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collisionless magnetoplasma

S.D. PATIL, M.V. TAKALE, S.T. NAVARE, AND M.B. DONGARE

Division of Nonlinear Optics and Holography Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, India

(RECEIVED 26 February 2010; ACCEPTED 8 April 2010)

Abstract

This paper presents an investigation of the focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beams in magneto-plasma by

considering ponderomotive nonlinearity. The dynamics of the combined effects of nonlinearity and spatial diffraction

is presented. To highlight the nature of focusing, plot of beam-width parameter vs. dimensionless distance of

propagation has been obtained. The effect of mode index and decentered parameter on the self-focusing of the beams

has been discussed.

Keywords: Hermite-cosh-Gaussian beams; Nonlinear plasma physics; Paraxial; Self-focusing

1. INTRODUCTION

Interaction of intense laser with plasmas is a major area of

experimental and theoretical study due to its relevance to

optical harmonic generation (Sprangle & Esarey, 1991;

Milchberg et al., 1995; Zhou et al., 1996), X-ray generation

(Eder et al., 1994), inertial connement fusion (Tabak et al.,

1994; Deutsch et al., 1996; Hora, 2004), and laser driven

accelerators and particle beams (Sprangle et al., 1998;

Umstadter et al., 1996; Mora & Antonsen, 1996; Andreev

et al., 1997, 1998; Amiranoff et al., 1998; Sari et al.,

2005; Neff et al., 2006; Zhou et al., 2007; Chen et al.,

2008; Niu et al., 2008). So far the main thrust of the theoreti-

cal and experimental investigations on self-focusing of a

laser beam has been directed toward the study of the propa-

gation characteristics of a Gaussian beam (Akhmanov

et al., 1968; Hora, 1969; Sodha et al., 1974, 1976; Esarey

et al., 1997; Umstadter, 2001; Sharma et al., 2003, 2004).

Nevertheless, a few papers have been published on the self-

focusing of cylindrical off modes of beams (Jones et al.,

1988), super Gaussian beams (Nayyar, 1986; Grow et al.,

2006; Fibich, 2006), degenerate modes of beams

(Karlsson, 1992), elliptic Gaussian beams (Anderson et al.,

1980; Cornolti et al., 1990; Gill et al., 2000, 2004; Saini &

Gill 2006), Bessel beams (Johannisson et al., 2003),

cosh-Gaussian beams (Patil et al., 2009), and Hermite-

Gaussian beams (Takale et al., 2009).

Apart from these, great interest has recently been evinced

in paraxial beams family, usually known as Hermite-

cosh-Gaussian (HChG) beams (Belafhal & Ibnchaikh, 2000).

In relatively recent studies, the propagation of various HChGs

in complex optical systems and turbulent atmosphere, has

been investigated in detail (Ibnchaikh et al., 2001; Wang &

Lu, 2001; Ji & Lu, 2002; Lu & Qing, 2001; Luo & Lu,

2002; Yu et al., 2002; Gu et al., 2004, 2005; Mei et al.,

2004, 2005; Qui et al., 2004; Zhao et al., 2004, 2005;

Zeng et al., 2005, 2006; Du & Zhao, 2006, 2007; Tang

et al., 2006; Bai et al., 2009, 2010; Yang et al., 2009).

Recently, we have investigated its propagation in semicon-

ductors (Patil et al., 2008a, 2008b). A review of the literature

highlights the fact that the propagation characteristics of

HChGs in plasma have not been studied to a signicant

extent; as an exception, the beam propagation in isotropic

plasma has been studied (Patil et al., 2007).

Recently, focusing of dark hollow Gaussian electromag-

netic beams in plasma has been reported (Sodha et al.,

2009a, 2009b; Misra & Mishra, 2009a). Also, ring formation

in electromagnetic beams in a magneto-plasma has been

given by Misra and Mishra (2009b). Focusing of a ring

ripple on Gaussian electromagnetic beams in a magneto-

plasma has been exploited (Misra & Mishra, 2009c). Sodha

et al. (2009c) studied the growth of a ring ripple on a

Gaussian electromagnetic beam in plasma with relativistic-

ponderomotive nonlinearity. Thanks to such recent

343

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: S.D. Patil, Division of

Nonlinear Optics and Holography Laboratory, Department of Physics,

Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, India. E-mail: sdpatil_phy@rediff-

mail.com

Laser and Particle Beams (2010), 28, 343349.

