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Health Education Summary Grade 2

UNIT 1

BODY DEVELOPMENT

We grow in weight.

We become heavier.

We grow in height.

We become taller.

We are growing all the time.


As we grow, we become taller, heavier, bigger and stronger.


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The more we grow, the more we can do difficult tasks.



We need to eat enough food.

We need to do exercises regularly.


We need to have enough rest and sleep.


Food, exercise, and rest can help us grow well.


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Health Education Summary Grade 2

UNIT 2

CARE FOR BODY ORGANS

The body has many organs.


Each organ is important for our lives.


The nose, mouth, eyes, ears, hands and feet are


examples of visible organs.

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They help us to know about the outside world.


We need to take care of these organs.


We can do a lot of things to look after ourselves.


We read in good light.


We watch TV from a safe distance.


We wipe our ears dry after bathing.


We do not put things into our ears.


We do not dig our noses.


We do not put things into our noses.


We wash our hands after using the toilet.


Health Education Summary Grade 2

We cut our fingernails regularly.


We wash our feet when they are dirty.


We cut our foot nails when they are long.


Teeth and tooth care

We have two sets of teeth in our life time.


The first set is our milk teeth.


The second set is our adult teeth or permanent teeth.


Milk teeth

1. The first set of teeth.


2. There are 20 teeth.



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3. The full set will grow about three years of age.

Permanent teeth

1. The second set of teeth.



2. There are 32 teeth.




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3. They replace the milk teeth.

4. The full set will grow about 17 years of age.


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Our milk teeth start to fall out when we are about 6


years old.

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Health Education Summary Grade 2

When any milk teeth fall out, the new permanent


teeth will grow in their place.

Our permanent teeth should last as long as we live.


If we lose any adult teeth, no new one will grow in


their place.

How do we take care of our teeth?


Avoid sugary snacks.


Brush our teeth after every meal and before you sleep.

Chew only sugar free gum.


Rinse your mouth after having any sweets.


Hair care

Our hair should be clean and neat.


Wash our hair regularly.


Wash our hair with shampoo and water to keep it clean.


Wipe our hair after washing.


Brush or comb our hair to keep it neat.


Health Education Summary Grade 2

Hand and nail care


Hands must be clean


Wash our hands with soap.


Keep our nails short.


Stop biting our nails.


Feet and foot care

Feet need to be washed often.


Take care to dry our feet properly after washing or bathing.


Shoes protect our feet.


Shoes must fit properly.


Wear clean socks daily.


Clean socks smell nice.


Dirty socks smell awful.


Health Education Summary Grade 2

UNIT 3

GOOD HEALTH

Good health is the state of being well in the body


and mind, and free from disease.

We are fit to do particular job.


We have good relationship with friends.


We have something fixed in mind to be remembered.


Well being comes from good health.



To grow well and stay healthy.


We need to eat the right food and drink enough water.

Health Education Summary Grade 2

We exercise regularly.

We have enough rest and sleep.


Maintain our health.


Wash our hands before eating and after using the toilet.

Brush our teeth at least twice a day.


Shower at least twice a day.


Health Education Summary Grade 2

UNIT 4

FAMILY MEMBERS

People who live in the same home are members


of the family.

These members are different in sex, age ,and the


things they do.

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We need to be a good member of our family.


Grand father , uncle, father , brother, son the


male members in the family.

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Grand mother, aunt, mother, sister, daughter, - the


female members in the family.

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Health Education Summary Grade 2

UNIT 5

CLEANLINESS

We have to keep our body organs clean.


When we are dirty, we take a shower.


I clean my body with soap.


I shampoo my hair when it is dirty.


I use toothpaste when I brush my teeth.


I wash my feet after playing.


I wash my hands after using the toilet.


Keeping teeth clean


We need healthy teeth


To chew food properly,


To speak and sing clearly,


To make happy smiles.


Health Education Summary Grade 2

Brushing helps to keep our teeth and gums clean and


fresh.

We brush our teeth before going to bed.


We brush our teeth after every meal.


We use toothpaste when we brush our teeth.


Keeping our hands clean.


We do many things with our hands.


Sometimes, our hands are dirty.


Washing can make our hands clean.


We wash our hands before eating.


We wash our hands after using the toilet.


We wash our hands when they are dirty.


Keep our feet clean


We have two feet. (one left foot and one right foot)
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Health Education Summary Grade 2

Our feet should be clean.


