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A Medieval Catalan Noble Family: the Montcadas, 1000-1230 John C. Shideler 7 Montcada Lord hi! in Ne" Catalonia
#$%&' Guillem Ramon [II] seneschal received grants of lordship in the cities of Tortosa and Lleida as a result of his contributions to the conquest of New Catalonia !ut the grants were limited because Ramon !erenguer I" decided to divide comital authorit# in Tortosa and Lleida$ reserving certain rights for himself The count wanted to ma%imi&e the authorit# of the house of !arcelona$ and at the same time limit the power of independent barons in New Catalonia$ b# directing Christian resettlement and regulating 'uslim and (ewish residenc# himself In consequence$ lords found their authorit# restricted even more than the# had e%pected This led to conflict with the count) first the Genoese sold bac* their portion of the Tortosa lordship in ++,- and then$ a short time later$ Guillem Ramon [II] .eneschal complained to a comital curia about restrictions on his lordship !ut the die was cast/ and neither the compromise obtained b# Guillem Ramon nor later modifications made b# the count0s son 1lfons in the lordship structure of Tortosa and Lleida altered the political balance that Ramon !erenguer I" had established on the frontier

The Tortosa Lordship of Guilem Ramon [II] .eneschal

(udging from the quantit# of documents that bear his subscription$ Guillem Ramon .eneschal0s primar# concern in the #ears immediatel# following the capture of Tortosa was the supervision #$%(' of Christian resettlement there Regardless of Ramon !erenguer0s criticism that the seneschal had not personall# assured the guard of the .uda$ his presence in the region is ampl# documented during the period ++234++,2$ when he and the count granted propert# in the cit# and its surroundings Grants had been made in anticipation of the cit#0s fall$ too$ including an almunia 5garden6 in 1ldea to !ernat de !ell4lloc$ houses and land in Tortosa to the 1ragonese 7edro Guillermo$ and an alfndec 5mar*etplace6 e%empt from the usual customs charges to the 8people8 of Narbonne 5+6 7erhaps because of the fiscal considerations involved$ the charter ceding the alfndec recorded the consent of Guillem Ramon .eneschal and others with a financial interest in the lordship of Tortosa The bul* of the donation charters$ however$ were made after 9ecember ++2: These grants b# Ramon !erenguer generall# transferred houses and land in Tortosa to settlers who agreed to remain as inhabitants of the cit# 5;6 The unencumbered 5allodial6 lands could be freel# disposed of$ though some charters prohibited alienations to *nights and 8saints8 5that is$ ecclesiastical institutions6 5-6 'an# of the documents specified that the honors granted had belonged to some particular .aracen or other$ who presumabl# had fled or perished in the conquest 526 <ther donations b# the count$ such as grants to Guillem de .entmenat and Guillem de Copons$ established or e%panded the honors of nobles from <ld Catalonia in the new region 5,6 In all these cases$ Guillem Ramon .eneschal0s subscription figured prominentl# on the charter

The repopulation effort had produced appro%imatel# +=> Christian hearths b# ++>- 5>6 Their inhabitants paid fiscal dues$ although the settlement charters had granted certain privileges and #$%)' e%emptions 5?6 The ta%es allowed b# the count included leudes 5mar*et dues or customs6$ the questa 5a portion of harvests6$ placiti 5pa#ments made for @ustice6$ and some other levies Guillem Ramon received his share of these dues deriving from lordship$ protection$ and the ban$ and could impose no more 5:6 Guillem Ramon .eneschal appeared in the comital court in the mid ++,=s as a result of disputes with Ramon !erenguer over their respective rights and duties in Tortosa 536 Though the count0s donation to Guillem Ramon in ++2? had not mentioned dividing the lordship of Tortosa into parts$ a partition had in fact been made 1n# doubt remaining about this after ++23 was eliminated when Ramon !erenguer0s court of barons ruled that Guillem Ramon had no right to share in the proceeds of a particular placitum because the plea had been heard in the Genoese sector !ut other areas of Tortosa had been left as common land b# the charter of division$ and it was presumed that here the parties with lordship rights would profit according to their shares This reasoning led the Great .eneschal to claim a portion of the profits from a mill that he said Ramon !erenguer had constructed in common lands The court of barons decided that Guillem Ramon could share in the revenues from the mill$ but onl# if he would contribute to its e%penses Nothing$ however$ was so damaging to Guillem Ramon0s financial interests in Tortosa as the decision b# the court that he was entitled onl# to a one4third portion of the count0s share in lordship$ not to one4 third of the total revenues from Tortosa !# e%cluding the third part granted to the Genoese and the fifth accorded to the Templars$ which Ramon !erenguer argued were separate from the comital portion$ Guillem Ramon0s share was reduced to a mere +> percent 5see Chart -6 Certain attributes of authorit# could not be fractioned into shares$ for e%ample$ the responsibilit# for the contingent of *nights and foot4soldiers stationed at the .uda$ which Guillem Ramon did not share with the Genoese even though the citadel had been partitioned b# the charter of (une ++23 In the count0s absence$ the #$%7' commander of these forces no doubt was Guillem Ramon .eneschal !ut the degree of his control became an issue when he complained that the count had not given him the stacamenta 5a form of suret# or bail6 of these *nights and foot4soldiers$ and in this wa# had infringed upon his lordship Ramon !erenguer replied that he had given the seneschal no lordship in his 5the count0s6 familia and that he recogni&ed none The court of barons declared that no monetar# guarantees for appearance or e%ecution of sentence were required because a mutual responsibilit# e%isted in this group as in other 8families 85+=6 If someone 8of the famil#8 had a case with a citi&en of Tortosa$ however$ he should give guarantees to Guillem Ramon and proceed with the matter in court This difference between Guillem Ramon and Ramon !erenguer indicates that the count wished to minimi&e his seneschal0s authorit# in Tortosa Ramon !erenguer sought to monopoli&e authorit# in Tortosa b# insisting$ for one thing$ that certain aspects of lordship pertained e%clusivel# to him Thus he claimed the entire amount of a fine levied on the men of Tortosa for brea*ing the peace and truce with the .aracens Guillem Ramon as*ed the count0s curia for a share in these proceeds$ but the barons found in favor of Ramon !erenguer .imilarl#$ the administration of 'uslim affairs was e%clusivel# reserved for the count Ramon !erenguer had granted a specific charter to this segment of the population$ and he clearl# e%pected the other secular lords of Tortosa to *eep their distance The seneschal further complained that Ramon !erenguer had not shared the proceeds of a questa levied on both .aracens and (ews The count maintained that the sum was a loan and would be repaid The court of barons decided that if the mone# was borrowed as stated and repaid b# the count$ Guillem Ramon should receive no part of it If$ however$ it was not repaid at the time stipulated$ it should be considered a ta%$ no matter what name it was given$ and should be shared with Guillem Ramon

