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uPVCPipingTechnicalAspects.

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uPVCPIPINGSYSTEM
Introduction
Plastics are synthetic macromolecular materials which, by processing acquire their specific functions.
They are produced by chemical processes, the principle raw material being oil. The macromolecular
structure of plastics is achieved by polymerization of individual molecules or monomers into chain
molecules that are between 1,000 and 100,000 times larger than those naturally occurring in water or
salt. This macro molecular composition forms a spatial netlike structure with numerous internal
chemicalbonds.Plasticscanbedividedintotwomaingroups.
Thermoplasticmaterialswhich,uponheating,softenandmeltandcanbereheated
andreformed.
Thermosettingmaterialswhichsoftenandmeltwiththeinitialheatingbutthenset
permanentlyintheirfinalshape.
UnplasticizedpolyvinylchlorideoruPVCisoneofthemostwidelyusedthermoplasticmaterials,dueto
its flexibility of usage and competitive price. It is manufactured by the petrochemical industry who
produce a dichloride from ethane and chloride and apply pyrolisis above 400C to cause splitting into
vinylchlorideandhydrochloricacid.
The basic polymeris mixedwithadditivessuchascolour,filler,lubricantsandstabilisers inaccordance
witharecipedeterminedbythepropertiesofthefinishedproduct.Themixofcompoundistransported
toeitherextrudersorinjectionmoldingmachinestobeconvertedintotheendproduct.
uPVC and cPVC pipes and Fittings will not deteriorate under attack from bacteria or other micro
organism and will not provide food source to micro / macro organisms and fungi. These Pipes and
Fittings are also suitable for chemical industries as they have chemical resistance to most acids and
alkalis.uPVCandcPVCbeingthermoplasticmaterialsarepronetovarianceinphysicalpropertiesbased
on variation in temperature. It is important to take into account the application of end use and
temperatureconditionswhenselectingclassandratingofPipe(WallThicknessofPipe).
PropertiesofcPVC&uPVC
SPECIFICATIONS cPVC uPVC Units
SpecificGravity 1.501.55 1.401.43 Grams/cm
3
SpecificHeat 0.25 0.25 Kcal./Kg/
o
C
ThermalConductivity 0.13 0.13 Kcal.cm.H
o
C
CoefficientoflinearExpansion(Max.) 5.6x10
5
5.0x10
5
/
0
C
VicatsofteningTemp. 119
0
C 85
0
C At1Kg.Load
VicatsofteningTemp. 110
0
C 79
0
C At5Kg.Load
TensileStrength@20
0
C(Min.) 550 500 Kg./cm
2

Elongation(Min.) 80 80 %
ModulusofElasticity 11001500 12001500 Mpa.
WaterAbsorption <4 <4 Mg./cm
2
HardnessShoreD 85100 8590
Flammability SelfExtinguishing SelfExtinguishing

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Applications
TheuPVCpressurepipesystemissuitableforthetransportationofpotablewaterforindustrialand
domesticuses.Othermajorareasofapplicationinclude:
Agriculturalirrigation
Conveyanceofprocessingfluidswithinindustry
Sewerageandindustrialeffluentdisposal
Conveyanceofabrasiveslurries
Transportationofacids,alkalisandothercorrosivechemicals(refertosection4.8)
Groundwatertransportationforlandengineering
Buriedfireringmain
Conduitorductforcablesandfragilepipingsystems
Ventingsystems
RigiduPVCpipeshouldnotbeusedatambientorliquidtemperaturesinexcessof60Cfor
pressuresystems.

1. JointDescriptions
uPVCpressurepipesystemsemployoneofthreejointingmethodsasdescribedbelow
a. Loosecouplers
Plainended,chamferedpipeisjointedusingdoublesocketloosecouplers.Theseeitherincorporatering
seals or are for solvent weld (chemical) bonding. Jointing using loose couplers has the advantage that
the nominal length of pipe supplied is exactly the working length. No meterage is lost in making the
joint.
However,aspipehastobeofferedintoeachsideofthecoupler,twoseparatejointshavetobemade
per length. This will increase installation costs. As a general rule the use of loose couplers is the most
expensivemethodofjointingpipe,exceptontheverylargestofdiameters(400mmandover)wherethe
savinginpipemeterageoffsetsagoodproportionofthecouplingcosts.
b. Integralsolventweldjoint
Onespigotendofaplainendedlengthofpipeisformedintoabellend.Thisallowsthespigotendofthe
next length of pipe to be inserted for solvent weld (chemical) bonding. Only one joint has to be made
perlength.Theeffectivelengthofapieceofpipeisreducedfromitsnominallengthbythedepthofthe
belledsocket.Pipeincorporatingthistypeofjointisgenerallythemostcompetitivelypriced.However,
installationismoretimeconsumingthanwitharingsealjointedsystem.

