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Health Education Summary Grade 2



We grow in weight.

We become heavier.

We grow in height.

We become taller.

We are growing all the time.

As we grow, we become taller, heavier, bigger and stronger.

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The more we grow, the more we can do difficult tasks.

We need to eat enough food.

We need to do exercises regularly.

We need to have enough rest and sleep.

Food, exercise, and rest can help us grow well.


Health Education Summary Grade 2



The body has many organs.

Each organ is important for our lives.

The nose, mouth, eyes, ears, hands and feet are

examples of visible organs.

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They help us to know about the outside world.

We need to take care of these organs.

We can do a lot of things to look after ourselves.

We read in good light.

We watch TV from a safe distance.

We wipe our ears dry after bathing.

We do not put things into our ears.

We do not dig our noses.

We do not put things into our noses.

We wash our hands after using the toilet.

Health Education Summary Grade 2

We cut our fingernails regularly.

We wash our feet when they are dirty.

We cut our foot nails when they are long.

Teeth and tooth care

We have two sets of teeth in our life time.

The first set is our milk teeth.

The second set is our adult teeth or permanent teeth.

Milk teeth

1. The first set of teeth.

2. There are 20 teeth.

3. The full set will grow about three years of age.

Permanent teeth

1. The second set of teeth.

2. There are 32 teeth.

3. They replace the milk teeth.

4. The full set will grow about 17 years of age.


Our milk teeth start to fall out when we are about 6

years old.


Health Education Summary Grade 2

When any milk teeth fall out, the new permanent

teeth will grow in their place.

Our permanent teeth should last as long as we live.

If we lose any adult teeth, no new one will grow in

their place.

How do we take care of our teeth?

Avoid sugary snacks.

Brush our teeth after every meal and before you sleep.

Chew only sugar free gum.

Rinse your mouth after having any sweets.

Hair care

Our hair should be clean and neat.

Wash our hair regularly.

Wash our hair with shampoo and water to keep it clean.

Wipe our hair after washing.

Brush or comb our hair to keep it neat.

Health Education Summary Grade 2

Hand and nail care

Hands must be clean

Wash our hands with soap.

Keep our nails short.

Stop biting our nails.

Feet and foot care

Feet need to be washed often.

Take care to dry our feet properly after washing or bathing.

Shoes protect our feet.

Shoes must fit properly.

Wear clean socks daily.

Clean socks smell nice.

Dirty socks smell awful.

Health Education Summary Grade 2



Good health is the state of being well in the body

and mind, and free from disease.

We are fit to do particular job.

We have good relationship with friends.

We have something fixed in mind to be remembered.

Well being comes from good health.

To grow well and stay healthy.

We need to eat the right food and drink enough water.

Health Education Summary Grade 2

We exercise regularly.

We have enough rest and sleep.

Maintain our health.

Wash our hands before eating and after using the toilet.

Brush our teeth at least twice a day.

Shower at least twice a day.

Health Education Summary Grade 2



People who live in the same home are members

of the family.

These members are different in sex, age ,and the

things they do.

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We need to be a good member of our family.

Grand father , uncle, father , brother, son the

male members in the family.

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Grand mother, aunt, mother, sister, daughter, - the

female members in the family.

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Health Education Summary Grade 2



We have to keep our body organs clean.

When we are dirty, we take a shower.

I clean my body with soap.

I shampoo my hair when it is dirty.

I use toothpaste when I brush my teeth.

I wash my feet after playing.

I wash my hands after using the toilet.

Keeping teeth clean

We need healthy teeth

To chew food properly,

To speak and sing clearly,

To make happy smiles.

Health Education Summary Grade 2

Brushing helps to keep our teeth and gums clean and


We brush our teeth before going to bed.

We brush our teeth after every meal.

We use toothpaste when we brush our teeth.

Keeping our hands clean.

We do many things with our hands.

Sometimes, our hands are dirty.

Washing can make our hands clean.

We wash our hands before eating.

We wash our hands after using the toilet.

We wash our hands when they are dirty.

Keep our feet clean

We have two feet. (one left foot and one right foot)
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Health Education Summary Grade 2

Our feet should be clean.

We wash our feet when they are dirty and dry them
with a towel.