#Cambridge University Press, 2010 0263-0346/10 $20.00

doi:10.1017/S0263034610000297

development in the paraxial approach. But for the sake

of simplicity, we have exploited the self-focusing of

cylindrical HChGs in collisionless magneto-plasma under

paraxial approach given by Akhmanov et al. (1968) and

developed by Sodha et al. (1974, 1976). To illustrate the

nature of focusing/defocusing, the dependence of focusing

parameter on the distance of propagation has been given.

2. BASIC FORMULATION

We consider the propagation of HChG laser beams through a

magneto-plasma along the z direction, which is also the

direction of the static magnetic eld. The wave equation is

considered to comprise two eld congurations, the extra-

ordinary mode and the ordinary mode represented as

A

1

= E

x

+iE

y

and A

2

= E

x

iE

y

where E is the electric vector of the wave, which satises the

wave equation,

2

E ( E) +

v

2

c

2

(1 E) = 0. (1)

In component form, Eq. (1) becomes

2

E

x

z

2

+

2

E

x

y

2

x

E

y

y

+

E

z

z

_ _

=

v

2

c

2

(1 E)

x

, (2a)

2

E

y

z

2

+

2

E

y

x

2

y

E

x

x

+

E

z

z

_ _

=

v

2

c

2

(1 E)

y

, (2b)

and

2

E

z

x

2

+

2

E

z

y

2

z

E

x

x

+

E

y

y

_ _

=

v

2

c

2

(1 E)

z

. (2c)

We assume the variation of eld in the z-direction to be more

rapid than in the x-y plane so that the wave eld can be con-

sidered as transverse in the zero order approximation and

hence no space-charge is generated. Then,

.

E 0 that gives

E

z

z

=

1

1

zz

1

xx

E

x

x

+1

xy

E

y

x

+1

yx

E

x

y

+1

yy

E

y

y

_ _

. (3)

On multiplying Eq. (3) with +i and adding Eq. (2a) we

obtain

2

A

1

z

2

+

1

2

1 +

1

0+

1

0zz

_ _

2

x

2

+

2

y

2

_ _

A

1

+

1

2

1

0+

1

0zz

1

_ _

x

+i

y

_ _

2

A

2

+

v

2

c

2

[1

0+

+F

+

(A

1

A

1

, A

2

A

2

)]A

1

= 0

(4)

and

2

A

2

z

2

+

1

2

1 +

1

0

1

0zz

_ _

2

x

2

+

2

y

2

_ _

A

2

+

1

2

1

0

1

0zz

1

_ _

x

i

y

_ _

2

A

2

+

v

2

c

2

[1

0

+F

(A

1

A

1

, A

2

A

2

)]A

2

= 0,

(5)

where

1

+

= 1

0+

+F

+

. (6)

Here

1

0+

= 1

v

2

p

v(v +v

c

)

,

F

+

=

1

2

A

2

0

[1

vc

v

]

2

and

1

0zz

= 1

v

2

p

v

2

;

with

1

2

=

v

2

p

v(v v

c

)

3m

0

8M

a 1

v

c

2v

_ _

,

v

p

=

4pN

0

e

2

m

0

_ _

1/2

,

v

c

=

eB

0

m

0

c

,

and

a =

e

2

M

6m

2

0

v

2

k

B

T

0

.

Here 1

0

and F are the linear and nonlinear parts of dielectric

constant, respectively, v

p

and v

c

are the plasma frequency

and electron cyclotron frequency, respectively; e, m

o

, and

N

o

being the magnitude of the electronic charge, rest mass,

and electron density, M is the mass of scatterer in the

plasma, v is the frequency of laser used, k

B

is the

Boltzmanns constant, and T

0

is the equilibrium plasma

temperature.

Although Eqs. (4) and (5) are coupled with each other, the

coupling is not strong. To a good approximation we can

assume that one of the two modes is zero and so the behavior

of the other mode can be studied. On assuming A

2

0,

Patil et al. 344

Eq. (4) for A

1

gives

2

A

1

z

2

+

1

2

1 +

1

0+

1

0zz

_ _

2

y

2

_ _

A

1

+

v

2

c

2

[1

0+

+F

+

(A

1

A

1

)]A

1

= 0.

