wish to increase the numbers of cycles in each load step (horizontal row of the grid) you may supply the

Cycles factor. The number of cycles in each load step will be multiplied by this value, causing the total number

of cycles in the spectrum to be multiplied by this value.

60

4. It is good practice to review your revised spectrum by clicking on the Show Scaled Spectrum button. This

displays the results of all spectrum scaling factors you have currently implemented.

Displaying The Scaled Service Spectrum

1. Open the Loads window by clicking on the Loading button on the tool bar or selecting View > Loading from

the menu bar.

2. In the top of the Loads window, find the Display Loading Inputs area. Select the Loading (Service Fatigue)

option by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already darkened, the bottom portion of the

Loads window will change.

3. Find the Spectrum Scale Factors input group.

4. Click once on the Show Scale Spectrum button. The Scaled Service Spectrum window appears showing the

scaled service spectrum, accounting for range, mean stress and cycles scale factors.

5. Use the Export Grid, Print Grid and Close buttons at the bottom of the graph to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) or a file, the printer, or to return to the Loading

screen.

61

Specifying the Number of Service Periods

1. When you wish to compute a final crack size (Analysis Options 5 and 6) or a maximum allowable initial flaw size

(Options 8 and 9), you must specify the number of service periods for which the service spectrum will be

applied.

2. In the Worst Case Service Stress input frame at the lower left portion of the Loads window, type the number of

Service Periods to be used to compute the final crack size. You may be required to provide multiple period

values if Service Period is an SIV.

62

Specifying the Worst Case Service Stress

1. Open the Loads window by clicking on the Loading button on the tool bar or selecting View > Loading from

the menu bar.

2. In the top of the Loads window, find the Display Loading Inputs area. Select the Loading (Service Fatigue)

option by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not already darkened, the bottom portion of the

Loads window will change.

3. For Analysis Options 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9 (i.e. analyses involving lifetime, final crack size, critical crack size or

maximum allowable initial flaw size as the DV), you must indicate the worst case service stresses. Find the

Worst Case Service Stress input area just below the left corner of the Service Fatigue Spectrum grid.

4. Type in a Membrane, Pipe Bend, and if enabled, a Residual Stress value. The membrane and bending stress

values should be in excess of or equal to the maximum stress of the same type found in the service spectrum.

Weld Geometrical Discontinuities

The membrane and bending stresses provided by the user in the definition of installation and service load spectra and worst

case stresses do not necessarily reflect the actual local stress variations in a pipe wall. This is because weld caps and

roots can produce geometrical discontinuities that generate local stress concentrations. To allow for these and other stress

gradients in FlawPRO, the user specifies normalized stress variations corresponding to remotely applied unit membrane

and bending stresses. The stress variations used in FlawPRO calculations are the localized normalized stress variations

scaled by the actual remotely applied membrane and bending stresses.

Bend stresses may be induced in a pipe weld by membrane stressing if there is an axial misalignment between adjacent

sections of welded pipe. The effects of misalignment are allowed for through a misalignment bend stress factor, SCFmisalign.

A unit membrane stress will result in a bending stress from misalignment equal to SCFmisalign-1. This misalignment bend

stress is calculated automatically in FlawPRO from the membrane stress and the user provided value for SCFmisalign.

Because of the geometrical nature of misalignment it could change the stress concentrations at weld cap and root

discontinuities compared to the stress concentrations at these discontinuities absent misalignment. The user can provide a

normalized stress variation that allows for these geometrical misalignment effects. This normalized stress variation due to a

misalignment geometrical discontinuity should not include the misalignment bend stress factor.

63

Defining Normalized Membrane Stress Due to Weld Discontinuity

You can specify the normalized membrane stresses arising from a weld geometrical discontinuity at the weld cap or weld

root in two ways, either by providing a table of normalized stress against normalized distance through the pipe wall or by

using the weld cap or root width. In the latter case, the normalized stress variation is derived from stress intensity factor

magnification factors for 2-D flaws given in BS 7910.

Use Weld Details and BS 7910

1. Open the Loads window by clicking on the Loading button on the tool bar or selecting View > Loading from

the menu bar.

2. In the top of the Loads window, find the Display Loading Inputs area. Select the Loading (Normalized Stress

Variations due to Geometrical Discontinuities) option by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not

already darkened, the bottom portion of the Loads window will change.

3. Find the Normalized Membrane Stress Variation due to Weld Geometrical Discontinuity input frame. Darken

the circle to the left of Use Weld Details and BS 7910.

4. Using the picture of a typical weld detail shown in the right side of the Loads window, find the Weld Details

input frame above it. Type in the Cap Width and Root Width dimensions.

5. To confirm the membrane stress variation, click on the Plot Stress button found in the Normalized Membrane

Stress Variation due to Weld Geometrical Discontinuity input frame.

64

Input Tabular Values

1. Open the Loads window by clicking on the Loading button on the tool bar or selecting View > Loading from

the menu bar.

2. In the top of the Loads window, find the Display Loading Inputs area. Select the Loading (Normalized Stress

Variations due to Geometrical Discontinuities) option by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not

already darkened, the bottom portion of the Loads window will change.

3. Find the Normalized Membrane Stress Variation due to Weld Geometrical Discontinuity input group. Darken

the circle to the left of Input Tabular Values.

4. Use Add Row, Delete Row, or Import From File buttons to put normalized membrane stress and normalized

through-thickness, x/t, location data in the table provided.

5. To confirm the membrane stress variation, click on the Plot Stress button found in the Normalized Membrane

Stress Variation due to Weld Geometrical Discontinuity input frame.

Defining Normalized Pipe Bend Stress Due to Weld Discontinuity

You can specify the normalized pipe bend stresses arising from a weld geometrical discontinuity at the weld cap or weld

root in two ways, either by providing a table of normalized stress against normalized distance through the pipe wall or by

using the weld cap or root width. In the latter case, the normalized stress variation is derived from stress intensity factor

magnification factors for 2-D flaws given in BS 7910.

65

Use Weld Details and BS 7910

1. Open the Loads window by clicking on the Loading button on the tool bar or selecting View > Loading from

the menu bar.

2. In the top of the Loads window, find the Display Loading Inputs area. Select the Loading (Normalized Stress

Variations due to Geometrical Discontinuities) option by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not

already darkened, the bottom portion of the Loads window will change.

3. Find the Normalized Pipe Bend Stress Variation due to Weld Geometrical Discontinuity input frame. Darken the

circle to the left of Use Weld Details and BS 7910.

4. Using the picture of a typical weld detail shown in the right side of the Loads window, find the Weld Details

input group above it. Type in the Cap Width and Root Width dimensions.

5. To confirm the bending stress variation, click on the Plot Stress button found in the Normalized Pipe Bend

Stress Variation due to Weld Geometrical Discontinuity input group.

Input Tabular Values

1. Open the Loads window by clicking on the Loading button on the tool bar or selecting View > Loading from

the menu bar.

2. In the top of the Loads window, find the Display Loading Inputs area. Select the Loading (Normalized Stress

Variations due to Geometrical Discontinuities) option by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not

already darkened, the bottom portion of the Loads window will change.

66

3. Find the Normalized Pipe Bend Stress Variation due to Weld Geometrical Discontinuity input frame. Darken the

circle to the left of Input Tabular Values.

4. Use Add Row, Delete Row, or Import From File buttons to put normalized bending stress and normalized

through-thickness, x/t, location data in the table provided.

5. To confirm the bending stress variation, click on the Plot Stress button found in the Normalized Pipe Bend

Stress Variation due to Weld Geometrical Discontinuity input frame.

Defining Normalized Stress Due to Misalignment Discontinuity

The normalized stress variation due to misalignment geometrical discontinuity is specified in a table of normalized stress

against normalized distance through the pipe wall.

Input Tabular Values

1. Open the Loads window by clicking on the Loading button on the tool bar or selecting View > Loading from

the menu bar.

2. In the top of the Loads window, find the Display Loading Inputs area. Select the Loading (Normalized Stress

Variations due to Geometrical Discontinuities) option by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not

already darkened, the bottom portion of the Loads window will change.

3. Find the Normalized Stress Variation due to Misalignment Geometrical Discontinuity input frame. Darken the

circle to the left of Input Tabular Values.

4. Use Add Row, Delete Row, or Import From File buttons to put normalized misalignment stress and

normalized through-thickness, x/t, location data in the table provided.

5. To confirm the membrane stress variation, click on the Plot Stress button found in the Normalized Stress

Variation due to Misalignment Geometrical Discontinuity input frame.

Defining Weld Details for BS 7910 Stress Calculations

BS 7910 provides stress intensity factor magnification factors for 2-D flaws at weld geometrical discontinuities. These

solutions are a function of the weld width and pipe thickness. FlawPRO uses these solutions to derive a stress variation

through the pipe wall by setting the weld width to either the weld cap width or the weld root width and inverting the weight

function method employed in FlawPRO to calculate stress intensity factors (SIFs) so that the SIFs are input as data and the

stress variation corresponding to this input is derived. The user has to input the appropriate weld details (cap and root

width) following the procedure described below in order to take advantage of this facility.

1. Open the Loads window by clicking on the Loading button on the tool bar or selecting View > Loading from

the menu bar.

2. In the top of the Loads window, find the Display Loading Inputs area. Select the Loading (Normalized Stress

Variations due to Geometrical Discontinuities) option by darkening the circle to the left. If this circle was not

already darkened, the bottom portion of the Loads window will change.

3. Find the stress input frame (membrane or pipe bend stress) for which you want to use BS 7910. In the input

frame, find and darken the circle to the left of Use Weld Details and BS 7910.

67

4. Using the picture of a typical weld detail shown in the right side of the Loads window, find the Weld Details

input frame above it. Type in the Cap Width and Root Width dimensions.

5. To confirm the normalized stress variation, click on the Plot Stress button found in the stress input group

(membrane or pipe bend stress) for which you used BS 7910.

68

CALCULATION AND RESULTS SCREEN

Analyzing and Generating Line Plots

Results of calculations for each of the nine Analysis Options are shown as plots in the Analysis Results window.

1. To create line plots of the calculated results, select either Calculate from the menu bar, or click on the

Calculate button on the tool bar. Alternatively, if results have been previously computed, choose either View >

Results from the menu bar, or choose the Results button on the tool bar.

2. When you choose either Calculate from the menu bar, or click on the Calculate button on the tool bar, the

progress of the calculations is shown in the status line immediately below the tool bar.

3. When calculations are complete, the Analysis Results window appears. This window has three sections: the

line plots at the top, an Error Messages memo box in the middle, and a short summary of Calculation

Parameters/Results Table at the bottom.

4. Plots may be either exported to the clipboard (for use in other Windows-compatible applications) or to a file, or

they may be printed. To export plots, click on the Export Plot button; to print them, click on the Print Plot

button.

5. If you wish to enlarge the line plot, click on the Maximize button. Press the Esc (Escape) button on your

keyboard to return to Analysis Results window.

Creating A Damage History

For Analysis Options 1,2, 5, 6, 8 and 9 you can create a damage history. The damage history bar chart indicates which

load steps contributed significant fatigue crack growth damage during the service life of the pipe.

1. For your selected Analysis Option, calculate results by either selecting Calculate from the menu, or clicking on

the Calculate button on the tool bar. The Analysis Results window will appear.

2. Using the left mouse button, click on any data point shown on the line plot. (A right mouse click will give you a

menu of line plot display options.) The Choose Result to Chart dialog box appears.

3. Select the line plots data point for which you want the damage histogram. The default, shown in the Results

text box at the top of the dialog box, is the closest data point to your mouse click.

4. If your analysis involved crack transitioning, click on one of the Available Modes for which you want the damage

histogram. If your analysis did not include crack transition effects, no crack modes will be shown.

5. The histogram includes one bar for each load step that contributes significantly to the total pipe damage. Thus,

if you type in the Number of Bars to Plot input box "1", the load step with the highest damage contribution will be

shown. If you input "2", the first and second highest damage load steps will be shown, and so on. The default is

twenty-five. If you ask for more bars than load steps, all load steps will be displayed on the histogram.

6. Click the Show Bar Chart button; the Plot window appears with a damage histogram for the selected data

point. If you selected to show five bars in your damage history, then (so long as you had at least five load steps

in your service spectrum), the five most damaging load steps are shown in the plot. The height of each bar

indicates the damage produced by the load step during all service periods.

7. You can export and print this plot.

8. To return to the Analysis Results window, click on Close button.

Using The Error Messages Memo

Please complete and send in an Error Report Form if you receive any errors from the FlawPRO analysis routines. The error

messages will appear in the Analysis Results window immediately below the line plots.

Warnings and Errors

FlawPRO makes many checks on your inputs and during the calculation process. Results of these checks appear as

warning or error messages on the Analysis Results window in the Error Messages memo box. A summary of warning and

error messages is given below.