The evidence suggests that neither Guillem Ramon nor Ramon !erenguer was completel# satisfied with the conduct of the #$%*' other in the affairs of Tortosa in the period ++234++,2 5++6 Guillem Ramon complained$ for instance$ that his share in the amostalafia 5levies on 'uslim commercial activities6$ which had been ceded b# Ramon !erenguer to a citi&en of Tortosa$ was too small The count replied that because the grant covered more than @ust the cit# of Tortosa$ Guillem Ramon0s share had been pro4rated The seneschal also complained that when he had disputed the count0s acquisition of the Genoese part of the cit#$ Ramon !erenguer had sei&ed some of his honors The court ruled that Ramon !erenguer should release these$ that the situation should revert to the status quo at the time when Ramon !erenguer had acquired the Genoese portion$ and that thenceforth governing should proceed according to charter provisions The court of barons also heard Ramon !erenguer complain that Guillem Ramon had levied new ta%es in the cit#$ specificall# the ioves traginis 5dra#age services6$ and that he had received chic*ens from .aracens at certain times of the #ear The count further asserted that the seneschal had required .aracens to pilot boats down the river and upstream as far as Lleida Guillem Ramon stated that he had not introduced an#thing new but had merel# ta*en advantage of customs prevalent when the .aracens had held the .uda 44 specificall# those pertaining to fowl$ firewood$ and certain other matters To this the count responded that Guillem Ramon should not innovate at all$ whether the customs in question had been practiced before b# the .aracens or not The charges and countercharges that Guillem Ramon .eneschal and Ramon !erenguer traded before the curia of !arcelona show two clearl# different conceptions of the prerogatives of a feudal baron in New Catalonia The controversies of the ++,=s prove that Guillem Ramon acted at Tortosa in much the same wa# as he and other magnates operated in <ld Catalonia) to ma%imi&e profits from lordships and to discourage interference from above in the e%ercise of their authorit# Ramon !erenguer ma# have tolerated this in <ld Catalonia$ but he would broo* no resistance to his principles in New Catalonia There he had established a new order in which he was sovereign above all$ and in which the limits of #$%%' authorit# were defined b# written contract to a far greater degree than elsewhere in Catalonia !# virtue of one or more of these agreements$ Guillem Ramon had been awarded a role in the lordship of Tortosa 44 not as an independent lord bound onl# to Ramon !erenguer through a promise of service and fidelit#$ but simpl# as the e%ecutor of authorit# given him b# the count The confrontation in court ma# not have changed the opinions of the protagonists$ but it cleared the air and resolved outstanding disputes <ne consequence was that Ramon !erenguer began to devote much less attention to the management of affairs in Tortosa$ leaving this instead to the care of his seneschal Aven more important$ Ramon !erenguer apparentl# acceded to Guillem Ramon0s claim of the Genoese third of the cit#0s lordship 1lthough there is no direct evidence of a new comital grant$ it is almost inconceivable that one was not made$ considering the *nown shares of other lords in Tortosa and bearing in mind that the identification of Ramon de 'ontcada [I] with Tortosa was$ if an#thing$ greater than that of his father 5see Chart -6

The 7olitics of Lordship in Tortosa Bnder Ramon [I] and Ramon [II] de 'ontcada
The Tortosa lordship of Ramon [I] and his son Ramon CII] de 'ontcada remained circumscribed b# 1lfons I0s continued use of fiscal resources in the cit# and b# his reservation of some political rights there Ro#al prerogative @ustified some of this$ as when the count4*ing reserved ecclesiastical rights in Tortosa to himself because 8the# pertain to the ro#al ma@est# 85+;6 1t the dedication of the new cathedral of Tortosa in ++??$ 1lfons confirmed the endowment and diocesan boundaries of the church Ramon de 'ontcada0s subscription appeared in the charter that recorded the event$ but onl# as a

signator# to an act of the count4*ing 5+-6 .imilarl#$ 1lfons stipulated in ++?; that Ramon could do an#thing he li*ed with land given him in Tortosa e%cept build baths there$ presumabl# because this was a monopol# of the count4*ings 5+26 Thirt# #+,,' #ears later 7ere I granted a charter of e%emption from ta%es to the men of the churches$ monasteries$ and religious houses in the bishopric of Tortosa 5+,6 Thus the count4*ing still e%ercised ro#al prerogatives$ even after his predecessor had traded awa# the share of lordship first reserved for the house of !arcelona b# Ramon !erenguer I" 5+>6 The Templars at Tortosa had not initiall# received rights of lordship there 5+?6 Dowever$ the# became in effect co4lords of Tortosa with Ramon de 'ontcada [I] in ++:; when 1lfons granted them his share of the cit# in return for half of the revenues the# would collect there 5+:6 The donation$ which provided that a Templar bailiff would collect the count4*ing0s revenues$ is one e%ample of the transition from direct to indirect fiscal administration under 1lfons !ut it also provided an entr# for the Templars into the lordship of the cit#$ which from ++:; the# effectivel# shared with the 'ontcadas 5+36 <nl# ro#al prerogative and rights to half of the incomes raised b# the Templars$ or one4eighth of the total$ were left to the crown after ++:; These rights were transmitted b# 1lfons0s will to his widow$ Eueen .anFa$ and 7ere I later granted them to Guillem de Cervera That donation$ made in +;=:$ gave the baron the castle and cit# of Tortosa 8with full lordship @ust as 1lfons had held it 85;=6 It was$ no doubt$ the latter provision that was challenged b# the Templars in +;+= when the# won from 7ere I a confirmation of the donation of ++:; and an order that Guillem de Cervera do homage to the Templars for his rights in Tortosa 5;+6 If Guillem de Cervera0s entr# on the scene was viewed b# the Templars as a threat to their prerogatives$ Ramon de 'ontcada #+,$' [II] does not appear to have shared this view De had established a close alliance with Guillem and as earl# as +;=> had elected him e%ecutor of the will he made prior to a campaign with 7ere in 7rovence 5;;6 This relationship continued when Guillem assumed his new role as 7ere I0s agent in Tortosa In +;=3 Ramon and Guillem @ointl# made a donation 8on our [Ramon0s] account and that of the lord *ing8 of the islands of Le&em and 'oled to the .aracens of 'iravet 5;-6 !oth were signatories to 7ere0s e%emption from e%actions for churchmen in Tortosa$ and both issued confirmations of the purchase of houses in Tortosa b# !ishop 7onF 5;26 Ghen Ramon enfeoffed the castle of Lumeners in +;+=$ he did so with Guillem0s advice and consent 5;,6 Guillem was identified in +;;: as 8lieutenant of the lord *ing of Tortosa8 in a grant to the (ews of the cit#$ made b# Ramon and the Templars$ of the castle of !aneres 5;>6 Guillem de Cervera0s rights thus appear to have been parallel to those of Ramon de 'ontcada and in competition onl# with those of the Templars in the cit# !ut Guillem0s rights do not seem to have survived him Hrom the time of his death to the end of the thirteenth centur#$ the lordship of the cit# appears to have been divided equall# between the 'ontcadas and the Templars 5;?6 Though the 'ontcadas0 lordship rights in Tortosa predated those of the Templars$ the Templars on several occasions in the thirteenth centur# tried to increase their authorit# at the e%pense of their co4 lords 5;:6 9isputes between the two powers had their roots in 1lfons0s donation and in subsequent confirmations that accorded 8the whole cit# of Tortosa8 to the Templars$ without specificall# reserving rights for the 'ontcadas That their rights had indeed been reserved$ however$ is apparent from a stud# of administrative documents in Tortosa that show nearl# equal @urisdiction until the death of Ramon de 'ontcada [II] .till$ there is evidence that Templar officials earl# in the thirteenth centur# regarded #+,+' their authorit# as higher than that of the 'ontcadas In a document dated to the first quarter of the centur#$ Ramon de 'ontcada [II] was as*ed b# the Templar official 7onF 'arescal to preside over a claim he wished to bring against the Dospitallers in Tortosa$ and Ramon did so 1t one point$ over the protests of the master of the Dospitallers$ 7onF

