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Focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beams in

collisionless magnetoplasma
S.D. PATIL, M.V. TAKALE, S.T. NAVARE, AND M.B. DONGARE
Division of Nonlinear Optics and Holography Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, India
(RECEIVED 26 February 2010; ACCEPTED 8 April 2010)
Abstract
This paper presents an investigation of the focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beams in magneto-plasma by
considering ponderomotive nonlinearity. The dynamics of the combined effects of nonlinearity and spatial diffraction
is presented. To highlight the nature of focusing, plot of beam-width parameter vs. dimensionless distance of
propagation has been obtained. The effect of mode index and decentered parameter on the self-focusing of the beams
has been discussed.
Keywords: Hermite-cosh-Gaussian beams; Nonlinear plasma physics; Paraxial; Self-focusing
1. INTRODUCTION
Interaction of intense laser with plasmas is a major area of
experimental and theoretical study due to its relevance to
optical harmonic generation (Sprangle & Esarey, 1991;
Milchberg et al., 1995; Zhou et al., 1996), X-ray generation
(Eder et al., 1994), inertial connement fusion (Tabak et al.,
1994; Deutsch et al., 1996; Hora, 2004), and laser driven
accelerators and particle beams (Sprangle et al., 1998;
Umstadter et al., 1996; Mora & Antonsen, 1996; Andreev
et al., 1997, 1998; Amiranoff et al., 1998; Sari et al.,
2005; Neff et al., 2006; Zhou et al., 2007; Chen et al.,
2008; Niu et al., 2008). So far the main thrust of the theoreti-
cal and experimental investigations on self-focusing of a
laser beam has been directed toward the study of the propa-
gation characteristics of a Gaussian beam (Akhmanov
et al., 1968; Hora, 1969; Sodha et al., 1974, 1976; Esarey
et al., 1997; Umstadter, 2001; Sharma et al., 2003, 2004).
Nevertheless, a few papers have been published on the self-
focusing of cylindrical off modes of beams (Jones et al.,
1988), super Gaussian beams (Nayyar, 1986; Grow et al.,
2006; Fibich, 2006), degenerate modes of beams
(Karlsson, 1992), elliptic Gaussian beams (Anderson et al.,
1980; Cornolti et al., 1990; Gill et al., 2000, 2004; Saini &
Gill 2006), Bessel beams (Johannisson et al., 2003),
cosh-Gaussian beams (Patil et al., 2009), and Hermite-
Gaussian beams (Takale et al., 2009).
Apart from these, great interest has recently been evinced
in paraxial beams family, usually known as Hermite-
cosh-Gaussian (HChG) beams (Belafhal & Ibnchaikh, 2000).
In relatively recent studies, the propagation of various HChGs
in complex optical systems and turbulent atmosphere, has
been investigated in detail (Ibnchaikh et al., 2001; Wang &
Lu, 2001; Ji & Lu, 2002; Lu & Qing, 2001; Luo & Lu,
2002; Yu et al., 2002; Gu et al., 2004, 2005; Mei et al.,
2004, 2005; Qui et al., 2004; Zhao et al., 2004, 2005;
Zeng et al., 2005, 2006; Du & Zhao, 2006, 2007; Tang
et al., 2006; Bai et al., 2009, 2010; Yang et al., 2009).
Recently, we have investigated its propagation in semicon-
ductors (Patil et al., 2008a, 2008b). A review of the literature
highlights the fact that the propagation characteristics of
HChGs in plasma have not been studied to a signicant
extent; as an exception, the beam propagation in isotropic
plasma has been studied (Patil et al., 2007).
Recently, focusing of dark hollow Gaussian electromag-
netic beams in plasma has been reported (Sodha et al.,
2009a, 2009b; Misra & Mishra, 2009a). Also, ring formation
in electromagnetic beams in a magneto-plasma has been
given by Misra and Mishra (2009b). Focusing of a ring
ripple on Gaussian electromagnetic beams in a magneto-
plasma has been exploited (Misra & Mishra, 2009c). Sodha
et al. (2009c) studied the growth of a ring ripple on a
Gaussian electromagnetic beam in plasma with relativistic-
ponderomotive nonlinearity. Thanks to such recent
343
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: S.D. Patil, Division of
Nonlinear Optics and Holography Laboratory, Department of Physics,
Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, India. E-mail: sdpatil_phy@rediff-
mail.com
Laser and Particle Beams (2010), 28, 343349.
#Cambridge University Press, 2010 0263-0346/10 $20.00
doi:10.1017/S0263034610000297
development in the paraxial approach. But for the sake
of simplicity, we have exploited the self-focusing of
cylindrical HChGs in collisionless magneto-plasma under
paraxial approach given by Akhmanov et al. (1968) and
developed by Sodha et al. (1974, 1976). To illustrate the
nature of focusing/defocusing, the dependence of focusing
parameter on the distance of propagation has been given.
2. BASIC FORMULATION
We consider the propagation of HChG laser beams through a
magneto-plasma along the z direction, which is also the
direction of the static magnetic eld. The wave equation is
considered to comprise two eld congurations, the extra-
ordinary mode and the ordinary mode represented as
A
1
= E
x
+iE
y
and A
2
= E
x
iE
y
where E is the electric vector of the wave, which satises the
wave equation,