We wash our feet when they are dirty and dry them
with a towel.

We wear shoes to protect our feet.


We must use the shoes that fit properly.


We wear socks to cover our feet.


Socks we used should be clean.


Clean socks smell nice.


Keep clothes clean


We wear clothes to protect our body.


We wear clothes to protect our body.


We should wear neat and clean clothes that fit us.


Washing machine is use for washing clothes.


We use electric iron to make clothes smooth and neat.

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Health Education Summary Grade 2

UNIT 6

EXERCISES AND REST

Exercise is important for health.


We exercise each day to stay healthy and become


stronger.

Here are some exercises we can do regularly.


Jogging jumping running swimming walking cycling


Playing a game of hide and seek playing football


playing table tennis

Regular exercise keeps us fit and healthy.

When we are tired, we have to take a rest.


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We need rest to get more energy.

There are many ways to take a rest.

Sitting on a chair or other seat.


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Health Education Summary Grade 2

Reading a comic book.

Listening to a play on the radio.


Sleeping.

Sleeping is the best rest. We should have enough rest


and sleep.

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Health Education Summary Grade 2

UNIT 7

FOOD

Food is essential for living things.


It helps us to grow, to gain energy, and to protect


ourselves from illness.

We should eat enough food to stay healthy and grow


well.

These are examples of body building food.


They help us to grow bigger and taller.


These are examples of food that give us energy.


They help us to work and play well.


These are examples of food that protect us against


illness.

They help us fight diseases and stay well.


Nutritious food

A variety of food contains the essential nutrients.


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Health Education Summary Grade 2

We have to eat food from all the food groups each


day.

There are three main food groups.


Food for growth


Food like meat, milk, egg and beans help us grow


and develop strong bones and muscles.

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Food for energy


Food like rice, bread and noodle give us energy to


do a lot of work.

Food for protection


Food such as fruits and vegetables


help protect us.

They help our bodies to work well so that we do not


fall sick so easily.

Nutritious foods food being valuable to the body.


Eating habits.

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Health Education Summary Grade 2

We need to eat a variety of food to help our bodies


grow well.

A balanced diet is made up of food from all three of


the main food groups.

Eating too much of any one kind of food is bad for


our bodies.

DO and DONT about eating habits.


Eat the right balance of foods.


Eat three meals daily, or take regular meals.


Eat only clean food.


Eat food that is mould.


Eat food that has been touched by flies or other


animals.

Eat food that has fallen off the plate.


Eat snacks too much.


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Health Education Summary Grade 2

UNIT 8

ACCIDENTS AND PREVENTION


Accidents can happen at any time and in any place


Some indoor accidents


Some outdoor accidents


Some accidents on the road


Some actions will lead to danger.


An accident can cause someone to be hurt or


something to be broken.

Accidents can happen through carelessness.


The best prevention for accidents is to be aware of


danger and to do activities with care.

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Science Summary Grade 2

UNIT 1

LIVING THINGS

There are many kinds of living things.


Plants are living things.


Animals are living things.


People are living things.


Even bacteria are living things.


What do plants need?


Plants, like other living things, need soil, air, water and
food to live.

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Plants also need sunlight to make their own food.


Without sunlight, plants cannot survive and will die.


Without water, plants cannot survive, either.


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Science Summary Grade 2

Some plants can grow without soil.


What do living things need?


?

Plants need water, food and air to live. Like plants,


other living things need water, food and air.

Animals need water, food and air to live. Without


water, food and air plants die.

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Without water, food and air animals die, too.


Humans (people) need water, food and air to live.


Without water, food and air ,people die.

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Where do living things find water?

Plants find water in the soil. A plants roots take the


water from the soil and move it up the stem to the
leaves.

Animals cannot take water from the soil but they can
move to find water.


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Science Summary Grade 2

Animals move to places where there is water, like


puddles, lakes and rivers.

Where do living things find food?

Plants make their own food. They use sunlight, air and
water to make food. Plants make their food in the
leaves.

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Animals move around to find food. Some animals eat


plants. Some animals eat other animals.

People eat plants and other animals. People raise


animals, like chickens, cows and pigs on farms.

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People grow plants, like rice and tomatoes, in fields


and gardens.

Heat can change the way plants grow.


If it is too cold or too hot many plants will die.


Some plants go to sleep when the weather too cold.


Some trees lose their leaves and stop growing in winter.



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Science Summary Grade 2

In hot places, like the desert, plants keep a lot of


water in their bodies.