(7)

In Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, the plane

wave solution of Eq. (7) can be written as

A

1

= Aexp[i(vt k

+

z)], (8)

where k

+

(v/c)1

0+

1/2

and A is the complex amplitude.

We substitute Eq. (8) in Eq. (7) and neglect

2

A/z

2

to get

2ik

+

A

z

+

1

2

1 +

1

0+

1

0zz

_ _

2

x

2

+

2

y

2

_ _

A

+

v

2

c

2

F

+

(AA

)A = 0.

(9)

Taking A A

0

(r, z) exp(2ik

+

S(r, z)), one can express the

solution for A

0

2

and S as

A

2

0

=

E

2

0

f

2

H

m

..

2

r

f v

0

_ _ _ _2

exp

b

2

2

_ _

exp 2

r

f v

0

+

b

2

_ _

2

_ _ _

+exp 2

r

f v

0

b

2

_ _

2

_ _

+2exp

2r

2

f

2

v

2

0

+

b

2

2

_ _ _ _

_

(10)

and

S =

r

2

2

b(z) +w(z), (11)

where b(z) (1/f )(df/dz) and w(z) are an arbitrary function

of z.

Following approach given by Akhmanov et al. (1968) and

its extension by Sodha et al. (1974, 1976), the differential

equations for the beam-width parameter of HChG beams in

a collisionless magneto-plasma are formulated as below:

1

f

0+

d

2

f

0+

dz

2

= 1 +

1

0

1

0zz

_ _

2

R

2

d

_

1 +

1

0

1

0zz

_ _

R

2

n

exp

b

2

2

_ __

1

f

4

0+

,

(12)

1

f

1+

d

2

f

1+

dz

2

= 1 +

1

0

1

0zz

_ _

2

R

2

d

2(b

2

2)

_

1 +

1

0

1

0zz

_ _

R

2

n

exp

b

2

2

_ __

1

f

4

1+

,

(13)

and

1

f

2+

d

2

f

2+

dz

2

= 1 +

1

0

1

0zz

_ _

2

R

2

d

4(5 2b

2

)

_

1 +

1

0

1

0zz

_ _

R

2

n

exp

b

2

2

_ __

1

f

4

2+

,

(14)

where R

d

kv

0

2

is the diffraction length, R

n

v

0

|1 2(v

c

/

v)|(1

0

/1

2

)

1/2

is the self-focusing length and subscripts 0,

1, and 2 on f represent mode index m with + representing

extraordinary mode.

The rst terms on the right-hand side of Eqs. (12) (14)

represents spatial dispersion and are responsible for diffrac-

tion divergence. On the other hand, second terms, respect-

ively, are nonlinear in nature leading to self-focusing of the

beam. Obviously, the self-focusing/defocusing of the beam

is possible, when second terms on right-hand side of each

expression are negative/positive according to the desirability

of decentered parameter values. Usually, diffraction of laser

beam is more dominant than its self-focusing due to the

absorption and scattering losses in the nonlinear medium.

For the desirability of appreciable self-focusing of the

beam, corresponding analytical solutions of Eqs. (12) (14)

obtained under the condition R

n

,R

d

are as below:

f

2

0+

= 1 + 1

R

d

R

n

_ _

2

exp(b

2

/2)

[1 +(1

0

/1

0zz

)]

_ _

[1 +(1

0

/1

0zz

)]

2

h

2

,

(15)

f

2

1+

= 1 + 1 2(b

2

2)

R

d

R

n

_ _

2

exp(b

2

/2)

[1 +(1

0

/1

0zz

)]

_ _

[1 +(1

0

/1

0zz

)]

2

h

2

(16)

and

f

2

2+

= 1 + 1 4(5 2b

2

)

R

d

R

n

_ _

2

exp(b

2

/2)

[1 +(1

0

/1

0zz

)]

_ _

[1 +(1

0

/1

0zz

)]

2

h

2

,

(17)

where h z/R

d

is the dimensionless distance of propa-

gation. Similar equations can be obtained for the ordinary

mode by replacing v

c

with 2v

c

and changing the subscripts

from + to 2 on f in respective expressions.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this section, we will illustrate the self-focusing and defo-

cusing of HChG beams in collisionless magneto-plasma for

the rst three mode indices. The behavior of beam-width

parameters f

+

and f

2

for both the modes of collisionless

magneto-plasma with the dimensionless distance of propa-

gation h for various decentered parameters (b-values) is

examined by numerical estimates. The following typical

Focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beams 345

parameters are chosen for the purpose of numerical calcu-

lation:

aE

2

0

= 8 10

3

[1 (v

c

/v)]

2

, l = 1.55 mm,

v

0

= 500 mm, v

p

/v = 0.77, v

c

/v = 0.1.

