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UNESCO-NIGERIA TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION REVITALISATION PROJECT-PHASE II

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY


C Ic A Ia B Ib

ELECTRICAL MACHIENS I I
COURSE CODE: EEC233

YEAR II- SEMESTER III THEORY


Version 1: December 2008

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Basic Principles of electric machines: ............................... keeW1 1.1 Introduction .........................................................................................1 1.2 Electro- mechanical energy convertion ........................................... 2 1.3 Alignment devices .................................................................................. 6 1.4 Interaction devices ................................................................................ 7 1.5 Induction devices ................................................................................... 7 1.6 Work Examples ....................................................................................... 8 1.7Electromagnets ...................................................................................... 11 1.8 Faraday's Law ........................................................................................ 12 1.9Lenz's Law ............................................................................................... 13 1.10 Rotating magnetic field ............................................................ Week2 1.11 Synchronous speed: .......................................................................... 14 Chapter 2 Three phase induction motor ....................................... Week3 2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................... 17 2.2 Construction of Induction Motor ...................................................... 18 2.2 The principle of operation of the Induction Motor ............. Week4 2.3 The slip ................................................................................................... 20 2.4 Name Plate............................................................................................. 22 Chapter 3: Synchronous Machine: ....................................................... keeW5 3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................... 18

3.2 Stator construction .............................................................................. 18 3.3 Rotor construction ............................................................................... 18 3.4 Principle of operation of the synchronous generator ................ 20 3.5 Principle of operation of the synchronous motor: ...................... 20 3.6 Excitation Methods .............................................................................. 21

Chapter4:Control & protection of electric motors ............................. keeW6 4.1 Need for Circuit Protection ............................................................... 22 4.2 Types of Overcurrent Protective Devices ............................. Week7
4.2.0 Protection and control devices............................................ Week8

4.2.1 Fuses .................................................................................................... 25 4.2.2 Circuit Breakers ................................................................................ 27 4.3 Control devices ............................................................................. Week9 4.3.1 Relay ................................................................................. 30 4.3.2 Contactors ....................................................................... 31 4.3.3Pushbuttons ............................................................Week10 4.3.4 Selector Switches ........................................................... 35 4.3.5 Indicator Lights .............................................................. 35 Chapter 5: Energy convertion ............................................................. keeW11 5.1 Electro-mechanical energy convertion .......................................... 37 5.1.1Major energy convertion principle ........................................ 38 5.2 Energy convertion ................................................................................ 39

5.3 Linked energy system ............................................................................ 40 5.4 Energy storage ...................................................................................... 41 5.5 Energy ballance ......................................................................... Week12 5..5.1 Block diagram of energy balance equation ......................... 43 5.6 Magnetic field energy and force ........................................... Week13 5.6.1 Magnetic field .............................................................................. 45 5.6.2 Magnetic circuit ......................................................................... 46 5.7 Magnetic field energy............................................................................ 47 5.8 Maxwell stress .................................................................................. 48 5.9 Energy density ........................................................................... Week14 5.10 Faraday's Lenz Law ............................................................................. 49 5.11 Energy Convertion ............................................................................. 50 5.11.1 Constant current ..................................................................... 51 5.11.2 Constant flux ........................................................................... 52 5.11.3 General Condition .................................................................. 53 5.11.4 Diffirencial foam ..................................................................... 54 5.12 Alignment force and torque; single excitation ....................Week15 5.11 Work examples ................................................................................... 56

5.11.3 General Condition

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines


1.1 Introduction

Week 1

It may be necessary to define what we mean by the term electrical machines. A machine is a device that does useful work in a predictable way according to some physical laws. It acts as a transducer, or convertors, accepting an input of energy in one physical from and transforming it, more or less effectively, into another. An electromagnetic machine, in the essential conversion process, uses energy in an intermediate magnetic form. As a motor the machine takes in electrical energy and converts it into mechanical work, such as driving a machine tool or a lift, or operating a loudspeaker. An electro-magnetic machine is usually reversible and cab, as a generator, producer electrical energy form some other kind, such as the mechanical energy of prime- movers or the a caustic energy of microphones and gramophone pickups. Electrical energy is versatile and controllable. Its special lie in that can be transfer continuously and economically from to place (Transmission), made widely available as a services (distribution), used in conveying intelligence (Telecommunication and data processing), and applied to indicate an supervise production systems (control, instrumentation and computation). It is readily converted into sound, light, heat and useful forms of energy. In particular it is easily converted to or from mechanical energy in the electromagnetic machines

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines


1.2 Electro-mechanical energy conversion 1.2.1 Principal of electrical machines

Week 1

The operation of electromagnetic mechanical devices can be explained in terms of basic principals concerned with i ii. The development of magneto-mechanical forces and The induction of emf (electromotive force) by the rate of change of the linkage.

Thus, electromagnetic energy conversion is based on three bask principles namely (i) induction (ii) interaction and (iii) alignment

1.

Principle of induction
It is known that when electrons are in motion, they produce a magnetic field. Conversely, when, a magnetic field embracing a conductor moves relative to the conductor, it produce a flow of electrons in the conductor. The phenomenon whereby on e.m.f and hence current (i.e flow of electrons) is induced in any conductor which is cut across or is cut by a magnetic flux is known as electromagnetic induction The induced emf E is given by (a) E = Nd OR (B) dt e = Bluw ..volts

Where N = number of turns of the coil = flux in webers linking the coil T = time in seconds

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines

Week 1

This is the equation for the induced emf when the magnetic flux moves relatively to the conductor. In equation 1.1(b), B = flux density in wb/m2 L = effective length of conductor in metre , U = velocity of the conductor in m/s And this is the equation for the induced emf when the conductor moves relatively to the flux. The induction principle is employed in devices such as induction motors generators, transformers, controlling instrument etc.

1.2.2 Sketchmatic explanation of the induction principle

Fig:1.1a. Voltage & Current induced in the secondary Fig: 1.1b Conductor stationary, while the circuit due to flux linkage with the primary winding. field moves (current will be induced on the galvanometer)

Fig: 1.1c Conductor moves, while the field stationary (current will be induced on the galvanometer)

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines

Week 1

Fig. 1.1 (a) shows an irobn- cored solenoid with a permanent magnetic place adjascent ot it. If the magnets position is changed from position CD to position AB, the flux linking with the coils of the solenoid will change, leading to an induced emf in the coil which can be detected by the sensitive galvanometer G. in this arrangement, the conductor (coil) i stationary whilst the filed (magnet) moves as in alternators i.e a.c generators. Fig 1.1 (b) shows a filed arrangement that is stationary while the conduct a-b is free to move about the vertical axis. An emf, detectable by galvanometer G, will be induced in the conductor as it cuts through the flux through the flux. This principle is employed in the construction of d.c. generator,. F ig 1.1(c) when a coil (Ni) is made to carry an alternative current (ii) it produces an alternative flux (g). if a second coil (N2) is now placed in a region whereby the alternative flux produced by the first coil links with the second coil, an emf ( usually of the some frequency) will be induced in the second coil. This is the principle of the transformer and the induction motors

2. Principle of interaction
An electric current flowing in a direction making an angle (preferably a right-angle) with a magnetic filed produced by another current ( or a magnet) experience a force fe, the relative direction being shown in Fig 1.2.

Fig: 1.2 Principle of interaction.

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines

Week 1

The force, fe, arises from the interaction of the flux (created by the current l flowing in the conductor with the flux produced by a second current or magnet. Since lines of flux do not cross, the two fluxes will realign. Resulting in a stronger fie ld one side. The conductor and weaker filed on t6he other side. The conductor then tends to move from the region of stronger field to the region of weaker filed. Employed in electric motors.