The cactus keeps water in its stem, and it grows spines


so animals cannot eat it.

People and their environment.

People live in many different environments.


Some people live in cold environments.


Some people live in hot environments.


Some people live in cities.


Some people live in villages.


We feel pain every time we injure ourselves.


Our skin can feel if something is too hot, too cold or


too sharp.


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Science Summary Grade 2

What do people need to live and grow?


Just like plants and animals, people need air, food


and water to live and grow.

Without food, air and water people cannot live and


will die.

People also need clothes. People do not have fur to


help them stay warm when it is too cold.

People need plants to make houses, furniture and


paper.

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Science Summary Grade 2

UNIT 2

SOIL

The soil is the part of the earth where people live and
plants grow.

There is also soil at the bottom of the oceans and


seas.

What is in the soil?

The soil is made of 4 things:


45% of soil is minerals


45%

Minerals come from rocks that break into small bits


over many years.

Plants use some of the minerals in soil to grow.


5% of soil is organic matter


5%

Organic matter is made up of dead plants and animals.


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Science Summary Grade 2

When leaves fall off trees they become organic matter


in the soil.

When animals, like worms and bugs, die, their bodies


become organic matter in the soil.

Organic matter is also made up of living things like


insects, spiders, scorpions, mice, moles and worms.

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Silt is a type of soil. Silt feels smooth.


Silt is made of small bits of rock. Silt is smaller than


sand.

Clay is a type of soil. Clay feels smooth.


Clay is made of very small bits of rock. Clay is smaller


than silt.

Humus is a type of soil. Humus has a lot of organic


matter. Humus is good for growing plants. Humus is
dark brown or black.

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Science Summary Grade 2

UNIT 3

MATERIALS

Types of Materials and their Properties


When we make something we use materials.


When we make a chair we use wood.


When we make a key we use metal.


When we make a cup we use plastic.


When we make a plate we use clay.


There are many materials we can use to make things.


We use sand and rock to make houses.


We use metal to make cars.


We use cloth to make shirts.


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Science Summary Grade 2

We use glass to make windows.


We use paper to make books.


A lot of things are made up of more than one material.


A pencil is made of wood, metal, rubber and a special


rock called graphite or lead.

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Choosing Materials

When we want to make something we need to choose


a material.

When we choose a material we need to think of its


properties.

If we want to make a shirt we need a material that


is soft and light , so we choose cloth.


If we want to make a desk we need


a material that is strong, so we can
choose wood or metal.



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Science Summary Grade 2

UNIT 4

FORCES AND MOTION


Magnets

A magnet is something that attracts


things made of iron.

That means things made of iron will move toward the


magnet.

A magnet attracts paper clips.


A magnet does not attract erasers.


A magnet can attract another magnet.


......

All magnets have two poles, North(N) and


South (S).

Different (or unlike) poles of two magnets attract each


other.

Same(or like) poles of two magnets repel each other.


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Science Summary Grade 2

Why do magnets attract some things?


Around a magnet there is something we cannot see


called a magnetic field.

The magnetic field makes some objects move.


The magnetic field is strong close to the magnet, and


weak far from the magnet.

The Earth is like a big magnet.


The Earth has a magnetic field, too.


Just like any other magnet, Earth has a North Pole and
a South Pole. We can use this to find directions.

We use a compass to find directions.


A compass has a magnet in it. The North Pole of the


magnet is attracted to the South Pole of Earth.

Use of Magnets

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Science Summary Grade 2

Magnets are used in many things.


We use magnets in speakers.


We use magnets in refrigerators.


We use a magnet in a compass.


We use magnets to lift things.


We use magnets in bank cards.


We use magnets in phone cases.


Static Electricity

We can make things attract or repel each other in


another way.

When we rub the ruler we make something called


charges.

There are two kinds of charge: positive and negative


(a bit like the North and South poles of magnets).

: ( )
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Science Summary Grade 2

UNIT 5

ENERGY

What is energy?

Energy makes things move.


Energy changes things.

A car can move because it uses energy.


A computer works because it uses energy.


A fan moves because it uses energy.


Your food changes in the oven because the oven


uses energy.

Where does energy come from?

Anything that gives us energy is called a source of


energy.

The Sun gives us heat.


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Science Summary Grade 2

The Sun is a source of heat.


A stove gives us heat.


A stove is a source of heat.


A light bulb gives us light.