69

Screen Description ErrorText WarningText

Geometry

AspectRatio (This is not an

input, it is calculated)

WARNING: The crack length

will be re-characterized so

as to not violate the

condition: crack depth

divided by crack length [IF

CLOPT<2] exceeding 1

[ELSE] exceeding 2

Geometry CrackHeight, H

ERROR: crack height less

than or equal to 0 or greater

than 90% of the wall

thickness or, for embedded

flaws, is too large for the

specified offset distance

Geometry CrackLength, L

ERROR: crack length less

than or equal to 0 or greater

than 90% of the mean

circumference of the pipe

Geometry OD

ERROR: outside diameter

less than twice wall

thickness

Geometry w (pipe thickness)

ERROR: wall thickness zero

or negative

Geometry Y (crack offset)

ERROR: flaw offset less

than 0.0555 times the

embedded flaw height or

greater than the wall

thickness minus 1.0555

times the flaw height

Loading Cap Length

ERROR: weld cap length

less than 0

WARNING: weld cap length

less than weld root length

Loading

InstallSpec Col 1 Min Stress:

Membrane

ERROR: minimum stress

less than minus ultimate

stress plus pipe bend stress

or greater than ultimate

stress minus pipe bend

stress

Loading

InstallSpec Col 2 Min Stress:

PipeBend

ERROR: minimum stress

less than minus ultimate

stress plus membrane stress

or greater than ultimate

stress minus membrane

stress

Loading

InstallSpec Col 3 Max Stress:

Membrane

ERROR: maximum stress

less than 0 or greater than

the ultimate stress minus

pipe bend stress

Loading

InstallSpec Col 4 Max Stress:

PipeBend

ERROR: maximum stress

less than 0 or greater than

the ultimate stress minus

membrane stress

Loading InstallSpec Col 5 Num Cycles

ERROR: number of cycles

less than zero or greater

than 1E+12

70

Loading Lifetime

ERROR: Years must be

greater than zero and less

than 1001

Loading

MemStressSpec Col 1 Min

Stress: Membrane

ERROR: x/t (membrane

stress) either less than 0 or

greater than 1

Loading Misalignment SCF

ERROR: misalignment SCF

less than 1

WARNING: misalignment

SCF greater than 2

Loading

PipeStressSpec Col 1 Min

Stress: Membrane

ERROR: x/t (pipe bend

stress) either less than 0 or

greater than 1

Loading Pre-Strain

ERROR: prestrain less than

0% or greater than 10%

WARNING: prestrain less

than 0.1% or greater than

5%

Loading PS_NR Number of Reels

ERROR: number of pre-

service reels less than 0 or

greater than 100

Loading Residual Stress

ERROR: Residual stress

less than 0 or exceeds the

ultimate stress

WARNING: Residual stress

exceeds the yield stress

Loading Root Length

ERROR: weld root length

less than 0

WARNING: weld root length

greater than weld cap length

Loading

RSF Range Scale Factor

(install)

ERROR: cyclic stress range

factor less or equal to 0 or

greater than 10

WARNING: cyclic stress

range factor less 0.25 or

greater 4

Loading

RSF Range Scale Factor

(service)

ERROR: cyclic stress range

factor less or equal to 0 or

greater than 10

WARNING: cyclic stress

range factor less 0.25 or

greater 4

Loading Service Periods

ERROR: Years must be

greater than zero and less

than 1001

Loading

ServiceSpec Col 1 Min Stress:

Membrane

ERROR: minimum stress

less than minus ultimate

stress plus pipe bend stress

or greater than ultimate

stress minus pipe bend

stress

Loading

ServiceSpec Col 2 Min Stress:

PipeBend

ERROR: minimum stress

less than minus ultimate

stress plus membrane stress

or greater than ultimate

stress minus membrane

stress

Loading

ServiceSpec Col 3 Max Stress:

Membrane

ERROR: maximum stress

less than 0 or greater than

the ultimate stress minus

pipe bend stress

Loading

ServiceSpec Col 4 Max Stress:

PipeBend

ERROR: maximum stress

less than 0 or greater than

the ultimate stress minus

membrane stress

Loading ServiceSpec Col 5 Num Cycles

ERROR: number of cycles

less than zero or greater

71

than 1E+12

Loading SF Cycles Factor (install)

ERROR: cycles factor less

than 0

Loading SF Cycles Factor (service)

ERROR: cycles factor less

than 0

Loading SF Mean Stress, SF (install)

ERROR: mean stress factor

less -1 or greater than 10

WARNING: mean stress

factor less 0 or greater 4

Loading SF Mean Stress, SF (service)

ERROR: mean stress factor

less -1 or greater than 10

WARNING: mean stress

factor less 0 or greater 4

Loading Spool OD

ERROR: Spool OD less than

or equal to 0 or greater than

200 feet (70 meters)

WARNING: Spool OD less

than 10 feet (3 meters) or

greater than 100 feet (30

meters)

Loading

ThruStressSpec Col 1 Min

Stress: Membrane

ERROR: x/t (thrubend

stress) either less than 0 or

greater than 1

Loading

Worst Case Installation Stress:

Membrane

ERROR: worst case

membrane stress less than 0

or greater than the ultimate

strength minus pipe bend

stress

WARNING: worst case

membrane stress greater

than 90% of the yield stress

minus pipe bend stress

Loading

Worst Case Installation Stress:

Pipe Bend

ERROR: worst case pipe

bend stress less than 0 or

greater than the ultimate

strength minus membrane

stress

WARNING: worst case pipe

bend stress greater than

90% of the yield stress

minus membrane stress

Loading

Worst Case Service Stress:

Membrane

ERROR: worst case

membrane stress less than 0

or greater than the ultimate

strength minus pipe bend

stress

WARNING: worst case

service membrane stress

greater than 90% of the yield

stress minus service pipe

bend stress

Loading

Worst Case Service Stress:

Pipe Bend

ERROR: worst case pipe

bend stress less than 0 or

greater than the ultimate

strength minus membrane

stress

WARNING: worst case

service pipe bend stress

greater than 90% of the yield

stress minus the service

membrane stress

Material coeff

ERROR: Ramberg-Osgood

coefficient less than or equal

to 0 or greater than 100

WARNING:

Ramberg_Osgood

coefficient greater than 10

Material coeff_reel

ERROR: Ramberg-Osgood

coefficient less than or equal

to 0 or greater than 100

WARNING:

Ramberg_Osgood

coefficient greater than 10

Material E Elastic Modulus

ERROR: elastic modulus

less than or equal to 0 or

greater than 100000 ksi

(700000 MPa)

Material exp

ERROR: Ramberg-Osgood

exponent less than or equal

to 1 or greater than 1000

Material exp_reel

ERROR: Ramberg-Osgood

exponent less than or equal

to 1 or greater than 1000

72

Material High Range A Service INNER

ERROR:high Delta K range

fatigue constant less than 0

or greater than 1

Material High Range A Service OUTER

ERROR: high Delta K range

fatigue constant less than 0

or greater than 1

Material High Range n Service INNER

ERROR: high Delta K range

fatigue exponent less than 0

or equal to or greater than

the low range value

Material High Range n Service OUTER

ERROR: high Delta K range

fatigue exponent less than 0

or equal to or greater than

the low range value

Material Install High Range A

ERROR: high Delta K range

fatigue constant less than 0

or greater than 1

Material Install High Range A INNER

ERROR: high Delta K range

fatigue constant less than 0

or greater than 1

Material Install High Range A OUTER

ERROR: high Delta K range

fatigue constant less than 0

or greater than 1

Material Install High Range n

ERROR: high Delta K range

fatigue exponent less than 0

or equal to or greater than

the low range value

Material Install High Range n INNER

ERROR: high Delta K range

fatigue exponent less than 0

or equal to or greater than

the low range value

Material Install High Range n OUTER

ERROR: high Delta K range

fatigue exponent less than 0

or equal to or greater than

the low range value

Material Install Low Range A

ERROR: low Delta K range

fatigue constant less than 0

or greater than 1

Material Install Low Range A INNER

ERROR: low Delta K range

fatigue constant less than 0

or greater than 1

Material Install Low Range A OUTER

ERROR: low Delta K range

fatigue constant less than 0

or greater than 1

Material Install Low Range n

ERROR: low Delta K range

fatigue exponent less than 0

Material Install Low Range n INNER

ERROR: low Delta K range

fatigue exponent less than 0

Material Install Low Range n OUTER

ERROR: low Delta K range

fatigue exponent less than 0

Material Install Threshold

ERROR: cyclic threshold

stress intensity factor less

WARNING: cyclic threshold

stress intensity greater than

73

than 0 or greater than 20 10

Material Install Threshold INNER

ERROR: cyclic threshold

stress intensity factor less

than 0 or greater than 20

WARNING: cyclic threshold

stress intensity greater than

10

Material Install Threshold OUTER

ERROR: cyclic threshold

stress intensity factor less

than 0 or greater than 20

WARNING: cyclic threshold

stress intensity greater than

10

Material JR coeff

ERROR: Jr curve coefficient

less than or equal to 0

Material JR exp

ERROR: Jr curve exponent

less than or equal to 0

Material JR Slope

ERROR: Jr curve slope

either less than or equal to 0

or greater than 1000 ksi

(7000 MPa)

Material KC Toughness

ERROR: toughness less

than or equal to 0 or greater

than 1000 ksi inch^1/2 (1000

MPa meter^1/2)

Material Low Range A Service INNER

ERROR: low Delta K range

fatigue constant less than 0

or greater than 1

Material Low Range A Service OUTER

ERROR: low Delta K range

fatigue constant less than 0

or greater than 1

Material Low Range n Service INNER

ERROR: low Delta K range

fatigue exponent less than 0

Material Low Range n Service OUTER

ERROR: low Delta K range

fatigue exponent less than 0

Material MatreelSpec Col 1 Stress

ERROR: stress less than

zero or greater than 1.3

times the engineering

ultimate stress

Material MatreelSpec Col 2 PlasticStrain

ERROR: plastic strain less

than 0

Material MatserviceSpec Col 1 Stress

ERROR: stress less than

zero or greater than 1.3

times the engineering

ultimate stress

Material

MatserviceSpec Col 2

PlasticStrain

ERROR: plastic strain less

than 0

Material Modulus reel

ERROR: elastic modulus

less than or equal to 0 or

greater than 100000 ksi

(700000 MPa)

Material Npts_tensilereel

ERROR: Npts_tensilereel

less than 3 or greater than

100

Material Npts_tensileservice

ERROR: Npts_tensileservice

less than 3 or greater than

100

74

Material Poisson Ratio

ERROR: Poisson ratio either

less than 0 or greater than

0.5

Material Poisson reel

ERROR: Poisson ratio either

less than 0 or greater than

0.5

Material Reel High Range C

ERROR: high Delta K range

fatigue constant less than 0

or greater than 1

Material Reel High Range m

ERROR: high Delta K range

fatigue exponent less than 0

Material Saturation length reel

WARNING: saturation tear

length either less than 0 or

greater than 0.5-inch (12.5

mm)

Material Saturation length reel

WARNING: saturation tear

length either less than 0 or

greater than 0.5-inch (12.5

mm)

Material SF_HR_A Service Fatigue

ERROR: high Delta K range

fatigue constant less than 0

or greater than 1

Material

SF_HR_M Service Fatigue

(m2)

ERROR: high Delta K range

fatigue exponent less than 0

or equal to or greater than

the low range value

Material SF_LR_A Service Fatigue

ERROR: low Delta K range

fatigue constant less than 0

or greater than 1

Material SF_LR_M Service Fatigue (m1)

ERROR: low Delta K range

fatigue exponent less than 0

Material Threshold

ERROR: cyclic threshold

stress intensity factor less

than 0 or greater than 20

WARNING: cyclic threshold

stress intensity greater than

10

Material Threshold Service INNER

ERROR: cyclic threshold

stress intensity factor less

than 0 or greater than 20

WARNING: cyclic threshold

stress intensity greater than

10

Material Threshold Service OUTER

ERROR: cyclic threshold

stress intensity factor less

than 0 or greater than 20

WARNING: cyclic threshold

stress intensity greater than

10

Material Toughness reel

ERROR: toughness less

than or equal to 0 or greater

than 2000 ksi inch^1/2 (2000

MPa meter^1/2)

Material Ultimate stress reel

ERROR: ultimate stress

equal to or less than yield

stress

Material UT Ultimate Stress

ERROR: ultimate stress

equal to or less than yield

stress

Material yield

ERROR: Ramberg-Osgood

yield parameter equal to or

75

less than 0 or equal to or

greater than the ultimate

stress

Material Yield stress reel

ERROR: yield stress equal

to or less than 0 or equal to

or greater than the ultimate

stress

Material yield_reel

ERROR: Ramberg-Osgood

yield parameter equal to or

less than 0 or equal to or

greater than the ultimate

stress

Material YS Yield Stress

ERROR: yield stress equal

to or less than 0 or equal to

or greater than the ultimate

stress

Using The Calculation Parameters/Results Table

The Calculation Parameters/Results grid in the Analysis Results window summarizes the current analysis. Note that all

possible input parameter values are shown, not just the values of those parameters actually used in the analysis performed.

The values shown for those parameters not needed in the analysis are based on the default values for those parameters.

If you wish to see a complete report of analysis inputs and outputs, click on the Analysis Details button just below the

Calculation Parameters/Results grid. Some of these data are for error identification purposes and only will be meaningful to

FlawPRO technical programmers.

Creating and Using The Run Details Report

The Run Details report window shows all the inputs and the outputs for the current scenario.

1. To see a complete report of analysis inputs and outputs, click on the Analysis Details button just below the

Calculation Parameters/Results grid. The Run Details report window appears.

2. Review the data shown in the report. If you find errors, revise your inputs as necessary and re-execute your

FlawPRO analysis. Some of these data are for error identification purposes and only will be meaningful to

FlawPRO technical programmers.