3. Principle of alignment
A pieces of ferromagnetic materials in a magnetic field experience of force urging it towards a region where the field is stronger, or tending to align it so as to shorten the magnetic flux path as shown in fig: 1.3

Fig: 1.3a Moving coil meter

Fig: 1.3b The force fe on shaped high permeability pieces in a field

Fig: 1.3c Polar attraction & repulsion on separately magnetized bodies

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines

Week 1

(a) (b) ( c) (d) (e)

Lifting magnet Relay Telephone

(f)

Actuator (g) (h) Electromagnetic pump Loudspeaker

Moving-iron indicator (i) Reluctance motor

Moving coil indicator (k) Industrial rotating machine

1.3

Alignment devices
(a) The lifting magnet: Attract ferromagnetic loads such as beams, plates, and scrapiron. (b) The relay: the coil current causes the armature to be attracted towards the cover against a spring load: Millions of such relays do useful work in automatic telephone exchanges, traffic light installation and simple control systems,. (c) The telephone receivers: has a ferromagnetic diaphragm attracted by a permanent magnet, the field is caused to fluctuated by the speech currents in the coil, so varying the deflection of the claptrap and producing sound waves in the air. (d) The moving- iron indicator, uses the force between the fixed and moving irons to deflect a pointed against a spring. (e) The Reluctance motor- the forces urge a displaced rotor in alignment with the magnetized stator. (f) The actuator-the current-carrying coil suck a displaced ferromagnetic plunger into a position of symmetry: this is a useful and forceful device.

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines


1.4 Interaction devices
(g)

Week 1

Electromagnetic pump: current passed through a conducting liquid in an enclosed channel forces the liquid to move by interaction with a magnetic cross field; liquid sodium-potassium or lithium can be pumped in thy way for the extraction of heat from a nuclear reactor.

(h)

Loudspeaker: alternating current in the coil flow in the radial magnet filed of the port magnet,. And the consequent movement of the attached diaphragm sets up sound waves. This is the same essential arrangement as a generator of mechanical vibrations

(i)

Moving coil indicator-current (normally direct) in the coil of the indirect develops a force in the radial permanent- magnet filed to move pointed against a control spring.

(k)

Industrial rotating machines: Current caused to flow in conductors the surface of a rotor, mounted within a magnetic stator develop interaction forces tending to turn the rotor.

1.5

Induced voltage devices


Recalling that a conductor moving or cutting magnetic lines of flux or that the flux moves relative to the conductor will proan induced voltage, the following devices employ the induced voltage arrangement. (i) The transformer- an alternating current flowing in the primary coil (winding) set up an alternating flux that links with the secondary coil inducing a voltage in the latter. (m) The generatopr-usually constructed like (k) but with the rotor mechanical energy (via the prime mover) will have emf induced in the stator coils. ( the stator is slotted to house conductors) 7

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines


(n)

Week 1

The induction motor- the stator usually carried one or htree phawindings whilst the rotor may have a similar arrangement of coil as the stator or just carry or alirmium bars. Electrical energy supplied to the stator windings produced a rotating magnetic field with cuts the rotor conductors and hence induced voltages in them. A complete rotor circult will have current flowing in the rotor conductors (caused by the induced voltage) and by interaction forces produced motion of the rotor.

1.6 Work Examples


Examples 1 A conductor carries a current of 800 A at right- angle to magnetic field having a density of 0.5wb/m2 calculated the force on a metre length of the conductor. Solution The force F is given by F = Bli = 0.5 X 1 X 800 = 400N Example 2 A four pole generator has a magnetic flux of 12 mnb /pole calculated the average value of the emf generated in one of the armature conductors while magnetic flux of one pole, if armature is driven at 900 r.p.m Solution When a conductor moves through the magnetic field of one pole, it cuts a magnetic flux of 12 x 10-3 wb. Time taken for a conductor to move through one revolution = 60 = 1 second 8 it is moving through the

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines


900 15

Week 1

Since the machine has 4 poles, time taken for a conductor to move through the field of one pole = x 1/15 = 1/60s :. Average emf generated in one conductor rate of change of flux = t = = 0.012 0.01667 = 0.72v 0.72v = 12 x 10-3 1/60

Example 4 A magnetic flux of 400 uwb passing through a coil of 1200 turns is reversed in 0.1s calculate the average emf induced in the coil. Solution The magnetic flux has to decrease form 400 uwb to zero and then increase to 400wwb in the reverse direction, hence the increase of flux is 400 (-400-400) uwb = -800 x 10-6 wb. :. Average emf induced in coil = (change in flux x No of turns) = Nd Time taken. Dt

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines

Week 1

1.7 Electromagnets
Anything with an electrical current running through it has a magnetic field. Figure1 shows different sources of magnetic field.

Figure1.4: Different sources of magnetic field The most common forms of electromagnets are the Solenoids .When the wire is shaped into a coil as shown in Figure1.1, all the individual flux lines produced by each section of wire join together to form one large magnetic field around the total coil. As with the permanent magnet, these flux lines leave the north of the coil and re-enter the coil at its south pole. The magnetic field of a wire coil is much greater and more localized than the magnetic field around the plain conductor before being formed into a coil. This magnetic field around the coil can be strengthened even more by placing a core of iron or similar metal in the center of the core. The metal core presents less resistance to the lines of flux than the air, thereby causing the field strength to increase. (This is exactly how a stator coil is made; a coil of wire with a steel core.) The advantage of a magnetic field which is produced by a current carrying coil of wire is that when the current is reversed in direction the poles of the magnetic-as shown in Figure1.2- field will switch positions since the lines of flux have changed direction. Without this magnetic phenomenon existing, the AC motor as we know it today would not exist.

10

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines

Week 1

Iron Core

Magnetic field Lines

S
The Current

Battery

Figure1.5: Reversing the polarity of the solenoid by reversing the current direction

1.8 Faraday's Law


Faradays law states whenever the magnetic flux linked with a circuit changes, an e.m.f. is always induced in it, or Whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux, an e.m.f. is induced in that conductor. The phenomenon of inducing a current by changing the magnetic field in a coil of wire is known as electromagnetic induction. Figure1.3 shows an electromagnet which is connected to an AC power source. Another electromagnet is placed above it. The second electromagnet is in a separate circuit. There is no physical connection between the two circuits. Voltage and current are zero in both circuits at Time1. At Time2 voltage and current are increasing in the bottom circuit

11

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines

Week 1

Time1

Time2

Time3

Figure 1.6: Experment showing the electromagnetic induction phenomena A magnetic field builds up in the bottom electromagnet. Lines of flux from the magnetic field building up in the bottom electromagnet cut across the top electromagnet. A voltage is induced in the top electromagnet and current flows through it. At Time 3 current flow has reached its peak. Maximum current is flowing in both circuits. The magnetic field around the coil continues to build up and collapse as the alternating current continues to increase and decrease. As the magnetic field moves through space, moving out from the coil as it builds up and back towards the coil as it collapses, lines of flux cut across the top coil. As current flows in the top electromagnet it creates its own magnetic field.

1.9 Lenz's Law


Lenz's law enables us to determine the direction of the induced current: "The direction of the induced current is such as to oppose the change causing it." The Figure 1.4a shows the north pole of a bar magnet approaching a solenoid. According to Lenz's law, the current which is thereby generated in the coil must cause an effect which opposes the approaching magnetic field. 12

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines

Week 1

N
Iron Core

Ammeter

N S

Figure1.7: Experiment demonstrating Lenz's law This is achieved if the direction of the induced current creates a north pole at the end of the solenoid closest to the approaching magnet, as the induced north pole tends to repel the approaching north pole. The Figure1.4b shows the north pole of a bar magnet withdrawing from a solenoid. According to Lenz's law, the current which is thereby generated in the coil must cause an effect which opposes the departing magnetic field. This is achieved if the direction of the induced current creates a south pole at the end of the solenoid closest to the departing magnet, as the induced south pole tends to attract the departing north pole

13

1.

Basic Principles of Electric Machines

Week Two

1.4 Rotating magnetic field


The three-phase induction motor also operates on the principle of a rotating magnetic field. The following discussion shows how the stator windings can be connected to a threephase ac input and have a resultant magnetic field that rotates. Figure 1.5 shows how the three phases are tied together in a Y-connected stator. The dot in each diagram indicates the common point of the Y-connection. You can see that the individual phase windings are equally spaced around the stator. This places the windings 120 apart.

C Ic

A Ia

B Ib

N
Figure 1.5:- Three-phase, Y-connected stator.

Using the left-hand rule the electromagnetic polarity of the poles can be determined at any given instant.

1.

Basic Principles of Electric Machines

Week Two

The results of this analysis are shown for voltage points 1 through 7 in figure 2. At point 1, the magnetic field in coils A is maximum with polarities as shown. At the same time, negative voltages are being felt in the B and C windings. These create weaker magnetic fields, which tend to aid the A field. At point 2, maximum negative voltage is being felt in the C windings. This creates a strong magnetic field which, in turn, is aided by the weaker fields in A and B. As each point on the voltage graph is analyzed, it can be seen that the resultant magnetic field is rotating in a clockwise direction. When the three-phase voltage completes one full cycle (point 7), the magnetic field has rotated through360.

