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Faculty of Engineering Cairo University PetroChemicals Engineering

Mass Transfer 2 Third Year Sheet 2: Liq Liq Extraction.

1) A counter current multistage extraction system operating at 25oC is to be used to recover pyridine from an aqueous solution containing 0.25 mass fraction pyridine by extraction with pure chloro-benzene. The raffinate phase leaving the system is to contain 0.01 mass fraction pyridine. i) Determine the maximum pyridine content that may be obtained in the extract phase leaving the system. ii) For a ratio of the solvent to feed 10 determine :a- The composition and quantity (expressed as pounds per pound of feed) of the extract phase leaving the system b- The number of equilibrium stages required Raffinate layer Pyridine Water Chlorobenzene xS 0.02 0 0 0 Pyridine Extract layer Water Chlorobenzene yS 0.69 0.8 0.91 0.96

xA 0.25 0.12 0.03 0.01

xB 0.73 0.88 0.97 0.99

yA 0.28 0.18 0.07 0.03

yB 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01

2) diphenyl hexane is to be separated from a mixture containing 0.2 mass fraction diphenyl hexane and 0.8 mass fraction decosane by extraction with furfural at 45 oC in a continuous counter current multi contact extraction system. The solvent entering the system contains 0.005 mass fraction diphenyl hexane the balance being furfural. If the raffinate product leaving the system is to contain 0.01 mass fraction diphenyl hexane, determine:i) The number of equilibrium stages required when mass ratio of solvent to feed is 1.65. ii) The mass ratio of solvent to feed must be used if the extraction apparatus is equivalent to three equilibrium stages. iii) The maximum concentration of diphenyl hexane that can be obtained in the extract produced.

Points enclosing the solubility or saturation curve enclosing the two-phase region in the equilibrium are as follows:Mass fraction of Diphenyl Hexane xA xs 0 0.04 0.11 0.05 0.26 0.07 0.375 0.1 0.474 0.2 0.487 0.3 0.458 0.4 0.423 0.5 0.356 0.6 0.274 0.7 0.185 0.8 0.09 0.9 0 0.993 Equilibrium composition fixing three tie lines: Decosane phase composition Mass Fraction Diphenyle Hexane Decosane Furfural xA xB xs 0.1 0.852 0.048 0.245 0.69 0.085 0.426 0.439 0.133 Mass fraction of Furfural Mass fraction of Decosane xB 0.96 0.84 0.67 0.525 0.326 0.213 0.123 0.077 0.044 0.026 0.015 0.01 0.007

Furfural phase composition Mass Fraction Furfural Diphenyle Hexane Decosane xs xA xB 0.891 0.098 0.011 0.736 0.242 0.022 0.523 0.409 0.068

3) For the shown system, complete the following table: Vf V1 V2 V2 Vn+1

1
Lo L1

2
L2

Lo %A 40

V2

L1

V1 40

V3

L1

V2

L2 9

V3

Lo 40

V1 40

Vf

L2 9

%B %S Total

60 0 1500 100 100

60 0 1500

Equilibrium Data: yA = (4/3) xA Extract Locus: Straight line between (0,0.9) & (0.85,0.05) Raffinate Locus: Straight line between (0,0.05) & (0.85,0.05)

4) A counter current multi stage extraction system at 25oC is to be used for the recovery of acetone from an aqueous solution containing 0.2 mass fraction acetone . Mono-chloro-benzene has been selected as solvent. The raffinate product is to contain 0.01wt. fraction acetone. A saturated water phase containing 0.06 mass fraction acetone is also to be treated in the extraction system a ratio of 0.1 of solution containing 0.2 mass fraction acetone. If the extract product is to contain 0.14 mass fraction acetone, determine: i) The equilibrium stage in which the saturated water phase should be introduced. ii) The number of equilibrium stages required. iii) The weight of mono-chloro-benzene required per pound of 0.2 wt. fraction acetone solution.

The equilibrium data for the above system are given below:Corresponding equilibrium points on the saturation curve enclosing the two phase area for the system acetonewatermono-chloro-benzene

Acetone xA 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.6058

Water layer (Raffinate) Water xC 0.9989 0.9482 0.8979 0.8478 0.7969 0.7458 0.6942 0.6422 0.5869 0.5276 0.4628 0.3869 0.2741 0.2566

Mono-chloro xS 0.0011 0.0018 0.0021 0.0024 0.0031 0.0042 0.0058 0.0078 0.0136 0.0224 0.0372 0.0631 0.1259 0.1376

Acetone yA 0 0.0521 0.1079 0.162 0.2223 0.2901 0.3748 0.4328 0.4944 0.5492 0.5919 0.6179 0.6107 0.6058

Chloro-benzene layer (Extract) Water Mono-chloro yC yS 0.0018 0.9982 0.0032 0.9447 0.0049 0.8872 0.0063 0.8317 0.0079 0.7693 0.0111 0.6982 0.0172 0.6080 0.0233 0.5439 0.0305 0.4751 0.0428 0.4080 0.0724 0.3357 0.1383 0.2438 0.2285 0.1508 0.2566 0.1376

5) Nicotine (A) in Water (B) solution containing 1% is to be extracted with Kerosene (S). Water and Kerosene are essentially insoluble. Equilibrium data: X Y 0 0 0.001011 0.000807 0.00246 0.001961 0.00502 0.00465 0.00751 0.00686 0.00998 0.00913 0.02 0.0087

i)Determine the % extraction of nicotine if 100 lb of feed solution is extracted once with 150 lb solvent. ii) If 100 lb/hr of nicotine-water solution containing 1% nicotine is to be counter-currently extracted with kerosene to reduce nicotine content to 0.1%...Determine: a- Minimum kerosene rate. b- N.T.S if 150 lb/hr kerosene is used.