3. Use the Export Info, Print Info and Close buttons at the bottom of the report to either send your data to the

clipboard (for import in other Windows-compatible application) or a file, the printer, or to return to the Analysis

Results screen.

76

EXAMPLE DATA FILE

The input data values that appear in the FlawPRO windows when the program is opened are those contained in the default

scenario file, default.flp. This file provides an example data file that can be used as a guide to typical input data values or

altered and re-run should the user wish to explore the various facilities and analysis options available in FlawPRO.

Analysis Option 2 is the selected option on the Options screen in the default data file. This enables the lifetimes of initial

flaws to be calculated for specified conditions pertaining to reeling (e.g. reeling strain, number of reels), installation fatigue

(e.g. a load spectrum comprising maximum and minimum loads and cycles that are applied once after the pipe is reeled but

before it enters service), and service fatigue (e.g. a load spectrum comprising maximum and minimum loads and cycles that

are applied every year after the pipe enters service). The four flaw sizes defined on the Geometry screen have been

chosen so that they all have a lifetime of 20 years. Either go to the Results screen or click on the Calculate button to see

the lifetimes plotted against the initial flaw heights.

Go back to the Options screen and select Option 9. This option enables maximum allowable initial flaw (MAIF) heights to

be calculated for given initial flaw lengths and specified reeling, installation fatigue and service fatigue conditions. The MAIF

heights are those initial flaw heights that will grow to cause failure (leak) in the number of service periods (years) specified

on the Loading (Service Fatigue) screen. In the default file this is set at 20 years. Click on the Calculate button. Progress in

the computations is shown at the top left of the screen below the Options button. When the Results screen is displayed it

will be seen that the calculated MAIF heights for each of the specified initial flaw lengths are the same as the initial flaw

heights that produced lifetimes of 20 years when Option 2 was selected, as required for consistency between these two

analysis options. Note the Error Messages box and the Calculation Parameters/Results box on the Results screen. The

data contained in the latter can be copied and pasted into a file (say, an Excel file) for more convenient viewing or

manipulation. The graphic displaying the results can also be exported and copied into a report or printed.

The default values can be switched between metric and English units using the Unit Set box on the Variables screen. Other

changes can be made to the default data file settings and calculations performed but the user can not save the changes to

the default file and these data values will always appear when FlawPRO is initially opened.

77

GLOSSARY

Analysis Options

There are nine Analysis Options in FlawPRO. These are listed in the table below.

Analysis

Option Description

1 Service Fatigue Life

The fatigue crack growth life under service conditions is determined for a user specified service

load spectrum following conventional installation of the pipe without reeling.

2 Service Lifetime following Pre- Service Reeling and Installation Fatigue

The fatigue crack growth life under service conditions is determined for a user specified service

load spectrum following installation of the pipe after it has been reeled and straightened. The

user specifies the number of pre-service reels, the pre-strain induced in the pipe by the reeling

and straightening, and the installation load spectrum.

3 Critical Crack Size Worst Case Service Load

The critical crack size is calculated for a worst-case service load consisting of membrane and

pipe bend stresses specified by the user.

4 Reeling Life Pre-Service Reels

The number of pre-service reels to fail the pipe is evaluated. The user specifies the pre-strain

induced in the pipe by the reeling and straightening process.

5 Final Crack Size after Service Fatigue

The final crack size is determined after conventional installation of the pipe without reeling for a

user specified service load spectrum and a number of service periods defined by the user.

6 Final Crack Size following Pre- Service Reeling, Installation Fatigue and Service Fatigue

The final crack size is determined after reeling and installation fatigue for a user specified

service load spectrum and a number of service periods defined by the user. The user specifies

the number of pre-service reels, the pre-strain induced in the pipe by the reeling and

straightening, and the installation load spectrum.

7 Final Crack Size Pre-Service Reeling

The final crack size is determined after a user specified number of pre-service reels and a pre-

strain that results from reeling and straightening.

8 Maximum Allowable Initial Flaw Sizes Service Fatigue

The maximum flaw depth corresponding to an initial user specified flaw surface length is

calculated that will grow to failure during the user specified service loading.

9 Maximum Allowable Initial Flaw Sizes Pre-service Reels, Installation Fatigue and

Service Fatigue

The maximum flaw depth corresponding to an initial user specified flaw surface length is

calculated that will grow to failure during the user specified reeling, installation fatigue and

service fatigue loading conditions.

Applied Axial Loads

There are up to four types of axial loads applied to cracked pipes when performing a FlawPRO analysis. These loads are

associated with four types of stresses that arise from: (a) pre-straining during reeling and straightening; (b) residual stresses

from welding (conventional installation) or residual stresses remaining in the pipe after reeling and straightening; (c) cyclic

stresses during installation and/or service fatigue; and (d) worst case installation and/or service loads that are installation

and service life limiting.

Pre-Strain Loads

The pre-straining during reeling can be specified in terms of a pre-service strain or in terms of the spool and pipe diameters.

Residual Loads

The residual stress due to welding is specified by the user while the residual reeling stress is calculated by the program

based on the pre-straining.

78

Cyclic Loads

The installation and service cyclic loads are specified in terms of membrane and pipe bending stresses corresponding to the

maximum and minimum loads in a fatigue cycle.

Worst Case Loads

The worst-case installation and/or service load are specified as membrane and pipe bending stresses that may, for

example, correspond to rare loading events.

The spatial variations in reeling stresses, cyclic installation and service stresses, and the worst case installation and service

stresses, are influenced by stress concentration factors associated with geometrical discontinuities at weld caps and roots

and axial misalignment.

Brittle Failure

Brittle failure occurs in ferritic pipeline steel that operates at temperatures below the ductile-brittle toughness transition

temperature (DBTTT). In this temperature regime, steels do not exhibit stable crack extension (tearing) prior to crack

instability and the onset of crack extension under monotonic loading is coincident with fracture. It is good design practice to

operate pipelines above the DBTTT to eliminate brittle fracture and insure structural integrity.

Options 1, 3, 5, and 8 in FlawPRO can be applied to pipes operating below the DBTTT where brittle failure can occur.

However, the reeling methodology in FlawPRO that is applied when Options 2, 4, 6, 7 and 9 are selected assumes that: the

pipe material is above its DBTTT during the reeling process; has a measurable JR curve; and exhibits ductile tearing

behavior at least up to a user defined saturation tear length.

BS 7910

This is a British Standards document titled Guide on Methods for Assessing the Acceptability of Flaws in Metallic

Structures. It provides guidance in a number of technical areas important to performing engineering critical assessments.

FlawPRO utilizes this guidance in two main areas. The first is the library of fatigue crack growth rate equations available to

FlawPRO users on the Material screens. The constants used in these equations are based on the recommended fatigue

crack growth laws for welded steel joints contained in Section 8.2.3 of BS 7910. The second area is the stress variations

associated with geometrical discontinuities at weld caps and roots. On the Loading screen in FlawPRO, the user can

specify the widths of the weld cap and weld root and the program will derive normalized stress variations using the

normalized stress intensity factor magnification factors for membrane and through wall bending that are defined in Section

M.5.1.2 based on 2-D finite element results.

Although BS 7910 also provides guidance on stress intensity factor solutions, reference stress solutions, flaw re-

characterization, and failure assessment diagram methods for assessing structures containing flaws, this guidance is not

always used directly in a FlawPRO analysis. The reasons for this are:

BS 7910 does not address some of the technical areas involved in assessing the effects of reeling on flawed

pipe, such as the very high strains involved and the synergy between ductile tearing and low cycle fatigue that

occurs during reeling.

The stress intensity factor solutions contained in FlawPRO are evaluated using the weight function method that

allows arbitrary stress variations through the pipe wall to be treated. The stress intensity factor solutions given

in BS 7910 are for specific conditions defined by geometrical factors, such as weld dimensions, and are not

amenable to treating arbitrary stress variations.

The reference stress solutions in FlawPRO are consistent with lower bound plastic limit load solutions, such as

are contained in reference [195] of BS 7910.

The flaw re-characterization procedures that are used for crack transitioning in FlawPRO are less onerous than

those used in BS 7910. The FlawPRO routines are based on procedures in the DARWIN (Design

Assessment of Reliability With INspection) software code used by gas turbine engine manufacturers to improve

the safety of jet engines used in commercial airliners.

FlawPRO uses reference stress J formulations that are appropriate for reeling under either load or strain-

controlled conditions. Currently, BS 7910 does not provide guidance on elastic-plastic fracture mechanics

solutions for the strain-controlled loading situation encountered in reeling. The FlawPRO approach is consistent

with a BS 7910 Level 3C analysis based on a hybrid Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)-reference stress

formulation.

79

FlawPRO uses a validated model to allow for the synergy between ductile tearing and low cycle fatigue during

reeling. BS 7910 currently provides no guidance on how to address situations involving simultaneous tearing

and low cycle fatigue crack extension.

Clad Material

An unclad pipe consists of ferritic material, typically an X-grade pipe steel and corresponding weld. A clad pipe consists of

ferritic material with a layer of cladding on the inside surface, usually to protect that surface from an aggressive

environment. In the case of a clad pipe, the material properties of the ferritic material and the clad material need be

specified as input to FlawPRO.

Clad Pipe

FlawPRO includes the effects of cladding the inside surfaces of pipes on flaw assessments. The cladding influences flaw

assessment because it changes the:

Stress-strain behavior of the pipe An effective or composite stress-strain curve is derived from the stress-strain

curves of the ferritic base and clad materials.

Stress analysis based on the reeling strain The effective stress-strain curve is used.

Crack tip driving forces (J and J )

o An effective stress-strain curve for the ferritic/clad pipe is used to derive the reference plastic strain,

o In the small-scale yielding regime a weighted average of the ferrtic and clad yield stresses is used

where the weighting depends on the crack tip being assessed and the proportion of the flaw in the

ferritic and clad materials.

o In calculating the reference stress the different yield stresses in the ferritic and clad regions of the pipe

are accounted for.

J-R curve An effective or composite J-R curve is derived from the J-R curves of the ferritic base and clad

materials. The effective J-R curve at each crack tip location is derived using a weighted average of the ferrtic and

clad J-R curves where the weighting depends on the proportion of the flaw in the ferritic and clad materials.

Fracture toughness An effective toughness is derived for each crack tip position using a similar approach to that

adopted to derive an effective J-R curve.

Fatigue crack growth (da/dN) curve - An effective da/dN curve is derived for each crack tip position using a similar

approach to that adopted to derive an effective J-R curve.

Crack Geometries

There are currently four crack geometries in FlawPRO. These are circumferentially oriented surface cracks on either the

outside or the inside surface of the pipe, embedded cracks that are at some arbitrary distance from either the outside

surface (weld cap) or the inside surface (weld root), and through-wall circumferential cracks. Illustrations of the crack

geometries will automatically be displayed in the Geometry window when the crack geometries are selected.

Circumferential cracks are subject to axial loads. Crack growth from the surface cracks is characterized by two degrees of

freedom corresponding to the crack tip driving forces at the deepest and surface points on the crack front. Embedded

cracks are characterized by three degrees of freedom: the crack tip driving forces evaluated at the points on the crack front

positions intercepted by the minor and major axes. (This means that the center of the crack can change during growth so

that the crack may appear to move towards or away from the surface of the pipe as it grows.) Through-wall cracks are

characterized by a single degree of freedom

Crack Tip Driving Forces

See J-Integral Crack Tip Driving Force.

Crack Transitioning

There is a crack transition option in FlawPRO. This capability enables advantage to be taken of the extended reeling and

service lives that result when, for example, an embedded crack transitions to a surface crack that can then transition into a

through-wall crack. The transitioning option should only be used when the pipe material displays ductile failure behavior.

The crack transition capability is not available for the final crack size options (Options 5, 6 and 7). The crack transition

possibilities depend upon the type of initial crack that is specified. Below are listed the transition possibilities for the initial

crack types available in FlawPRO.

80

Initial Crack Type

Possible Crack Type after

First Transition

Crack Type after

Second Transition

Embedded Surface crack emanating from the outside of the pipe Through-wall crack

Embedded Surface crack emanating from the inside of the pipe Through-wall crack

Surface Crack on Outside of Pipe Through-wall crack None

Surface Crack on Inside of Pipe Through-wall crack None

Through-wall crack None None

The figure below illustrates the shape and size of an embedded flaw before and after it has transitioned to a surface flaw:

the flaw dimensions after transition (height, anew, and length, Lnew=2cnew) are shown expressed in terms of the flaw

dimensions before transition (height, 2a, length, L=2c, and offset y). The length, Lnew, of a through wall flaw after it has

transitioned from a surface flaw of surface length L=2c is given by Lnew=L.

a

new

2c

new

a

new

2c

new

y

2a

2c

y

2a

2c

( )

( )

c

y a

a y a

c

y a a

new

new

+

+ +

=

+ =

2

4

2

embedded flaw

before transition

embedded flaw re-characterized

as surface flaw after transition

Besides a re-characterization of the crack type, crack transitioning can also result in a change in the fatigue crack growth

rate when embedded flaws break through to either the inside or outside surfaces and become exposed to the environments

adjacent to those surfaces. This possibility is allowed for in FlawPRO by enabling the user to specify the fatigue crack

growth rate equations that are appropriate for outer surface and inner surface flaws. These equations are used to

determine the crack propagation rates for embedded flaws after they transition to surface flaws.