A light bulb is a source of light.


The Sun gives us light.


The Sun is a source of light.


A battery gives us electricity.


A battery is a source of electricity.


A power station gives us electricity.


A power station is a source of electricity.


Electricity

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Science Summary Grade 2

Electricity is a form of energy.


We use electricity every day.


We use electricity at home.


We use electricity at school.


We do not use electricity when we go out.


How do we use electricity inside a building?


Many things that use electricity need to be plugged
into a wall socket and turned on.

We can turn on or turn off the light from a switch.


Changing electricity into other forms of energy.


We always need to change electricity into other forms


of energy like light, heat or sound.

Sometimes we use electricity to make things move.


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Science Summary Grade 2

UNIT 6

SPACE

There are many stars in the Universe.


Stars are made of gas. Most stars are very big.


The Sun is a star. The Sun is made of gas.


The Sun is very hot. The temperature of the Sun is


about 5,500c at the surface and 15,000,000 c at the
center.

, 5,500
150,000,000

The temperature of your body is about 37C. The


temperature of a candle flame is about 1,000 C.

37 1,000

c stands for degrees


Celsius is a unit of measurement for how hot something
is.

The Sun is very big. The Sun is many times bigger than
Earth.

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Science Summary Grade 2

The Sun is very far from Earth. The Sun is about


150,000,000 km. from Earth.

150,000,000

Earth spins around its axis. Because of that we have


day and night.

Everything on Earth moves with it. Because of that it


looks like the Sun is moving in the sky.

In the morning we see the Sun rising in the East.


In the evening we see the Sun setting in the West.


Why is the Sun important?


The Sun is important to all the life on Earth.


Plants need the Sun to live.


Animals and people eat plants to live.


Animals and people breathe oxygen made by plants.



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Science Summary Grade 2

If there is no Sun there is no life on Earth.


The Sun gives us light and heat.


The Sun makes rain.


The heat from the Sun makes some of the water in


the oceans go up in the air and form clouds.

Clouds then move around and change into rain.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

UNIT 1

RELIGION

The importance of Buddhism

Most Thai people are Buddhist. Buddhism is important


because it teaches us to be better people.

A good Buddhist has a good heart


A good Buddhist is respectful and polite.


A good Buddhist goes to the temple often.


A good Buddhist celebrates special Buddhist days.


Religions of the world Buddhism


Buddhism comes from India.


A long time ago there was a prince called Siddhartha


Gautama.

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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

He was born in a palace but he left his home to learn


about the world.

He travelled for many years and taught a lot of people


about his ideas.

People called him Buddha.


Buddhists learn about Buddhism from books calles


Tripitaka.

Tripitaka means three baskets.


Along time ago the Buddhist teachings were written


on leaves and put in baskets.

Buddhism teaches us to be good.


Buddhism teaches us how to be happy by helping


others.

Buddhism teaches us how to be respectful and polite.


Buddhism teaches us how to be patient.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Buddhist Rituals

Buddhists give food to the monks in the morning.


Buddhists put flowers and burn incense at statues of


Buddha

Buddhists go to pray in temples.


Buddhists meditate.

Religions of the world Islam


Islam comes from Saudi Arabia.


About 1,500 years ago the Prophet Muhammad


helped write the holy book of Islam, the Quran.


1500

Muhammad taught the lessons of Islam to many


people in Arabia.

People who believe in Islam are called Muslims .


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Muslims believe in Allah. Allah is the Arabic word for


God.

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Islam teaches us to help the poor.

Islam teaches us to respect our parents.


Islam teaches us to have mercy.


Islam teaches us to be honest.


Islamic Rituals

Muslims pray five times every day.


When they pray they use a mat and they touch the
ground with their forehead.

For one month a year Muslims do not eat during the


day.

They also read the Quran and pray.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

This special month is called Ramadan.


Religions of the world Christianity


Christianity comes from Israel.


2,000 years ago a man named Jesus started teaching


people about helping each other.

2000

His students then started teaching other people.


Christians learn about Christianity from a book called


the Bible.

Christians believe that God made everything in the


Universe - the stars and the planets, the animals and
the plants, and even the people.

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Christianity teaches us to help each other.


Christianity teaches us to tell the truth.


Christianity teaches us to respect what other people


believe.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Christian Rituals

Many Christians go to church on Saturday or Sunday.


Most Christians are baptized.


When they are born, or, sometimes, later in life, a priest


will pour water on their heads in a special ceremony.