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c. Integralringsealjoint
Onespigotofaplainendedlengthofpipeisformedintoabellendwhichincorporatesaseatintowhich
issetasyntheticrubbersealring.Onlyonejointhastobemadeperlength.
Thesealingringmaybeofthe"Forsheda"typeforimperialandmetricpipes.Metricpipesmayalsouse
the"Anger"or"Bode"type.AllthreetypesofringsealarewidelyusedandareapprovedbytheWRC.
ThejointingmethodusedonimperialpipesistoBS4346Part2andthesealmaterialistoBS2494.
The effective length of a piece of pipe is reduced from its nominal length by the depth of the belled
socket. Ring seal jointing is the quickest method of installation and so consequently has the lowest
installationcosts.
One of the major benefits of uPVC pipes is the ability to use one of the three jointing methods below.
This gives a great deal of flexibility in allowing for varying installation conditions and the skill and
equipmentoftheinstallers.
1. SolventCement
2. RingSeal
3. ThreadedFittings
Beforemakinganyjointthepipelengthsandfittingsshouldbethoroughlyinspectedtoensurethereis
notransitdamage.Anydamageditemsshouldbediscarded.
CuttingandChamfering
Thepipeshouldbecutusingafinetoothpanelsaw.Itisimportantthatthecutshouldbesquareandto
this end a miter box or similar device is recommended. If this is not available a square cut can be
obtainedbyusingapieceofpaperwoundaroundthepipeasshowninfigure.

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Theoutsideedgeofthepipeendshouldbechamferedtoapproximately15sothatatleast50%ofthe
wall thickness is removed at the leading edge. A chamfer of this nature is essential for both solvent
cementandrubberringsealjoints.arasporfilecanbeusedforthisoperation.
1. SolventCementJointing
Itisrecommendedthatonlysolventcementsandcleaningfluidbeusedintheconstructionofjoints
withuPVCpipe.WhensolventcementinguPVCpipesitisusefultohaveatheoreticalknowledgeofthe
chemicalsandtheprocess.Beforemakinganyjointinspectallfittingsandlengthsofpipefortransit
damage.
Solventcementingprocess
Thecleaningagentdoesnotonlycleananddegreasethepipeandfittings,italsopenetratesthe
uPVC surfaces causing them to swell and create a favorable environment for the subsequent
bonding.
Theadhesiveitselfalsopenetratesthesurfacestobebondedandthispenetrationisimprovedif
theadhesiveiskeptfluidlongerandthesurfaceshavebeenpretreatedwiththecleaningfluid.
Incoldeitherthepenetrationtakeslongerthaninwarmweather.
AdhesivesareformulatedaccordingtotheirusageandthetypeofuPVCtobebonded;onlythe
correctadhesiveshouldthereforebeused.Itisimportanttocheckthattheadhesiveusedisstill
in good condition. Tins that contain lumps or have a heavy surface film should be discarded.
Undernocircumstancesshouldcleaningfluidbeusedasathinner.
Alwaysusesufficientadhesive,workitinwellandkeepitfluid.Ifalessthanperfectfitbetween
thetwo matingsurfaceshastobefilled,applyseverallayersof adhesive;do notallow thelast
layertodrybeforeapplyingthenext.
ThetwosurfacesmustbematedinonemovementwhiletheadhesiveisstillwetandtheuPVC
isstillsoft.
Duetothesofteningpoweroftheadhesiveanyexcessmustberemoved,immediatelythejoint
ismade.
Matedsurfacesshouldbeleftundisturbedfor24hourstoallowthebondtocure.