We wear shoes to protect our feet.

We must use the shoes that fit properly.

We wear socks to cover our feet.

Socks we used should be clean.

Clean socks smell nice.

Keep clothes clean

We wear clothes to protect our body.

We wear clothes to protect our body.

We should wear neat and clean clothes that fit us.

Washing machine is use for washing clothes.

We use electric iron to make clothes smooth and neat.


Health Education Summary Grade 2



Exercise is important for health.

We exercise each day to stay healthy and become


Here are some exercises we can do regularly.

Jogging jumping running swimming walking cycling

Playing a game of hide and seek playing football

playing table tennis

Regular exercise keeps us fit and healthy.

When we are tired, we have to take a rest.


We need rest to get more energy.

There are many ways to take a rest.

Sitting on a chair or other seat.


Health Education Summary Grade 2

Reading a comic book.

Listening to a play on the radio.


Sleeping is the best rest. We should have enough rest

and sleep.


Health Education Summary Grade 2



Food is essential for living things.

It helps us to grow, to gain energy, and to protect

ourselves from illness.

We should eat enough food to stay healthy and grow


These are examples of body building food.

They help us to grow bigger and taller.

These are examples of food that give us energy.

They help us to work and play well.

These are examples of food that protect us against


They help us fight diseases and stay well.

Nutritious food

A variety of food contains the essential nutrients.


Health Education Summary Grade 2

We have to eat food from all the food groups each


There are three main food groups.

Food for growth

Food like meat, milk, egg and beans help us grow

and develop strong bones and muscles.

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Food for energy

Food like rice, bread and noodle give us energy to

do a lot of work.

Food for protection

Food such as fruits and vegetables

help protect us.

They help our bodies to work well so that we do not

fall sick so easily.

Nutritious foods food being valuable to the body.

Eating habits.


Health Education Summary Grade 2

We need to eat a variety of food to help our bodies

grow well.

A balanced diet is made up of food from all three of

the main food groups.

Eating too much of any one kind of food is bad for

our bodies.

DO and DONT about eating habits.

Eat the right balance of foods.

Eat three meals daily, or take regular meals.

Eat only clean food.

Eat food that is mould.

Eat food that has been touched by flies or other


Eat food that has fallen off the plate.

Eat snacks too much.


Health Education Summary Grade 2



Accidents can happen at any time and in any place

Some indoor accidents

Some outdoor accidents

Some accidents on the road

Some actions will lead to danger.

An accident can cause someone to be hurt or

something to be broken.

Accidents can happen through carelessness.

The best prevention for accidents is to be aware of

danger and to do activities with care.


Science Summary Grade 2



There are many kinds of living things.

Plants are living things.

Animals are living things.

People are living things.

Even bacteria are living things.

What do plants need?

Plants, like other living things, need soil, air, water and
food to live.

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Plants also need sunlight to make their own food.

Without sunlight, plants cannot survive and will die.

Without water, plants cannot survive, either.


Science Summary Grade 2

Some plants can grow without soil.

What do living things need?


Plants need water, food and air to live. Like plants,

other living things need water, food and air.

Animals need water, food and air to live. Without

water, food and air plants die.

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Without water, food and air animals die, too.

Humans (people) need water, food and air to live.

Without water, food and air ,people die.

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Where do living things find water?

Plants find water in the soil. A plants roots take the

water from the soil and move it up the stem to the

Animals cannot take water from the soil but they can
move to find water.


Science Summary Grade 2

Animals move to places where there is water, like

puddles, lakes and rivers.

Where do living things find food?

Plants make their own food. They use sunlight, air and
water to make food. Plants make their food in the

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Animals move around to find food. Some animals eat

plants. Some animals eat other animals.

People eat plants and other animals. People raise

animals, like chickens, cows and pigs on farms.

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People grow plants, like rice and tomatoes, in fields

and gardens.

Heat can change the way plants grow.

If it is too cold or too hot many plants will die.

Some plants go to sleep when the weather too cold.

Some trees lose their leaves and stop growing in winter.


Science Summary Grade 2

In hot places, like the desert, plants keep a lot of

water in their bodies.

The cactus keeps water in its stem, and it grows spines

so animals cannot eat it.