turned toward lord Ramon de 'ontcada 44 who was present there 44 and said to him with his own words$ sa#ing$ 8lord Ramon de 'ontcada$ #ou hold Tortosa from [pro] the brothers of the Temple$ and therefore I command #ou b# that donation which I have over you that #ou compel the master and brothers of the Dospital to do @ustice to us under #ou concerning the above [quarrels] 85;36 The testimon# could hardl# be more eloquent for the ma%imum stance of the Templars concerning their rights in Tortosa These rights were lost later in the centur#$ as the lordship of both Templars and 'ontcadas$ b# then eroded b# the successful actions of townsmen$ passed to the crown Lordship in Tortosa was fragmented on the one hand$ and on the other it was limited b# provisions of the resettlement charters that followed Ramon !erenguer I"0s reconquest The beneficiaries of these charters were the inhabitants of Tortosa$ present and future The# received$ in addition to e%emption from transit ta%es$ a special role in the administration of @ustice$ a function traditionall# reserved for lords 1s a result$ Ramon de 'ontcada and after ++:; the Templars were both obliged to cooperate with a group of leading citi&ens 44 the prohoms 44 when handling certain cases 1n earl# e%ample of the participation of prohoms in settling legal questions came in ++?+$ when Ramon de 'ontcada presided with the curia and prohoms of Tortosa at a liquidation of propert# for debts 5-=6 In a case between two citi&ens heard in ++3,$ the count0s decision was handed down b# a group consisting of the Templar commander in Tortosa$ the vicar of Tortosa 44 an official appointed b# the 'ontcadas 44 si% prohoms$ and one brother of the Temple 5-+6 In #+,&' other instances the lords of the cit# called on the prohoms when e%pertise in local affairs was needed This would e%plain the prohoms0 participation in a hearing of ++:? that defined the limits of land owned b# !ishop 7onF at !item$ a matter that did not in fact pertain to the citi&ens0 court 5-;6 The prohoms of Tortosa had from the start been granted the right to settle disputes amiabl# among citi&ens and$ if this arbitration failed$ to @oin the lords0 court in deciding such cases !# the end of the twelfth centur#$ however/ the# were attempting to e%tend the @urisdiction of their court and to broaden their involvement in it !ut their position that all cases should be decided there was re@ected b# arbiters 8who declared that disputes between inhabitants of Tortosa should be heard in the cit# court$ but that suits between the Templars or the 'ontcadas and citi&ens should be brought before @udges appointed b# the lords of Tortosa 85--6 In fact$ two cases were distinguished) disputes between the lordship and citi&ens would be heard b# special @udges$ and claims among citi&ens would be ad@udicated in a court of prohoms and lords Though the prohoms argued that this decree gave them the right to elect the special @udges$ their claim was denied b# the lords 5-26 !olstered b# their success$ the lords of Tortosa compounded the citi&ens0 defeat during the first quarter of the thirteenth centur# b# moving the court sessions from the cit# to the .uda This move so displeased the citi&ens that the# presented a convincing case to (aume I in +;;:$ and he granted them relief from both the location of @udicial proceedings and the manner of selecting special @udges 5-,6 !ut their victor# was temporar# 5(aume0s decision was #+,(' largel# reversed b# the .entence of Hli% in +;2+5->66 because it came during a period when the lordship of Tortosa was held firml# b# the Templars and Ramon de 'ontcada [II] In spite of such intermittent limitations on their power/ the 'ontcadas were concerned with all facets of administrative polic# that affected the political or economic equilibrium of the region <ne area of particular interest to them was the regulation of minorit# groups in Tortosa$ including a substantial number of 'uslims who had remained in the region under a charter granted b# Ramon !erenguer I" The importance of this population to the local econom# can be seen in an act of ++?2$ b# which 1lfons commuted the opera 5a ta% substituted for labor services6 due from the .aracen communit# to an annual pa#ment of 2== masmodines This charter established a mechanism for inde%ing the amount