Critical Crack Size

The critical crack size is determined from the condition that the applied value of the crack tip driving force, J, at a point on

the crack front (for example, at the deepest point on a surface crack) equals or exceeds the critical value Jc that is a material

toughness property. The critical crack size is calculated against the worst-case loading conditions. The critical crack size is

not necessarily the size that will cause failure of the pipe since it is evaluated by conservatively ignoring the potential for

ductile pipe materials to increase their toughness as a crack extends by ductile tearing.

In critical crack size calculations, the user specifies a list of crack heights and surface lengths. FlawPRO converts these

values into a list of corresponding aspect ratios and determines the critical crack sizes for these aspect ratios. The results

are presented in the form of critical flaw heights as a function of aspect ratio. Note that sometimes the calculated critical

crack sizes may appear to display anomalous behaviors with changing initial aspect ratios. The most probable cause of

these anomalies is a change in the critical location on the flaw from which failure is predicted from, say, the deepest point to

the surface point. This kind of behavior could be observed as the aspect ratio changes when the flaw is subject to steep

stress gradients where the surface stress is significantly higher than the interior stress or, in the case of uniform stressing,

when the aspect ratios (height/length) for which calculations are performed have values just above and just below either 1

(embedded flaws) or 0.5 (surface flaws).

Cycles Factor

In FlawPRO the cycles for the load steps that comprise a load spectrum can be scaled by a user defined multiplier called

the cycles factor. The re-scaled load spectrum can be viewed in tabular form by clicking the left mouse button on the Show

Scaled Spectrum button in the Loading window.

81

Cyclic Stress Range

The cyclic stress range is equal to the maximum minus the minimum stress in a load step. In FlawPRO, the ranges for the

load steps that comprise a load spectrum can be scaled by a user defined multiplier. The re-scaled load spectrum can be

viewed in tabular form by clicking the left mouse button on the Show Scaled Spectrum button in the Loading window.

Cyclic Threshold

Fatigue crack growth under installation and service conditions will not occur below an applied cyclic stress intensity factor

equal to the cyclic threshold.

Damage Accumulation

The damage accumulated by each load step over the service life of the cracked pipe is evaluated in FlawPRO and can be

displayed in the form of a histogram after the service life calculations have been completed. The display is facilitated by

clicking the cursor when it is near one of the data points shown in the results chart in the Results window. This will bring up

another window that has a button labeled Show Bar Chart. Clicking on this will display the histogram of the damage

accumulated for each load step of the load spectrum.

The damage for each load step is defined as the total crack extension due to that load step summed over the service life

divided by the total crack extension resulting from application of all the load steps. If crack transitioning occurs during the

service life, then the total crack extension appearing in the damage sum becomes equal to the crack extension that occurs

up to the time that crack transitioning occurs. In situations involving flaw transitions, several damage histograms may be

available for viewing corresponding to each transition mode (e.g. in the case of an initial embedded flaw that transitions

histograms may be available for the embedded flaw mode, surface flaw mode and through wall flaw mode).

Default Values for Inputs

When FlawPRO is opened it contains input data that is pre-loaded from a default scenario file. The default data are meant

to act as a guide to the type of data required and an indication of typical values for input parameters. These values can be

switched between metric and English units using the Unit Set box on the Variables screen.

Dependent Variables

The dependent variable (DV) is the quantity calculated by the program. In the case of Analysis Options 1 and 2, this is the

service lifetime of the cracked pipe, for Analysis Option 3 it is the critical crack size, for Analysis Option 4 it is the reeling

lifetime (the number of pre-service reels to cause pipe failure), for Options 5, 6 and 7 it is the final crack size and for Options

8 and 9 it is the maximum allowable initial flaw size. The DV is the parameter specified on the y-axis of the figure displayed

in FlawPRO to summarize the results of a calculation.

DNV-RP-F108

This is a Det Norske Veritas document titled Fracture Control for Pipeline Installation Methods Introducing Cyclic Plastic

Strain. It provides guidance regarding testing and analysis for fracture control of pipeline girth welds subjected to cyclic

plastic deformation. In Section 3, Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA), it addresses the determination of acceptable flaw

sizes that will not cause Failure during installation. The detailed technology used for this is based on the Failure

Assessment Diagram (FAD) approach consistent with a BS 7910 Level 3B tearing analysis based on the BS 7910 Level 2B

material specific FAD.

DNV-RP-F108 differs from the approach adopted in FlawPRO in the following major areas:

It does not include the history dependent nature of tearing analysis that occurs because of the two tearing

events that result from a single reel process. Essentially, DNV-RP-F108 assumes that the J-R curve is re-

generated after every tearing event and so is independent of previous loading history whereas FlawPRO uses a

validated physical model where the J-R curve is retained as the flaw propagates and has a memory of

previously applied tearing-fatigue loading events.

It does not include flaw extension from the single low cycle fatigue event that occurs during a single reel

whereas FlawPRO does include this.

The DNV approach may or may not be more conservative than the FlawPRO approach depending on the significance of

the LCF cycle in causing flaw growth. The LCF contribution to flaw growth will increase as the number of reeling events

increases because n reels will result in 2n tearing events and 2n-1 LCF cycles.

82

Ductile Failure

Ductile failure occurs in ferritic pipeline steel that operates at temperatures above the ductile-brittle toughness transition

temperature (DBTTT). In this temperature regime, steels exhibit stable crack extension (tearing) prior to crack instability

and the toughness of the material increases as the crack tears. It is good design practice to operate pipelines above the

DBTTT to eliminate the potential for brittle fracture and insure ductile failure behavior and structural integrity.

Options 2, 4, 6, 7 and 9 in FlawPRO can only be applied to pipes operating above the DBTTT where ductile failure occurs.

End-of-Life Conditions

The lifetime of a pipe is determined by the attainment of an end-of-life condition during the crack growth calculations.

Reaching an end-of-life condition does not necessarily mean that structural failure of the pipe is predicted. The table below

lists the types of end-of-life conditions that can occur in FlawPRO .

Description

Applicable

Analysis

Options Comment

The applied crack tip driving

force exceeds the material

toughness.

1, 2, 3, 5, 6,

8, and 9

This condition can arise during either installation or service and

may result from the application of the maximum stress in a load

step, or the application of the worst-case stress at the end of

every period. Attainment of this condition may be used to

identify the critical crack size in Analysis Option 3. Although

satisfying this condition signals end-of-life for Analysis Options 1,

2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 when crack transitioning is not permitted, it may

only signal the onset of transitioning when it is allowed.

The fatigue crack growth rate

is so high that this rate times

the number of cycles in a

load step exceeds the

remaining un-cracked

ligament in the pipe wall.

1, 2, 5 , 6, 8,

and 9

When the crack growth rate becomes large this indicates that

there is very little life remaining. Although satisfying this

condition signals end-of-life when crack transitioning is not

permitted, it may only signal the onset of transitioning when it is

allowed.

The number of fatigue

integration steps needed to

evaluate the crack growth

during a load step exceeds

1000.

1, 2, 5 , 6, 8,

and 9

The number of integration steps to evaluate the crack extension

for a load step is increased as the growth rate increases in order

to avoid inaccuracies in the growth calculations due to too large

a crack growth increment. When the number of integration steps

becomes very large, this indicates extremely fast crack

propagation rates and that there is little life remaining. Although

satisfying this condition signals end-of-life when crack

transitioning is not permitted, it may only signal the onset of

transitioning when it is allowed.

The crack size exceeds the

maximum size for which the

fracture mechanics solutions

are valid.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

6, 7, 8, and

9

The stress intensity factor solutions contained in FlawPRO are

only valid for cracks within a restricted size range. It is unsafe to

extrapolate these solutions beyond the crack size range for

which they are valid. Attainment of this condition may be used to

identify the critical crack size in Analysis Option 3. Although

satisfying this condition signals end-of-life for Analysis Options 1,

2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 when crack transitioning is not permitted, it

may only signal the onset of transitioning when it is allowed.

Note that this condition is not only applied to the actual flaw size

but also to the first order plastic zone corrected size.

The amount of ductile tearing

exceeds the saturation tear

length.

2, 4, 6, 7,

and 9

This condition is only applicable when ductile tearing is occurring

at a crack due to reeling and straightening. The toughness of

ductile materials increases as a crack grows by tearing until it

attains a maximum or saturation value. The tear length at which

this saturation occurs is called the saturation tear length. The

toughness is assumed in FlawPRO to have a constant value

independent of the tear length once the saturation tear length is

exceeded. For stable ductile tearing to occur, the materials

toughness must equal the crack tip driving force. This condition

cannot be satisfied when the saturation tear length is exceeded

as the crack tip driving force will continue to increase as the

83

Description

Applicable

Analysis

Options Comment

crack grows whereas the toughness needed to resist growth will

remain constant. Although satisfying this condition signals end-

of-life when crack transitioning is not permitted, it may only

signal the onset of transitioning when it is allowed.

Fatigue Crack Growth During Installation

In FlawPRO , the cyclic loading on pipes that occurs during installation immediately following reeling but before service is

assumed to be due to variable amplitude HCF conditions that can be addressed using LEFM concepts based on the cyclic

change in the applied stress intensity factor (SIF). The crack growth rate per load cycle is governed by Paris equations

where the crack growth rate per cycle is assumed proportional to the cyclic stress intensity factor raised to some power,

which is a material constant. The growth rate is characterized by three regimes: below a threshold value of the cyclic SIF

no crack growth is assumed to occur; above this threshold, growth is assumed to occur according to a Paris equation that

characterizes growth under low SIF conditions until a transition value of the cyclic SIF is attained; above the transition value

of the cyclic SIF, growth is assumed to be characterized by a high cyclic SIF Paris equation that is different to the equation

governing growth in the low cyclic SIF regime.

The installation load spectrum is applied only once to the pipe. The load spectrum can consist of up to two hundred load

steps, where a load step consists of a minimum stress, a maximum stress, and the number of cycles these are applied. The

user has the capability of scaling the load spectrum using a range scale factor, a mean stress scale factor, and a cycles

scale factor. An end-of-life condition is predicted during installation when the EPFM parameter, J, equals a critical value

that is determined from the toughness value of the material under installation conditions. In addition, an end-of-life condition

is also predicted at the end of the installation period if the worst-case installation stress provided as input by the user results

in a value of J that exceeds the toughness of the material.

Fatigue Crack Growth During Reeling

The fatigue crack growth rate per cycle during reeling may be very high because the high cyclic strains that are generated in

the pipe can give rise to very high cyclic crack tip driving forces. In addition, fatigue crack growth during reeling can

synergistically interact with ductile tearing to result in relatively large crack extensions after only a very few reels. A crack

closure correction factor has to be applied to the crack tip driving force to account for the fact that fatigue crack propagation

occurs under fully reversed loading conditions during reeling, with a stress ratio, R, equal to -1. Since this closure factor is

applied to the cyclic driving force, the Paris fatigue crack growth equation used to characterize the crack propagation rate

should either be measured at high R values (where closure does not occur) or be corrected for crack closure when the

measurements are at low or negative stress ratios. Although fatigue crack growth is quantified in FlawPRO via a Paris

equation, the actual crack tip driving force that is substituted into this equation is corrected for crack tip plasticity using the

EPFM parameter," !J .

Fatigue Crack Growth During Service

In FlawPRO, the cyclic loading on pipes in service is assumed to be due to variable amplitude HCF conditions that can be

addressed using LEFM concepts based on the cyclic change in the applied stress intensity factor (SIF). The crack growth

rate per load cycle is governed by Paris equations where the crack growth rate per cycle is assumed proportional to the

cyclic stress intensity factor raised to some power, which is a material constant. The growth rate is characterized by three

regimes: below a threshold value of the cyclic SIF no crack growth is assumed to occur; above this threshold, growth is

assumed to occur according to a Paris equation that characterizes growth under low SIF conditions until a transition value of

the cyclic SIF is attained; above the transition value of the cyclic SIF, growth is assumed to be characterized by a high cyclic

SIF Paris equation that is different to the equation governing growth in the low cyclic SIF regime.

The service load spectrum is repeatedly applied to the pipe until an appropriate end-of-life condition is predicted, or until one

thousand periods have been completed, whichever is the sooner. A period is defined as the time over which a single load

spectrum is applied, typically a year. The load spectrum can consist of up to two hundred load steps, where a load step

consists of a minimum stress, a maximum stress, and the number of cycles these are applied. The user has the capability

of scaling the load spectrum using a range scale factor, a mean stress scale factor, and a cycles scale factor. An end-of-life

condition is predicted during service when the EPFM parameter, J, equals a critical value that is determined from the

toughness value of the material under service conditions. In addition, an end-of-life condition is also predicted at the end of

a service period if the worst-case service stress provided as input by the user results in a value of J that exceeds the

toughness of the material.

84

Fatigue Crack Growth Library

FlawPRO contains a library of fatigue crack growth rate constants for welded steel joints subject to a range of environments.

The library is based on the fatigue crack growth data given in BS 7910 (Section 8.2.3). The growth rates are characterized

by three regimes:

Regime 1 Threshold: Below a threshold value of the cyclic SIF no crack growth is assumed to occur.

Regime 2 Designated Stage A in BS 7910 - Immediately above the threshold, growth is assumed to occur

according to a Paris equation that characterizes growth under low cyclic SIF conditions until a transition

value of the cyclic SIF is attained and the growth enters Regime 3.