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1.1. Jointingprocedure
Toensureagoodjointthefollowingprocedureshouldbeadheredto,alsorefertotheillustrationsin
belowfigure.
Check that the pipe end is cut square, chamfer the outside edge,
deburrtheinnerandouteredgesofthespigotandsocket.
Make sure the fittings are clean and free from moisture by using
uPVCcleaningfluid.
Mark the spigot with a pencil or felt pen line at a distance
equivalenttothedepthofthesocket(see
figures 68 for pipe insertion depths). Do not score the pipe or
markwithasaw.
Dry fit the pipe into the socket an INTERFERENCE fit should be
reachedbeforethepencilmarkiscompletelyhome
Remove the spigot form the socket and abrade both mating
surfaces with heavy grade emery paper or a bastard rasp on
diameters larger than 4/110mm. Degrease both surfaces with
suitablecleaningfluid.UsingthecorrectuPVCsolventcement(see
figure ) apply an even but not excessive coating to the internal
surface of the socket and a more generous coat to the marked
pipe end. Where the cement dries before completion (on large
diameter pipes or in hot and windy conditions) give the spigot a
secondcoat.
Pushthepipehomeandholdfirmlyforthirtyseconds.
Removeallexcesssolventcementasquicklyaspossibletoprevent
unwantedchemicalattackonexposedjoints.
The joint should not be disturbed or strained for 5 minutes after
jointingand24hoursmustbeallowedbeforepressuretesting.

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1.2. Extremeconditions
Cold Under extremely cold conditions, special care must be taken to ensure excess solvent cement is
notallowedtoenterintothepipelineasthiscouldresultinsolventcrackingofthepipe.
Hot In hot weather, particularly when solvent cementing long lengths, the pipe should be well
ventilated.Insomecasesforcedventilationwillbenecessary.
Caution
Ensureadequateventilationwhensolventcementing.
Ifswalloweddonotinducevomitingandseekmedicalattention.
Ifsplashedonfaceoreyes,washliberallywithcleanwaterandseekmedicalattention.
Adhesiveandcleaningfluidarehazardouschemicals.Ensurethatemptytins,soiledclothand
paperaredisposedofcorrectlyandnotleftinthepipetrench.

1.3. PossibleerrorswhenbondinguPVC
Pipeendnotcutsquarely.
Pipeendnotdeburredandchamfered.
Moistureanddirtongluedsurface.
Notproperlycleanedordried.
Brushstillwetwithcleaner.
Adhesivenotevenlyspread.
Adhesivenotbrushedoutaxially.
Adhesiveononlyoneofthetwosurfaces.
Pipeandaccessorynotassembledintime.
Pipenotpushedhometoshoulder.
Incorrectadhesiveused.Adhesivetypedidnotmatchtheapplication.
Thegaptoobigtobefilledcompletely,leavingpassagesthroughtheadhesive.
During assembly of pipe and accessories, one of the fittings has been twisted relative to the
other
Adjusting after jointing, occurred too late, causing the already cured adhesive to be broken
apart
Thedryingtimenotadheredto
Noattentionpaidtothepresenceofwaterordampconditions(condensation)
Ventilationtoodrasticcausingadhesivetodryduringapplication(skinforming)
Adhesivenolongerhomogeneous,causedbythetinbeingleftopenfortoolong
Useofincorrectcleaningagent
Oiloroilcontainingsubstancescontaminatedjointsurfacescausingbondfailure
Bondingtookplaceatsubzerotemperatureswithoutthenecessaryprecautions

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2. Ringsealjointing
The assembly procedure for the uPVC pipe mechanical Joint System is outlined below, before making
anyjointinspectsallfittingsandlengthsofpipefortransitdamage.
2.1. Jointingprocedure
Deburr and smooth the pipe spigot, cut the chamfer, and mark on a depth of entry line with a
pencilorfeltpen.
Cleanbothsocketandring,particularlytheinsideofthegrooveofthesocket.
Check the ring is correctly inserted, and seated. Incorrectly seated seal rings can be easily
repositioned by applying hot water to the ring seal and captivating ring (only present in
Forshedasealrings).
Makesurethatthepipesaligncorrectlyinbothplanes.THISISMOSTIMPORTANT,donottryto
insertthespigotatanangle.
Applyjointlubricantinanevencoatingoverhalfthespigotlength(notthejointring).
For approximate coverage of rubber ring jointing lubricant. Move the spigot pipe so that the
leading
Edgeisjustengagingthesocketmouthbeforeinsertion.
Theflexibilityofthepipeinsizes4"andbelowmaypreventcorrectalignmentduringassembly.
The
force required to assemble the joint should be applied as near the spigot end as possible with
the
Socketheldinposition.Atwistingactionwilleaseentry.
Push the spigot to the depth of entry mark. This should be done with a swift movement, the
momentum gained by the spigot travelling from the socket mouth to the ring, being of
assistance.
CAUTION if the pipe does not enter the socket without undue force being used, withdraw the pipe;
and recheck the joint ring. PARTICULAR ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO RING SEATING AND PIPE
ALIGNMENT.
Wheninstallinglargerdiameterpipeworkapipejackmaybenecessarytoprovidetheimpetustomake
the joint. The use of a mechanical excavator to push the spigot home is not recommended as this can
resultinoverinsertionanddamagetothepipeline.
The pipe should be marked (not with a saw) so that the spigot enters the socket to within 12
25mmofthebottomofthesocket.
Ifinstallingaboveground,checkentrydepthafterinstallation.
As with all pipe jointing, cleanliness is of prime importance and pipes, especially spigot ends,
should be supported clear of the ground to prevent dirt being smeared on with the lubricant.
Placing thepipeson blocksalsoreducesfrictionandconsequentlyfacilitatesthemakingofthe
joint.THESEBLOCKSMUSTBEREMOVEDBEFOREBACKFILLING.