The results are plotted in the form of graphs.

Figure 1 displays the variation of beam-width parameters

f

+

and f

2

with the dimensionless distance of propagation h

for m 0 with various decentered parameters b 0, 1,

2. This leads to the self-focusing effect for all b-values and

sharp focusing occurs at b 3, which is not shown in the

gure for the sake of clarity. From this gure it is observed

that higher the decentered parameter is, the sharper the self-

focusing effect is. This shows that the additional self-

focusing is observed for higher decentered parameters but

ordinary mode of collisionless magneto-plasma is less sus-

ceptible for self-focusing than extraordinary mode.

Figure 2 plots the beam-width parameters ( f

+

and f

2

) with

the dimensionless propagation distance h of HG beams (i.e.,

for b 0) in collisionless magneto-plasma. It depicts that for

Fig. 1. (Color online) Beam width parameters ( f

+

and f

2

) versus the dimen-

sionless propagation distance (h) of ChG beam (m 0) in a collisionless

magnetoplasma for extraordinary (solid curves) and ordinary (dashed

curves) modes. The red, blue and cyan curves are for the decentred parameter

values of 0, 1, and 2, respectively.

Fig. 2. (Color online) Beam width parameters ( f

+

and f

2

) versus the dimen-

sionless propagation distance (h) of HG beams (b 0) in a collisionless

magnetoplasma for extraordinary (solid curves) and ordinary (dashed

curves) modes. The red, blue and cyan curves are for the mode index

values of 0, 1, and 2, respectively.

Fig. 3. (Color online) Beam width parameters ( f

+

and f

2

) versus the dimen-

sionless propagation distance (h) of H

1

ChG beam (m 1) in a collisionless

magnetoplasma for extraordinary (solid curves) and ordinary (dashed

curves) modes. The red, blue and cyan curves are for the decentred parameter

values of 0, 1, and 2, respectively.

Fig. 4. (Color online) Beam width parameters ( f

+

and f

2

) versus the dimen-

sionless propagation distance (h) of H

2

ChG beam (m 2) in a collisionless

magnetoplasma for extraordinary (solid curves) and ordinary (dashed

curves) modes. The red, blue and cyan curves are for the decentred parameter

values of 0, 1, and 2, respectively.

Patil et al. 346

extraordinary as well as ordinary modes of magneto-plasma,

Hermite Gaussian beams defocuses for m 1 mode.

However, they exhibit self-focusing effect for m 0 and

2. In this case also, ordinary mode is less prone for

self-focusing.

In Figure 3, we have plotted beam width parameters ( f

+

and f

2

) as a function of dimensionless distance of propa-

gation of H

1

ChG beam (i.e., for m 1) in a collisionless

magneto-plasma. We see that H

1

ChG beam gives defocusing

for b 0 and 1, while for b 2, we obtain self-focusing for

both extraordinary and ordinary modes.

The variation of beam width parameters ( f

+

and f

2

) with

the dimensionless propagation distance h of H

2

ChG beam

(i.e., for m 2) is displayed in Figure 4. One sees that for

both modes of collisionless magneto-plasma, the beam

focuses for b 0 and 1, while it defocuses for b 2. Note

that in all gures, solid curves denes extraordinary mode

and dashed curves are for ordinary mode. If we compare

all gures, it is found that the self-focusing/defocusing of

HChG beams is dependent on the mode index m and decen-

tered parameter b.

4. CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the differential equations for beam-width par-

ameters are established under paraxial approximation by

investigating the propagation of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian

beams, taking into account the ponderomotive mechanism

in a collisionless magneto-plasma. The analytical solutions

are obtained for the same. In addition to adopting a general

source beam, our formulation also incorporates the additional

self-focusing effect in collisionless magneto-plasma by

exploiting beams decentered parameter. Furthermore, the

propagation analysis of HChG beams under higher-order

nonlinearity and nonparaxiality is quite interesting. The

present results should be useful in understanding collision-

less heating of the plasma useful for laser fusion.

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