1.

Basic Principles of Electric Machines


10

Week Two

-5

-10

Point1

Point2

Point3

Point4

Point 5

Point6

Point7

1. Basic Principles of Electric Machines


1.5 Synchronous speed:

Week 2

The speed of the rotating magnetic field is referred to as synchronous speed (Ns). Synchronous speed is equal to 120 times the frequency (f), divided by the number of poles (P).

Ns

120 f p

If the frequency of the applied power supply for the two-pole stator used in the previous example is 50 Hz, synchronous speed is 3000 RPM.
Ns 120 50 3000 RPM 2

The synchronous speed decreases as the number of poles increase. The following table shows the synchronous speed at 50 Hz for the corresponding number of poles. No of poles Synchronous speed 2 3000rpm 4 1500rpm 6 1000rpm 8 750rpm Table 1.1: Different speeds for different number of poles

2. Three phase induction motor

Week 3

2.1 Introduction
Three-phase AC induction motors are widely used in industrial and commercial applications. They are classified either as squirrel cage or wound-rotor motors. These motors are self-starting and use no capacitor, start winding, centrifugal switch or other starting device.

They produce medium to high degrees of starting torque. The power capabilities and efficiency in these motors range from medium to high compared to their single-phase counterparts.

Popular applications include grinders, lathes, drill presses, pumps, compressors, conveyors, also printing equipment, farm equipment, electronic cooling and other mechanical duty applications. Simple and rugged construction Low cost and minimum maintenance High reliability and sufficiently high efficiency since there is no losses in brush contacts or mechanical friction Needs no extra starting motor and need not be synchronized Need only one source of power

2.2 Construction of Induction Motor:


An Induction motor has basically two parts, Stator and Rotor. Also some of other parts were acknowledged in the following section

2. Three phase induction motor


2.2.1 Stator construction:

Week 3

Figure2.1: Diagram construction of the stator The stator is made up of several thin laminations of aluminum or cast iron. They are punched and clamped together to form a hollow cylinder (stator core) with slots as shown in Figure 2.1. Coils of insulated wires are inserted into these slots. The iron core on the figure has paper liner insulation placed in some of the slots. Each grouping of coils, together with the core it surrounds, forms an electromagnet (a pair of poles) on the application of AC supply. The number of poles of an AC induction motor depends on the internal connection of the stator windings. The stator windings are connected directly to the power source. Internally they are connected in such a way, that on applying AC supply, a rotating magnetic field is created

2.2.2 Rotor construction:


There are two main types 2

2. Three phase induction motor


Squirrel cage type Wound rotor

Week 3

2.2.2.1 Squirrel cage rotor: This rotor has a laminated iron core with slots(Figure2.2), and is mounted on a shaft. Aluminum bars are molded in the slots and the bars are short circuited with two end rings. The bars are skewed on a small rotor to reduce audible noise. Fins are placed on the ring that shorts the bars. These fins also work as a fan and improve cooling. Most motors use the squirrel-cage rotor because There are no commutators, slip rings or brushes. Hence this is a most rugged and maintenance-free construction.
Rotor bars) slightly skewed(

End ring

Figure2.2:Squriell cage rotor 2.2.2.2 Wound rotor:

2. Three phase induction motor


Wound Rotor Brush

Week 3

Slip Rings

External Rotor Resistances

Figure 2.3: Schemtic diagram showing Induction motor, wound rotor type The wound rotor or slip-ring induction motor differs from the squirrel-cage motor only in the rotor winding. The rotor winding consists of insulated coils, grouped to form definite polar areas of magnetic force having the same number of poles as the stator. The ends of these coils are brought out to slip-rings. By means of brushes, a variable resistance is placed across the rotor winding (Fig.2.3). By varying this resistance, the speed and torque of the motor is varied. The wound rotor motor is an excellent motor for use on applications that require an adjustable-varying speed (an adjustable speed that varies with load) and high starting torque.

Terminals

Slip rings

Bearings

Fan

Laminated core Coils

Shaft

Figure 2.4:Wound rotor 2.2.3 Enclosure Enclosure or the frame (Figure2.5) ,its main application to hold the parts together. also it Helps with heat dissipation. In some cases, protects internal 4

2. Three phase induction motor


fan blows air over the ribbed stator frame

Week 3

components from the environment. A cooling fan is attached to the shaft at the left-hand side. This

Figure2.5:Induction Motor enclosure

2.2.3

Bearings:

There are two main types, the sleeve bearings and ball bearings .Ball (Roller) Bearings (Figure2.6a) Support shaft in any position. Its Grease lubricated and required no maintenance The Sleeve Bearings(figure2.6b) are Standard on most motors. They are only used with horizontal shafts and its oil lubricated.

(a)
Figure2.6: a)Ball Bearings b)Sleeve bearings

(b) b

2.2.5 Conduit Box Point of connection of electrical power to the motors stator windings. 2.2.6 Eye Bolt Used to lift heavy motors with a hoist or crane to prevent motor damage, as it can be seen in the following figure.

2. Three phase induction motor

Week 3

Figure2.7: Sectional view of Induction Motor

2. Three phase induction motor


2.2 The principle of operation of the Induction Motor:

Week 4

The three-phase current with which the motor is supplied establishes a rotating magnetic field in the stator. This rotating magnetic field cuts the conductors in the rotor inducing voltages and causing currents to flow. These currents set up an opposite polarity field in the rotor(Lenz's law). The attraction between these opposite stator and rotor fields produces the torque which causes the rotor to rotate. This simply is how the squirrel-cage motor works

Figure2.8:The magnetic field created in the stator and the rooted in the squirrel cage induction motor

2.3 The Slip:


There must be a relative difference in speed between the rotor and the rotating magnetic field. If the rotor and the rotating magnetic field were turning at the same speed no relative motion would exist between the two, therefore no lines of flux would be cut, and no voltage would be induced in the rotor. The difference in speed is called slip. Slip is necessary to produce torque. Slip is dependent on load. An increase in load will cause the rotor to slow down or increase slip. A decrease in load will cause the rotor to speed up or decrease slip. Slip is expressed as a percentage and can be determined with the following formula.

Slip (%)

( Ns Nr ) 100 Ns
1

2. Three phase induction motor


Where Nr is the actual speed of the rotor

Week 4

For Example, a four-pole motor operated at 60Hz has a synchronous speed (Ns) of 1800 RPM. If the rotor speed at full load is 1765 RPM (Nr), then the slip will be calculated

Slip (%)

(1800 1765) 100 1.9% 1800

2.4 Name Plate:


It is essential that all motors have nameplates with certain information useful in the identification of the type of motor, The following Table explain the indication of each code used on the shown nameplate

Name Of Manufacturer
ORD. No. TYPE H.P. AMPS R.P.M DUTY CLASS INSUL. IN123456789 HIGH EFFICIENCY 42 40 1790 CONT F NEMA Design B FRAME
SERVICE FACTOR

286T 1.10 415 60 01/15/2003 95 3PH Y 4POLE

VOLTS HERTZ DATE NEMA NOM. EFF.

Address Of Manufacturer
Figure2.9:Typical Nameplate of an AC induction motor

Term
Volts HP Amps RPM Rated Supply voltage Rated motor output Rated full load current

Description

Rated full load speed of the motor


2

2. Three phase induction motor


Hertz Frame Duty Date Class Insulation NEMA Design Service factor NEMA Nom Efficiency PH Pole Rated supply frequency External dimensions based on NEMA Regulations

Week 4

Motor load condition ,either its continuities load, short time,etc Date of manufacturing Specifies the max. limit temperature of the winding Types of NEMA design, A,B,C etc Factor by which the motor can be overloaded beyond the full load. Motor efficiency at rated load

Number of phases Number of poles Motor safety standard

The connection either star or delta


Table 2.1:Explanation of the codes used on AC motor nameplates

3. Synchronous machine
3.1 Introduction:

Week 5

Synchronous motors are motors that always run at the same speed regardless of load. Synchronous motors are somewhat more complex than squirrel-cage and wound rotor motors and, hence, are more expensive. There is no slip in a synchronous motor, that is, the rotor always moves at exactly the same speed as the rotating stator field.. The machine consists of three main parts: Stator, which carries the three phase winding, Rotor, with one DC winding or permanent magnets Slip rings or excitation machine (exciter) (in case of electrical excitation).