People and their environment.

People live in many different environments.

Some people live in cold environments.

Some people live in hot environments.

Some people live in cities.

Some people live in villages.

We feel pain every time we injure ourselves.

Our skin can feel if something is too hot, too cold or

too sharp.


Science Summary Grade 2

What do people need to live and grow?

Just like plants and animals, people need air, food

and water to live and grow.

Without food, air and water people cannot live and

will die.

People also need clothes. People do not have fur to

help them stay warm when it is too cold.

People need plants to make houses, furniture and



Science Summary Grade 2



The soil is the part of the earth where people live and
plants grow.

There is also soil at the bottom of the oceans and


What is in the soil?

The soil is made of 4 things:

45% of soil is minerals


Minerals come from rocks that break into small bits

over many years.

Plants use some of the minerals in soil to grow.

5% of soil is organic matter


Organic matter is made up of dead plants and animals.


Science Summary Grade 2

When leaves fall off trees they become organic matter

in the soil.

When animals, like worms and bugs, die, their bodies

become organic matter in the soil.

Organic matter is also made up of living things like

insects, spiders, scorpions, mice, moles and worms.

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Silt is a type of soil. Silt feels smooth.

Silt is made of small bits of rock. Silt is smaller than


Clay is a type of soil. Clay feels smooth.

Clay is made of very small bits of rock. Clay is smaller

than silt.

Humus is a type of soil. Humus has a lot of organic

matter. Humus is good for growing plants. Humus is
dark brown or black.


Science Summary Grade 2



Types of Materials and their Properties

When we make something we use materials.

When we make a chair we use wood.

When we make a key we use metal.

When we make a cup we use plastic.

When we make a plate we use clay.

There are many materials we can use to make things.

We use sand and rock to make houses.

We use metal to make cars.

We use cloth to make shirts.


Science Summary Grade 2

We use glass to make windows.

We use paper to make books.

A lot of things are made up of more than one material.

A pencil is made of wood, metal, rubber and a special

rock called graphite or lead.


Choosing Materials

When we want to make something we need to choose

a material.

When we choose a material we need to think of its


If we want to make a shirt we need a material that

is soft and light , so we choose cloth.

If we want to make a desk we need

a material that is strong, so we can
choose wood or metal.


Science Summary Grade 2




A magnet is something that attracts

things made of iron.

That means things made of iron will move toward the


A magnet attracts paper clips.

A magnet does not attract erasers.

A magnet can attract another magnet.


All magnets have two poles, North(N) and

South (S).

Different (or unlike) poles of two magnets attract each


Same(or like) poles of two magnets repel each other.


Science Summary Grade 2

Why do magnets attract some things?

Around a magnet there is something we cannot see

called a magnetic field.

The magnetic field makes some objects move.

The magnetic field is strong close to the magnet, and

weak far from the magnet.

The Earth is like a big magnet.

The Earth has a magnetic field, too.

Just like any other magnet, Earth has a North Pole and
a South Pole. We can use this to find directions.

We use a compass to find directions.

A compass has a magnet in it. The North Pole of the

magnet is attracted to the South Pole of Earth.

Use of Magnets


Science Summary Grade 2

Magnets are used in many things.

We use magnets in speakers.

We use magnets in refrigerators.

We use a magnet in a compass.

We use magnets to lift things.

We use magnets in bank cards.

We use magnets in phone cases.

Static Electricity

We can make things attract or repel each other in

another way.

When we rub the ruler we make something called


There are two kinds of charge: positive and negative

(a bit like the North and South poles of magnets).

: ( )

Science Summary Grade 2



What is energy?

Energy makes things move.

Energy changes things.

A car can move because it uses energy.

A computer works because it uses energy.

A fan moves because it uses energy.

Your food changes in the oven because the oven

uses energy.

Where does energy come from?

Anything that gives us energy is called a source of


The Sun gives us heat.


Science Summary Grade 2

The Sun is a source of heat.

A stove gives us heat.

A stove is a source of heat.

A light bulb gives us light.

A light bulb is a source of light.

The Sun gives us light.

The Sun is a source of light.

A battery gives us electricity.

A battery is a source of electricity.

A power station gives us electricity.