owed to the growth in population$ but it also provided that if the population of the aljema were to decline$ 8quod absit8 5heaven forbidI6$ the ta% would be lowered accordingl# 5-?6 The 'uslim communit# of Tortosa was treated b# Ramon !erenguer as a homogenous group under his special protection De allowed it to retain its traditional wa#s and to be regulated b# a zalmedina and an alcaid$ who were to be named b# the lords of the cit# The affairs of the 'uslim communit# were dealt with internall#$ with little interference from the cit#0s Christian authorities There were e%ceptions$ however/ such as when 1lfons heard complaints from it of coercion and e%tortion from bailiffs and others De responded b# ordering that 8no man$ whether major or minor$ rich or poor$8 should be forced to hire a @uggler or singer when celebrating a marriage In this act$ witnessed b# Ramon de 'ontcada$ 1lfons also forbade the zalmedina and the alcaid to violate one another0s @urisdiction$ and he forbade all bailiffs$ Christian$ (ewish$ or 'uslim$ to ta*e actions that would encroach upon the two offices 5-:6 !ecause the 'uslim leaders held office at the pleasure of the lords of Tortosa and had pledged allegiance to them$ these matters were of concern to the 'ontcadas and$ after ++:;$ other lords #+,)' in the cit# Thus Guillem de !onastre$ a former scribe and now Eueen .anFa0s representative in Tortosa$ 5-36 in +;=? appointed the alcaid 8b# authorit# of the domina queen with the assent and will of Ramon de 'ontcada 852=6 In the same month Ramon de 'ontcada appointed the zalmedina$ though no reference was made to the queen0s representative 52+6 Ten #ears later/ the Templars @oined Ramon de 'ontcada in appointing a new .aracen alcaid 52;6 1nother minorit# that commanded the attention of Tortosa0s lords was the (ews The (ews of the cit# were prosperous$52-6 perhaps in spite of regulations imposed on them during 'uslim rule 1pparentl# the 'uslims had feared that some of the (ewish communit# would abuse them after the fall of the cit#$ and the# had as*ed for a condition in their surrender agreement with Ramon !erenguer that would bar (ews from bu#ing captured 'oors 5226 In an# case$ the legal status of the (ews was quic*l# regulari&ed b# Ramon !erenguer0s special charter granting them a section of the town and the right to live according to (ewish customs of !arcelona 52,6 Their usefulness to cit# authorities was indicated b# 1lfons0s grant$ with Ramon de 'ontcada [I]0s consent$ of a license for them to lend mone# to either the count4*ing or the lord of 'ontcada 52>6 1 much more unusual grant was made in +;;:$ when Ramon de 'ontcada [II] and the Templar preceptor in Tortosa$ 8mindful of the devotion and fidelit# which the (ews now residing in Tortosa and their predecessors have had toward us and our predecessors$8 gave 8the castle of !aneres8 5ne%t to the .uda6 to a group of twent#4five (ews and their posterit# 52?6 The group received the whole of the castle and its houses 8to be held freel# in fidelit#8 from Ramon de 'ontcada$ who promised not to e%ercise force #+,-' against them and to *eep others from doing so The group obtained permission to send their grape harvest through the gates of the .uda and to operate an oven and maintain a s#nagogue on the premises The# received special protection from Ramon de 'ontcada and the Templars and a promise that the lords would have the *ing confirm the charter 52:6 The motive for this donation is not e%pressed in the charter$ but it ma# be related to financial services rendered b# the (ewish communit# to the lords in accordance with terms of the lending privilege granted b# 1lfons I in ++:; The 'ontcadas0 activities in New Catalonia were not limited to seconding the acts of the count4*ings Indeed$ there is some evidence that the authorit# of Ramon [I] and Ramon [II] increased in Tortosa during the last decade of the twelfth centur# and the earl# #ears of the thirteenth Though 1lfons and his successors intervened in Tortosa$ the count4*ings did not usuall# direct the affairs of lordship there as Ramon !erenguer I" had The# continued to formulate general polic# in such matters as 'uslim or (ewish communit# affairs$ but the# left much discretionar# authorit# to the lords This was especiall# true after ++:;$ when 1lfons0s donation to the Templars of his share of the lordship reduced the

intensit# of ro#al involvement in the cit# In addition to their role in the political destin# of Tortosa$ the 'ontcadas were important participants in the economic life of the cit# and territor# The# controlled large amounts of arable land that was either enfeoffed to *nights or let directl# to peasants The castle district of Dorta$ in a mountain valle# northeast of Tortosa$ was an e%ample of a grant made to *nights Guillem Ramon [II] and Ramon de 'ontcada [I] ceded Dorta to 7ere de .ubirats in ++>? with half of its revenues$ that is$ 8@ustice$ questas$ forcias$ and inventiones 5right to sei&e stra#ed propert#6 8 Guillem Ramon further allowed 7ere to collect all stacamenta e%cept when he was there to receive them himself Guillem Ramon also ceded the stabilimenta$ whether 7ere collected them in his compan# or independentl# #+,7' Hinall#$ Guillem Ramon gave 7ere a villa on condition that it not be given to an#one e%cept the person destined to receive the castle 5236 The largest number of propert# grants went to cultivators from land that no doubt had been attached to the lordship of Tortosa soon after the reconquest In these situations$ Guillem Ramon and his descendants struc* the best deal possible for themselves$ imposing rents that varied from one4eleventh to one4half of the harvest In ++>? Guillem Ramon$ Ramon de 'ontcada$ and <t gave 7ere de "all a garden and a piece of land in !orgacenia for half the harvest The# agreed to furnish half of the seed and not to lev# forcias or mals usos Hor other land that he cultivated$ 7ere owed onl# the tasca The result of this transaction was that 7ere had additional land to wor* but at a diminished rate of return 5,=6 !ut such profitable rents could not be imposed ever#where In ++:> Ramon de 'ontcada obtained onl# the tasca for a piece of uncultivated land at 'ontaneres in the district of !item 5,+6 Later$ the grant of a field in the district of Tortosa b# Ramon de 'ontcada$ his wife Ramona$ and his son Ramon brought the lords the promise of a fifth of the #ield 5,;6 <ther grants were less specific$ and the# seem to reflect a desire b# the lords of Tortosa to e%tend agriculture as rapidl# as possible Thus in ++?> the count4*ing 1lfons and Ramon de 'ontcada together donated a garden in 7empe and a field in 1ren#s to Ramon de Centelles with the understanding that Ramon could do an#thing he wished with the propert#$ 8alwa#s according to the usages of Tortosa$ save in all things our fidelit# and that of our successors in perpetuit#85,-6 Aight #ears later/ Ramon de 'ontcada and Ramona ceded a manse in !orgacenia to the same Ramon de Centelles$ noting that he was authori&ed to wor* the field as much as he could on its southern boundar# 5,26 Grants of this *ind did not alienate propert# from the 'ontcada honor/ the# merel# supplied the land with cultivators Hields$ #+,*' gardens$ and vine#ards thus appeared in the documents as lands of Guillem Ramon or Ramon de 'ontcada even though the# were wor*ed b# local inhabitants 5,,6 1nd 'ontcada management e%tended be#ond ceding these lands to settlers and awaiting a share of the returns In ++:2 Ramon de 'ontcada$ in an e%change of parcels with Ramon de Jerta that suggests a consolidation of propert#$ obtained a field that had a boundar# in common with land in his honor 5,>6 !ecause an# mention of bailiffs of the *ind found in <ld Catalonia is rare in the documents$ e%cept in the cit# of Tortosa$ how the 'ontcadas administered this patrimon# is not clear !ut such agents must have e%isted to collect rents for their lords 5,?6 Ghatever administrative techniques were emplo#ed ma# have changed somewhat in the earl# thirteenth centur#$ if a charter of +;+- is t#pical In it Ramon de 'ontcada [II] gave two 8places$8 CardK and .allent$ to <ller Huster for him to wor* This donation allowed the recipient to e%ercise banal lordship$ but with two4thirds of the revenues in most cases earmar*ed for the 'ontcadas 5,:6 The document ma# indicate a movement toward 8indirect8 administration similar to the rent4farming that was beginning to occur in Guillem de 'ontcada0s domains during this period