Synchronous motors are used whenever exact speed must be maintained or for power factor correction. Synchronous motors are more expensive than other types for the lower horsepower ratings, but may possibly be more economical for 100 hp and larger ratings.

3.2 Stator construction:


The stator of a synchronous generator holds a three-phase winding where the individual phase windings are distributed 120 apart in space and is sometimes called the armature winding. The stator must be made of laminated iron sheets in order to reduce eddy currents.

3.3 Rotor construction:


The rotor holds a field winding,which is magnetized by a DC current( the field current). The rotating
Metal frame Laminated iron core with slots

field winding can be energized through a set of slip rings and brushes (external excitation), or from a diode-bridge mounted on the rotor (self-excited). The rectifier-bridge is fed from a shaft-mounted

Insulated copper bars are placed in the slots to form the three-phase winding

alternator, which is itself excited by the pilot exciter. In externally fed fields, the source can be a shaftdriven dc generator, a separately excited dc generator, or a solid-state rectifier. Several variations to these arrangements exist. There are two types of rotors: Salient-pole rotor (Fig.2) for low-speed machines (e.g.hydro-generators) Cylindrical rotor (Fig.3) for high-speed machines (e.g. turbo-generators). 1

3. Synchronous machine

Week 5

Rotor Field Winding

3-Phase Stator Winding

Brushes +

Slip Rings Cylindrical Pole Rotor Field current

a- Schematic diagram showing a cylindrical rotor of a synchronous machine


Steel retaining ring Shaft Shaft

Wedges DCcurrent current DC terminals terminals

b- cylindrical rotor of a synchronous machine Figure3.1: cylindrical rotor of a synchronous machine

3. Synchronous machine
Rotor Field Winding 3-Phase Stator Winding

Week 5

Brushes +

Slip Rings Salient Pole Rotor Field current

a- Schematic diagram showing a salient-pole rotor of a synchronous machine


Slip rings

Pole

Fan

DC excitation winding

b- salient-pole rotor of a synchronous machine Figure3.2: Salient-Pole rotor of a synchronous machine

3.4 Principle of operation of the synchronous generator:


When the 3phase rotor is rotated (by an external prime-mover) the rotating magnetic flux(induced by DC current) induces voltages in the stator windings. These voltages are sinusoidal with a magnitude that depends on the field current, and also differ by 120 in time and have a frequency determined by the angular velocity of the rotation.

3.5 Principle of operation of the synchronous motor:


The stator is supplied with three phase supply in order to develop a rotating magnetic field. Also the rotor is supplied with DC supply to produce constant

magnetic field. As a result of the interaction of these two fields, the rotor will start to move. However, the synchronous motor is not self started. Consequently, it usually equipped with squirrel cage windings that mounted on the pole faces of the synchronous motor rotor. These rotor windings 3

3. Synchronous machine

Week 5

are frequently referred to as damper or amortisseur windings. Thus, the synchronous motor starts as an induction motor. When the motor accelerates to near synchronizing speed (about 95% synchronous speed), DC current is introduced into the rotor field windings. This current creates constant polarity poles in the rotor, causing the motor to operate at synchronous speed as the rotor poles "lock" onto the rotating AC stator poles.

3.6 Excitation Methods


Two methods are commonly utilized for the application of the direct current (DC) field current to the rotor of a synchronous motor. Brush-type systems apply the output of a separate DC generator (exciter) to the slip rings of the rotor. Brushless excitation systems utilize an integral exciter and rotating rectifier assembly that eliminates the need for need for brushes and slip rings.

3.7 Method of Synchronization


There are three basic method of synchronizing two or more machine: . Bright lamp method . Dark lamp method . automatic method

3. Protection & control of electric motors


4.1 Need for Circuit Protection

Week 6

Current flow in a conductor always generates heat(Figure1). The greater the current flow, the hotter the conductor. Excess heat is damaging to electrical components. For that reason, conductors have a rated continuous current carrying capacity or ampacity. Overcurrent protection devices, such as circuit breakers, are used to protect conductors from excessive current flow. These protective devices are designed to keep the flow of current in a circuit at a safe level to prevent the circuit conductors from overheating.

Normal Current Flow

Excessive current Flow

Figure4. 1:The effect of current flowing in conductors overcurrent is defined as any current in excess of the rated current of equipment of a conductor. It may result from overload, short circuit, or ground fault

Overloads: An overload occurs when too many devices are operated on a single circuit, or a piece of electrical equipment is made to work harder than it is designed for. For example, a motor rated for 10 amps may draw 20, 30, or more amps in an overload condition.

3. Protection & control of electric motors

Week 6

Good Insulation

Damaged Insulation

Figure4. 2: Insulation of electric conductors Conductor Insulation Motors, of course, are not the only devices that require circuit protection for an overload condition. Every circuit requires some form of protection against overcurrent. Heat is one of the major causes of insulation failure of any electrical component. High levels of heat can cause the insulation to breakdown and deteriorated, exposing conductors (Figure4.2). Short Circuits When two bare conductors touch, a short circuit occurs (Figure4.3).

When a short circuit occurs, resistance drops to almost zero. Short circuit current can be thousands of times higher than normal operating current. The heat generated by this current will cause extensive damage to connected equipment and conductors. This dangerous current must be interrupted immediately when a short circuit occurs.

3. Protection & control of electric motors


Short Circuit conductor

Week 6

Insulation
Figure4. 3: Short circuit fault between two condu

4.Protection & control of electric motors


4.2 Types of Overcurrent Protective Devices

Week 7

Circuit protection would be unnecessary if overloads and short circuits could be eliminated. Unfortunately, overloads and short circuits do occur. To protect a circuit against these currents, a protective device must determine when a fault condition develops and automatically disconnect the electrical equipment from the voltage source. An overcurrent protection device must be able to recognize the difference between overcurrents and short circuits and respond in the proper way. Slight overcurrents can be allowed to continue for some period of time, but as the current magnitude increases, the protection device must open faster. Short circuits must be interrupted instantly. Several devices are available to accomplish this.

4.2.1 Fuses
A fuse is a one-shot device (Figure1). The heat produced by overcurrent causes the current carrying element to melt open, disconnecting the load from the source voltage. There are three types of fuses, namely Semi-enclosed (Rewireable) fuse Cartridge fuses High Breaking Capacity(HBC)
Fuse Cap Good Element Glass or Ceramic Body

Open Element

Figure 4.4: Plug fuse

4.2.1.1 Cartridge
The cartridge type have fuses which look similar to those you find in a standard household plug. This type is improvement of rewirable fuse type. It is main advantages, is easy to replace, would the totally 1

4.Protection & control of electric motors


enclosed and its current rating is very accurate

Week 7

4.2.1.2 HBC

Figure 4.5: A cartridge fuse and its holder

HBC stands for "high blow current (sometimes described as HRC = high rupture current). HBC fuses are designed not to explode when failing under currents many times their normal working current (e.g. 1500 amps in amp circuit). They are therefore to be preferred for the protection of main voltage circuits where the power source be capable of providing very high currents. HBC types can usually be recognized by being sand filled though they may a thick ceramic body.
Figure 4.5: A HBC fuse

a 10

may

have

4.2.1.3 Semi-enclosed(Rewireable) fuses

As the name indicates, the rewireable type have a fuse wire held at both ends by a small retaining screw. Once the fuse is blown, the fuse wire is the only pieces to be replaced. It is cheap, but replacing a wrong size of element can cause catastrophic consequences.

Figure 4.6: Rewireable fuses

4. Protection & control of electric motors

Week 8

Figure 4.7:Miniature circuit breakers with different poles

The problem with fuses is they only work once. Every time you blow a fuse, you have to replace it with a new one. A circuit breaker(Figure 4.7) does the same thing as a fuse .It opens a circuit as soon as current climbs to unsafe levels ,but you can use it over and over again. The basic circuit breaker consists of a simple switch,(see figure 4.8) connected to either a bimetallic strip or an electromagnet. The diagram below shows a typical electromagnet design.