Regime 3 Designated Stage B in BS 7910 - Above the Regime 2 transition value the growth rate is assumed to be

characterized by a high cyclic SIF Paris equation.

These three crack propagation regimes are illustrated in the figure below.

-10

10

-9

10

-8

10

-7

10

-6

10

-5

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

10

1

10

2

Installation Fatigue da/dN Curve

d

a

/

d

N

(

m

m

/

c

y

c

l

e

)

DeltaK

Regime 1:

Below threshold

Regime 2: Stage A

Low K range

Regime 3: Stage B

High K range

transition

The Paris equation for the fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN, is characterized by a coefficient and an exponent and is of the

form:

onent

K t coefficien

dN

da

exp

=

In FlawPRO, the growth rate is defined as inches/cycle (English units) and mm/cycle (metric units) when !K is expressed in

ksi inch

1/2

and MPa m

1/2

, respectively. Values for the cyclic threshold, and the coefficient and exponent appearing in the

Paris equation for (in BS designation) Stage A and Stage B growth regimes at high R ratios (R$0.5) are shown in Table 1

(English units) and 2 (metric units) for air and marine environments with various cathodic protection potentials. Three sets

of data are given for each environment for the statistical significant fatigue curves corresponding to mean, mean plus one

standard deviation (SD) and mean plus two SD fits to the fatigue crack growth data.

85

Table 1: Fatigue Growth Constants for R ! 0.5 (English units)

Environment

Statistical

Significance

Cyclic

Threshold

Stage A

Coefficient

Stage A

Exponent

Stage B

Coefficient

Stage B

Exponent

Air Mean curve 1.82 1.365E-11 5.1 6.324E-10 2.88

Air Mean + 1SD 1.82 2.86E-11 5.1 9.38E-10 2.88

Air Mean + 2SD 1.82 5.9725E-11 5.1 1.392E-09 2.88

Marine Environment:

Freely Corroding Mean curve 0 3.937E-10 3.42 1.146E-06 1.11

Marine Environment:

Freely Corroding Mean + 1SD 0 7.05E-10 3.42 0.00000132 1.11

Marine Environment:

Freely Corroding Mean + 2SD 0 1.261E-09 3.42 1.512E-06 1.11

Marine Environment:

Cathodic Protection at

-850 mV (Ag/AgCl) Mean curve 1.82 1.365E-11 5.1 3.073E-09 2.67

Marine Environment:

Cathodic Protection at

-850 mV (Ag/AgCl) Mean + 1SD 1.82 2.86E-11 5.1 5.64E-09 2.67

Marine Environment:

Cathodic Protection at

-850 mV (Ag/AgCl) Mean + 2SD 1.82 5.973E-11 5.1 1.035E-08 2.67

Marine Environment:

Cathodic Protection at

-1100 mV (Ag/AgCl) Mean curve 1.82 1.365E-11 5.1 2.969E-07 1.4

Marine Environment:

Cathodic Protection at

-1100 mV (Ag/AgCl) Mean + 1SD 1.82 2.86E-11 5.1 4.14E-07 1.4

Marine Environment:

Cathodic Protection at

-1100 mV (Ag/AgCl) Mean + 2SD 1.82 5.973E-11 5.1 5.769E-07 1.4

86

Table 2: Fatigue Growth Constants for R ! 0.5 (Metric units)

Environment

Statistical

Significance

Cyclic

Threshold

Stage A

Coefficient

Stage A

Exponent

Stage B

Coefficient

Stage B

Exponent

Air Mean curve 2 2.144E-10 5.1 1.224E-08 2.88

Air Mean + 1SD 2 4.48E-10 5.1 1.82E-08 2.88

Air Mean + 2SD 2 9.38E-10 5.1 2.695E-08 2.88

Marine Environment:

Freely Corroding Mean curve 0 7.244E-09 3.42 0.00002622 1.11

Marine Environment:

Freely Corroding Mean + 1SD 0 1.3E-08 3.42 0.0000301 1.11

Marine Environment:

Freely Corroding Mean + 2SD 0 2.32E-08 3.42 0.00003459 1.11

Marine Environment:

Cathodic Protection at

-850 mV (Ag/AgCl) Mean curve 2 2.144E-10 5.1 6.07E-08 2.67

Marine Environment:

Cathodic Protection at

-850 mV (Ag/AgCl) Mean + 1SD 2 4.48E-10 5.1 0.000000111 2.67

Marine Environment:

Cathodic Protection at

-850 mV (Ag/AgCl) Mean + 2SD 2 9.38E-10 5.1 2.043E-07 2.67

Marine Environment:

Cathodic Protection at

-1100 mV (Ag/AgCl) Mean curve 2 2.144E-10 5.1 0.000006609 1.4

Marine Environment:

Cathodic Protection at

-1100 mV (Ag/AgCl) Mean + 1SD 2 4.48E-10 5.1 0.00000921 1.4

Marine Environment:

Cathodic Protection at

-1100 mV (Ag/AgCl) Mean + 2SD 2 9.38E-10 5.1 0.00001284 1.4

87

Ferritic Material

An unclad pipe consists of ferritic material, typically an X-grade pipe steel and corresponding weld. A clad pipe consists of

ferritic material with a layer of cladding on the inside surface, usually to protect that surface from an aggressive

environment. In the case of an unclad pipe, only the material properties of the ferritic material need be specified as input to

FlawPRO.

Final Crack Size

The final crack size is determined in Analysis Options 5 and 6 for crack growth over a user specified number of service

periods, or for the number of periods that result in an end-of-life condition being satisfied. In the case of embedded cracks,

the final crack size is characterized not only by the height and length of the final flaw, but also by the distance that the crack

is offset from either the outer surface of the pipe (weld cap) or the inner surface (weld root). When Option 6 is chosen, the

final crack sizes at the end of pre-service reeling and installation fatigue are also displayed on the results chart and printed

in the results file. Option 7 enables the final crack size to be determined as a function of the number of pre-service reels.

Crack transitioning is not allowed when the final crack size options (Options 5, 6 and 7) are selected. However, if an end-of-

life condition is attained before the user specified service periods have been reached, the final crack size is equated to the

crack size that would have been predicted after crack transitioning. This will allow the user to restart the analysis using the

final crack size and the re-characterized geometry corresponding to the flaw geometry following crack transitioning.

Flaw Offset

In FlawPRO, embedded flaws are offset a distance y either from the outside pipe surface (where the weld cap is) or the

inside surface (where the weld root is). The offset is measured as the distance between the point on the flaw nearest the

surface and the surface.

Note that if the offset is specified from the outside pipe surface, then the stress acting on the embedded flaw is influenced

by the stress concentration at the weld cap geometrical discontinuity and the normalized stress variation that defines the

stress concentration is spatially defined with respect to a coordinate origin situated on the outside surface of the pipe at the

weld cap. Similarly, if the offset is specified from the inside pipe surface, then the stress acting on the embedded flaw is

influenced by the stress concentration at the weld root geometrical discontinuity and the normalized stress variation that

defines the stress concentration is spatially defined with respect to a coordinate origin situated on the inside surface of the

pipe at the weld root.

Geometrical Discontinuity

Geometrical discontinuities are abrupt changes in the curvature of a surface that give rise to local stress concentrations.

The major causes of geometrical discontinuities in welded pipes are associated with the weld cap and weld roots of welds

that have not be grinded flat. These discontinuities are a likely source of cracking, as illustrated in the figure below.

The stress concentration factors due to geometrical discontinuities affect both membrane and pipe bend stresses and,

although they do not cause the pipe bend stress induced by membrane stressing due to axial misalignment of joined pipes,

they may locally enhance this bend stress.

88

The stress concentrations due to geometrical discontinuities at weld caps and roots are characterized in Section M.5 of BS

7910 in terms of the widths of the caps and the roots and the thickness of the pipe wall. Although BS 7910 does not

explicitly present stress concentrations and their fall-off, it does give stress intensity factor magnification factors for surface

flaws that emanate from weld geometrical discontinuities. These magnification factors are not linearly related to the stress

fall-off as the stress intensity factor is determined using a weighted average of the fall-off.

In FlawPRO, the actual stress variations corresponding to the stress fall-off are calculated from the magnification factors

given for 2-D flaws in Section M.5.1.2 of BS 7910. When defining the stress variation due to weld geometrical

discontinuities, the FlawPRO user can either specify the variation in a table of normalized stress versus normalized

distance, or elect to have FlawPRO estimate the variation based on magnification factors given in BS 7910 and user

specified weld cap and weld root widths. The normalized stress is the local stress with the geometrical discontinuity present

divided by the local stress when it is absent. The former is usually equal to the remotely applied stress i.e. the membrane

stress due to pressure or an applied pipe bend stress. The normalized distance is the actual distance divided by the local

wall thickness.

Initial Crack Sizes

The initial size of a crack is characterized by its height and length in the cases of embedded and surface cracks, and by its

length in the case of a through-wall crack. The height of an embedded crack is the maximum distance across the crack

measured in the radial direction. The length of an embedded crack is the maximum distance across the crack measured in

the hoop direction. An initial embedded crack is also characterized by the distance of the point on the flaw nearest the

surface to the surface of the pipe. The height of a surface crack is the distance between the surface of the pipe and the

deepest point on the crack front measured in the radial direction. The length of a surface crack is the distance between the

two points where the crack front intersects the free surface, measured in the hoop direction. The length of a through-wall

crack is the distance between the two crack fronts.

A chart displaying the initial crack distribution presented in the form of a plot of initial crack height versus initial crack length

is displayed in the Geometry window when the cursor is clicked on the button labeled Show h-L.

J-integral Crack Tip Driving Force

In the EPFM analyses incorporated into FlawPRO, a J-integral estimation scheme is used. This scheme is based on the

Electric Power Research Institute approach that requires estimating a first order plastic correction to the linear elastic crack

tip driving force, Je, together with a reference stress approach for calculating the plastic component, Jp. The parameter J

(=Je+Jp) is used in the determination of the ductile tearing during reeling and in assessing failure under worst-case loading

conditions. The J formulation used in FlawPRO to assess reeling effects when these are assumed strain controlled is

89

derived from the load controlled formulation modified so that the reference strain used in the formulation remains constant

and equal to the reeling reference strain absent a flaw.

A cyclic loading adaptation of J, called J, measures the cyclic change in J during reeling and straightening. This parameter

is used as the cyclic crack tip driving force to evaluate low cycle fatigue crack growth during reeling. The J estimation

scheme employed in FlawPRO is similar to the J formulation but with the monotonic stress-strain curve and applied loads

replaced by their cyclic values.

JR-Curve

The JR-curve characterizes a materials resistance to ductile tearing and is a measure of its toughness. A JR-curve is

measured on pre-cracked laboratory coupons by calculating the applied value of J for a given applied load and determining

the corresponding amount of crack tip blunting and tearing.

Two forms of JR-curve are used in FlawPRO, a bilinear form and a power law representation.

Bilinear Form

This is assumed to consist of three regions. The first region is the so-called blunting line, where the fracture resistance of a

material increases very steeply as the crack tip blunts due to an increasing applied load. At a critical value of J, Jc, the

second part of the JR-curve begins, and stable ductile tearing initiates as the slope of the JR-curve significantly reduces

from the high slope of the blunting line region. This critical value is related to the fracture toughness, Kc, of the material

through the equation

'

2

E

K

J

c

c

=

,

where

) 1 (

2

'

=

E

E

and E is Youngs modulus and is Poissons ratio. After a certain amount of ductile tearing, called the saturation tear

length, amax, the value of JR becomes constant, or saturated. In this third region of the curve the value of JR does not

increase as the crack tears, and the material is assumed to have a constant toughness equal to a value

max

R

J

.

A material is usually most prone to unstable crack propagation on this third part of the JR -curve since the toughness can no

longer increase to resist an increase in the applied crack tip driving force, J (see figure).

Blunting/tear length

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14

J

v

a

l

u

e

0

1

2

3

4

JR Curve

Applied J

blunting line

saturated JR value

region of

tearing

instability point

Mathematically, in bilinear form, the JR-curve is expressed as:

90

n) (saturatio , ) (

curve) - (J a , ) (

line) (blunting

2

, , ) (

max

max

max 1 0

R max blunt 1

a a J a J J a J

a a a J J a J

J

a a a J

a

a

a J

R R

o R

yield

c

blunt blunt c

blunt

R

> = + =

< + =

=

In this equation, Jo and J1 (the slope of the JR curve) are material constants.

The JR curve provided by the user can be displayed by clicking the left mouse button on the Plot JR Curve button in the

Material window.

Power Law Equation

This is assumed to consist of two parts, an actual power law description of the JR-curve and a part where the JR-curve

saturates at a constant value (compare the bilinear form). The power law JR-curve is expressed in mathematical form as:

n) (saturatio , ) ( ) (

) (J , ) ( ) (

max

max

max

R max

1

1

a a J a A a J

curve a a a A a J

R

A

o R

A

o R

> = =

=

In this equation, Ao and A1 are material constants.

The JR curve provided by the user can be displayed by clicking the left mouse button on the Plot JR Curve button in the

Material window.