A power station is a source of electricity.



Science Summary Grade 2

Electricity is a form of energy.

We use electricity every day.

We use electricity at home.

We use electricity at school.

We do not use electricity when we go out.

How do we use electricity inside a building?

Many things that use electricity need to be plugged
into a wall socket and turned on.

We can turn on or turn off the light from a switch.

Changing electricity into other forms of energy.

We always need to change electricity into other forms

of energy like light, heat or sound.

Sometimes we use electricity to make things move.


Science Summary Grade 2



There are many stars in the Universe.

Stars are made of gas. Most stars are very big.

The Sun is a star. The Sun is made of gas.

The Sun is very hot. The temperature of the Sun is

about 5,500c at the surface and 15,000,000 c at the

, 5,500

The temperature of your body is about 37C. The

temperature of a candle flame is about 1,000 C.

37 1,000

c stands for degrees

Celsius is a unit of measurement for how hot something

The Sun is very big. The Sun is many times bigger than


Science Summary Grade 2

The Sun is very far from Earth. The Sun is about

150,000,000 km. from Earth.


Earth spins around its axis. Because of that we have

day and night.

Everything on Earth moves with it. Because of that it

looks like the Sun is moving in the sky.

In the morning we see the Sun rising in the East.

In the evening we see the Sun setting in the West.

Why is the Sun important?

The Sun is important to all the life on Earth.

Plants need the Sun to live.

Animals and people eat plants to live.

Animals and people breathe oxygen made by plants.


Science Summary Grade 2

If there is no Sun there is no life on Earth.

The Sun gives us light and heat.

The Sun makes rain.

The heat from the Sun makes some of the water in

the oceans go up in the air and form clouds.

Clouds then move around and change into rain.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2



The importance of Buddhism

Most Thai people are Buddhist. Buddhism is important

because it teaches us to be better people.

A good Buddhist has a good heart

A good Buddhist is respectful and polite.

A good Buddhist goes to the temple often.

A good Buddhist celebrates special Buddhist days.

Religions of the world Buddhism

Buddhism comes from India.

A long time ago there was a prince called Siddhartha



Social Studies Summary Grade 2

He was born in a palace but he left his home to learn

about the world.

He travelled for many years and taught a lot of people

about his ideas.

People called him Buddha.

Buddhists learn about Buddhism from books calles


Tripitaka means three baskets.

Along time ago the Buddhist teachings were written

on leaves and put in baskets.

Buddhism teaches us to be good.

Buddhism teaches us how to be happy by helping


Buddhism teaches us how to be respectful and polite.

Buddhism teaches us how to be patient.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Buddhist Rituals

Buddhists give food to the monks in the morning.

Buddhists put flowers and burn incense at statues of


Buddhists go to pray in temples.

Buddhists meditate.

Religions of the world Islam

Islam comes from Saudi Arabia.

About 1,500 years ago the Prophet Muhammad

helped write the holy book of Islam, the Quran.


Muhammad taught the lessons of Islam to many

people in Arabia.

People who believe in Islam are called Muslims .


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Muslims believe in Allah. Allah is the Arabic word for


Islam teaches us to help the poor.

Islam teaches us to respect our parents.

Islam teaches us to have mercy.

Islam teaches us to be honest.

Islamic Rituals

Muslims pray five times every day.

When they pray they use a mat and they touch the
ground with their forehead.

For one month a year Muslims do not eat during the


They also read the Quran and pray.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

This special month is called Ramadan.

Religions of the world Christianity

Christianity comes from Israel.

2,000 years ago a man named Jesus started teaching

people about helping each other.


His students then started teaching other people.

Christians learn about Christianity from a book called

the Bible.

Christians believe that God made everything in the

Universe - the stars and the planets, the animals and
the plants, and even the people.


Christianity teaches us to help each other.

Christianity teaches us to tell the truth.

Christianity teaches us to respect what other people



Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Christian Rituals

Many Christians go to church on Saturday or Sunday.

Most Christians are baptized.

When they are born, or, sometimes, later in life, a priest

will pour water on their heads in a special ceremony.

Religions of the world Hinduism

Hinduism comes from India.

People who believe in Hinduism are called


Some Hindus do not believe in any gods. Some hindus

believe in many gods.