Figure4.8: Cut view of a miniature circuit breaker

27

4. Protection & control of electric motors


circuit breakers generally employ a bimetal strip to

Week 8
sense overload

conditions(Figure4.9b). When sufficient overcurrent flows through the circuit breakers current path, heat build up causes the bimetal strip to bend. After bending a predetermined distance the bimetal strip makes contact with the tripper bar activating the trip mechanism.

A bimetal strip is made of two dissimilar metals bonded together(Figure4.8). The


two metals have different thermal expansion characteristics, so the bimetal bends when heated. As current rises, heat also rises. The hotter the bimetal becomes the more it bends, until the mechanism is released.
Material 1

}
Material2 Heat source

Bi-metal

Figure 4.8:The effect of heat on a bimetal strip

Short circuit protection is accomplished with an electromagnet (Figure4.8a). The electromagnet is connected in series with the overload bimetal strip. During normal current flow, or an overload, the magnetic field created by the electromagnet is not strong enough to attract the armature. When a short circuit current flows in the circuit, the magnetic field caused by the electromagnet attracts the electromagnets armature. The armature hits the tripper bar rotating it up and to the right. This releases the trip mechanism and operating mechanism, opening the contacts. Once the circuit breaker is tripped current no longer flows through the electromagnet and the armature is released. (See figure 4.9).

28

4.Protection & control of electric motors


Magnetic Circuit Breaker(a)
Current in Magnetic coil Current in

Week 8

Magnetic coil

Electrical contacts

Electrical contacts Current out Spring Latching mechanisim

Spring Latching mechanisim

Current out

Normal Conditions

Overload Conditions

Thermal-magnetic Circuit Breaker(b)


Magnetic coil Current in Magnetic coil

Electrical contacts Current out

Electrical contacts

Current in

Spring Latching mechanisim Spring Latching mechanisim

Current out

Normal Conditions

Overload Conditions

Figure4.9: The principle of operation of circuit breakers

29

4.Protection & control of electric motors


4.3 Control devices 4.3.1 Relay:
Iron Core Switch Relay Coil Battery

Week 9

Iron Core

Switch

Relay Coil

Contacts

Contacts

To Power Circuit

To Power Circuit

Relay Open

Relay Close Figure4.10:The principle of operation of the relay

The relay is a remotely controlled switch. In the diagram above, a power circuit contains a switch which is opened and closed by operation of a relay. The relay is activated by a magnetic core which is energised when a controlling switch is closed. As the core is energised, it lifts and closes a pair of contacts in a second circuit - usually a power circuit. The current required for the relay is usually much lower than that used for the power circuit so it can be provided by a battery In the left hand of figure4.10,the diagram shows the controlling switch is open, so the relay is de-energised and power circuit contacts are open. If the controlling switch is closed, as in the right hand diagram, the relay is therefore energised and its core magnet lifts to close the contacts in the power circuit.
Figure4.11: a relay

the

4.Protection & control of electric motors


4.3.2 Contactors:

Week 9

(a)
Figure4.12: a)Construction of a contactor ,b) A contactor

( b)

Figure4.12a shows the interior of a basic contactor. There are two circuits involved with the operation of a contactor, the control circuit and the power circuit. The control circuit is connected to the coil of an electromagnet, and the power circuit is connected to the stationary contacts. When the control circuit supplies power to the coil, a magnetic field is produced, magnetizing the electromagnet. The magnetic field attracts the armature to the magnet, which, in turn, closes the contacts. With the contacts closed, current flows through the power circuit from the line to the load. Figure(4.13) When current no longer flows through the control circuit, the electromagnet's coil is deenergized, the magnetic field collapses, and the movable contacts open under spring pressure.

4.Protection & control of electric motors

Week 9

Figure4.13:Principle of operation of the contactor

4.3.2.1 Overload relays


Overload relays (Figure4.14)are designed to meet the special protective needs of motor control circuits. Overload relays allow harmless temporary overloads that occur when a motor starts. Overload relays trip and disconnect power to the motor if an overload condition persists. Overload relays can be reset after the overload condition has been corrected.

Figure4.14: Overload relay

4.Protection & control of electric motors

Week 9

4.3.2.2 Contactors and Overload Relays


Contactors are used to control power in a variety of applications. When used in motorcontrol applications, contactors can only start and stop the motors. Contactors cannot sense when the motor is being overloaded and provide no overload protection. Most motor applications require overload protection, although some smaller motor, such as household garbage disposals, have overload protection built into the motor. Where overload protection is required, overload relays (such as the one shown here) provide such protection.

4.3.2.3 Motor Starter


Contactors and overload relays are separate control devices. When a contactor is combined with an overload relay, it is called a motor starter.Figure4.15

4.Protection & control of electric motors


4.3.3Pushbuttons

Week 10

A pushbutton is a control device used to manually open and close a set of contacts. Pushbuttons may be illuminated or non-illuminated and are available in a variety of configurations and actuator colors.

Figure 4.16: Different types of pushbuttons

i) Normally Open Pushbuttons


Pushbuttons are used in control circuits to perform various functions such as starting and stopping a motor. A typical pushbutton uses an operating plunger, a return spring, and one set of contacts. This illustration shows a pushbutton with normally open contacts. Pressing the button causes the contacts to close (figure4.17). This pushbutton has momentary contacts which means that the contacts will open when the pushbutton is released.

ii) Normally Closed Pushbuttons


Pushbuttons with normally closed contacts, such as the one shown here, are also used in control circuits. The contacts remain in the closed position allowing current to flow through them until the pushbutton is pressed(figure4.17). Pressing the pushbutton opens the contacts and interrupts current flow. The pushbutton shown here also has momentary contacts; however, normally open and normally closed pushbuttons with maintained contacts are also available. .

4.Protection & control of electric motors

Week 10

Normally Open Pushbutton

Normally Close Pushbutton


Figure 4.17: The mechanism of the pushbuttons

4.3.4 Selector Switches


Selector switches are another means to manually open and close contacts and are commonly used to select one of two or more circuit possibilities. Selector switches may be maintained, spring return, or key operated and are available in twoposition, three-position, and four-position types. The basic difference between a pushbutton and a selector switch is the operator mechanism. A selector switch operator mechanism is rotated to open and close contacts.

4.Protection & control of electric motors

Week 10

Figure 4.18: Different types of selector switches

4.3.5 Indicator Lights:


Indicator lights, often referred to as pilot lights, provide a visual indication of a circuit's operating condition. An indicator light may be wired to turn on for any predetermined condition. Indicator lights are available in round designs with 16 mm, 22 mm, or 30 mm mounting diameters as well as in square designs.

Figure 4.19: Different types of push buttons switch

5. energy conversion
5.1 Electro-mechanical energy conversion

Week 11

Energy is converted to electrical form because of the advantages listed in the introductory part of the note. It is seldom available or used in electrical form, but converted into electrical form at the input to a system and back to non-electrical form at the output of a system. A typical example is the processing of energy from and hydro generating plant. It is converted into electrical form at the power plant. Transmitted through transmission lines and distribution lines, and converted to mechanical energy in an electric motor are the point use. A second example is in the conversion of the energy in sound pressure waves, and the transmission in electrical form from the taker to the listener in a telephone system. Few more energy conversion principles will be mentioned.

5.1.1 Major energy coversion principles


Energy conversion between electrical and non- electrical forms includes (i) (ii) (iii) Electrochemical eg battery Electrothermal eg. Thermocouple Photo electrical eg photo cell

5.2

Energy coversion
Theoretically, only a sourceless current is needed to develop a mechanical force magnetically. But in a machine the production of force is hardly enough: something must move in order to do useful work done demands a corresponding energy supply form somewhere. In a device energized only by a permanent magnet, the only energy source is the magnet itself. If the displacable part of the machine moves under force and does work, this can only be at the expense of the field energy of the permanent magnet, which must decrease. Such an

5. energy conversion

Week 11

arrangement has obvious limitations. It may also be inconvenient a permanent magnet lifting magnet, for example would not e capable of releasing its load. Where the magnetic affected by the movement is produced by a current circuit, changes of field energy have to be supplied electrically from a source. This implies the appearance in the circuit of an electromotive force e, which, with the current I, represents the delivery or absorption by the source of energy at the rate ei consider the elementary system of fig 2.1 A sources of voltage is connected to a device (e.g a secondary battery or a machine) in which the energyconversion process results in the appearance of an e.f.m. The effective resistance of the circuit is represented by R. if current flows into the circuit

form the positive terminal of the source, and the input power p = Vi Rl + el, has the direction as shown at (a). However if e >, the current reverses and we can now call it e. the power input from the now p = v (-i) = Rl2 + e (-l), which is negative, i.e it is an output from the device into the source, as at (b). to illustrate this simple but fundamental point, suppose that v = 10v d.c nad R = 1-2. then if e = 8vd.c. The current o = v-e R = 10-8 =2A 1