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The pipeline should be pressure tested after the first 300 to 400 meters have been installed.
After this, tests should be carried out at convenient intervals preferably not exceeding 1
kilometer.

3. ThreadedJoints
Where it is necessary to join uPVC pipe to another type of pipe using a threaded joint, we are
recommendthefollowingguidelines:
WhereverpossiblemaketheconnectionwiththeuPVCpipeasthemalecomponentofthejoint.
UseonlyP.T.F.E.tapeasasealant.
Tightentofirmhandtightnessonlyusingstrapwrenchesdonotuseserratedjawwrenches.

4. SaddleJoints
Werecommendacomprehensiverangeofsaddlejointsforusewithavarietyofpipesizes.Single
branchsaddlesareavailableinclamporwedgedesignsanddoublebranchclampmodelsinclamp
designtofitmainspipesupto250mmdiameter.
5. FlangeJointing
ToenablejointingofuPVCpipelinestopipes,valvesorvesselsofdifferentmaterialsuPVCflange
adaptorsareavailable,thoughcarehastobeexercisedintheiruse.
AllowanceshavetobemadeforthedifferentmethodsofmeasuringuPVCpipeandforinstanceductile
iron piping. For example uPVC pipe is sized according to its outside diameter and ductile iron by its
internal bore. In addition the different wall thicknesses of these different materials cause
incompatibilitiesbetweeninternalboreandoutsidediameters.
5.1. Standardstubandbackingring
ThisallowsuPVCpipetobeeasilyattachedtopipelinesmadefromothermaterialsandprovidesaclear
boreequivalenttotheuPVCpipe.Thismayhowevermeanthattheboreoftheotherpipematerialis
reduceddowntothatoftheuPVC.
5.2. Standardstubandadaptorring
Thisenablespipesofsimilarborestobeconnectedwithnodisruptiontoflowandthereforeminimal
riskofblockageoccurring.
.

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5.3. Joiningboltedflangeadaptors

Werecommendthefollowingguidelinesshouldbeobservedwhenjoiningpipesusingflangeadaptors.

Ensurematingsurfacesarecleanandfreefromdamage.
Useasinglerubbergasketofthecorrectsize.
Additionaljointingcompoundshouldnotbeused.
Assembleflangejointsbeforeanyotherjointsonthepipeline.
Matingsurfacesmustbealignedtowithin5mmpriortobolting.
Useonlyundamagedbolts,nutsandwashersofthecorrectsize.
Ensurethegasketisproperlyalignedpriortobolting.
Oncenutsandboltsarefingertight,andthenprogressivelytightenasfollows:
Usingatorquewrenchworkindiagonallyoppositesequence.
Tightenallboltsto5%offinaltorque.Tightenallboltsto75%offinaltorque
Tightenallboltsto20%offinaltorqueTightenallboltstofinaltorque.
Tightenallboltsto50%offinaltorque
Twooperatorsshouldworktogetheronpipediametersabove180mm.
Checkfinaltorqueofallboltsafteronehour.
Rememberauniformtighteningsequenceisasimportantasfinaltorquesettings.