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Hindus use many books called Vedas to learn about

their religion.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

The word Veda means knowledge.

Hinduism teaches us to be patient.

Hinduism teaches us to respect other peoples ideas.

Hinduism teaches us to try to learn about the world.

Hindu Rituals

There are many Hindu rituals.

When Hindus get married the bride and the groom go

around a fire seven times.

The name of this ceremony is Saptapadi.

Doing good

All religions teach us to do good.

All religions teach us to help others.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

All religions teach us to be honest, to tell the truth and

to be patient.

All religions teach us that if we all help each other

then everybody will be happy.

Religious teachings.

1.Working together.

When we have something to do we all help. For

example, if we need to clean the classroom everybody
does a small part.

2. Sacrificing

We should give to others something that we like for

ourselves. Sometimes we give money, sometimes we
give an object, like a toy.

3. Helping those in pain.

We should help any person or animals that is sad or



Social Studies Summary Grade 2

4. Thanking others for helping us.

We should thank others for their help and we should

feel that we want to help them, too.

5. Being disciplined

We should follow the rules at school and at home.

6. Respecting and keeping special days and activities.

We should learn about our special days and activities.

We should follow them and we should teach others

about them.

7. Learning

We should always want to know more about everything.

We should ask questions about everything.

8. Not wasting.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

We should not spend money unless we have to. We

should learn how to spend money well.

9. Being patient.

We should learn to wait when we want something.

For example, when we want a toy we should wait for
our parents to buy it when they can.

10. Sharing.

We should let others use what we have. For example,

we should share food with our family, or a ruler or an
eraser with our friends at school


Social Studies Summary Grade 2



Family rules

There are things that we can or cannot do at home,

at school, or when we go out for dinner. Rules tell us
what we can or cannot do.


Every family has family rules.

Family rules teach us to be respectful to our parents

and to our brothers and sisters.

Family rules teach us to tell the truth, to be neat and

clean, to do our homework.

Each family can have different family rules but many

families share the same rules.

We keep our room clean and neat

We all have dinner together.

We do not shout at each other.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

School rules

When we are at school we follow the school rules.

School rules are very important because they help all
the students use their study time well.

We listen to our teachers.

We go back to the classroom when the bell rings.

We keep our desks clean.

We clean our plates when we finish lunch.

We stand straight for the flag ceremony.

We wear our school uniform at school.

Community rules

A community is a group of people living together.

Some communities are small, like a village; others are
very big, like a city


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Whenever we are in a public place walking in the

street, watching a movie at the cinema or playing in
a park we have to follow community rules.


Community rules are important because they help the

people in the community.

We keep our community clean.

We use the zebra crossing to cross the street.

We do not damage our community.

We show respect to other people.

We turn our phones off when we are at the cinema.

We dress properly when we are in a public place.

Living among other people

We are all different.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Some people have blond hair, some people have

black hair.

Some people like bananas, and some people like


Some people are Buddhist, and some people are


We all live together and we need to learn to be

friends and live with each other.

This means that we should learn that we like different

things, we think about different things and we want
different things.

We should not get angry because other people dont

think like us or they dont like the same things we do.

Human rights

In our community there are things we can do and

things we cannot do.

We call the things we can do rights.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Everybody in the community has the same rights.

That means all the people in the community are


People have the right to do what they want, if it does

not make other people feel bad or hurt them.

If we hurt someone we should say Im sorry.

If someone helps us we should say Thank you.

We should always try to help other people.

We should not try to hurt other people.

Children have special rights.

Children have the right to a good life. This means

good food, a good school and a happy home.

Children have the right to a safe life. This means safe

places to play.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Children have the right to say what they think.

This means that children can tell others when they like
or dislike something.


A community is a group of people living, working or

studying together

A village is a small community.

A school is a small community.

A city is a large community.

A factory is a small community.

An office is a small community.

A country is a large community

Places in a community


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

In every community there are places people can go


In a village there are houses, a swimming pool and a


Swimming pool Playground


In a city there are schools, hospitals, parks, temples

and shopping centers.

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A school A hospital A temple A park

shopping center A police station

Participating in community activities

When we live in a community we should do things

together and help each other.