And the source provides an input power p = 10 x 2 = 20w The converting device accepts 8 x 2 W as a motor And power loss due to plissipation = 1 x RT2 = 4W Conversely, if e

12V, The current again is 10 -12 -2A (I.e reversed) The device produces 12 x 2 = 24 W as a generator of which RT2 22 x 1 = 4W is dissipated in R, and 10 x 20W is delivery as an output to the source. In the case of the electromagnetic machine, the relationship between the emf and the magnetic field is obtained from the faraday induction law (which had been mentioned in 1.1)

5. energy conversion
5.3 Linked energy systems

Week 11

An electromechanical machine forms a coverting link between an electrical energy system ( such as a main power supply network) and a mechanical one (such as a prime- mover or a train). In action a machine is not an isolated things, but has a behavious strongly influenced by its terminal systems. A relay, for instance, will be affected if its operating battery becomes discharged; a loudspeaker will behave very differently it enclosed in an evacuated vessels with the air loading thus removed; a hydro electric generator, suddenly shortcircuited, will react severely on the turbine and pipe-line. A machine can, of course, be studies initially in isolation, but the engineering interest

begins in fact when the complete linked system is considered. Again, the steady-state behavious is informative up to a point, but operation in responses to change i.e, the transient responses is fro move important and fundamental.

Fig 2.1 Electromechanical linked energy system System analysis can be complicated. Fig 2.2 shows diagrammatically a typical electric supply system feeding a mechanical load through an electromechanical machine. In some cases we might simplify the analysis by assuming, say, that the terminal voltage and frequency of the machine were constant. This is good enough if the machine is a small contactor but if it is a 25MW motor the effects of its behaviour reach for back through even an extensive supply system. Methods are available for evaluating such a complex for any

5. energy conversion

Week 11

given stimulus, such as the occurrence of a transmission- line fault or starting of a large motor.

5.4 Energy storage


We now consider how a flux is established and energy is stored in simple toroidal magnetic Circuit of cross sectional area A, path length L, and of material of constant permeability u, The flux is to be established by a current i, in a uniformly wound coil of N-turns. In order To concentrate on energy storage we neglect the coil resistance. With i initially zero, let a Voltage V, be applied to the coil terminals, what happen thereafter depends on Faradays Law of electromagnetic induction.

5. energy conversion
5.5 Energy balance

Week 12

Fig: 2.1 Electromechanical machine conventions A machine accepts energy in a variety of forms from its attached terminal systems. By conversion we take energy input as positive, so that an output is regarded as a negative input. The machine internally electrical energy- mechanical energy is a motor mechanical energy to electrical energy is a generator converts some energy, stores some, and dissipates the rest: these energies are positive if they increase with time. As the prime object of a machine is conversion to useful output, one of the terminal inputs will normally be negative. Recalling the principle of conservation of energy which states that energy is neither created nor destroyed and combining it with the laws of electric and magnetic fields, electric circuits and Newtonian mechanics, the energy balance can be expressed as:Total terminal energy input internal energy + Dissipation 2.1 for an electromechanical machine using a magnetic field as the means of conversion, the balance can be stated in more specific terms as electrical energy input + mechanical energy input = stored magnetic field energy + stored mechanical energy + Dissipation

5. energy conversion

Week 12

Reckoned from an initial condition of zero energy, w = o.A comparable relation must apply to energy changes dw, and also to energy rate dw/dt i.e to power, P. in corresponding symbols these relations are total energy wf + ws + w Energy change dwe + dwm = dwf + dws + dw Energy rate Pe + pm = dwf + dws dt dt + 2.2(b) p 2.2(c) 2.2(a)

The rates of change of stored field energy wf and stored mechanical energy, ws, are left in differential form because there is always a practical limit to storage. A magnetic field can not grow in strength indefinitely when ferromagnetic materials is employed; and if the kinetic energy in a flywheel is continually increased, the speed must rise and the wheel may burst under centrifugal force. We shall now examine the electromechanical machine in more detail with fig 2.3. The machine links an electric source of voltages supplying a current; and a mechanical sources represented by a bar moving to positive directions, thus both vi and fmu are inputs ( The mechanical source could alternatively be a shaft rotated at angular speed wr by a tongue mm to give an input power mnwr ). The electrical end of the machine is precisely that of fig 2.1 (a), with opposing v. the mechanical end has the magnetically developed force fe opposing fm > fm it can reverse speed w so that the mechanical system is driven and absorbs a mechanical output. The behavior can now be summarized. With the machine operating in the steady state as a motor, the applied voltage u drive +I against e to give a total electrical power input pe = u(+e), of which the part ei is converted. The outcome of conversion is the force fe which drives the bar against fm to develop the mechanical input pm = fm (-u) which, being

5. energy conversion

Week 12

negative, is actually an output. With the machine as a generator; the bar is driven at speed u by the force fm to provide the mechanical input pm = fm ( +u), as a result which e now exceeds u and reverse the current to provide the negative electrical input (i.e output (i.e output) pe = u (-i) the sum of the inputs (pe +pm) must be rate of rise of internal energy storage plus the rate of energy dissipation. A real electromagnetic machine has fairly obvious points of attachment (e.g the electrical terminals and the shaft) by which it is connected to the electrical and mechanical sources to form a link between them. But it is very to concentrate source to from link between them. But it is very convenient attention on the conversion region enclosed by the chain- dotted line in fig 2.3, for it contains only the essential quantities e and i,. U and fe. Various losses, and the mechanical storage, are excluded so that attention can be directed on to the physical process if useful energy conversion by electromagnetic means outside the conversion region we can account for conduction and core losses associated with the electrical end and represented rough by the resistance R in fig 2.3, and friction and similar losses on the mechanical side. It is to be noted that the externally applied force fm is not necessarily equal to fe because there may be force-absorbing components of inertial and elasticity in the mechanical working parts of the machine itself, as well as internal friction. The machine has new been reduced to an analyzable form. Its behaviors under specified conditions involves the forces and movement of the mechanical parts, the voltages and current at the electrical terminals and processes of energy conversion and storage and dissipation going on inside. Evaluation is based on the well-established principles and laws summarized in the following table.

5. energy conversion
Part of system Electrical Quantities Voltage, current Principles Faraday-Lenz and Kirchhoff laws Conversion E.M.F current magnetic Magneto- mechanical Principles induction

Week 12

field,. Force, displacement Force, displacement speed Mechanical

and

thermal laws Newton law

5.5.1 Block diagram for energy balance equation


The energy balance equation is given by equation 2.2 as electrical energy input mechanical energy input = stored magnetic-=field energy + stored mechanical energy + dissipation The dissipation (energy lossess) arise from three main causes (ii) (ii) Part of electrical energy is converted directly to heat in the resistance of current path. Part of mechanical energy developed with the device is absorbed in friction ad windage and converted to heat. (iii) Part of the energy absorbed by the coupling field is converted to heat in magnetic core losses (for magnetic coupling ) or dielectric loss) for electric coupling). if we associate the various losses with the corresponding energies, equation 2.2 be written as Electrical energy Input minus Resistance losess mechanical energy = Output plus friction and windage losses + increase in energy stored in the coupling field plus associated losses

5. energy conversion

Week 12

Equation 2.3 is obtained ( for a motor) with the mechanical energy transferred to the R.H.S of the equality sign and neglecting the energy mechanical stored energy ( for a machine

without a flywheel and neglecting the mass of the shaft). If there is a flywheel, the stored mechanical energy is 1/2mu2 or mr2w2 Where m = V w r mass of flywheel = = = linear velocity of rotating wheel angular velocity of rotating wheel radius of flywheel

Equation 2.3 may be represented in the form of a block diagram as shown in fig 2.4 Fig 2.4 General representation of electromagnetic energy conversion. Fro a generator action, the positions of the electrical system and that or the mechanical system will be interchanged.

5. energy conversion
5.6 Magnetic field energy and forces

Week 13

In order to be able to analyse mathematically the electromechanical system that is completely described by the energy balance equation, we need to be able to determine qualitatively the energy of the magnetic field and the associated force.