Montcada Relations with the Church of Tortosa <ne of the results of Ramon !erenguer0s polic# in Tortosa was that bishops there did not become strong political figures$ but remained ver# much under the count0s protection and sub@ect to his political leadership This did not change under the @oint lordship of Ramon de 'ontcada and the Templars Continued limitations on the church0s lordship prerogatives are shown in a sale of houses b# an inhabitant of Tortosa to the church in ++?: This act$ which #+,%' was subscribed b# Ramon de 'ontcada$ guaranteed title to the propert# 8against all men and women e%cept for the lordship of the cit# of Tortosa 85,36 The privileged status of the lords was recogni&ed b# 7ere I in his settlement in ++33 of controversies between the men of Tortosa and the bishop In that act he decreed how the tenths were to be calculated and on what products$ but he e%cluded from the order the Templars$ the Dospitallers$ Ramon de 'ontcada$ and himself 5>=6 The church in Tortosa remained$ in the end$ under the lords0 patronage$ and it was in his capacit# as patron that Guillem Ramon .eneschal made grants to the see in the earl# ++>=s These included rights in Granadella given for the benefit of his soul and a donation of a tenth of his revenues in Tortosa e%cept for fees from the administration of @ustice and questas 5>+6 This was about the limit of 'ontcada generosit# to the cathedral of .anta 'aria$ which$ in terms of donations received$ trailed far behind the newl# founded Cistercian monaster# of .antes Creus The Montcadas and antes Creus Hrom its earliest stirrings in Catalonia$ the communit# of Cistercian mon*s that ultimatel# established itself along the river GaiL in the Camp de Tarragona drew a large measure of material support from Guillem Ramon .eneschal and his sons It is not surprising that later historians$ given the legend of Guillem Ramon 8de 'ontcada$8 attributed the seneschal0s generosit# to a feeling of repentance for his notorious crime 5>;6 In truth$ the foundation of .antes Creus was probabl# lin*ed to a general drive b# Count Ramon !erenguer I" to regain one of the last remaining frontier areas in Catalonia This effort had begun in earnest with the grant of the castle of !arberL to the Templars in ++-2 and had progressed with the militar# conquests of Tortosa and Lleida in ++2: and ++23 !# ++,=$ then$ Ramon !erenguer and his court were read# to sponsor the resettlement of this bac* countr#$ a tas* the# gave to white mon*s from Hrance 1 process set in motion in ++,= or ++,+ through the count0s contact with 1bbot .anF of the monaster# #+$,' of Hontfroide resulted in the establishment of the communit# of 7oblet$ near Aspluga de HrancolM$ b# ++,- 5>-6 Guillem Ramon .eneschal0s own initiative probabl# followed soon after the e%ample of Ramon !erenguer I" In 9ecember ++,= the Great .eneschal and his sons$ Guillem$ Ramon$ and !erenguer de 'ontcada$ donated propert# in the district of Cerdan#ola del "allNs to 1bbot Guillem of Grandselve for the construction of a Cistercian abbe# 5>26 Two #ears later/ in a donation that attests to the arrival of a part# of mon*s at Cerdan#ola$ the seneschal promised to suppl# grants of mone#$ grain$ and wine from his "allNs territories near 'ontcada until the communit# became self4sufficient 5>,6 Their initial establishment was probabl# never intended to be permanent$ for b# summer ++,-$ when Ramon !erenguer granted the mon*s the cave of 1ncosa near Igualada$5>>6 the communit# had alread# moved to a new site from which it derived its name for the time$ .anta 'aria de "alldaura 5>?6 !ut this location$ too$ was onl# temporar#$ and the communit# moved to .antes Creus in the ++>=s 5>:6 It was supported in these earl# #ears b# frequent donations from Guillem Ramon .eneschal and his men$ especiall# of lands and incomes in the territor# of Tortosa 5>36

In later #ears the Cistercian abbe# continued to share economic and spiritual ties with the 'ontcada famil#$ whose members almost invariabl# chose the site as a final resting place 5?=6 The communit# ma# even have provided a temporar# refuge for Guillem Ramon de 'ontcada$ whose first recorded act after his murder of the archbishop of Tarragona was an e%change of propert# with the abbot of .antes Creus 5?+6 !ut .antes Creus seemed to provide the greatest services to the descendants of the Great .eneschal in the area of credit Three #ears after the date of Guillem Ramon0s will$ Ramon de 'ontcada gave the monaster# an honor in the district #+$$' of Tarragona to settle a ,==!morabetin debt still outstanding from his father 5?;6 In ++3= Ramon de 'ontcada [I] was still ma*ing good the Great .eneschal0s bequests These included mone# left for wor*s$ which was probabl# used for constructing the new abbe# church 5?-6 The practice of deferring donations could be viewed as a form of credit$ and as such it served again during Ramon de 'ontcada [II]0s career/ when he finall# assigned revenues from his lordship at 7almera 5Lleida6 in +;=; to fulfill a grant from the will of his father$ Ramon de 'ontcada [I] 5?26 The monaster# also appears to have lent mone# directl# 44 for e%ample$ the ,== masmodines that Ramon de 'ontcada [II] recogni&ed he owed the communit# in +;=: 5?,6 Not onl# did the monaster# lend$ it also purchased propert# rights held b# Ramon de 'ontcada [I] and his son Ramon de 'ontcada [II] in Lleida This occurred in ++?3$ when Ramon [I] sold a warehouse 58cellarium86 for ;-, morabetins$ and in +;=2$ when Ramon [II] alienated an annual rent of ,+ , sols in 7almera for a one4time pa#ment of +$=== sols"5?>6Two #ears later/ Ramon donated to the monaster# the lands of four peasants with their rents 5worth -, sols per #ear6$ along with other rights in 7almera$ 8for the health of his soul 8 In return$ the monaster# gave him 2$>,= sols 5??6 Though this transaction loo*s more li*e a sale than a donation$ other grants more closel# resembling donations were recorded in ++:2$ ++:3$ and ++32 5?:6 In ++:3 Ramon de Centelles and his wife "alencia also made a donation to the abbe# for the health of their souls 8and that of lord Ramon de 'ontcada 85?36 !e#ond economic and spiritual lin*s$ the 'ontcadas0 sponsorship of the monaster# and their lordship in Tortosa and Lleida gave them a natural role as protectors and mediators in the region This brought them into positions as counselors in disputes and @udicial sentences regarding both .antes Creus and its sister Cistercian #+$+' monaster# of 7oblet as well 5:=6 In this wa# .antes Creus became without doubt the preferred ecclesiastical establishment of the 'ontcadas$ succeeding to the role given the monasteries of .anta 'aria d01mer and .anta 'aria de l0Astan# b# the ancestors of Guillem Ramon [II] and !eatriu de 'ontcada