Religions of the world Hinduism


Hinduism comes from India.


People who believe in Hinduism are called


Hindus.

Some Hindus do not believe in any gods. Some hindus


believe in many gods.

Brahma Vishnu Shiva


Hindus use many books called Vedas to learn about


their religion.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

The word Veda means knowledge.


Hinduism teaches us to be patient.



Hinduism teaches us to respect other peoples ideas.

Hinduism teaches us to try to learn about the world.


Hindu Rituals

There are many Hindu rituals.


When Hindus get married the bride and the groom go


around a fire seven times.

The name of this ceremony is Saptapadi.


Doing good

All religions teach us to do good.


All religions teach us to help others.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

All religions teach us to be honest, to tell the truth and


to be patient.

All religions teach us that if we all help each other


then everybody will be happy.

Religious teachings.

1.Working together.

When we have something to do we all help. For


example, if we need to clean the classroom everybody
does a small part.
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2. Sacrificing

We should give to others something that we like for


ourselves. Sometimes we give money, sometimes we
give an object, like a toy.

3. Helping those in pain.


We should help any person or animals that is sad or


hurt.

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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

4. Thanking others for helping us.


We should thank others for their help and we should


feel that we want to help them, too.

5. Being disciplined

We should follow the rules at school and at home.

6. Respecting and keeping special days and activities.


We should learn about our special days and activities.


We should follow them and we should teach others


about them.

7. Learning

We should always want to know more about everything.


We should ask questions about everything.

8. Not wasting.

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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

We should not spend money unless we have to. We


should learn how to spend money well.

9. Being patient.

We should learn to wait when we want something.


For example, when we want a toy we should wait for
our parents to buy it when they can.

10. Sharing.

We should let others use what we have. For example,


we should share food with our family, or a ruler or an
eraser with our friends at school

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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

UNIT 2

CULTURE AND SOCIETY


Family rules

There are things that we can or cannot do at home,


at school, or when we go out for dinner. Rules tell us
what we can or cannot do.

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,

Every family has family rules.


Family rules teach us to be respectful to our parents


and to our brothers and sisters.

Family rules teach us to tell the truth, to be neat and


clean, to do our homework.

Each family can have different family rules but many


families share the same rules.

We keep our room clean and neat


We all have dinner together.


We do not shout at each other.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

School rules

When we are at school we follow the school rules.


School rules are very important because they help all
the students use their study time well.

We listen to our teachers.


We go back to the classroom when the bell rings.


We keep our desks clean.


We clean our plates when we finish lunch.


We stand straight for the flag ceremony.


We wear our school uniform at school.


Community rules

A community is a group of people living together.


Some communities are small, like a village; others are
very big, like a city



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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Whenever we are in a public place walking in the


street, watching a movie at the cinema or playing in
a park we have to follow community rules.

,
,

Community rules are important because they help the


people in the community.

We keep our community clean.


We use the zebra crossing to cross the street.


We do not damage our community.


We show respect to other people.


We turn our phones off when we are at the cinema.


We dress properly when we are in a public place.


Living among other people


We are all different.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Some people have blond hair, some people have


black hair.

Some people like bananas, and some people like


mangoes.

Some people are Buddhist, and some people are


Muslim.

We all live together and we need to learn to be


friends and live with each other.

This means that we should learn that we like different


things, we think about different things and we want
different things.

We should not get angry because other people dont


think like us or they dont like the same things we do.

Human rights

In our community there are things we can do and


things we cannot do.

We call the things we can do rights.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Everybody in the community has the same rights.


That means all the people in the community are


equal.

People have the right to do what they want, if it does


not make other people feel bad or hurt them.

If we hurt someone we should say Im sorry.


If someone helps us we should say Thank you.


We should always try to help other people.


We should not try to hurt other people.


Children have special rights.


Children have the right to a good life. This means


good food, a good school and a happy home.

Children have the right to a safe life. This means safe


places to play.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Children have the right to say what they think.


This means that children can tell others when they like
or dislike something.

Communities

A community is a group of people living, working or


studying together

A village is a small community.


A school is a small community.


A city is a large community.


A factory is a small community.


An office is a small community.


A country is a large community


Places in a community

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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

In every community there are places people can go


to.

In a village there are houses, a swimming pool and a


playground.

Swimming pool Playground


Houses

In a city there are schools, hospitals, parks, temples


and shopping centers.

