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Zinc - Hastens Healing - Information on Deficiency, Benefits, Food Sources The human need for zinc is small, but its role in growth and well-being is enormous, starting even before birth. The entire body of a normal man weighing 70 kg may contain 1.4 to 2. g of !inc. "inc is #resent in small amounts in all tissues. The bones, teeth, and the #ancreas contain slightly higher amounts of !inc than other tissues. $hole blood contains about 0.7 mg%100 ml, while blood serum or #lasma contains 0.1 mg%100 ml. The im#ortance that !inc #layed towards the growth and well-being of the albino rat was demonstrated by $. &. Todd in 1' 4. This was confirmed by other research workers on mice and birds. (n 1' ', )eilin and *. (. +ann showed that !inc was a constituent of the en!yme carbonic anhydrase. "inc has also been found in some other, en!ymes, such as in the #ancreatic hormone insulin. Zinc is a bluish-white, metallic element. (t is #resent in the body mostly in combination with other constituents of the body. ,bout 20 to 0 #er cent of the !inc in foods is absorbed by the body through the small intestine. This absor#tion is decreased by fibres, calcium, co##er, #hytate, and #hos#hate in #ulses. (n contrast, amino acids and #e#tides increase !inc absor#tion. -early '' #er cent of the total !inc in the body is stored in cells and the remainder in the #lasma and e.tracellular fluids. Excretion of !inc occurs #rinci#ally through secretions of the #ancreas and intestine. Recommended Daily Allo ance - Zinc +en 1/ mg $omen 12 mg 0hildren 10 mg (nfants / mg Zinc Benefits - Functions in t!e Body "inc is needed for a !ealt!y s"in and !air, #ro#er !ealing of ounds, successful #regnancies, and male $irility. (t #lays a vital role in guarding against disease and infection. (t is needed to trans#ort vitamin , to the retina. ,lmost all the en!ymes in the body re1uire !inc for their functioning. (t has long been known that growth and se.ual maturity de#end on !inc amongst other things.

%ral doses of &inc sul#!ate may accelerate the healing of chronic skin ulcers and wounds. 2atients with these #roblems have a low content of !inc in the #lasma for many weeks des#ite corticosteroid thera#y. Acne. "inc seems to offer new #romise of hel# for acne #atients. (t has shown draillatic results in some cases. "inc should be taken in thera#eutic doses of /0 mg, three times a day. (t can be gradually reduced after a noticeable im#rovement. Eczema. "inc has also been found beneficial in the treatment of ec!ema. +any #eo#le with this skin #roblem have tried and benefitted from !inc su##lements. The average dose should be 0 mg a day. Prostate Disorders. ,dministration of !inc has been found to be hel#ful in cases of #rostate enlargement. ,bout 0 mg of this mineral should be taken daily in the treatment of these disorders.

Zinc Ric! Food Sources

'ereals, nuts and oilseeds are im#ortant sources of !inc. 3egetables and fruits contain only a small 1uantity of !inc. Zinc Deficiency Sym#toms "inc deficiency in the diet has been re#orted to be the cause of anaemia, retardation in gro t!, and delayed genital maturation. $hite s#ots on the fingernails means dietary "inc is not being absorbed. Taking a "inc multivitamin will usually take care of it. Zinc Side Effects - (recautions 4.cessive intake of !inc can cause loss of iron and co##er in t!e body. To.icity can result from inhalation of !inc fumes by welders. (nhalation of high concentrations of !inc o.ide fumes leads to an acute illness called metal fume fever or brass chills, characterised by fever, chills, e.cessive salivation, headaches, and a cough. )ISI*%R '%++E,*S on -Zinc Information. Deficiency, Benefits, Food Sources-. /E)I, said, ( am a 41yr old male and have suffered from acne on and off since my early 20s. $hen it flares u# ( a##ly a to#ical solution that contains !inc. The trade name is "ineret 5may be s#elt "yneret67 ,sk your doctor. (t is like a miracle cure88 The day after a##lying it, no new s#ots form, marks fade away and my skin becomes com#letely clear. ARTICLE#2

Introduction Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Zinc is also found in many cold lozenges and some over-the-counter drugs sold as cold remedies. Zinc is involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism. It is required for the catalytic activity of approximately 100 enzymes 1,2! and it plays a role in immune function ,4!, protein synthesis 4!, "ound healing /!, #$% synthesis 2,4!, and cell division 4!. Zinc also supports normal gro"th and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence &'(! and is required for proper sense of taste and smell '!. % daily inta)e of zinc is required to maintain a steady state because the body has no specialized zinc storage system 10!. Recommended Intakes Inta)e recommendations for zinc and other nutrients are provided in the #ietary *eference Inta)es +#*Is, developed by the -ood and $utrition .oard +-$., at the Institute of /edicine of the $ational %cademies +formerly $ational %cademy of 0ciences, 1!. #*I is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient inta)es of healthy people. 2hese values, "hich vary by age and gender 1!, include the follo"ing3