'ontcada Lordship in Lleida

The structure of lordship that emerged in Lleida during the #ears following its reconquest resembled in man# wa#s that at Tortosa) divided authorit#$ a ma@or role in the cit#0s administration retained b# Ramon !erenguer I"$ and Guillem Ramon .eneschal0s participation Though it has been suggested that Guillem Ramon was castl# for the count of !arcelona while Guillem de Cervera acted in that role for the count of Brgell$5:+6 the evidence in the !arcelona and Tortosa archives points to a more comple% arrangement of authorit# Ghether Guillem Ramon pla#ed onl# a peripheral role in the lordship of Lleida or whether his authorit# there was equal to that at Tortosa cannot be determined from the documentation consulted for this stud#/ further/ comparison is difficult because the sources differ in nature from those studied for Tortosa The cartularies of the cathedral chapter in Tortosa provide abundant evidence for the Great .eneschal0s activit# there$ whereas readil# available documentation on Lleida comes mainl# from .antes Creus and the Templars and has a decidedl# rural orientation .till$ there are documents concerning the cit# outside Lleida$ and the# suggest that it$ li*e Tortosa$ was

divided into honors held b# magnates who had a share of the lordship of the cit# and its district The lordship of Lleida was at least partl# in Ramon de 'ontcada0s hands b# ++?3 In (anuar#$ 1lfons I gave Guillem de Cervera lordship and dominion in the cit# 8@ust as he [Guillem] has it and holds it from Ramon de 'ontcada8/ he also gave Guillem one4si%th of all the revenues from the cit# and district$ 8that is$ in all those things$ in which the maiores castlani of the cit# receive their #+$&' share$8 as a fief 5:;6 Though the identification of Ramon de 'ontcada as a 8ma@or castl#8 can onl# be inferred from this reference$ it is clear that he held rights to part of the castle that dominated the cit# as at Tortosa In addition$ Ramon held plots of land in and around the cit#$ man# of which ended up in the hands of clerics during the latter twelfth and earl# thirteenth centuries The .ee of !arcelona was represented in Lleida b# !ernat de Caldes$ a notar# of 1lfons I 5:-6 In a donation of ++?? !ernat was listed as 8chaplain8 to Guillem de Cervera$ who along with Ramon de 'ontcada had given him some cit# propert# to develop <ne such donation b# Ramon de 'ontcada shows that construction progressed in the area between Ramon0s tower and miraculum 5a remnant of ancient Roman architecture$ as in !arcelonaO6 and !ernat0s houses Ramon authori&ed !ernat to do with the propert# as he pleased$ with the sole proviso that the new houses should not e%ceed 5in heightO6 other houses recentl# constructed b# !ernat 5:26 Lleida was also attractive in the same period to the monaster# of .antes Creus$ which purchased a warehouse near the cit# from Ramon de 'ontcada for ;-, morabetins 5:,6 These are t#pical references found in the documents concerning Ramon de 'ontcada The# suggest that the lords of Lleida welcomed the contribution of the church and churchmen to urban development The 'ontcadas also controlled a wedge of land called 7almera in the countr#side northwest of the cit# This honor$ which had been theirs since the lifetime of Guillem Ramon .eneschal$ was from an earl# date closel# supervised b# Ramon de 'ontcada [I]$ who too* a personal interest in its management In order to prevent the loss or alienation of the propert#$ Ramon in ++?+ redeemed the pledge that a man named Astrader had made of land in this honor to two other men 5:>6 In ++?,$ vines in the honor were sold b# 7ere de Torfreda and his wife to 7ere Calvet and his #+$(' spouse$ 8save the rights of Ramon de 'ontcada 85:?6 Ramon had therefore been associated with the lordship of Lleida before his father0s death$ and his authorit# there was well *nown to those whose income came from the land There is other evidence of personal attention to this element of the patrimon# in Ramon0s donation$ in ++:>$ of three vines to 7ere Dug The latter agreed to wor* them faithfull# and to give his lord half of the fruits$ to be delivered to Ramon0s press in 7almera 7ere Dug also promised to provide a watchman for Ramon de 'ontcada0s houses there$ and he was authori&ed to establish a guard for the vines and waterwa#s De had further authorit# to irrigate the vine#ards and divide the water in the canal for the benefit of Ramon de 'ontcada and his neighbors !oth 7ere Dug0s e%emption from participating in cavalcades and militar# campaigns$ granted to him b# Ramon in this document$ and his role as communit# administrator for irrigation indicate that he was a leading member of the peasant communit#5::6 Dis abilit# to deal directl# with a lord of the stature of Ramon de 'ontcada is noteworth#$ too$ for it suggests that the administration of 'ontcada rights in 7almera was closel# watched b# Ramon and his agents The later management of this inheritance at 7almera b# Ramon de 'ontcada [I]0s son Ramon [II] shows a mar*edl# different approach In Hebruar# ++3> Ramon de 'ontcada [II] pledged to Asteve de .oria all his incomes from upper and lower 7almera for ?$=== sols of (aca$ to be repaid b# the following Christmas These mone#s would come from 8all incomes and revenues of bread and wine and rents in deniers and whatever comes from lordship$ b# fief or from an# other reason$ including that arising b# chance 85:36 Three #ears later$ Ramon granted to the same Asteve the rights that three men