Load Control

In FlawPRO, service loads are assumed to be load controlled whereas reeling can be specified as either corresponding to a

load controlled or strain controlled loading type. Under load control, the applied loads are assumed constant and not

influenced by the presence of a flaw. As a result, the stresses and strains on the pipe section containing a flaw will increase

as the size of the flaw increases and there will be a corresponding increase in the reference stress, reference strain, and

crack tip driving force, particularly in the fully plastic regime typical of applied reeling strains.

Reeling can be considered to occur under load control if the stiffness change of the pipe due to the presence of the flaw is

negligible compared to the stiffness of the flaw-free pipe.

91

Load Step

A load step consists of the maximum and minimum loads in a load cycle plus the number of times these are applied.

Low Cycle Fatigue Crack Growth Due To Reeling

The reeling and straightening processes can give rise to large cyclic strains that result in low cycle fatigue crack growth.

Under these conditions crack growth rates can be very large because cyclic crack tip driving forces can be as high as

100 ksi inch

1/2

(110 MPa m

1/2

). A single reel can produce two ductile tearing events and a single low cycle fatigue crack

growth cycle (see figure below). A further reel will produce two additional tear events and two further fatigue crack growth

cycles. After N reels there will have been 2N tear events and 2N-1 fatigue crack growth cycles.

strain (%)

-0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

reel onto spool

remove from spool

and straighten

pull over

aligner

fatigue and

tear (1

st

cyclic loop completed)

strain (%)

-0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

reel onto spool

remove from spool

and straighten

pull over

aligner

fatigue and

tear (1

st

cyclic loop completed)

strain (%)

-0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

reel onto spool

remove from spool

and straighten

tear

strain (%)

-0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

reel onto spool

remove from spool

and straighten

tear

strain (%)

-0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

reel onto spool

pull over

aligner

remove from spool

and straighten

pull off aligner

and straighten

end of

first reel

(2

nd

cyclic loop incomplete)

strain (%)

-0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

reel onto spool

pull over

aligner

remove from spool

and straighten

pull off aligner

and straighten

end of

first reel

(2

nd

cyclic loop incomplete)

strain (%)

-0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

reel onto spool

remove from spool

and straighten

pull over

aligner

fatigue and

tear (1

st

cyclic loop completed)

strain (%)

-0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

reel onto spool

remove from spool

and straighten

pull over

aligner

fatigue and

tear (1

st

cyclic loop completed)

strain (%)

-0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

reel onto spool

remove from spool

and straighten

tear

strain (%)

-0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

reel onto spool

remove from spool

and straighten

tear

strain (%)

-0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

reel onto spool

pull over

aligner

remove from spool

and straighten

pull off aligner

and straighten

end of

first reel

(2

nd

cyclic loop incomplete)

strain (%)

-0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

s

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

reel onto spool

pull over

aligner

remove from spool

and straighten

pull off aligner

and straighten

end of

first reel

(2

nd

cyclic loop incomplete)

It is essential to use !J as the crack tip driving force under the fully reversed plastic cycling conditions encountered during

reeling, as is done in FlawPRO.

Maximum Allowable Initial Flaw Sizes (MAIFS)

The MAIFS are the initial flaw heights that, for given initial flaw lengths (in the case of embedded flaws) or surface lengths

(in the case of surface flaws), will grow to failure for a specified load history. In FlawPRO, the MAIFS are calculated when

either Option 8 or 9 is selected. In the case of Option 8, the load history consists of a service load spectrum and a specified

number of service years the spectrum is applied. In the case of Option 9, the load history consists of a reeling history (pre-

strain and number of reels), an installation load spectrum, and a service load spectrum and the number of years it is

applied.

MAIFS can be calculated with or without crack transitioning being selected.

Note that the MAIFS computed by FlawPRO for Option 8 and 9 analyses can be checked by using the calculated MAIFS

values in Option 1 and Option 2 analyses, respectively. The predicted service lives from these Option 1 and 2 analyses

should agree with the service lives specified in the Option 8 and 9 analyses.

Mean Stress Factor

The mean stress is equal to the average of the maximum and minimum stresses in a load step. In FlawPRO, the mean

stresses for the load steps that comprise a load spectrum can be scaled by a user defined multiplier called the mean stress

factor. The re-scaled load spectrum can be viewed in tabular form by clicking the left mouse button on the Show Scaled

Spectrum button in the Loading window.

Membrane Stress

The membrane stress, %membrane, is equal to the axial stress resulting from axial loads applied to the ends of the pipe. In the

case of pressure loading it is defined by the equation:

( )

p

R R

R

inner outer

inner

membrane

2 2

2

=

In this equation, Rinner and Router are the inner and outer radii of the pipe, respectively, and p is the pressure. In the case of

an axial load, L, the membrane stress is given by:

( )

2 2

inner outer

membrane

R R

L

92

Misalignment

Misalignment occurs when the axes of two circumferentially welded pipes are not perfectly aligned. A moment is generated

at the weld when an axial load is applied to the ends of misaligned pipes. This moment results in a local pipe bend stress

that adds to the membrane stress due to the axial load, causing an enhancement in the axial stress on the outside of the

pipe.

Misalignment Bend Stress Factor

A pipe bend stress is generated due to axial loads acting on the ends of two circumferential welded pipes whose axes are

not perfectly aligned. The magnitude of the misalignment pipe bend stress is given by the equation:

( )

membrane misalign bend pipe misalign

SCF 1 =

where SCFmisalign is the stress concentration factor due to misalignment and is herein called the misalignment bend stress

factor. Simple formulae, such as

t

lo hi ) (

3 1

+ , for determining stress magnification factors due to misalignment are

discussed in Annex D of BS 7910.

Note that the misalignment bend stress is a direct consequence of axial misalignment combined with membrane stressing.

Misalignment has no effect on pipe bending stresses that are present absent misalignment. However, as discussed under

Misalignment Geometrical Discontinuity, axial misalignment can change the geometry of discontinuities at weld caps and

weld roots. These geometrical discontinuity changes will affect the local stress concentration factors of both membrane and

pipe bend stresses compared to their values absent misalignment.

Misalignment Geometrical Discontinuity

In the absence of misalignment, local stress concentrations can occur at welded joints due to geometrical discontinuities at

the weld cap and weld root (see Figure (a)). Misalignment, besides resulting in a pipe bend stress when axial loads are

applied, can also result in a geometrical change to weld cap and weld root discontinuities, as illustrated in Figure (b).

FlawPRO enables the user to allow for discontinuity changes due to misalignment through a user specified normalized

stress variation that multiplies the normalized stress variations resulting from the weld discontinuities absent misalignment.

weld cap

geometrical

discontinuity

weld root

geometrical

discontinuity

weld cap

geometrical

discontinuity

weld root

geometrical

discontinuity

(a) welded pipe joint without misalignment

misalignment

misalignment can change the weld cap

and weld root geometrical

discontinuities

misalignment

misalignment can change the weld cap

and weld root geometrical

discontinuities

misalignment

misalignment can change the weld cap

and weld root geometrical

discontinuities

(b) welded pipe joint with misalignment

93

Net Section Yield Load

See Yield Load.

Normalized Stress Variation

A normalized stress variation is a through wall spatially varying stress corresponding to a remotely applied unit stress.

Absent geometrical discontinuities, a remote stress is generally equal to the local stress. Normalized stress variations are

used in FlawPRO to account for local stress concentrations due to geometrical discontinuities at weld caps and roots. A

normalized stress variation will usually integrate to an average stress equal to 1 in the case of either a remotely applied unit

membrane stress or a remotely applied unit pipe bend stress.

Absent a geometrical discontinuity, the normalized stress variation due to a unit membrane stress has a uniform value of 1

and the normalized stress variation due to a unit pipe bend stress linearly varies through the wall with a variation of the form

1-(t/Router)x

*

, where x

*

=x/t. Examples of local normalized stress variations in the absence of geometrical discontinuities with

respect to the outside wall surface and the inside wall surface are shown in the figures below for membrane and pipe bend

stresses.

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

0.0 0. 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0. 5 0.6 0.7 0. 8 0.9 1.0

Normalized Membrane Stress at Weld Discontinuity

N

o

rm

a

liz

e

d

S

tre

s

s

Normalized Distance

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

0.0 0. 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0. 5 0.6 0.7 0. 8 0.9 1.0

Normalized Membrane Stress at Weld Discontinuity

N

o

rm

a

liz

e

d

S

tre

s

s

Normalized Distance

membrane origin outside surface membrane origin inside surface

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

0.0 0. 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0. 5 0.6 0.7 0. 8 0.9 1.0

Normalized Pipe Bend Stress at Weld Discontinuity

N

o

rm

a

liz

e

d

S

tre

s

s

Normalized Distance

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

0.0 0. 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0. 5 0.6 0.7 0. 8 0.9 1.0

Normalized Pipe Bend Stress at Weld Discontinuity

N

o

rm

a

liz

e

d

S

tre

s

s

Normalized Distance

pipe bend origin outside surface pipe bend origin inside surface

In the presence of geometrical discontinuities the normalized stress variations are more complicated. Examples of local

normalized stress variations due to the effects of geometrical discontinuities on remote membrane and pipe bend stressing

are shown in the figure below. The figure shows the normalized stress variations due to stress origins at the outside and

inside surfaces of a pipe for welds having the same wall thickness and with the weld cap and weld root widths equal so that

the weld geometrical stress concentration factors (SCFs) are the same. Note that the SCF acts on the nominal (remote)

stress on the outside pipe surface in the case of the weld cap and the inside of the pipe surface in the case of the weld root.

This explains why in the figures below for the pipe bend stress, the normalized stress at the origin on the outside surface

(weld cap) is greater than that at the origin on the inside surface (weld root).

94

1. 0

1. 1

1. 2

1. 3

1. 4

1. 5

1. 6

1. 7

1. 8

0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Normal ized Membrane Stress at Wel d Di scontinui ty

N

o

rm

a

liz

e

d

S

t

re

s

s

Normalized Distance

1. 0

1. 1

1. 2

1. 3

1. 4

1. 5

1. 6

1. 7

1. 8

0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Normal ized Membrane Stress at Wel d Di scontinui ty

N

o

rm

a

liz

e

d

S

t

re

s

s

Normalized Distance

membrane origin outside surface membrane origin inside surface

at weld cap at weld root

0. 8

0. 9

1. 0

1. 1

1. 2

1. 3

1. 4

1. 5

1. 6

1. 7

1. 8

0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Normal ized Pipe Bend St ress at Wel d Di scont inuit y

N

o

rm

a

liz

e

d

S

t

re

s

s

Normalized Distance

0. 8

0. 9

1. 0

1. 1

1. 2

1. 3

1. 4

1. 5

1. 6

1. 7

1. 8

0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Normal ized Pipe Bend St ress at Wel d Di scont inuit y

N

o

rm

a

liz

e

d

S

t

re

s

s

Normalized Distance

pipe bend origin outside surface pipe bend origin inside surface

at weld cap at weld root

Paris Equations for Installation Conditions

The Paris equation characterizes the crack growth rate per cycle in terms of the cyclic change in the stress intensity factor

between the maximum and minimum load of a cycle. The equation used for installation conditions is of the form

n

K A

dN

da

=

.

In this equation, the parameters A and n are material constants, a is the crack height and N the number of applied load

cycles. The Paris equation constants should be measured by performing crack growth tests in an environment similar to that

encountered during installation.

For installation conditions, the crack growth rate is partitioned into three regions, each described by a Paris equation.

Mathematically, the growth rate is expressed as:

n) transitio above : 3 (Region ,

n) transitio and reshold between th : 2 (Region ,

) threshold cyclic the below : 1 (Region , 0

K K K B

dN

da

K K K K A

dN

da

K K

dN

da

trans

l

trans th

n

th

=

< =

< =

Where Ktrans is defined as the value of K where the growth rates in Region 2 and Region 3 are equal, and Kth is the

cyclic threshold.

Cyclic loading under installation conditions usually occurs under a high stress ratio, R, when crack closure does not occur.

(For example, after reeling and straightening a tensile residual stress equal to approximately one third of the yield stress is

95

present at the extrados of a pipe where the cyclic straining due to reeling is severest.) The Paris equation for installation

should, therefore, be determined under high R conditions (e.g. R = 0.5).

The predictions of the Paris equations provided by the user can be displayed by clicking on the Plot da/dN versus Delta K

(Service) button in the Material window.

Paris Equations for Service Conditions

The Paris equation characterizes the crack growth rate per cycle in terms of the cyclic change in the stress intensity factor

between the maximum and minimum load of a cycle. The equation used for service conditions is of the form

n

K A

dN

da

=

.

In this equation, the parameters A and n are material constants, a is the crack height and N the number of applied load

cycles. The Paris equation constants should be measured by performing crack growth tests in an environment similar to

that encountered in service.

For service conditions, the crack growth rate is partitioned into three regions, each described by a Paris equation.

Mathematically, the growth rate is expressed as:

n) transitio above : 3 (Region ,

n) transitio and reshold between th : 2 (Region ,

) threshold cyclic the below : 1 (Region , 0

K K K B

dN

da

K K K K A

dN

da

K K

dN

da

trans

l

trans th

n

th

=

< =

< =

where Ktrans is defined as the value of K where the growth rates in Region 2 and Region 3 are equal, and Kth is the cyclic

threshold.

Cyclic loading under service conditions usually occurs under a high stress ratio, R, when crack closure does not occur. The

Paris equation for service should, therefore, be determined under high R conditions (e.g. R = 0.5).