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Posted Date: 11@5@100( Updated: 11@11@1004 131< A/

*ecommended #ietary %llo"ance +*#%,3 average daily level of inta)e sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all +456'4(6, healthy individuals. %dequate Inta)e +%I,3 established "hen evidence is insufficient to develop an *#% and is set at a level assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy. 2olerable 7pper Inta)e 8evel +78,3 maximum daily inta)e unli)ely to cause adverse health effects 1!.

2he current *#%s for zinc are listed in 2able 1 2!. -or infants aged 0 to & months, the -$. established an %I for zinc that is equivalent to the mean inta)e of zinc in healthy, breastfed infants. Table 1: Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Zinc [2] Age .irth to & months 5 months to : years ; to ( years 4 to 1: years 1; to 1( years 14= years Male Fema Pregna Lactati le ncy on

1 mg9 1 mg9 : mg < mg ( mg : mg < mg ( mg 1: mg 11 mg 1; mg 11 mg

11 mg 4 mg 11 mg ( mg

9 %dequate Inta)e +%I, Sources of Zinc Food % "ide variety of foods contain zinc +2able 1, 2!. >ysters contain more zinc per serving than any other food, but red meat and poultry provide the ma?ority of zinc in the %merican diet. >ther good food sources


Vitamin and Mineral Chart )itamin0+ineral Sources Indication Efficacy 'laims

Fat Soluble )itamins can be stored in the body and need not be consumed daily. $hile it is difficult to =overdose= on them from ordinary sources, consuming mega doses of fat soluble vitamins, es#ecially , and :, can lead to a dangerous buildu# in the body. Abbre$iations. (>?(nternational >nits@ mg?milligrams@ mcg?micrograms. )itamin A Retinol +enA 000 (> $omenA 2 700 (> Biver, fortified +ilk 5&etinol form - see below for 0arotene sources.7 4ssential for eyes, skin and the #ro#er function of the immune system. Cel#s maintain hair, bones and teeth. Deficiency. -ight blindness@ reduced hair growth in children@ loss of a#etite@ dry, rough skin@ lowered resistance to infection@ dry eyes. %$erdose. Ceadaches@ blurred vision@ fatigue@ diarrhea@ irregular #eriods@ Doint and bone #ain@ dry, cracked skin@ rashes@ loss of hair@ vomiting, liver damage. Beta 'arotene 52ro-3itamin ,7 5;ee 3itamin ,7 0arrots, ;1uash, Eroccoli, <reen Beafy 3egetables ,ntio.idant. 0onverted to 3itamin , in the body. 5;ee 3itamin ,7 The antio.idant #ro#erties of this nutrient may be a factor in reducing the risk of certain forms of cancer. Deficiency. &ickets in children@ bone softening in adults@ osteo#orosis. %$erdose. 0alcium de#osits in organs@

)itamin D +enA 100 (> $omenA 100 (>

4gg Folk, +ilk, 4.#osure to sun enables body to make its own 3itamin :.

Cel#s build and maintain teeth and bones. 4nhances calcium absor#tion.

fragile bones@ renal and cardiovascular damage. )itamin E +enA '-10 mg $omenA G-7 mg 0orn or 0ottonseed 9il, Eutter, Erown &ice, ;oybean 9il, 3egetable oils such as 0orn, 0ottonseed or ;oybean, -uts, $heat <erm. ,ntio.idant. Cel#s form red blood cells, muscles and other tissues. 2reserves fatty acids. Deficiency. &are, seen #rimarily in #remature or low birth weight babies or children who do not absorb fat #ro#erly. 0auses nerve abnormalities. %$erdose. >nknown. )itamin / -one established. 4stimated at 0.0 mcg%kg <reen 3egetables, -eeded for normal Biver, also made blood clotting. by intestinal bacteria. Deficiency. :efective blood coagulation. %$erdose. *aundice in infants. 1ater Soluble )itamins are not stored in the body and should therefore be consumed daily. *!iamine )itamin B2 +enA 0.H - 1. mg $omenA 0.H mg ;unflower ;eeds, 2ork, whole and enriched <rains, dried Eeans. -ecessary for carbohydrate metabolism and muscle coordination. 2romotes #ro#er nerve function. Deficiency. ,n.iety@ hysteria@ de#ression@ muscle cram#s@ loss of a#etite@ in e.treme cases beriberi 5mostly in alcoholics7. %$erdose. >nknown, although e.cess of one E vitamin may cause deficiency of others. Ribofla$in )itamin B3 +enA 1. - 1.G mg $omenA 1.1 mg Biver, +ilk, ;#inach, enriched -oodles, +ushrooms. -eeded for metabolism of all foods and the release of energy to cells. 4ssential to the functioning of 3itamin EG and -iacin. Deficiency. 0racks and sores around the mouth and nose@ visual #roblems. %$erdose. ;ee 3itamin E1. Deficiency. (n e.treme cases, The antio.idant #ro#erties of this nutrient may be a factor in reducing the risk of certain forms of cancer.