2
E ( E) +
v
2
c
2
(1 E) = 0. (1)
In component form, Eq. (1) becomes

2
E
x
z
2
+

2
E
x
y
2


x
E
y
y
+
E
z
z
_ _
=
v
2
c
2
(1 E)
x
, (2a)

2
E
y
z
2
+

2
E
y
x
2


y
E
x
x
+
E
z
z
_ _
=
v
2
c
2
(1 E)
y
, (2b)
and

2
E
z
x
2
+

2
E
z
y
2


z
E
x
x
+
E
y
y
_ _
=
v
2
c
2
(1 E)
z
. (2c)
We assume the variation of eld in the z-direction to be more
rapid than in the x-y plane so that the wave eld can be con-
sidered as transverse in the zero order approximation and
hence no space-charge is generated. Then,
.
E 0 that gives
E
z
z
=
1
1
zz
1
xx
E
x
x
+1
xy
E
y
x
+1
yx
E
x
y
+1
yy
E
y
y
_ _
. (3)
On multiplying Eq. (3) with +i and adding Eq. (2a) we
obtain

2
A
1
z
2
+
1
2
1 +
1
0+
1
0zz
_ _

2
x
2
+

2
y
2
_ _
A
1
+
1
2
1
0+
1
0zz
1
_ _

x
+i

y
_ _
2
A
2
+
v
2
c
2
[1
0+
+F
+
(A
1
A

1
, A
2
A

2
)]A
1
= 0
(4)
and

2
A
2
z
2
+
1
2
1 +
1
0
1
0zz
_ _

2
x
2
+

2
y
2
_ _
A
2
+
1
2
1
0
1
0zz
1
_ _

x
i

y
_ _
2
A
2
+
v
2
c
2
[1
0
+F

(A
1
A

1
, A
2
A

2
)]A
2
= 0,
(5)
where
1
+
= 1
0+
+F
+
. (6)
Here
1
0+
= 1
v
2
p
v(v +v
c
)
,
F
+
=
1
2
A
2
0
[1
vc
v
]
2
and
1
0zz
= 1
v
2
p
v
2
;
with
1
2
=
v
2
p
v(v v
c
)
3m
0
8M
a 1
v
c
2v
_ _
,
v
p
=
4pN
0
e
2
m
0
_ _
1/2
,
v
c
=
eB
0
m
0
c
,
and
a =
e
2
M
6m
2
0
v
2
k
B
T
0
.
Here 1
0
and F are the linear and nonlinear parts of dielectric
constant, respectively, v
p
and v
c
are the plasma frequency
and electron cyclotron frequency, respectively; e, m
o
, and
N
o
being the magnitude of the electronic charge, rest mass,
and electron density, M is the mass of scatterer in the
plasma, v is the frequency of laser used, k
B
is the
Boltzmanns constant, and T
0
is the equilibrium plasma
temperature.
Although Eqs. (4) and (5) are coupled with each other, the
coupling is not strong. To a good approximation we can
assume that one of the two modes is zero and so the behavior
of the other mode can be studied. On assuming A
2
0,
Patil et al. 344
Eq. (4) for A
1
gives