5.6.1 Magnetic field


A magnetic field is a region of space in which certain physical effects occurs in particular the development of mechanical force. A pictorial model of the field can be made by drawing closed loops of magnetic flux, such that their direction and spacing at any point are a measure of the flux density. The magnetic circuit in the present context is composed partly of ferromagnetic material such as iron, and partly of an airgap. The iron serves to guide the flux in a desired path; the accessible. The lines in a flux plot have no real existence. In a given region a magnetic field may change direction, become weaker in some place and stronger in others. airgap is necessary to make useful magnetic effects readily

5.6.2 Magnetic circuit n/a


Engineers look upon magnetic flux (Weber) as produced by electric current. A current I develops around any path that links it a magneto motive force (M.M.F) F = I (ampere). The effect of a current can be multiplied. By coiling the electric circuit into N turns so that around a path linking all N turns the m.m.f is N times as great, giving F =- ampere- turn. The m.m.f is distributed along the path, to give along a path element of length dx the magnetic field intensity h (ampere-turn/ metre). The summation of Hdx around a single loop closed with F i.e F = Hdx = m.m.d.

5. energy conversion

Week 13

At any point, H gives rise to a flux density B = NH (tesla or Weber/m2) our Henry/meter] Flux summation of the flux density over the area available to the flux path given the total flux [ i.e i.e. BA. (Weber).-2.6 where A is the are of flux path. The law of the magnetic circuit relates the total flux to expression. = F =F Comparable to the law of electric circuit 2.7 S I = V R = v.g (ohms law) the mmf f through the

Where s

the total reluctance (ampere-turn per weber]

And = 1/s = total permeance [ weber per ampere-turn] For a path- length x of materials of absolute permeability U, and having a uniform crosssectional area A over which the density B is everywhere the same, the mmf f require = N x x = Hx..2.8 From equation 2.6, 2.7 and 2.8, F s F = mmf And the reluctance of the path S = And the 1/s UA/x For a succession of parts , x, y, z F = fx + fy + f2 + and S = SX + SY + SZ + 2.11 2.12 f/ = Hx 2.9 = x.2.10

If, however the parts are in parallel and share the flux F = fx =fy =fz and For fields in ferromagnetic materials U is very much greater, and the relative permeability Nr =u =Uo 4 /107 1/80000

5. energy conversion
Which means that H = Ub = 800000B For field ferromagnetic materials U is very much greater, Ad the relative permeability Ur = U Uo

Week 13

Since, usually Ur is large, then it is convenient ( it simplies analysis) to assume that the whole mmf is required for the excitation of the air gap i.e the whole of the field energy is stored in the air-gap

5.7

Magnetic field energy


With the assumption that the magnetic filed energy is concentrated within the air gap. It becomes easy to calculated the magnetic field energy. A magnet attract on iron bar. If the iron bar is light enough and the magnet filed is enough, the bar will be seen to move up to get attached to the magnet. The movement of the bar signifies that work is done, since the iron bar has mass and covered some distance (work done = force x distance). This means that the space that the file occupies (the field region) can demonstrated or has on attribute of force. And hence, the filed region must process some energy. If can be easily noticed that the force is strong when the air gap is short but rapidly diminishes as the air gap length is increased.

5.8 Maxwell stress


Fig 2.5 maxwell forces Maxwell formulated the concept that the forces is transmitted across the gap between a pair of magnetized surface as a result of two stresses. If at a point in the gap the flux density is B and the corresponding field intensity is H =B/U,. then there is a tensile stress of magnitude

5. energy conversion

Week 13

1.2 BH along the direction of a flux line and a compressive stress BH along all directions at right angles to a flux line. Fig 2.5 shows two iron bars forming part of magnetic circuit when, as at (a), the polar surfaces are close together, the flux is mainly concentrated between the surfaces. The density B is large, and so therefore is H, and BH represented a strong tensile force of attraction between the faces. Not all the flux is useful; some, of the leakage flux, exists at the sides of each bar. Flux crossing the boundary between air and a high permeable materials must enter or leave the boundary between air and a high permeable materials must enter or leave the boundary almost at right angles, so that the tensile stress due to faces. All the comprehensive stresses balance out by symmetry. In case (b), the greater reluctance of the long air gap reduces the total flux, the useful flux density of the pole faces is smaller while the leakage flux is much greater hence the forces of attraction between the pole faces is much less than in case (a) In most practical applications, the air gap is small enough to enable us assumes a uniform flux density over the polar area. i.e in the air gap.

5. energy conversion
5.9 ENERGY DENSITY
The Maxwell stress concept is another way of saying that the energy to the value

Week 14

BH is stored in a unity cube of the space occupied by = magnetic, thus BH is the energy density [weber (metre2) x (amper/metre] = volt second x ampere/cubic metre = Joule /cubic metre.

Fig 2.6 magnetic energy. Consider an air gap, initially unmagnetized. Apply a magnetic force to the gap, an increase of H from zero causes the flux density B = oH to increase proportionately, Fig 2.6(o). The energy (m 3 is [HdB, and for and values Bi and H1 the final energy density (shaded area) is clearly B 1H1 . The some summation applies to a filed set up by in a ferromagnetic matter, with similar result Fig. 2.6 (b0, if the permeability U is constant; but for the same and density B1 a much smaller magnetizing force Hii is need and much less energy is stored. If the ferromagnetic materials is subjected to saturation, the stored energy is as shown in Fig 2.6(c0 and is calculated by piece-wise approximation to composite area of DOAD plus area of trapezium AB,CD.

5. energy conversion
5.10 FARADAY- LENZ LAW

Week 14

When the flux 4 associated with an electric increase in time at by amount d4, an emf, e = de/dt appears in the circuit. The minus sign implies that the direction of the emf is such that a current produced by it in the circuit opposes the change d4. Flux-linkage 4 (weber- turn] is the product of a magnetic flux and the number of turns through which it passes in the same direction. Since the current is proportional the flux, then flux likage = NQ

Since we are neglecting the coil resistance, then around the electric circuit loop formed by the voltage source and the N turns of coil on the toroid, the KVL gives u = +Dq/DT =-E. 2.17 The instantaneous electric power input to the coil P =vi = (dw/dt)i The total energy required to establish from zero a flux Q1 and a linkage Q1, (corresponding to a current mmf F1 =Ni) is Wf = (t pdt = (4 idQ =(Q fdQ Since the core of the toroid has constant permeability.

Which is represented by the shaded area in Fig, 2. 6 (d). this magnetically stored energy can be assumed to be uniformly distributed through the active volume Al of the core. Then because Q1 = QIN =NB,A and Nli =Fi =H il

The energy density = 4ili/Al =1/2 Bi Hi The total magnetic energy can be stated in several ways [f =1/24I =1/2QF =1/2Q2S =1/2 F2S =1/2Q / 1/2F2 =1/2Li2]

5. energy conversion
Also, since Q BA and F =Hl and H =B/U Then wf =1/2 QF =1/2 BAHL =1/2AL U But al = volume Wf = Vol. B2 2U

Week 14

Any expression for the energy of the field wf in equation 2.32 and 2.23 may be employed depending on the parameters given.

5.11 ENERGY CONVERSION

Fig. 2.7 Energy change with position Fig 2.7 (a) shows airgap region and existing coil of a magnetic circuit, the ferromagnetic core of which has a high. Permeability, the plane parallel polar faces. Have an area A and are spaced x apart. The n-turn coil carrying current I magnetic the system. The problem is to find the magnetic force of alteraction between the polar faces. In the comparable system Fig 2.7 (b), with a rotatable part (rotor) port (stator), the problem is to find the tongue. Insight into the inteplay of energy can be obtained from a study of finite mobvements, say from an initial position (1) to afinal direction position (2). At (a0. this movement -x (i.e

5. energy conversion

Week 14

against the positive direction of x) of the right-hand member are ( b) it is a rotation -Q of the rotor. The static 4/I relations for the two positions are shown in Fig 2.7 differ because the gap reluctance for (2) is less than for (1). Clearly the filed energy will differ too. How it changes depends on the conditions wholly in the gap, and the effect of coil resistance will initially be ignored.