The predictions of the Paris equations provided by the user can be displayed by clicking on the Plot da/dN versus Delta K

(Service) button in the Material window.

Paris Equations Adapted for Reeling Conditions

Whereas the stress ratio R under installation and service conditions is most likely positive, under reeling conditions the

stress ratio is approximately equal to 1. This situation promotes crack closure as the upper and lower surfaces of a crack

are brought together under the compressive parts of a reeling cycle, reducing the cyclic crack tip driving force. In FlawPRO,

crack closure is corrected for by applying a factor that reduces the cyclic crack tip driving force. The Paris equation that is

used to characterize the fatigue crack growth rate under reeling conditions should be determined in a manner that is

consistent with the closure approach used in FlawPRO. This means that the constants used in the Paris equation should be

evaluated from data that uses, if necessary, a closure corrected cyclic stress intensity factor instead of the total range in the

applied cyclic stress intensity factor. In addition, the crack growth measurements used in the determination of the Paris

equation constants should be performed in an environment similar to that encountered during reeling and in a cyclic load

regime where the Paris equation is applicable, so that ductile tearing is minimized or eliminated during the crack growth rate

testing.

The Paris equation for reeling conditions can be expressed in one of the following two forms:

( )

( ) corrected closure K C

dN

da

or

data R high K C

dN

da

m

effective

m

=

=

96

In these equations, high R data refers to measurements performed in a regime where crack closure effects are negligible

(e.g. R > 0.5), while closure corrected refers to tests performed in a regime where crack closure effects are significant (e.g.

R < 0). In correcting for closure, it is usual to multiply the total cyclic stress intensity factor range,

total

K , by a factor, U,

so that

total effective

K U K = . When R =0.5, U typically has a value of very nearly 1, whereas when R = -1, U typically

has a value of around 0.5.

Under the low cycle fatigue conditions that correspond to cyclic plasticity during reeling the cyclic crack tip driving force has

to be expressed in terms of !J rather than !K in order to avoid underestimating the fatigue crack growth rate. To allow for

both cyclic plasticity and crack closure the Paris equation provided by the user is modified in FlawPRO into the form

( )

2 / ' m

effective

J C

dN

da

= ,

where Jeffective is a closure corrected form of J, and C is a modified form of the Paris equation constant, C.

In summary, It is assumed in FlawPRO that the Paris equation for reeling provided by the user will be based on measured

data at high stress ratio, R, that does not include crack closure, or low R data where the growth rate is expressed in terms of

a closure corrected K, Keffective. Furthermore, the program also assumes that the data was determined under LEFM

conditions so that the Paris equation is expressed in terms of K, and not J. FlawPRO automatically converts the LEFM

equation into one that depends on !J and automatically corrects for crack closure.

The predictions of the Paris equations provided by the user can be displayed by clicking the mouse on the Plot da/dN

versus Delta K (Reeling) button in the Material window.

Pipe Bend Stress

The pipe bend stress, %pipe bend, is equal to the axial stress resulting from moments applied to the ends of the pipe or, in the

case of reeling, the stress corresponding to the strain induced by the curvature of the pipe dictated by the spool OD during

reeling. Under elastic loading and applied moment M it is defined by the equation:

( )

M

R R

R

inner outer

outer

bend pipe 4 4

4

In this equation, Rinner and Router are the inner and outer radii of the pipe, respectively. Under fully plastic loading, similar to

the conditions pertaining during reeling, the pipe bend stress is given approximately by:

( )

( )

reel

inner outer

inner outer outer

bend pipe

R R

R R R

4 4

3 3

3

16

=

In this equation, %reel is the elastic-plastic outer fiber stress corresponding to the reel strain &reel on the stress-strain curve.

The pipe bend stress in this case is interpreted as the elastically determined outer fiber stress corresponding to the moment,

Mreel, that results in fully plastic behavior, where

( )

reel

inner outer

reel

R R

M

3

4

3 3

=

97

Plastic Strain

Strain is generally composed of an elastic part given by the applied stress divided by Youngs modulus, E, and a plastic part

that varies non-linearly with the applied stress. In FlawPRO it is necessary to resolve the total strain into these two

components in order to implement the J formulation used in the program. The plastic strain, &plastic, can be simply derived

from the total strain, &total, at a stress, %, through the equation E

total plastic

/ = .

Pre-Service Reels

Pre-service reels occur as a consequence of reeling a pipe onto a spool, unreeling and straightening it before passing it

over an aligner, and finally straightening the pipe as it is installed. Several pre-service reels can be specified in FlawPRO

to take account of the fact that a pipe may be reeled and straightened several times prior to final installation. It is assumed

in FlawPRO that a single reel and straightening process are equivalent to two high strain cycles at the same pre-strain

level. These cyclic loading events can cause initial cracks to extend by ductile tearing and low cycle fatigue, resulting in a

reduction in the lifetime of the pipe relative to the lifetime that would have been estimated after conventional installation.

Indeed, an end-of-life condition can occur during reeling and straightening if the pre-straining due to reeling is severe

enough. On the first reel, the two high strain cycles give rise to two monotonic ductile tearing events but only one low cycle

fatigue crack growth event since the second of the high strain cycles is not fully closed at the end of the reel (see Low Cycle

Fatigue Crack Growth due to Reeling).

Pre-Straining

The process of reeling a pipe onto a spool and then straightening it during installation causes the pipe material to be

subjected to a pre-strain (reel) prior to it entering service. The pre-straining can be estimated from the outside diameter of

the spool (spoolOD) and the diameter of the pipe (pipeOD), and is given by the equation

( )

OD OD

OD

reel

pipe spool

pipe

+

= .

The pipe is also subjected to a cyclic pre-strain during reeling. This cyclic strain can result in low cycle fatigue crack growth.

The value of the cyclic strain is slightly greater than the monotonic pre-strain value given by the foregoing equation because

on straightening the pipe has to be strained beyond the zero strain position in order to allow for elastic spring-back. The

additional strain to compensate for spring-back is calculated in FlawPRO and added to the pre-strain value when

determining the cyclic pre-strain value.

Primary Independent Variables (PIV)

In FlawPRO , the dependent variable (DV) is allowed to be a function of two other variables that are selected by the user

from a list of possible variables. This facility allows the user to perform a sensitivity analysis to assess the influence of

variations in assessment parameters on the service lifetime, reeling lifetime, critical crack size, final crack size, or maximum

allowable initial flaw sizes (MAIFS). The primary independent variable (PIV) is the main variable against which the

sensitivity analysis is to be performed. The PIV will be the quantity specified on the x-axis of the figure displayed in

FlawPRO to summarize the results of a calculation. This results figure will display a curve of the DV plotted against the PIV

for each defined value of the specified secondary independent variable (SIV) (see figure below).

98

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

10.5

11.0

11.5

12.0

12.5

13.0

0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20

Critical Crack

C

r

it

ic

a

l

C

r

a

c

k

H

e

ig

h

t

AspectRatio

SIV(1) ServiceToughness (100.000) SIV(2) ServiceToughness (125.000)

SIV(3) ServiceToughness (150.000) SIV(4) ServiceToughness (200.000)

Dependent

Variable

(DV)

Primary Independent Variable (PIV)

Secondary Independent

Variable (SIV) curves

A table listing the permissible PIVs for each DV and Analysis Option is shown below.

List of Primary Independent Variables

Option No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Dependent Variable

Primary

Variable

Name (PIV)

Service

Lifetime

Service

Lifetime

Critical

Crack

Size

Reeling

Lifetime

Final

Crack

Size

Final

Crack

Size

Final

Crack

Size

MAIFS MAIFS

Initial crack

size

yes yes yes

(aspect ratio)

yes yes yes yes yes

(flaw length)

yes

(flaw length)

Service

Toughness

yes yes yes no no no no no no

Service Cyclic

threshold

yes yes no no no no no no no

Reeling

Toughness

no yes no yes no no no no no

Pre-service

reels

no yes no no no no no no no

Pre-strain no yes no yes no no no no no

Spool outer

diameter

no yes no yes no no no no no

Service period no no no no no no no no no

Ramberg-Osgood Equation

The Ramberg-Osgood equation is a simple parametric equation used to mathematically describe the uniaxial stress-strain

curve of a material. It has the form

n

o o

+ =

0

,

where and are the stress and strain, and , n, o, and o=o/E are material constants. It is convenient to set o=yield,

and often has a value of around 1.

99

Range Scale Factor

The cyclic stress range is equal to the maximum minus the minimum stress in a load step. In FlawPRO the ranges for the

load steps that comprise a load spectrum can be scaled by a user defined multiplier called the range scale factor. The re-

scaled load spectrum can be viewed in tabular form by clicking the left mouse button on the Show Scaled Spectrum button

in the Loading window.

Reeling

Reeling consists of bending a pipe over a spool (during which the pipe extrados undergoes tensile stressing and straining),

unreeling (i.e. straightening, when the pipe extrados undergoes reversed straining and compressive stressing), bending

around an aligner (when the extrados undergoes straining resulting in tensile stressing) and finally straightening (when the

extrados undergoes reversed straining and compressive stressing followed by elastic straining due to spring-back that

results in tensile stressing). At the end of the reeling process, the strain throughout the pipe is zero (it is straight), but the

extrados is subjected to a residual tensile stress of approximately one third of the yield stress, and the intrados is subjected

to a compressive residual stress of a similar magnitude. The reeling process is schematically shown in the figure below. A

single reel can produce two ductile tearing events and a single fatigue crack growth cycle (see Low Cycle Fatigue Crack

Growth due to Reeling). After N reels there will have been 2N tear events and 2N-1 fatigue crack growth cycles.

spool

bending

straightening

aligner

bending

straightening

spool

bending

straightening

aligner

bending

straightening

Reeling Life

The mechanism of crack growth determining the reeling life is tear-fatigue where enhanced low cycle fatigue crack growth

rates can occur due to the synergistic interaction between ductile tearing and fatigue. The reeling life is the number of pre-

service reels that a pipe can experience before it is predicted to reach an end-of-life condition. The calculated life is,

therefore, not necessarily the same as the number of reels that a pipe can experience before failing. For example, the

calculated reeling life will change depending on whether the user selects the no crack transitioning or the crack transitioning

option.

Residual Stress Due to Reeling

When a pipe is reeled on to a spool, the extrados of the pipe undergoes tensile yielding and the intrados undergoes

compressive yielding. The strain applied during reeling is approximately equal to the pipe diameter divided by the spool

diameter. After the pipe is straightened, a residual stress remains in the pipe. During reeling and straightening, pre-strain

levels can exceed 1% and nearly half of the pipe cross section is subjected to tensile stresses that exceed the yield stress,

while nearly half of the cross section is subjected to compressive yielding. After straightening (when the pipe springs back

elastically to give zero strain throughout the pipe section), the extrados is in tension, while the intrados is in compression.

In FlawPRO , the residual stress remaining after reeling and straightening is derived from an assumed linear strain

distribution corresponding to bending the pipe while maintaining a constant curvature equal to the radius of the spool.

These stress analyses calculations employ the uniaxial stress-strain curve for the pipe material and a mechanics of

materials analysis. The residual stress is derived assuming kinematic hardening and ignoring Bauschinger effects.

The residual stress due to reeling is automatically included in service lifetime calculations if Analysis Options 2, 6, or 8 are

selected. However, if Option 3 is selected the user has the choice in calculating critical crack sizes to include the residual

stress due to reeling or not include it.

100

Although residual stresses contribute to the calculated stress intensity factor for a flaw, they do not influence the net section

yield load and do not contribute to the plastic component of J in the FlawPRO J estimation scheme.

Residual Stress Due to Welding

Residual stresses remain in the weld after two pipes are welded together. These static stresses add to the stresses that

result from service. However, if a welded pipe is subject to reeling before entering service, then the high plastic strains

generated during the reeling process will wipe out the residual welding stresses present before reeling. As a consequence,

a reeled pipe will enter service with residual stresses that result from the reeling process rather than the welding process.

In FlawPRO, welding residual stresses are conservatively assumed to vary uniformly through the pipe wall and hence are

specified by a single stress value. Although residual stresses contribute to the calculated stress intensity factor for a flaw,

they do not influence the net section yield load and do not contribute to the plastic component of J in the FlawPRO J

estimation scheme.

Residual stresses can be reduced in magnitude if the combined level of applied stresses exceeds the yield stress. (Indeed,

as previously stated, they are wiped out be reeling.) FlawPRO contains elastic-plastic routines that determine the welding

residual stress remaining if the combined stresses exceed yield. These shakedown routines, which are similar to the

routines used to determine the residual stresses following reeling, allow for the fact that the plastically relaxed variation in

residual stress may not be uniform through the pipe wall.

Runout

Runout occurs when a crack does not reach an end-of-life condition during the specified service periods.

Saturation Tear Length

See JR Curve.

Scaled Spectrum

The load spectrum specified by the user can be scaled in three different and independent ways in order to create a new

load spectrum from an existing spectrum. This scaling is achieved using three scaling factors: a cyclic stress range factor

(see Range Scale Factor), a mean stress factor (see Mean Stress Factor), and a cycles factor (see Cycles Factor). The

scaled spectrum can be viewed by clicking on the Show Scaled Spectrum button in the Spectrum Scale Factors frame on

the Loading screen.

Scenario File

A Scenario file contains all the input information created by the user while using FlawPRO , and all the output that results

from performing an analysis calculation using that data. Scenario files are automatically created when the user saves a file,

and have the default extension flp.