,iacin )itamin B4

+ushrooms, Eran, -eeded in many Tuna, 0hicken, en!ymes that

+enA 1G-2 mg Eeef, 2eanuts, $omenA 14-1G mg enriched <rains. -iacin is converted to niacinamide in the body.

convert food to energy. Cel#s maintain a healthy digestive tract and nervous system. (n very large doses, lower cholesterol 5large doses should only be taken under the advice of a #hysician7. 0onverts food to molecular forms. -eeded to manufacture adrenal hormones and chemicals that regulate nerve function.

#ellagra, a disease characteri!ed by dermatitis, diarrhea and mouth sores. %$erdose. Cot flashes@ ulcers@ liver disorders@ high blood sugar and uric acid@ cardiac arrythmias.

(antot!enic Acid )itamin B5 +enA 2./ mg $omenA 2./ mg

,bundant in animal tissues, whole grain cereals and legumes.

Deficiency. >nclear in humans. %$erdose. ;ee 3itamin E1.

)itamin B6 (yridoxine +enA 1.H mg $omenA 1./ mg

,nimal #rotein -eeded for #rotein foods, ;#inach, metabolism and Eroccoli, Eananas. absor#tion, carbohydrate metabolism. Cel#s form red blood cells. 2romotes nerve and brain function. Euilds genetic material. Cel#s form red blood cells.

Deficiency. ,nemia, irritability, #atches of itchy, scaling skin@ convulsions. %$erdose. -erve damage.

)itamin B23 Iound almost 'yanocobalamin e.clusively in +enA 2 mcg animal #roducts. $omenA 2 mcg

Deficiency. 2ernicious anemia@ nerve damage. 5-oteA :eficiency rare e.ce#t in strict vegetarians, the elderly or #eo#le with malabsor#tion disorders.7 %$erdose. ;ee 3itamin E1.

Biotin G0 mcg

0heese, 4gg, -eeded for Folk, 0auliflower, metabolism of 2eanut Eutter glucose and formation of certain fatty acids. 4ssential for #ro#er body chemistry.

Deficiency. ;eborrhic dermatitis in infants. &are in adults, but can be induced by consuming large amounts of egg

whites - anore.ia, nausea, vomiting, dry scaly skin. %$erdose. ;ee 3itamin E1 Folic Acid 5Iolacin7 +enA 1H0-220 mg $omenA 1G0-1'0 mg <reen, leafy vegetables, 9range *uice, organ +eats, ;#routs. 4ssential for the manufacture of genetic material as well as #rotein metabolism and red blood cell formation. Deficiency. (m#aired cell division@ anemia@ diarrhea@ gastrointestinal u#sets. %$erdose. 0onvulsions in e#ile#tics. +ay mask #ernicious anemia 5see 3itamin E12 deficiency7. )itamin ' Ascorbic Acid +enA 40 mg $omenA 0 mg 0itrus Iruits, ;trawberries, Eroccoli, <reen 2e##ers ,ntio.idant. Cel#s bind cells together and strengthens blood vessel walls. Cel#s maintain healthy gums. ,ids in the absor#tion of iron. Deficiency. +uscle weakness, bleeding gums@ easy bruising. (n e.treme cases, scurvy. %$erdose. >nknown. ,de1uate amounts of this nutrient in the first stage of #regnancy may reduce the risks of neural tube birth defects.

The antio.idant #ro#erties of this nutrient may be a factor in reducing the risk of certain forms of cancer. +ay reduce the effects of the common cold.