held in vine#ards at 7almera in e%change for an annual pa#ment of 3= sois of (aca Asteve was to have no other lord or patron but Ramon and could not alienate the propert# to *nights or ecclesiastical establishments In the case of other alienations$ Ramon reserved the option to reacquire full rights himself within ten da#s of a proposed transaction 53=6 This grant of ++33 established Asteve as a rent4 farmer in 7almera 44 but onl# temporaril#$ for the #+$)' following #ear Ramon de 'ontcada sold all these lands and his presses in 7almera to Asteve for a lump sum of +$,== sols of (aca 53+6 There is reason to believe that these were not isolated transactions$ but that the# were in fact part of a trend toward Ramon0s divestment of the direct management of lordship rights in Lleida and perhaps Tortosa Ramon achieved the same effect in his subsequent dealings at 7almera with the monaster# of .antes Creus 44 which within the space of two #ears 5+;=24+;=>6 had come to e%ercise rights that had once belonged to the lords of 'ontcada Gith the Templars$ too$ Ramon reached an agreement in +;=; that ended nearl# fort# #ears of cooperative administration of a millwa# at Lleida 53;6 In that agreement Ramon received +== morabetins for his rights there and renounced an# claim to a higher price if the mills proved to be worth more$ in which case the difference would count as a donation 8for the remission of his sins 853-6 In spite of these alienations$ the name of Ramon de 'ontcada remained attached to the honor of 7almera 1 8tower of 'ontcada8 had been built there b# the earl# #ears of the thirteenth centur# 5326 Hrom this castle he and his agents no doubt e%ercised the power to command that was delegated to them b# the *ing !ut the# derived little from rents and harvest shares$ which in these #ears passed to individuals li*e Asteve de .oria and institutions li*e .antes Creus and the Templars 53,6 This 8tower of 'ontcada8 was later controlled b# Ramon0s #ounger brother/ Guillem Ramon [III] .eneschal$ who through his marriage to ConstanFa d01ragK became in the earl# thirteenth centur# a ma@or territorial lord in western Catalonia Notes for Chapter .even + 1CT Cart :$ +>=v4>+r)+=+/ 1CT Cart >$ ,=v4,+r)+-: The Narbonne donation document is described b# "entura in $lfons el Cast$ p %% and fl ?: 5p +=+6 ; Hor e%ample$ &l' ,:4,3),; - Hor e%ample$ 1!C 2,>,$ ca@a +/ 1CT Cart ;$ -),-r4v); 2 This was true of donations to the 1ragonese 7edro Guillermo 5cited in n + above6$ and in 1CT Cart ;$ -)?=v4?+r)+?/ 1CT Cart >$ :?v4::r);;+$ also ,:r)+,: and 1C1 Cart Tortosa$ ?=v);;3 , &l' ,=)2;/ 1C1 Cart Tortosa$ ?=v);;3/ (I 2);+?4+:)?3 > This was$ at least$ the number of men who on ;, 1pr ++>- swore as residents of Tortosa to be faithful to 1lfons I 51C1 1lfons I)>6 ? The settlement charter of ++23 e%empted the residents of Tortosa from customs$ tolls$ and ro#al forcias 5C)*C +)+;+4;2)?,6 : &*M +)2:?4:3)2>2 3 Ibid $ also +)23=43;)2>, += This e%pression appears for the first time in Ramon !erenguer I"0s countship In contrast to the mennada or household of Ramon !erenguer I$ the term suggests paternal authorit# over the entire Catalan nobilit# 44 characteri&ed here as an e%tended lineage under the count0s direction

++ Nor$ for that matter$ were the Genoese content with their participation in the lordship It is clear from the charter of sale that it was the Genoese who wanted out of the agreement .ee (I 2);+;4+>)?: +; 1CT Cart >$ -v4,v), +- 1C1 1lfons I)+-; +2 1C1 1lfons I)+-; +, 1CT Cart -$ +=-r4=2v The charter$ which also confirmed ecclesiastical privileges and rights$ was subscribed b# Ramon de 'ontcada [II] and his brother Guillem Ramon [III] .eneschal +> In a concession of propert# from ++::$ Ramon de 'ontcada agreed to defend the land against all but the potestas terre 51C1 Cart Tortosa [fP illegible])-,6 +? Hore#$ Templars$ p ;, +: &*M +)23;43,)2>> +3 If it is assumed that the Genoese third eventuall# went to Guillem Ramon .eneschal$ then the donation of 1lfons0s share to the Templars would have left each part# with about half the cit#0s lordship ;= 1C1 7ere I)-=: ;+ 1C1 1rm 2)+ ;; 1DN .. Creus$ carpeta ;??+$ n += ;- 1C1 Cart Tortosa$ ?=r);;? ;2 1CT Cart -$ +=-r42v/ 1CT Cart ;$ -)>;r4v)++/ -)>;v4>-r)+; ;, 1'T ComQ -)+;> 1C1 (aume I)-23 ;? Late thirteenth4centur# documents refer onl# to the Templars and 'ontcadas as lords of the cit# .ee$ e g $ 1C1 1rm 2):+$ :, ;: !a#erri$ +istoria$ ?)3? ;3 1C1 Cart Tortosa$ 2?r4v)+2, 5m# emphasis6 -= 1CT Cart ;$ -),,v4,?v)> -+ 1C1 1rm 2)2> <n the vicar of Tortosa$ see Hore#$ Templars$ pp +3=$ ;2; n , -; 1CT Cart ;$ 2)3?r43:r)+2 The charter was subscribed b# Templar commanders from 'iravet and Tortosa and b# Ramon de 'ontcada -- Hore#$ Templars$ p +3-$ citing a decision of 7ere I in ++3: published b# ! <liver in +istoria del derecho en Catalu,a- Mallorca y .alencia/ C0digo de las costumbres de Tortosa 5'adrid$ +:?>4:+6$ ;),,4,> -2 (esQs 'assip Honollosa$ in a paper entitled 8An el "II centenari de la mort de (aume I$8 presented on the occasion of the Hestes 'a@ors of Tortosa 5+3?>6 -, Ibid In his decision of -= 1pr +;;: in a case between the cit# and the Templars 8and other lords of Tortosa8 [1'T 7rivilegis -)3]$ (aume declared that 8la .uda no es lloc idoni ni segur$ incomode per als litigants i en ma%im detriment i perill per la ciutat atenent tambR l0escandol del poble i el tumult i considerant que fa setenta an#s i mes en la ciutat$ tant la incriminaciK com la firma de dret es reben en