2
A
1
z
2
+
1
2
1 +
1
0+
1
0zz
_ _

2
y
2
_ _
A
1
+
v
2
c
2
[1
0+
+F
+
(A
1
A

1
)]A
1
= 0.
(7)
In Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, the plane
wave solution of Eq. (7) can be written as
A
1
= Aexp[i(vt k
+
z)], (8)
where k
+
(v/c)1
0+
1/2
and A is the complex amplitude.
We substitute Eq. (8) in Eq. (7) and neglect
2
A/z
2
to get
2ik
+
A
z
+
1
2
1 +
1
0+
1
0zz
_ _

2
x
2
+

2
y
2
_ _
A
+
v
2
c
2
F
+
(AA

)A = 0.
(9)
Taking A A
0
(r, z) exp(2ik
+
S(r, z)), one can express the
solution for A
0
2
and S as
A
2
0
=
E
2
0
f
2
H
m
..
2

r
f v
0
_ _ _ _2
exp
b
2
2
_ _
exp 2
r
f v
0
+
b
2
_ _
2
_ _ _
+exp 2
r
f v
0

b
2
_ _
2
_ _
+2exp
2r
2
f
2
v
2
0
+
b
2
2
_ _ _ _
_
(10)
and
S =
r
2
2
b(z) +w(z), (11)
where b(z) (1/f )(df/dz) and w(z) are an arbitrary function
of z.
Following approach given by Akhmanov et al. (1968) and
its extension by Sodha et al. (1974, 1976), the differential
equations for the beam-width parameter of HChG beams in
a collisionless magneto-plasma are formulated as below:
1
f
0+
d
2
f
0+
dz
2
= 1 +
1
0
1
0zz
_ _
2
R
2
d
_
1 +
1
0
1
0zz
_ _
R
2
n
exp
b
2
2
_ __
1
f
4
0+
,
(12)
1
f
1+
d
2
f
1+
dz
2
= 1 +
1
0
1
0zz
_ _
2
R
2
d
2(b
2
2)
_
1 +
1
0
1
0zz
_ _
R
2
n
exp
b
2
2
_ __
1
f
4
1+
,
(13)
and
1
f
2+
d
2
f
2+
dz
2
= 1 +
1
0
1
0zz
_ _
2
R
2
d
4(5 2b
2
)
_
1 +
1
0
1
0zz
_ _
R
2
n
exp
b
2
2
_ __
1
f
4
2+
,
(14)
where R
d
kv
0
2
is the diffraction length, R
n
v
0
|1 2(v
c
/
v)|(1
0
/1
2
)
1/2
is the self-focusing length and subscripts 0,
1, and 2 on f represent mode index m with + representing
extraordinary mode.
The rst terms on the right-hand side of Eqs. (12) (14)
represents spatial dispersion and are responsible for diffrac-
tion divergence. On the other hand, second terms, respect-
ively, are nonlinear in nature leading to self-focusing of the
beam. Obviously, the self-focusing/defocusing of the beam
is possible, when second terms on right-hand side of each
expression are negative/positive according to the desirability
of decentered parameter values. Usually, diffraction of laser
beam is more dominant than its self-focusing due to the
absorption and scattering losses in the nonlinear medium.
For the desirability of appreciable self-focusing of the
beam, corresponding analytical solutions of Eqs. (12) (14)
obtained under the condition R
n
,R
d
are as below:
f
2
0+
= 1 + 1
R
d
R
n
_ _
2
exp(b
2
/2)
[1 +(1
0
/1
0zz
)]
_ _
[1 +(1
0
/1
0zz
)]
2
h
2
,
(15)
f
2
1+
= 1 + 1 2(b
2
2)
R
d
R
n
_ _
2
exp(b
2
/2)
[1 +(1
0
/1
0zz
)]
_ _
[1 +(1
0
/1
0zz
)]
2
h
2
(16)
and
f
2
2+
= 1 + 1 4(5 2b
2
)
R
d
R
n
_ _
2
exp(b
2
/2)
[1 +(1
0
/1
0zz
)]
_ _
[1 +(1
0
/1
0zz
)]
2
h
2
,
(17)
where h z/R
d
is the dimensionless distance of propa-
gation. Similar equations can be obtained for the ordinary
mode by replacing v
c
with 2v
c
and changing the subscripts
from + to 2 on f in respective expressions.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In this section, we will illustrate the self-focusing and defo-
cusing of HChG beams in collisionless magneto-plasma for
the rst three mode indices. The behavior of beam-width
parameters f
+
and f
2
for both the modes of collisionless
magneto-plasma with the dimensionless distance of propa-
gation h for various decentered parameters (b-values) is
examined by numerical estimates. The following typical
Focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beams 345
parameters are chosen for the purpose of numerical calcu-
lation:
aE
2
0
= 8 10
3
[1 (v
c
/v)]
2
, l = 1.55 mm,
v
0
= 500 mm, v
p
/v = 0.77, v
c
/v = 0.1.
The results are plotted in the form of graphs.
Figure 1 displays the variation of beam-width parameters
f
+
and f
2
with the dimensionless distance of propagation h
for m 0 with various decentered parameters b 0, 1,
2. This leads to the self-focusing effect for all b-values and
sharp focusing occurs at b 3, which is not shown in the