Secondary Independent Variables (SIV)

In FlawPRO , the dependent variable (DV) is allowed to be a function of two other variables, called the primary independent

variable (PIV) and the secondary independent variable (SIV), that are selected by the user from a list of possible variables.

This facility allows the user to perform a sensitivity analysis to assess the influence of variations in assessment parameters

on the service lifetime, reeling lifetime, critical crack size, final crack size, or maximum allowable initial flaw sizes (MAIFS).

The PIV is the main variable against which the sensitivity analysis is to be performed and is the quantity specified on the x-

axis of the figure displayed in FlawPRO to summarize the results of a calculation. This results figure will display a curve of

the DV plotted against the PIV for each defined value of the specified SIV. Thus, if there are 4 SIV values, there will be a

total of 4 plotted curves (see figure).

101

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

10.5

11.0

11.5

12.0

12.5

13.0

0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20

CriticalCrack

C

r

it

ic

a

l

C

r

a

c

k

H

e

ig

h

t

AspectRatio

SIV(1) Service Toughness (100.000) SIV(2) Service Toughness (125.000)

SIV(3) Service Toughness (150.000) SIV(4) Service Toughness (200.000)

Dependent

Variable

(DV)

Primary Independent Variable (PIV)

Secondary Independent

Variable (SIV) curves

A table listing the permissible SIVs for each DV and Analysis Option is shown below.

List of Secondary Independent Variables

Option No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Dependent variable

Secondary

Variable

Name (SIV)

Service

Lifetime

Service

Lifetime

Critical

Crack

Size

Reeling

Lifetime

Final

Crack

Size

Final

Crack

Size

Final

Crack

Size

MAIFS MAIFS

Initial crack

size

yes yes yes

(aspect ratio)

yes no no no no no

Service

Toughness

yes yes yes no no no no yes yes

Service Cyclic

threshold

yes yes no no no no no yes yes

Reeling

Toughness

no yes no yes no no no no yes

Pre-service

reels

no yes no no no no yes no yes

Pre-strain no yes no yes no no no no yes

Spool outer

diameter

no yes no yes no no no no yes

No SIV yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes

Service period no no no no yes yes no no no

Service Life

In FlawPRO, the service life of a pipe is determined as the number of service periods (years) that a pipe experiences before

it reaches an end-of-life condition. The calculated life is, therefore, not necessarily the same as the number of service

periods that a pipe can experience before failing. For example, the calculated life will change depending on whether the

user selects the no crack transitioning or the crack transitioning option.

Service Period

A service period consists of the time over which a number of load steps that form a load spectrum are applied. The service

period is frequently synonymous with a year. The actual service lifetime can be determined by multiplying the service

period (year) by the number of load spectrum that are repeatedly applied until an end-of-life condition is attained.

102

Strain Control

In FlawPRO, reeling loads can be specified as either corresponding to a load controlled or strain controlled loading type.

Under strain control, the applied strain on the flawed section of pipe is assumed constant and not influenced by the

presence of the flaw. As a result, the strains do not increase as the size of the flaw increases. This effect is captured in

FlawPRO by assuming that the reference stress and reference plastic strain remain at the values determined for the flaw-

free pipe. Although the crack tip driving force will still increase as the flaw size increases under strain controlled conditions,

the relative increase in the driving force in the fully plastic regime typical of applied reeling strains will be far less than it

would be under load controlled reeling.

Reeling can be considered to occur under strain control if the stiffness change of the pipe due to the presence of the flaw is

non-negligible compared to the stiffness of the flaw-free pipe.

Stress Concentration Factor

See Weld Stress Concentration Factor.

Stress Intensity Factor

The stress intensity factor, K, is a crack tip driving force under linear elastic conditions. It is a key parameter in the fracture

mechanics methods used in FlawPRO and contributes to both the elastic and plastic components of the elastic-plastic crack

tip driving force parameter, J, which plays a major role in the reeling methodology incorporated in FlawPRO. Similarly, the

cyclic change in the stress intensity factor, !K, is a key parameter in determining the cyclic crack tip driving forces used in

FlawPRO to calculate fatigue crack growth rates under reeling and service conditions.

In FlawPRO, K and !K are evaluated from stresses in pipes using the weight function method. This technique enables

stress intensity factors for flaws in steep stress gradients such as those associated with weld geometrical discontinuities to

be calculated based on stress analysis results for the flaw free pipe.

Stress Ratio, R

The stress ratio, R, is usually defined as the ratio of the minimum to the maximum stress in a fatigue cycle. However, this

definition is inadequate to describe flaw growth in spatially varying stress fields. To deal with these conditions, FlawPRO

adopts a more general definition of R given by the ratio of the stress intensity factor at minimum load divided by the stress

intensity factor at maximum load.

Tearing Due to Reeling

Ductile tearing may occur due to reeling at pre-existing flaws on the pipe extrados where the stress is tensile. These flaws

are subjected to high strains during the reeling process. To assess the level of ductile tearing it is necessary to use elastic-

plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) based on the J-integral crack tip driving force, since linear elastic fracture mechanics

under-predicts the crack tip driving forces for flaws in ductile materials where extensive crack tip plasticity can develop

before an end-of-life condition is attained. The J-integral, together with the materials resistance to ductile tearing,

characterized by its JR-curve, enable the amount of crack tip blunting and ductile tearing to be predicted.

Tear-Fatigue Due to Reeling

Tear-fatigue can occur at flaws located at the extrados of a pipe due to multiple reeling and straightening events prior to

service. Tear-fatigue occurs in ductile materials when cracks propagate under cyclic loading conditions such that the

applied J at the maximum load in the cycle exceeds the value needed to initiate ductile tearing. Under these conditions, a

synergy exists between the mechanisms of fatigue and tearing that can significantly increase the fatigue crack propagation

rate compared to rates measured when no tearing occurs under the same cyclic loading conditions. The tear-fatigue model

used to estimate the crack extension per cycle in FlawPRO is applicable to single amplitude load cycles (such as

experienced by pipes during reeling and straightening), and has been experimentally validated for steels on pre-cracked

laboratory coupons.

To apply the tear-fatigue model to the reeling and straightening process, it is necessary to estimate using EPFM the cyclic

change in the crack tip driving force. The methodology used in FlawPRO is based on a hybrid version of the Electric Power

Research Institute (EPRI) and reference stress schemes The reference stress J estimation scheme forms the basis of the

technology underpinning material dependent failure assessment curve procedures used in BS 7910. The reeling

methodology in FlawPRO takes account of crack closure due to the fact that during one half of the reeling/straightening

process cracks at the extrados experience compressive stressing.

103

It should be noted that if a pipe undergoes N consecutive reels then existing cracks undergo 2N tearing events and 2N-1

low cycle fatigue events. Thus a single pre-service reel will produce two ductile tearing events and one fatigue crack growth

cycle (see Low Cycle Fatigue Crack Growth due to Reeling).

Threshold

See Cyclic Threshold.

Toughness

The fracture toughness, Kc, of the material is related to a corresponding toughness value, Jc, expressed in terms of J

through the equation

'

2

E

K

J

c

c

=

,

where

) 1 (

2

'

=

E

E

and E is Youngs modulus and is Poissons ratio. Toughness values are also sometimes expressed in terms of a critically

measured crack tip opening displacement (CTODc). This critical value can be interpreted in terms of Kc

and Jc by using the following equations,

c yield c

CTOD m J =

and

( )

2 / 1

'

c yield c

CTOD m E K =

,

respectively, where yield is the yield stress and m is a constant usually with a value between 1 and 2. A conservative

estimate of Kc and Jc can be derived from CTODc by assuming m = 1.

True Stress-True Strain

The true stress-true strain curve allows for changes in load bearing area due to necking that occurs in tensile specimens

during stress-strain measurements. Sometimes stress-strain curves are measured using engineering stresses and strains

that are determined without taking into account changes in load bearing area. The true stress and true strain values can be

derived from engineering values using the following equations:

( )

( )

g engineerin true

g engineerin g engineerin true

Ln

+ =

+ =

1

1

Unit Sets

Two sets of units are available in FlawPRO , these are the English and Metric sets. The following table illustrates the units

that are used according to which set is selected. The unit set is specified in the Variables window. If the units used in a

Scenario file are changed in the Variables window, then the program will automatically convert the values of all input

parameters contained in the Scenario file into the new set of units. Note that if the file is saved after the unit conversion

facility is used, the data will be stored in the current unit set and these values will appear when the Scenario file for the

session is re-opened.

104

Quantity English Unit Metric Unit

Prestrain % %

Spool outer diameter feet meters

Pipe wall thickness inches millimeters

Pipe outer diameter inches millimeters

Crack offset inches millimeters

Youngs modulus ksi MPa

Yield stress ksi MPa

Ultimate stress ksi MPa

Toughness ksi inch

1/2

MPa meters

1/2

JR-curve ksi-inch

(tear length measured in inches)

MPa -m

(tear length measured in meters)

Slope of JR-curve ksi

(tear length measured in inches)

MPa

(tear length measured in meters)

Saturation tear length inches millimeters

Residual stress ksi MPa

Applied stress ksi MPa

Membrane stress ksi MPa

Pipe bend stress ksi MPa

Cyclic threshold ksi inch

1/2

MPa meters

1/2

Maximum cyclic stress ksi MPa

Minimum cyclic stress ksi MPa

Worst case service stress ksi MPa

Crack height inches millimeters

Crack length inches millimeters

Weld cap width inches millimeters

Weld root width inches millimeters

Paris equation coefficient ksi

-n

inches

-(n/2-1)

(growth in inches/cycle,

Paris equation exponent n)

MPa

-n

millimeter meter

-n/2

(growth in mm/cycle,

Paris equation exponent n)

Weight Function

In FlawPRO, stress intensity factors (SIFs) are calculated using the weight function (WF) method. The WF represents the

stress intensity factor solution for two unit line loads, P, applied symmetrically to the top and bottom surfaces of a crack.

The WF depends on geometry (crack shape and size, position on the crack front, and the type of structure) and the

boundaries of the structure over which displacements are prescribed. It is not a function of the form of the applied loading

(e.g. whether the loads are due to internal pressure or applied moments) and does not depend on the origins of the applied

stresses (e.g. whether they arise from mechanical loads, internal pressure, or residual strains). Furthermore, the stress

variation used in the integral over the crack surface performed to determine the SIF using the WF approach is the stress

variation derived for the flaw-free structure. These attributes (that the WF is only a geometrical term independent of the

105

source of loading and requires only the results of a flaw-free structural stress analysis) make the WF approach a very

powerful and versatile method for calculating SIFs.

The SIFs for flaws with two degrees of freedom (2-DOF), such as surface semi-elliptical flaws, are calculated using

equations of the form:

=

=

a

c c

a

a a

dx x x c a W c a K

dx x x c a W c a K

0

0

) ( ) , , ( ) , (

) ( ) , , ( ) , (

where a and c are the flaw height (depth) and half the surface length, respectively, and subscripts a and c signify the

deepest and surface points on the flaw, respectively. The term W(a,c,x) represents the WF and !(x) represents the applied

stress variation determined from an analysis of the flaw-free pipe.

Similar equations apply to calculating the SIFs for embedded flaws offset distance y from the inside or inside surfaces of a

pipe. These equations have the form:

+ +

=

=

=

a

a

a a

a

a

c c

a

a

a a

dx x x y c a W y c a K

dx x x y c a W y c a K

dx x x y c a W y c a K

) ( ) , , , ( ) , , (

) ( ) , , , ( ) , , (

) ( ) , , , ( ) , , (

where + indicates the point on the flaw nearest the free surface from which the flaw is offset, indicates the point furthest

from this free surface, and c are the points on the tip of the flaw midway between a+ and a-.

Weld Cap Width

The weld cap width is defined in the figure below. In BS 7910 and FlawPRO, the weld cap width together with the pipe wall

thickness can be used to derive the stress concentration factor due to a weld geometrical discontinuity that may be present

at weld caps that are not grinded flat, such as the one in the figure.

cap width

weld

pipe wall

cap width

weld

pipe wall

Weld Geometrical Discontinuity

See Geometrical Discontinuity.

Weld Root Width

The weld root width is defined in the figure below. In BS 7910 and FlawPRO, the weld root width together with the pipe wall

thickness can be used to derive the stress concentration factor due to a weld geometrical discontinuity that may be present

at weld roots that are not grinded flat, such as the one in the figure.

106

root width

weld

pipe wall

root width

weld

pipe wall

Weld Stress Concentration Factor (SCF)

The weld SCF is defined as the ratio of the local stress to the remote stress. A weld SCF is associated with geometrical

discontinuities at, for example, weld caps and weld roots. In these cases, the weld SCF in FlawPRO is defined as the ratio

of the local stress with the geometrical discontinuity present to the local stress absent the discontinuity. In most cases, the

local stress absent the discontinuity will be equal to the remote stress.

The weld SCF for a remote membrane stress will usually be different to that for a remote pipe bend stress.

Yield Load

The yield load is the combined loading (bending plus tension) that results in general yielding of the flawed section of a pipe.

In FlawPRO, this load is determined from lower bound limit load theory by balancing the applied moment and axial force by

an internal stress distribution which is equal in magnitude to the yield stress. everywhere on the flawed section. In clad pipe,

the yield load is determined by yielding in the ferritic base and clad materials.

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