lloc idoni i honest declarem que el lloc vulgarment dit Curia din de la cuitat$ bai%$ es adecuat tant per rebre la firma de dret el veguer com per donar sentNncies @udicials8 5trans ( 'assip6 -> Ibid In his decision of -= 1pr +;;: in a case between the cit# and the Templars 8and other lords of Tortosa8 [1'T 7rivilegis -)3]$ (aume declared that 8la .uda no es lloc idoni ni segur$ incomode per als litigants i en ma%im detriment i perill per la ciutat atenent tambR l0escandol del poble i el tumult i considerant que fa setenta an#s i mes en la ciutat$ tant la incriminaciK com la firma de dret es reben en lloc idoni i honest declarem que el lloc vulgarment dit Curia din de la cuitat$ bai%$ es adecuat tant per rebre la firma de dret el veguer com per donar sentNncies @udicials8 5trans ( 'assip6 -? 1C1 1lfons I)+,-: 1C1 1lfons I);33 -3 Guillem de !onastre had received land in Tortosa as earl# as ++?: 51C! Lib ant I)-?;v)+=>; ['as II) ;::4:3) ;=+>]6$ but his authorit# there apparentl# did not outlive the queen$ who died in Nov +;=: 2= 1C1 7ere I);,? 2+ 1C1 7ere I);,: 2; 1C1 (aume I)22- .ee !a#erri$ +istoria$ ?)234,= 22 (I 2)+-=4-,),> 2, C)*C +)+;>4;:)?> 2> 1C1 Cart Tortosa$ :>v);?, 2? The charter describes this castle$ which no longer stands$ as e%tending from the .uda toward Remolins$ the northern suburb of Tortosa where traces of earl# (ewish settlement are still evident 2: 1C1 (aurne I)-23 No ro#al confirmation is *nown to have been made This document$ to m# *nowledge$ remains unpublished It is mentioned neither b# Hrancisco de !ofarull # .ans in 8(aime I # los @udios$8 in Congr1s d2histria de la Corona d2$rag0/ 'arcelona- 3454 5!arcelona$ +3+-6$ ;):+34 32-$ nor b# (ean RegnR$ 8Catalogue des actes de (aime Ier$ 7edro III et 1lfonso III$ rois d01ragon$ concernant les @uifs$ +;+-4+;3+$8 in Revue des 1tudes juives$ >= 5+3+=6$ nor b# Sit&ha* H !aer$ (ie 6uden im christlichen panien 5!erlin$ +3;36 23 1C1 Cart Garden#$ ?;r4v)+:,= 1C1 Cart Tortosa 5fP illegible6)22 ,+ 1'T Castellania i Templers)2, ,; 1C1 Cart Tortosa 5fP illegible6)-, ,- 1C1 Cart Tortosa$ ?-v4?2r);2= ,2 1C1 Cart Tortosa$ 5fP illegible6),,, Hor e%ample$ 1CT Cart ;$ 2):2v4:,r)+ ,> 1C1 1lfons I)-?+ ,? !ailiffs are cited in the 'ontcada documentation of Lleida during this period) e g $ Ramon$ bailiff$ is cited in documents of ++3+ 5&l' -2,42>)-2?6$ ++33 51DN .. Creus$ carpeta ;?>?$ n +;6$ and +;=2 51DN .. Creus$ carpeta ;??=$ n +>6

,: 1C1 7ere I)2,= ,3 1CT Cart ;$ -),-v4,2r)>= 1CT Cart >$ :r4v)+>+ 1CT Cart >$ ;v4-r)-bis$ >r)? >; "illanueva$ in .& ;=)--24-,$ mentioned this tradition$ which he then refuted >- 1gustM 1ltisent$ +istoria de )oblet 51badia de 7oblet$ +3?26$ pp ;?4-= >2 &l' ,>)23 >, .& ;=);-?4-:);>> &l' >-4>2),> >? <n the name$ see &l'$ pp %l4%li >: Ibid $ pp %lii4%liii >3 Three such donations date from ++,> 5&l' ?+4?;)>,$ ?-4?2)>:$ ?24?,)>36 and another from ++,: 5&l' :;4:-)?36 ?= Guillem Ramon [II] was buried at .antes Creus$ as were his son Ramon de 'ontcada [I]$ his grandson Ramon de 'ontcada [II]$ and his great4grandson Guillem de 'ontcada [III] 1nother grandson$ Guillem Ramon de 'ontcada [I]$ probabl# would have been buried there if he had died in Catalonia ?+ &l' -:=4:+)-?3 ?; &l' +3+43;)+3+ ?- &l' -2=42+)-2+ The church was built from ++?2 to +;;, 5.& ;=)++=6 ?2 1DN .. Creus$ carpeta ;?>3$ n 3 ?, 1DN .. Creus$ carpeta ;??-$ n + ?> 1DN .. Creus$ carpeta ;??=$ n +> ?? 1DN .. Creus$ carpeta ;??+$ n +, ?: &l' ;>>);>?$ --;)--+$ --,)--2 and -:=4:+)-?3 ?3 &l' --,)--2 := &l' ;;24;,);;? 5++?36/ C) ;-)2? 5++:,6$ ;+:4+3)-,> 5++:,6 :+ (osep Lladonosa$ +istria de &leida$ vol + 5TLrrega$ +3?;6$ pp +;?4;3 :; &*M I)+3:4;==)+:: :- <n the career of !ernat and his more famous brother Ramon$ see Thomas N !isson$ 8Ramon de Caldes$ c ++-,4c +;==) 9ean of !arcelona and Ting0s 'inister$8 in &aw- Church and ociety/ 7ssays in +onor of tephan 8uttnen$ ed Tenneth 7ennington and Robert .omerville 57hiladelphia$ +3??6$ pp ;:+43; :2 1C! Lib ant +)+:=v)2?: ['as ++)-=;);=2?] :, &l' ;+,4+>);+3 :> &l' +,-)+,-

:? &l' +:3)+:: :: &l' ;:=4:+);::3 &l' -:,)-:2 3= 1DN .. Creus$ carpeta ;?>?$n +; 3+ 1DN .. Creus$ carpeta ;?>:$ n ; 3; The agreement between the Templars and Guillem Ramon .eneschal dated from ++>- 51C1 1rm ++);+2;6 3- 1C1 1rm ++)+3>? 32 1ttested four times from +;=? to +;;: 5e g $ 1C1 1rm ++)??+$ :,:6 3, In addition to the rights associated with castle lordship$ profits must be included that resulted from cavalcades or that accrued 8b# chance8 5these are almost impossible to quantif# but must have been considerable6 1lso significant were certain ravages and in@uries$ responsibilit# for which Ramon ac*nowledged in his will These were to be made good from his revenues in the castle district of Tortosa$ which probabl# generated the most revenues of an# of his domains 51DN .. Creus$ carpeta ;?:,$ n +,6

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