gure for the sake of clarity. From this gure it is observed
that higher the decentered parameter is, the sharper the self-
focusing effect is. This shows that the additional self-
focusing is observed for higher decentered parameters but
ordinary mode of collisionless magneto-plasma is less sus-
ceptible for self-focusing than extraordinary mode.
Figure 2 plots the beam-width parameters ( f
+
and f
2
) with
the dimensionless propagation distance h of HG beams (i.e.,
for b 0) in collisionless magneto-plasma. It depicts that for
Fig. 1. (Color online) Beam width parameters ( f
+
and f
2
) versus the dimen-
sionless propagation distance (h) of ChG beam (m 0) in a collisionless
magnetoplasma for extraordinary (solid curves) and ordinary (dashed
curves) modes. The red, blue and cyan curves are for the decentred parameter
values of 0, 1, and 2, respectively.
Fig. 2. (Color online) Beam width parameters ( f
+
and f
2
) versus the dimen-
sionless propagation distance (h) of HG beams (b 0) in a collisionless
magnetoplasma for extraordinary (solid curves) and ordinary (dashed
curves) modes. The red, blue and cyan curves are for the mode index
values of 0, 1, and 2, respectively.
Fig. 3. (Color online) Beam width parameters ( f
+
and f
2
) versus the dimen-
sionless propagation distance (h) of H
1
ChG beam (m 1) in a collisionless
magnetoplasma for extraordinary (solid curves) and ordinary (dashed
curves) modes. The red, blue and cyan curves are for the decentred parameter
values of 0, 1, and 2, respectively.
Fig. 4. (Color online) Beam width parameters ( f
+
and f
2
) versus the dimen-
sionless propagation distance (h) of H
2
ChG beam (m 2) in a collisionless
magnetoplasma for extraordinary (solid curves) and ordinary (dashed
curves) modes. The red, blue and cyan curves are for the decentred parameter
values of 0, 1, and 2, respectively.
Patil et al. 346
extraordinary as well as ordinary modes of magneto-plasma,
Hermite Gaussian beams defocuses for m 1 mode.
However, they exhibit self-focusing effect for m 0 and
2. In this case also, ordinary mode is less prone for
self-focusing.
In Figure 3, we have plotted beam width parameters ( f
+
and f
2
) as a function of dimensionless distance of propa-
gation of H
1
ChG beam (i.e., for m 1) in a collisionless
magneto-plasma. We see that H
1
ChG beam gives defocusing
for b 0 and 1, while for b 2, we obtain self-focusing for
both extraordinary and ordinary modes.
The variation of beam width parameters ( f
+
and f
2
) with
the dimensionless propagation distance h of H
2
ChG beam
(i.e., for m 2) is displayed in Figure 4. One sees that for
both modes of collisionless magneto-plasma, the beam
focuses for b 0 and 1, while it defocuses for b 2. Note
that in all gures, solid curves denes extraordinary mode
and dashed curves are for ordinary mode. If we compare
all gures, it is found that the self-focusing/defocusing of
HChG beams is dependent on the mode index m and decen-
tered parameter b.
4. CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the differential equations for beam-width par-
ameters are established under paraxial approximation by
investigating the propagation of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian
beams, taking into account the ponderomotive mechanism
in a collisionless magneto-plasma. The analytical solutions
are obtained for the same. In addition to adopting a general
source beam, our formulation also incorporates the additional
self-focusing effect in collisionless magneto-plasma by
exploiting beams decentered parameter. Furthermore, the
propagation analysis of HChG beams under higher-order
nonlinearity and nonparaxiality is quite interesting. The
present results should be useful in understanding collision-
less heating of the plasma useful for laser fusion.
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