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6. PipeInstallation

6.1. General
ThesimplicityoftheinstallationprocedureforuPVCpipeoffersconsiderablebenefitsespeciallyinterms
oftimeandtheconsequentcostsaving.
uPVCpipeisasemiflexibleconduitandassuchcandeflectconsiderablywithoutdamage.Itsresponse
toearthloadingisnotgovernedbypipestrength,butratherbytheinteractionofthesoilandthepipe.
It is therefore very important that all aspects of pipe laying, particularly bedding and side fill, receive
specialattention.
6.2. Temperature
Particularcareshouldbeexercisedwheninstallingpipesattemperaturesbelow10C.Pipelayingshould
notbecarriedoutwhenthetemperatureisbelow0C.
6.3. TrenchExcavation
Asageneralruletrenchexcavationshouldnotbecarriedouttoofaraheadofthepipelayingaslumping
andcollapseofthetrenchwallmayoccur.Duringexcavationandlayingofunusuallydeeppipelinesthe
trench walls should be supported with an appropriate system to safeguard the installation personnel
againstcollapseofthetrench.Theexcavatedsoilshouldbekeptwellbackfromtheedgeofthetrench
andloosestonesremovedanddiscarded.
6.4. TrenchWidths
ThenarrowerthetrenchinwhichuPVCpipeislaid,thelesstheloadithastocarry.Trenchwidthshould,
therefore,bekepttoaminimumbutitmustbesufficienttoallowtheproperplacingandcompactionof
bedding material against each quadrant of the pipe. For this purpose it is recommended that, at the
crown of the pipe, the trench width should be 300mm (+50mm) wider than the diameter of the pipe.
Abovethecrownthetrenchmaybeanyconvenientwidth.
6.5. TrenchDepthDepthofCover
uPVC pipes may be laid with the same minimum depth of cover as pipes of other materials. Particular
attention should be given when the pipeline passes under a roadway or other load bearing structure.
Tableshowsrecommendedminimumdepthofcoverabovethecrownofthepipefortypicalsituations.

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6.6. Recommendedminimumdepth:

6.7. Bedding
The trench should be over excavated to a depth equivalent to the nominal diameter of the pipe or a
maximumof100mm.Theunderbedshouldbefilledandthoroughlycompactedwithbeddingmaterial
whichconformstoWIS40801ormeetstheparticlesizeandcompactionrequirementsgivenbelow.
Care must be taken to ensure continuous support is given along the entire pipe length and not just on
thejoints.Thebeddingshouldbescoopedouttoaccommodatejointsandfittings.
Inallcasestheunderbedshouldbelaidtothecorrectfallandgradient.
6.8. Sidefill,BackfillandCompaction
Wheninplaceinthetrenchtheweightofoverlyingearthtendstoforcedownthetopofthepipe,but
fordistortiontobepossible,thesidesmustmoveoutacorrespondingdistance.
Such movement of the side walls is only possible to the extent that the bedding material around the
pipe can move. The firmer that this bedding material is, the greater the force required to move it and
consequentlythegreatertheexternalloadthepipecansafelycarry.Itis,therefore,veryimportantthat
beddingandsidefillmaterialandthecompactionprocessmeetthecorrectspecifications.
Afterlayingthepipeonthepreparedbed,thesidefillshouldbeplacedaroundthepipeandcompacted
to 80% of optimum density, in 75mm layers, to a thickness of
the pipe diameter or a maximum of 100mm above the pipe
crown.Caremustbetakentoavoiddisplacingordamagingthe
pipe and to ensure that the cavities under the two lower
quadrantsofthepipeareeliminated.
For the protection of the pipe initial backfilling of the trench
shouldbecarriedoutassoonaspossibleafterlaying.
Theremainingbackfillingcanbecompletedwithonsitespoil
inwellrammedlayersnotexceeding300mm.Donotuseheavy
mechanical rammers until the pipe is covered by more than
300mm.

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6.9. TestForSuitabilityOfSoilMaterialForSurroundingBurieduPVCPipe
Thesuitabilityofthebeddingandbackfilling materialcanbe determinedin oneoftwoways.Either by
estimatingtheapproximateparticlesizeorbycalculatingthecompactionfractionofthematerial.Under
bothmethodsitisnecessarytoobtainarepresentativesampleoftheproposedmaterial.Thisisdoneby
takingabout50kgofthematerialandheapingitonaclearsurface.Thepileisequallyquarteredandtwo
opposingquartersareselected,theremainderisremoved.Theretainedquartersareremixedtoforma
newpileandtheprocessisrepeateduntiltherequiredsamplesizeisobtained.
6.9.1. Method1.ParticleSize
Themaximumparticlesizeshouldnotexceed20mmbutasmallpercentageofparticlesbetween20mm
and40mmisacceptable.Ifparticlesover40mmarepresentthematerialshouldberejected.Incasesof
doubt, a representative sample of the material weighing about 2kg should be sieved; using 20mm and
40mmBritishStandardapprovedtestsieves(BS410TestSieve).
Whensieving,clumpsof materialthatbreakup underlightfingerpressuremaybehelpedthroughthe
sieve,butforceshouldnotbeusedtosqueezeoversizelumpsthroughthemesh.Thematerialshouldbe
rejectedif:
a) anyparticlesareretainedonthe40mmsieveor
b) morethan5%bymassisretainedonthe20mmsieve.
For sharp, hard materials these particle size limitations should be halved (i.e. max. size 10mm and
20mm).
Where scouring of the bed under the pipeline may be caused by adverse ground water conditions the
preparedbeddingmaterialshouldbeofaparticlesizesmallerthan10mmtopreventlossofsupportto
thepipeline.
6.9.2. Method2.EaseofCompaction