When we help each other we help the whole community.

We can help keep the community clean.

We can help by taking care of public things.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

We can help by making friends with other people in

the community.

We can help by learning about what is happening

in the community.

People in the community

There are many different people in a community.

Some people sell things to the other people in the


Some people help others when they are sick.

Some people make sure that there are no traffic


Some people teach other people.

Some people are doctors and nurses.

They work in hospitals and clinics


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Some people have shops where we can buy what we

need. They are shopkeepers.

Some people build houses, apartments and shopping

centers. They are construction workers.

Some people take others where they want to go. They

are taxi drivers.

Some people help us study. They are teachers. They

work in schools

Some people make things in factories. They are factory


Some people make sure the community is clean,

beautiful and safe.

In cities they are called mayors. In provinces they are

called governors.

In villages they are called village leaders.

Sometimes big communities are made up of smaller



Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Cities are made up of districts and each district can

have its own leaders

People in the school community

The Director gives work to the people in the school.

The Principal helps the Director and the teachers.

The Principal makes sure the school has what it needs

good books and good teachers.

The Assistants help the teachers and make sure the

students are well-behaved.

Thai Manners

Manners teach us how to behave when we meet or

talk to other people, how to dress properly, how to
walk and sit.

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Manners teach us how to be polite.

When we greet an adult who is sitting we put our hands


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

together and we touch the floor with our forehead.

When we greet an adult who is standing we put our

hands together and we touch our forehead with our

When we walk with an adult we stay behind them.

When we sit we keep our body straight and we keep

our hands in our lap.

When we see a friend we say Hello in Thai - Sawatdee

khap or Sawatdee kha.

When we stand we keep our body straight, our feet

close together and our hands crossed.

When we wait for our turn at a bank or in a supermarket

we do not jump the queue.

That means we do not walk in front of other people

who are waiting

We wear neat and clean clothes.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

We wear different clothes for different places.

We wear a school uniform at school.

We wear shorts and a T-shirt when we play football.

We wear pants and a shirt, or a skirt and a blouse

when we go out.

We wear black when we go to a funeral.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2




There are many things to do in a community.

Everybody helps the community by doing some work.

Some people work in farming. They are farmers.

They grow food. They grow rice, corn, beans and

other plants that we eat.

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They raise chickens, cows and pigs.

Some people make pots and baskets.

Some people work in industry.

They help make everyday things like cloth, pencils,

paper and many other things that we need.

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Some people work in services.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

They dont make things but they help us.

Doctors and nurses help us when we are sick.

A hairdresser helps us when we need a haircut.

A teacher helps us understand the world.

Some people sell things. They trade things for money.

A shopkeeper sells the things that we need.

Some people bring things from other countries and sell

them in Thailand, or sell things made in Thailand to
other countries.

All occupations are important and no occupation is

more important than others.

Teacher Doctor Factory Worker Shopkeeper Soldier

Police officer plumber Firefighter Cashier

bank teller Builder farmer


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Income and expenses

Income means all the money that we make from

working. Working can be making things, helping other
people, trading or anything else we get money for.

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Family income

In a family the income is made up of fathers income,

mothers income and brothers or sisters income.

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Expenses are all the money we spend.

We spend money on food.

We spend money on transportation.

We spend money on clothes.

We spend money on medicine.

We spend money on water.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

We spend money on electricity.

If the expenses are more than the income then we

spend more money than we make and we cannot
save money.

We also need to borrow money from other people.

Borrow means taking money from someone and giving

it back later.

If the expenses are the same as the income then we

spend as much money as we make. We still cannot
save money but we do not need to borrow from
other people, either.

If the expenses are less than the income then we

spend less money than we make. We can save money
and we do not need to borrow from other people.

If we want to spend less than we make we need to

buy only what we need. We also need to make a list
of everything we spend money on so we know how
much money we have left.



Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Saving money

When we have more money than we spend we can

save it. The money that is left is called savings. We
can keep the savings at home or we can put it in a

If we put the money in a bank, after a while the bank

will give us more money than we put in.

We call that extra money interest.

Buying and selling

A long time ago people did not use money.

They exchanged things for other things.