(1)

CONSTANT CURRENT
Let the current be held constant at is throughout, as shown at Fig 2.7 (d). for

position the linkage is 41 and the filed energy is Fig 4. to reach position (2) a linkage 42 with constant current, an electrical energy input + we =(2-1 ) i0 must be fig 2.7 (d). the current sources. This is represented by the hatched area at Fig 2.7(d0. Now, the increase in field energy is WF =1/2 (2-1)io, which, comparing the expressions or the hatched areas at (d), is only one-half ofwe. What has happened to the other half? Writing the energy balance and excluding the loss and mechanical storage terms: we + wf i.e (42-41)io + wm =1/2 (2-1)io Hence wm =1/2 (2-1) io] As 41 the mechanical input is negative: it is in fact an output work (force x displacement). A precisely similar consideration gives for the rotary case (b) the output work (torgue x angular displacement). For constant current, therefore, the source provides we, of which one-half is taken as energy into the filed and the other half is converted into mechanical energy output.

5. energy conversion
(2) CONSTANT FLUX

Week 14

Let the flux be kept constant so that linkage is always . the condition implies that the current fall from Li to i1 to compensate for the rise in permeance in Fig (e). there is no electrical energy transfer between the source and system for with constant linkage there is no induced e.m.f to be balance. Hence we =o. but there is change of filed energy wf =1/20 (l2-l1) which is negative because l2 <l1. the energy balance is O +wm =1/2 0 (l2 l1) Hence wm =fm (-x) =1/2 0 (l2 l1) For constant flux, therefore, the mechanical work done comes from an equal reduction in filed energy.

(3)

GENERAL CONDITION
In a practical device neither of condition (1) and (2) is likely to apply consistently. The transition will follow some arbitrary contour, such as that in Fig 2.7 (f), with changes in both 4 and i. the energy balance is then some combination of cases (1) and (2). The change in field energy is the shaded area wf, and this will correspond, as before in magnitude to the mechanical energy wm even, if owing to saturation effect, the Q/I relation is non- linear, they are wf can still be found by graphical integration. Ni any case, wf, x wf,

The mean force

fm mm

2.28

The mean torgue

2.29

5. energy conversion
(4) DIFFENTIAL FORM

Week 14

IF AND Q are reduced to the infinitesimal differentials dx and dq, the force and torgue are obtained for a single position x or Q. Then Force, fm torgue, mm = = dwf dx dwf dQ 2.30 2.31

5. energy conversion
5.12 ALIGNMENT FORCE AND TORQUE: SINGLE EXCITATION

Week 15

Fig: 2.8 Reluctance motor The reluctance motor shown in figure above depend on the tendency of the rotor to Align itself magnetically with the stator. A flux plot for the machine shows that, provided there is ad equate ove4rlop, all the active flux and all the field energy can be assumed to occupy the overlap regions. The active gap volume changes with angle Q between the two magnetic exes, and the torgue is d e f/dQ eqtn 2.31 using equation 2.22 a basis. An angular increase Dq others the active volume of each gap by - rlg dQ and the gap energy by -1/2 B2 Lr Dq/Uo the torgue for the two poles is consequently me = dwe Dq = B2Lrlg uo 2.24 = 4 x10-7 (const.)

The minus sign indicating that the force acts to reduce Q. Example 1 With the rotor dimentions shown and a coil of 400 turns carrying 1.6A, calculated the torgue acting on the rotor.

5. energy conversion
Solution The mmf (F) = NI 400 X 1.6 => BX2lg Uo 640 X 4 X 190-7 2 x 10-3 = 0.40 tesla 0.43 = 640 A.t HX 21g

Week 15

Area fine B =UOH Then F = 640

:.

B =640 x UO 2lg

i.e The flux density in each 1mm gap B = 0.40T. :. me = -0.42 X 0.025 X0.03 X0.001 X107 = 0.0955N-M -B2l/g4

Example 2 The 4-l characteristics of a magnetic circuit are frequently described with straight segments as shown below. The act is considered linear up to pt. a and in saturation from a to 5 find the field energy Example 3 A dynamic phonograph pickup consists of a 20-turn coil length of each coil =1cm) moving normal to a field of B=0.2t. if the maximum allowable amplitude is 0.02mm, calculated the output voltage at 100-HZ and at 100Hz Solution

5. energy conversion

Week 15
length of

A dynamic phonograph pickup for vertical recording the effective conductor in moving coil is L = 20turns =20cm =0.2m

For a sinusoidal displacement of amplitude 2 x 10-5 m =0.02mm X (t) =Asinwt = 2x 10-5 sinwt

The velocity at 100HZ is d x /dt or U =dx =2 x10-5 x 2 x 103conwt m/s.

Neglecting internal impedance, the output voltage is V = e =Blu =0.2 x 0.2 x 4 x 10-2 coswt colt

The r.m.s value of output voltage is V = vmax = 0.2 x0.2 x 4 x10-2 2 2 = 0.0036v =3.6mv (ii) The velocity at 100HZ is U = dx =2 x 100-5 x 2 x 102 coswt m/s

And output voltage (neglecting internal impedance) is V =e bLu = 0.2 x 0.2 4 x 10-3 coswt volt = 0.2 x 0.2 x 4 x 10-3 2 0.00036v =0.36mv

And r.m.s value of output voltage

5. energy conversion
Example4.

Week 15

In a d.c machine, shown above, the armature is wound on a laminated iron cylinder 15cm long and 15cm in diameter. The N and S role faces are 15cm long (into the paper) and 10cm along the circumference the average flux density in the air gap under the pole faces is 1T. If there are 80 conductors in series between the brushes and the machine turning at N =1500rpm, calculated the no-load terminal voltage Solution For Ns conductor (no coils) in series, the average emf is E =NS wb =Ns wb P poles t s pole rev = Ns pn volts n 60 rev sec No 2 conductor in sec)

Where the flux per pole = BA = 1 x0. 15 x 0.1 = 0.015 wb. :. E = 80 x 0.015 x 2 x 1500 60 60 volts

Example 5.

5. energy conversion

Week 15

A magnetic circuit is completed through a soft iron rotor as shown in the figure above. Assuming (1) all the reluctance of the magnetic circuit is in the air gaps of length L (ii) There is no fringing so the effective area of each gap is the area

Derive on expression for the torgue as a function of angular position. Solution The total reluctance for two air gaps in series is R = 2l UOA (since Ur =1 for air) R = F =1L Q A

2L Urwq For an N-turn coil, the inductance is L = N = NF N2I I IR IR

N2 trw 2L

Since torgue =1/2 I2 dL = Uo N2rw d 2L The torgue is independent of under the assume conditions. Example 6

(a) Wiring diagram

(b)Steady state model

A commutator machine, with the wiring diagram and steady-state model showed above, is rated 5KW , 250V, 2000rmp. The armature resistance RA is 1. Drive from the electrical and at 2000rmp, the no-load powder input to the armature is IA = 1.2A at 250V with the field winding (RE =250) excited by IF =1A. Calculate the efficiency of this machine.

5. energy conversion
Solution

Week 15

In fig (a), input power IF 2RF = 12 X 250 =250W is required to provide the necessary magnetic flux. This is power lost and it appears as heat. In no-load steady operation, there is no output and no change is all loss [The armature cooper loss at no load is negligible (1.22 x 1=1.44w) and most of the input power at no- load goes to supply air, bearing brush friction, eddy cumenty and hystersis losses] the losses are associated with flux changes in the rotting armature core, are dependent on speed but are nearly independent of load. Hence, field loss And rotational loss = IF2RF = = IAV = = 250W = 20A IA2 Ra =202 x1 =400w 300w p =iv :.i = p1 v

At full-load of 5KW, IA =5000W And the armature copper loss The energy balance equation gives Mech. Energy :input i.e Mech. input + 250-5000 +

field elect input output

increase energy Field

energy stored converted to heat

= 0

field arm less less

rotat less

Mech. input + 250 -5000 = 0 + 250 +300 + 400 (field input is all loss and appears o n both sides) Mech. Input = 500 + 300 + 400 =5700W. Hence efficiency = output Input 5000 5700 + 250 = elect output mech. output + elect input 0.84. or 84%

5. energy conversion
Example 7

Week 15

In the relay shown above, the contacts are held open by the spring excerting a force of 0.1N . The gap length is 4mm when the contacts are open and 1mm when

closed. The coil of 5000 turns would on core 1cm2 in cross- section. Assuming 1) All reluctance is in a uniform air gap