1. Placea250mmlengthof160mmO.D.pipeonaclearsurface.
2. Fill the length of pipe loosely with a representative sample of the proposed material and level
offtothetopofthepipe.
3. Liftthepipeoffthesampleandplaceitonaclearsurface.
4. Replace about a quarter of the sample into the pipe and compact it using a rammer of
approximately 1kg weight. Repeat this process until all the sample has been returned to the
pipe..

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6.10. PipeDeformation
Ifthedeflectionofthetopofaflexiblepipeissteadilyincreasedapointwillbereachedwhereitloses
support from the spread out sides and collapses into the lower portion of the pipe. Collapse occurs
whenthedeflectionreachesabout20%ofthepipediameter.Amaximumdeflectionof5%ofthepipe
diameterisusuallyacceptedgivinganominalsafetyfactorof4.Thismaximumdeflectionof5%allows
fornewconnectionsintothesystemtobeeasilyachieved.
Where a pipeline is required to be encased in concrete as a design requirement or due to excessive
loadingitmustbewrappedinanonporousmembranesuchaspolythenefilmtoathicknessof250mu,
according to Figure below. Flexible ring seal joints must be allowed to expand by the inclusion of
compressibleboardjointfillerbetweeneachconcretepourasdetailedinFigure.
.
6.11. ContaminatedGround
u PVC pipe is resistant to many contaminants, but where contamination
is suspected but it is recommended that a detailed soil analysis is
undertaken.
Some protection can be given to pipelines in contaminated ground by
encasingthepipeinacleansandenvelope.Additionalprotectioncanbe
made by the provision of a PVCu membrane around the sand as shown
infigure.
6.12. PipeBendingRadii
uPVCpipe is asemiflexibleconduitandhencegradualchanges ofdirectioncanbe made bylayingthe
pipe to a curve. The minimum radius of any such curvature is 150 times the nominal diameter of the
pipe.Themaximumdeflectionallowedinamechanicaljoint=3.Avoidplacingjointsandfittingsinpipes
whicharetobebent,preformedbendsandelbowsareavailabletoeliminatestress.

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6.13. Trenchlesslaying
Trenchless laying of uPVC pipe has been carried out extensively and has proved successful up to
90mm/3"diameter,solventweldedpipeonly.
uPVCpipehasprovedsuitableformoleploughandcutandfeedinstallationtechniques.Obviouslycare
hastobetakentominimizetheinducedstressonthepipewhilstpullingin.
Pipe to be installed by this method should be prejointed in lengths not exceeding 300 meters and the
solventweldedjointsgivenafullcuringperiodof24hoursbeforecommencinglaying.Followinglaying
thejointingofthesesectionscanbecarriedout,withcaretakentoensurethepipehasreachedground
temperatures.
Duringfeeddownthepipemustnotbecurvedtighterthanthefollowingradii
Nominaldiameter Minimumcurveradii
100mm 100x
80mm 80x
65mmorless 65x
Trenchless laying should only be undertaken once it has been ascertained that the soil type is suitable
anddamagetothepipewillnotoccur.
6.14. ThrustingandAnchorage
Thrustblocks(asinfigure)areneededwheneverthepipelinechangesdirectionorsize,stopsorhasan
inlineteepieceorvalve.Thefunctionofthesethrustblocksistopreventdeflectionorextensionofthe
pipeline under the action of internal fluid pressure and to transfer the resultant forces to the
surrounding ground of load bearing capacity. The following figures are a guide to the design, and
positionoftheanchorblocks.
WhenplacingconcreteonanuPVCpipelinecareshouldbetakentoavoidencasingthepipecompletely.

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This is because the slight flexibility of uPVC may cause pulsing under pressure variations which may
cause the pipe to shear at the interface between the concrete anchor and the backfill. It is
recommendedthatathinmembrane,suchasbituminizedpaper,thinroofingfeltorpolythenefilmtoa
thicknessofabout250muisappliedbetweentheconcreteandtheuPVCpipe.