For example, they exchanged rice for fish, or fruit for


Sometimes people tried to sell something but they

did not want to buy anything. For example a farmer
wanted to sell his rice but he didnt need to buy
anything at that time.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

So people used pieces of gold or silver to buy and

sell things. Gold and silver could be used at any time.

Later gold and silver was replaced by paper money

and coins.

Buyers and sellers

Giving money in exchange for something is called


People who give money for something are called


All people are buyers. We all need to buy one thing

or another.

We need to buy food and water.

We need to buy a house.

We need to buy clothes.

Sometimes we need to go to the hospital and we

give the doctor money.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

When we go to the doctor we buy a service.

Giving something in exchange for money is called


People who give things for money are called sellers.

We all sell something. Some people sell food. Some

people sell clothes. Some people sell cars.

Many people do not sell things but they work in

places that make things, like factories. Factory workers
sell their work.

They give work and they get money.

Doctors, teachers and police officers sell a service.

They help people and they get money.

, ,

Producers and consumers

People who make things or give services are called



Social Studies Summary Grade 2

People who buy things or services are called consumers.


When we make things or we give a service we use


We make pencils in factories. When we make a pencil

we use wood and a mineral called graphite.

We also use water to clean the factory. We also need

people to make the pencils.

We also need money to buy the wood, the graphite,

the water and to pay the people who make the

, ,

Many factories make pencils. Some factories use

resources better and make less expensive pencils.

Some factories make pencils that work better. Some

factories make pencils that last longer.

When many factories try to sell pencils we have



Social Studies Summary Grade 2

When we buy something we need to choose the best.

We need to think about how much it costs and what

we will use it for.

We also need to choose something that will keep our

environment clean. For example we should choose a
reusable bag and not a plastic one.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2



Natural and man-made things on the way to school

Some things are natural. Plants and animals are natural.

The soil is natural. The stones and rocks are natural.
The water in rivers, lakes and oceans is natural. Clouds
are natural.

, ,

All these things are not made by people. Some of

these things like the rocks and the water have existed
for millions of years. Others are born and they grow
and die without any help from people.

, ,

Some things are man-made. Roads, cars and houses

are man-made. Chairs, tables and beds are manmade. Shoes and shirts are man-made. All these things
are made by people. These things are not born.

Maps show us where places are.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

The world map shows us where countries are and

how big they are.

Sometimes maps have letters and numbers to help

us find places. The numbers and letters are called

Map Symbols

When we draw maps and we want to show where

things are we can use symbols.

Day and Night

Earth spins around on its axis. Earth makes a complete

rotation in 24 hours. That is why the day is 24 hours


When it is day on one half of the world, it is night on

the other half.

Most people sleep at night. Some people work during

the night.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Most people work during the day. Some people sleep

during the day.


The Earth moves around the Sun.

The Earths axis is tilted.

Sometimes, some places on Earth get more light and


When a place gets more light and heat it is summer

in that place. Six months later the same place gets
less light and heat, and it is winter.

Between winter and summer we have spring and

In spring the weather is not very cold and not very

In spring people in England plant crops.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

In summer the weather is hot. Sometimes it rains.

In summer people in France go to the beach.

In autumn the weather is not very hot and not very

cold. It rains often in autumn.

In autumn people in China pick apples.

In winter the weather is cold. It snows in winter.

In winter people in the USA go skiing.

In the hot season people in Thailand celebrate Songkran.

In the cool season people in Thailand wear jackets.

In the rainy season people in Thailand wear raincoats

and use umbrellas.

Moon Phases

The Moon moves around the Earth every 28 days.



Social Studies Summary Grade 2

The Sun gives light to the Moon all the time.

The Moon is the shape of a ball so only half of it gets

light at a time.

When we look at the Moon sometimes we see only a

part of the Moon that gets light.

Sometimes we can see the whole part that gets light.

There are special words for each of the Moons phases.


When the moon moves around the Earth it attracts

everything on it - the water in the seas and oceans
and even the soil and makes everything move.

, ,

When the Moon attracts the water in the seas and

oceans it makes it move.

We can see how the Moon affects the water in the

oceans at the beach.


Social Studies Summary Grade 2

When the water moves away from the beach we

say low tide. When the water moves closer to the
beach we say high tide