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A school A hospital A temple A park


shopping center A police station

Participating in community activities


When we live in a community we should do things


together and help each other.

When we help each other we help the whole community.


We can help keep the community clean.


We can help by taking care of public things.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

We can help by making friends with other people in


the community.

We can help by learning about what is happening


in the community.

People in the community

There are many different people in a community.


Some people sell things to the other people in the


community.

Some people help others when they are sick.


Some people make sure that there are no traffic


problems.

Some people teach other people.


Some people are doctors and nurses.


They work in hospitals and clinics


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Some people have shops where we can buy what we


need. They are shopkeepers.

Some people build houses, apartments and shopping


centers. They are construction workers.

Some people take others where they want to go. They


are taxi drivers.

Some people help us study. They are teachers. They


work in schools

Some people make things in factories. They are factory


workers.

Some people make sure the community is clean,


beautiful and safe.

In cities they are called mayors. In provinces they are


called governors.

In villages they are called village leaders.


Sometimes big communities are made up of smaller


communities.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Cities are made up of districts and each district can


have its own leaders

People in the school community

The Director gives work to the people in the school.


The Principal helps the Director and the teachers.


The Principal makes sure the school has what it needs


good books and good teachers.

The Assistants help the teachers and make sure the


students are well-behaved.

Thai Manners

Manners teach us how to behave when we meet or


talk to other people, how to dress properly, how to
walk and sit.

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Manners teach us how to be polite.


When we greet an adult who is sitting we put our hands


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

together and we touch the floor with our forehead.


When we greet an adult who is standing we put our


hands together and we touch our forehead with our
fingers.

When we walk with an adult we stay behind them.


When we sit we keep our body straight and we keep


our hands in our lap.

When we see a friend we say Hello in Thai - Sawatdee


khap or Sawatdee kha.

When we stand we keep our body straight, our feet


close together and our hands crossed.

When we wait for our turn at a bank or in a supermarket


we do not jump the queue.

That means we do not walk in front of other people


who are waiting

We wear neat and clean clothes.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

We wear different clothes for different places.


We wear a school uniform at school.


We wear shorts and a T-shirt when we play football.


We wear pants and a shirt, or a skirt and a blouse


when we go out.

We wear black when we go to a funeral.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

UNIT 3

ECONOMICS

Occupations

There are many things to do in a community.


Everybody helps the community by doing some work.


Some people work in farming. They are farmers.


They grow food. They grow rice, corn, beans and


other plants that we eat.

, ,

They raise chickens, cows and pigs.


Some people make pots and baskets.


Some people work in industry.


They help make everyday things like cloth, pencils,


paper and many other things that we need.

, ,

Some people work in services.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

They dont make things but they help us.


Doctors and nurses help us when we are sick.


A hairdresser helps us when we need a haircut.


A teacher helps us understand the world.


Some people sell things. They trade things for money.


A shopkeeper sells the things that we need.


Some people bring things from other countries and sell


them in Thailand, or sell things made in Thailand to
other countries.

All occupations are important and no occupation is


more important than others.

Teacher Doctor Factory Worker Shopkeeper Soldier






Police officer plumber Firefighter Cashier




bank teller Builder farmer



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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Income and expenses


Income means all the money that we make from


working. Working can be making things, helping other
people, trading or anything else we get money for.

,
, ,

Family income

In a family the income is made up of fathers income,


mothers income and brothers or sisters income.

, ,

Expenses are all the money we spend.


We spend money on food.


We spend money on transportation.


We spend money on clothes.


We spend money on medicine.


We spend money on water.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

We spend money on electricity.


If the expenses are more than the income then we


spend more money than we make and we cannot
save money.

We also need to borrow money from other people.


Borrow means taking money from someone and giving


it back later.

If the expenses are the same as the income then we


spend as much money as we make. We still cannot
save money but we do not need to borrow from
other people, either.

If the expenses are less than the income then we


spend less money than we make. We can save money
and we do not need to borrow from other people.

If we want to spend less than we make we need to


buy only what we need. We also need to make a list
of everything we spend money on so we know how
much money we have left.

,

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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Saving money

When we have more money than we spend we can


save it. The money that is left is called savings. We
can keep the savings at home or we can put it in a
bank.

If we put the money in a bank, after a while the bank


will give us more money than we put in.

We call that extra money interest.


Buying and selling


A long time ago people did not use money.


They exchanged things for other things.


For example, they exchanged rice for fish, or fruit for


clothes.