6.15. AboveGroundInstallation

6.15.1. MoundInstallation
Whereamoundistobemadeuptoaccommodateapipelineabovetheexistinggroundlevel.The
moundmustfirstbemadeupto1000mmabovetheplannedcrownofthepipeandcompacted.A
trenchisthendugandthepipelinelaidintheusualmanner.
6.15.2. ExposedInstallation
uPVCpipeismanufacturedforgreatflexibility,thismeanswhenusedinexposedapplicationsadequate
supportmustbeprovided.
The pipeline should be as near as possible to operating temperature when installed. The clamps and
supportsarethenaffixedtoitinitsexpandedstate.Thesewillarrestanycontractionwhenthepipeline
cools, but more importantly there will be no signs of sagging when the pipeline is at normal operating
temperature. Table gives recommended support spacing for horizontal pipelines, the spacing can be
doubledforverticalpipelines.

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Extrasupportshouldbegiventoaccommodatetheweightofheavyfittingsandequipmentandalsoto
protectthepipelinefromthetorqueappliedwhenoperatingvalvesandhydranttees.
Thepipesupportsshouldhaveflatsurfacesofhalfthediameterofthepipeor100mmminimumwidth
(whicheveristhegreater)andnotbeabletodamagethepipeifanymovementoccurs.
uPVC pipe is a good insulator of the pipe contents and this helps to prevent freezing , additionally the
flexibility of uPVC allows for expansion to accommodate the increased volume of frozen liquids.
However for operational reasons it is usual to insulate pipelines to minimize the risk of the contents
freezing.Careshouldbetakenthatinsulationiswaterprooforisprotectedbyawaterproofcover.
Provisionshouldalsobemadetoenabledraindownofpiperunswithdrainvalvesatthelowestpoints.
Horizontalpiperunsshouldincorporateafalltofacilitatedrainage.uPVCpipelinesshouldbeinsulated
from local intense heat sources such as boilers and steam pipes as this may cause excessive thermal
movement of the pipe. In addition exposed pipelines should be protected from potential impact
damage.

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7. ThermalMovementCompensationExpansionRequirements

7.1. Belowground
Where flanged, threaded or solvent bonded joints are used, the pipe temperature prior to final
connection should approximate that incurred in normal service conditions. Mechanically jointed pipe
willprovidesomecompensationforthermalmovement.Inthecaseoffluctuatingservicetemperature.
7.2. Aboveground
Installations above ground should incorporate expansion joints to
accommodate movement. The expansion joints should be firmly
anchored to prevent movement but other guide supports should
allowthepipetoslidefreely.
Where specific expansion has to be allowed for, the distributor
shouldbecontactedforfurtheradvice.
Mechanically jointed installations above ground must be installed so
thateachsocketisfirmlyanchoredbutthespigotsarefreetomove.
It is important to ensure that the socket is not able to move either
longitudinallyorlaterally.
Figureshowspreferredfixingmethodsforabovegroundinstallations.
The recommended method should be used wherever possible and it
is essential that lateral movement be absent from Jointed
Installations.
7.3. Vibration
VibrationContinuousvibration,particularlywherethreadedjointsareused(e.g.connectionstowater
pumps) must be avoided and, where necessary, flexible joints should be used to minimize vibration
effects.
7.4. EffectofSunlight
uPVC pipe which is exposed to direct sunlight, in hot conditions, for more than six months is likely to
lose its colour. The impact strength is also reduced but the tensile strength (an indication of pressure
rating) remains unaltered. Tests have shown that the colour loss is limited to a depth of 0.15mm after
approximatelytwelvemonthsexposure.

uPVCPipingTechnicalAspects.
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Sunlight also causes ultraviolet degradation to rubber seals. Therefore all seals and items with seals
fittedshouldbekeptoutofdirectsunlight,intheiroriginalpackagingifpossible,untilreadytouse.
7.5. ProtectionAfterInstallation
Pipeworkinstalledinsideabuildingorburiedrequiresnofurtherprotection,however,ifexposedtothe
effectsofsunlight,uPVCpipewillrequireprotectionunlessinapermanentlyshadedposition.
Pipecolourplaysanimportantpartindeterminingthesurfacetemperatureofthepipeline.Thedarker
thecolour,thegreateristhetemperaturegainduetosolarradiation.
For example, in tests at an ambient temperature of 47C PVCu pipe and fittings in a dark grey colour
achieved a surface temperature of 60C, a gain of 13C. A cream pipe kept close to the ambient
temperature. If conditions are humid and there is a breeze, cream PVCu pipe could achieve a slightly
lowertemperaturethanambient.
The importance of colour indicates that all permanently exposed pipe work would benefit from being
cream (or even aluminum) in colour. If cream pipe and fittings are not available then painting is the
simplest method of protection. Paint adheres extremely well to PVCu and it is usually satisfactory to
paintwithatopcoatonly.Formaximumpermanenceofcolour,twocoatpaintshouldbeused.AllAlkyd
paintsaresuitable.Metalprimers(zincchromate)provideasuitableundercoat.
8. PipelineTesting
We recommend the following guidelines be followed for pipeline testing; however, the design or site
engineer or local conditions may require alternative testing methods. The following points should be
notedbeforetestingbegins.
Donotusehighpressureairtesting.
Allow24hrsafterweldingbeforetesting.
Backfillorrestrainthepipelinepriortotesting.
Leavejointsexposed.
Testwithallvalvesinfullyopenposition.
Testsectionsshouldnotexceed1kilometer.