+inerals in organic #roducts essential for body functions. 'alcium +enA H00 - 1000 mg $omenA 700-H00 mg +ilk, Fogurt, 0heese, ;ardines, Eroccoli, Turni# <reens. Cel#s build strong bones and teeth. 2romotes muscle and nerve function. Cel#s blood to clot. Cel#s activate en!ymes needed to convert food to energy. Deficiency. &ickets in children@ osteomalacia 5soft bones7 and osteo#orosis in adults. %$erdose. 0onsti#ation, )idney ;tones, calcium de#osits in body tissues. Cinders absor#tion of iron and other minerals.


0hicken Ereast,

$ith calcium builds Deficiency. 5&are7

+enA 1000 mg $omenA H/0 mg 5 -G g7

+ilk, Bentils, 4gg Folks, -uts, 0heese

bones and teeth. -eeded for metabolism, body chemistry, nerve and muscle function. ,ctivates en!ymes needed to release energy in body. -eeded by cells for genetic material and bone growth.

$eakness@ bone #ain@ ,nore.ia. %$erdose. Cinders bodyJs absor#tion of calcium. Deficiency. -ausea, irritability, muscle weakness@ twitching@ cram#s, cardiac arrhythmias. %$erdose. -ausea, vomiting, low blood #ressure, nervous system disorders. 1arning. 9verdose can be fatal to #eo#le with kidney disease.

+agnesium +enA 2 0 - 2/0 mg $omenA 200 - 210 mg

;#inach, Eeef <reens, Eroccoli, Tofu, 2o#corn, 0ashews, $heat Eran

(otassium +enA 40-H0 mmol $omenA 40-H0 mmol 5 -G g7

2eanuts, Eananas, 9range *uice, <reen Eeans, +ushrooms, 9ranges, Eroccoli, ;unflower ;eeds.

Cel#s maintain regular fluid balance. -eeded for nerve and muscle function.

Deficiency. -ausea, anore.ia, muscle weakness, irritability. 59ccurs most often in #ersons with #rolonged diarrhea.7 %$erdose. &are.

Iron 54lemental7 +enA H-10 mg $omenA H-1 mg

Biver, lean +eats, )idney beans, enriched Eread, &aisins. -oteA 9.alic acid in s#inach hinders iron absor#tion.

4ssential for making hemoglobin, the red substance in blood that acrries o.ygen to body cells.

Deficiency. ;kin #allor@ weakness@ fatigue@ headaches@ shortness of breath 5all signs of irondeficiency anemia7 %$erdose. To.ic buildu# in liver and in rare instances the heart.

Zinc +enA 12 mg $omenA ' mg

9ysters, ;hrim#, 0rab, Eeef, Turkey, whole <rains, 2eanuts,

-ecessary element in more than 100 en!ymes that are essential to

Deficiency. ;low healing of wounds@ loss of taste@ retarded


digestion and metabolism.

growth and delayed se.ual develo#ment in children. %$erdose. -ausea, vomiting@ diarrhea@ abdominal #ain@ gastric bleeding.

Selenium 0.0/-0.2 mg

,de1uate amounts are found in ;eafood, )idney, Biver and other meats. <rains and other ;eed contain varying amounts de#ending on the soil content. The richest sources of co##er in the diet are Biver and other organ +eats, ;eafoods, -uts and ;eeds.

,ntio.idant. (nteracts with 3itamin 4 to #revent breakdown of fats and body chemicals.

Deficiency. >nknown in humans. %$erdose. Iinger nail changes, hair loss.

'o##er 2- mg

0om#onent of several en!ymes, including on needed to make skin, hair and other #igments. ;timulates iron absor#tion. -eeded to make red blood cells, connective tissue and nerve fibres. -eeded for normal tendon and bone structure. 0om#onent of some en!ymes im#ortant in metabolism.

Deficiency. &are in adults. (nfants may develo# a ty#e of anemia marked by abnormal develo#ment of bones, nerve tissue and lungs. %$erdose. Biver disease@ vomiting@ diarrhea. Deficiency. >nknown in humans. %$erdose. <enerally results from inhalation of manganese containing dust or fumes, not dietary ingestion. Deficiency. >nknown in humans. %$erdose. <out-like Doint #ain.

+anganese 2-/ mg

Tea, whole <rains and 0ereal #roducts are the richest dietary sources. ,de1uate amounts are found in Iruits and 3egetables.

+olybdenum 0.1/-0. mg

The concentration in food varies de#ending on the environment in which the food was grown. +ilk,

0om#onent of en!ymes needed in metabolism. Cel#s regulate iron storage.


Eeans, Ereads and 0ereals contribute the highest amounts.