Sometimes people tried to sell something but they


did not want to buy anything. For example a farmer
wanted to sell his rice but he didnt need to buy
anything at that time.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

So people used pieces of gold or silver to buy and


sell things. Gold and silver could be used at any time.

Later gold and silver was replaced by paper money


and coins.

Buyers and sellers


Giving money in exchange for something is called


buying.

People who give money for something are called


buyers.

All people are buyers. We all need to buy one thing


or another.

We need to buy food and water.


We need to buy a house.


We need to buy clothes.


Sometimes we need to go to the hospital and we


give the doctor money.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

When we go to the doctor we buy a service.


Giving something in exchange for money is called


selling.

People who give things for money are called sellers.


We all sell something. Some people sell food. Some


people sell clothes. Some people sell cars.

Many people do not sell things but they work in


places that make things, like factories. Factory workers
sell their work.

They give work and they get money.


Doctors, teachers and police officers sell a service.


They help people and they get money.

, ,

Producers and consumers


People who make things or give services are called


producers.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

People who buy things or services are called consumers.


Resources

When we make things or we give a service we use


resources.

We make pencils in factories. When we make a pencil


we use wood and a mineral called graphite.

We also use water to clean the factory. We also need


people to make the pencils.

We also need money to buy the wood, the graphite,


the water and to pay the people who make the
pencils.

, ,

Many factories make pencils. Some factories use


resources better and make less expensive pencils.

Some factories make pencils that work better. Some


factories make pencils that last longer.

When many factories try to sell pencils we have


competition.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

When we buy something we need to choose the best.


We need to think about how much it costs and what


we will use it for.

We also need to choose something that will keep our


environment clean. For example we should choose a
reusable bag and not a plastic one.

66

Social Studies Summary Grade 2

UNIT 4

GEOGRAPHY

Natural and man-made things on the way to school


Some things are natural. Plants and animals are natural.


The soil is natural. The stones and rocks are natural.
The water in rivers, lakes and oceans is natural. Clouds
are natural.


,
, ,

All these things are not made by people. Some of


these things like the rocks and the water have existed
for millions of years. Others are born and they grow
and die without any help from people.



, ,

Some things are man-made. Roads, cars and houses


are man-made. Chairs, tables and beds are manmade. Shoes and shirts are man-made. All these things
are made by people. These things are not born.
Maps

Maps show us where places are.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

The world map shows us where countries are and


how big they are.

Sometimes maps have letters and numbers to help


us find places. The numbers and letters are called
coordinates.

Map Symbols

When we draw maps and we want to show where


things are we can use symbols.

Day and Night


Earth spins around on its axis. Earth makes a complete


rotation in 24 hours. That is why the day is 24 hours
long.

24
24

When it is day on one half of the world, it is night on


the other half.

Most people sleep at night. Some people work during


the night.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

Most people work during the day. Some people sleep


during the day.

Seasons

The Earth moves around the Sun.


The Earths axis is tilted.


Sometimes, some places on Earth get more light and


heat.

When a place gets more light and heat it is summer


in that place. Six months later the same place gets
less light and heat, and it is winter.

Between winter and summer we have spring and


autumn.
In spring the weather is not very cold and not very
hot.

In spring people in England plant crops.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

In summer the weather is hot. Sometimes it rains.


In summer people in France go to the beach.


In autumn the weather is not very hot and not very


cold. It rains often in autumn.

In autumn people in China pick apples.


In winter the weather is cold. It snows in winter.


In winter people in the USA go skiing.


In the hot season people in Thailand celebrate Songkran.


In the cool season people in Thailand wear jackets.


In the rainy season people in Thailand wear raincoats


and use umbrellas.

Moon Phases

The Moon moves around the Earth every 28 days.


28

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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

The Sun gives light to the Moon all the time.


The Moon is the shape of a ball so only half of it gets


light at a time.

When we look at the Moon sometimes we see only a


part of the Moon that gets light.

Sometimes we can see the whole part that gets light.


There are special words for each of the Moons phases.


Tides

When the moon moves around the Earth it attracts


everything on it - the water in the seas and oceans
and even the soil and makes everything move.

, ,

When the Moon attracts the water in the seas and


oceans it makes it move.

We can see how the Moon affects the water in the


oceans at the beach.


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Social Studies Summary Grade 2

When the water moves away from the beach we


say low tide. When the water moves closer to the
beach we say high tide


72