8.1. Proceedwiththetestingasfollows:

1. Blankoffallendsandbolsterthemagainstpressure.
2. Insertairbleedvalvesatallthehighestpointsalongthepipeline.
3. Insertapressuregaugecapableofreadingpressurechangesof1%oftestpressureatthelowest
pointofthepipeline.

uPVCPipingTechnicalAspects.
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4. Slowlyfillthepipelinewithwater,takecaretoavoidriskofdamageduetopressuresurge.
5. Ensureallairbleedvalvesareopenandoperatingcorrectly.

6. Graduallyraisethepressurewithoutshockloadingtothetestpressurespecifiedinfigure.
7. Allowthetestsectiontostandforhalfanhourtoequalizetemperaturesbeforeproceedingwith
thepressuretest.

8.2. RecommendedPressureTestingCriteria.

9. QualityStandardsApplicabletouPVCPipe
BS3505 : Unplasticisedpolyvinylchloride(uPVC)pressurepipesforcoldpotablewater.
BS3506 : SpecificationforunplasticisedPVCpipeforindustrialuses.
BS4346 : Part1JointsandfittingsforusewithunplasticisedPVCpressurepipes.Solvent
Weld.
BS4346 : Part2JointsandfittingsforusewithunplasticisedPVCpressurepipes.
MechanicalJoint
WIS4.31.06 : SpecificationforblueunplasticisedPVCpressurepipes,integraljointsandpost
formedbendsforcoldpotablewater(undergrounduse).
WIS4.31.07 : SpecificationforunplasticisedPVCpressurefittingsandassembliesforcoldIGN
Potablewater(undergrounduse).

uPVCPipingTechnicalAspects.
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4.31.01 : InformationandguidancenoteunplasticisedPVCpipesandfittings.
IS123 : UnplasticisedPVCpipeforwatermains.
SS1776 : Edition5PressurepipesofunplasticisedPVCforcoldwaterpipelines.
DS972 : Pressurepipesandfittingsofunplasticisedpolyvinylchlorideforwatersupply.
ISO4422 : Pipesandfittingsmadeofunplasticisedpolyvinylchloride(uPVC)forwater
supply.
ISO161 : Thermoplasticpipesforthetransportoffluidsnominaloutsidediametersand
Nominalpressures.
DIN19582 : PVCpressurepipeforwatersupply.
NEN7029 : uPVCpipeandcouplersforpressuresewersystems.
NEN7107 : Plasticpressuresystem:TensionproofcouplersforuPVCpipeinstallationand
Testmethod.
NEN7108 : BendsforusewithuPVCpressurepipe.
BRLK502 : uPVCpressurepipe.
BRL2013 : Rubberringsandflangegasketsforuseinpressuresystems.
KIWA10 : Tensionproofcouplers,typeAMSTERDAMforusewithPVCupipe.
KIWA46SBR : ringsealforuseinsystemsforthesupplyofpotablewater.
KIWA49 : Waterpipesofunplasticisedpolyvinylchloride.
KIWA53 : uPVCcouplersandfittings.
KIWA54 : uPVCfittingsinnominaldiameters12mmto90mminclusive.
KIWA63 : uPVCsaddlesandserviceconnectionsforplasticpressurepipesystems.
KIWA71 : TensionproofcouplersforusewithuPVCwatersupplypipe.
NBNT42003 : Plasticpipesgeneralrequirements
NBNT42110 : uPVCpipeforindustrialuse.
NBNT42111 : uPVCpipeforpotablewater.
NBNT42603 : uPVCsocketedfittingswithelastomericringsealjointsforwatersupplyunder
Pressure.