You are on page 1of 17

1

Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM


2
Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
Processing
Dr. HONDA Kiyoshi
honda@ait.ac.th
Space Technology Applications and Research, School of Advanced Technologies
Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
3
Introduction
Digital Elevation Models or DEMs are increasingly becoming
the focus of attention within the larger realm of digital
topographic data due to the fundamental nature of the data,
and knowledge to the data they represent. The precision of
DEM in simulating the true terrestrial parameters of elevation,
slope and aspect improved significantly the quality and caliber
of knowledge in numerous applications in earth, environmental
and engineering sciences.
Researches/applications where quality topographic data are
needed benefited so much on the data that DEMs have
provided in the past, and still, in the future as DEM accuracy
and acquisition techniques are further improved, and become
cheaply available for the scientific and engineering community.
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
4
Lecture Outline
1. Overview of DEM
Why DEM is important
DEM Applications
Structure of DEM
How to produce DEM
ASTER DEM
2. DEM Processing
Removing sinks
Calculation of slope
Slope direction (Aspect)
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
5
Lecture Outline
Grid/Flow Accumulation
Stream Order
3. Application to flood
Runoff models, Lumped, Distributed
Unit hydrograph and its applications
Rationale Approach for peak runoff rate
Curve Number (CN) Method for runoff volume
4. Discussions
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
6
1. Overview of DEM
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
7
What is a DEM?
A DEM provides a digital representation of a portion of the
earths surface terrain over a two dimensional surface
(UNEP/GRID)
A DEM is an ordered array of numbers that represents the
spatial distribution of elevations above some arbitrary
datums in the landscape (Meijerink et al., 1994)
A DEM is a digital file consisting of terrain elevations for
ground positions at regularly spaced horizontal intervals
(USGS definition)
Keyword: only elevation data
2
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
8
DEM vs. DTM
Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is a representation of terrain
information using discrete sampled digital values, like
slope, aspect, etc.
DEM only represents the elevation data.
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
9
Aerial Photograph
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
10
Sample of DEM
Contour Lines
Digital Elevation Model
Watershed
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
11
Why DEM is important?
DEM provides the basis in modeling and analysis of
spatio-topographic information.
INPUT INPUT OUTPUT OUTPUT SYSTEM SYSTEM INPUT INPUT OUTPUT OUTPUT SYSTEM SYSTEM
Q
T
MODEL
RESULTS
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
12
DEM Applications
Civil Engineering: cut and fill in road design, site planning,
volumetric calculations in dams and reservoirs etc.
Earth Sciences: for modeling, analysis and interpretation
of terrain morphology e.g. drainage basin delineation,
hydrological run-off modeling, geomorphological
simulation and classification, geological mapping etc.
Planning and resource management: site location,
support of image classification in RS, geometric and
radiometric correction in RS images, erosion potential
models, crop suitability studies, pollution dispersion
modeling etc.
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
13
Surveying and Photogrammetry: in building high quality
contours, used in survey or photogrammetric data capture
and subsequent editing, orthophoto production, data
quality assessment and topographic mapping.
Military Applications: intervisibility analysis for battlefield
management, 3-D display for weapons guidance systems
and flight simulation, and radar line of sight analyses
3
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
14
3D Example for Military or Airline
Industry Applications
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
15
Line model => describes the elevation of terrain by contours (stored
as digital line graphs, DGLs), the x,y coordinate pairs along each
contours of specified elevation (see example)
GRID structure=>elevation data are stored in an array of grids.
Data structure of a GRID shares much similarity with the file
structure of computers: as two dimensional array (every point can
be assign to a row and column). This similarity of storage
structures, the topological relations between the data points are
recorded implicitly. THIS streamlines information processing and
algorithm development (see example)
Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)=>a network of interconnected
triangles with irregularly spaced nodes or observation points with
x,y coordinates and z values. Advantage over GRID is its ability to
generate more information in areas of complex relief, and avoiding
the problem of gathering a lot o redundant data from areas of
simple relief (see example)
Structure of DEM
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
16
Contour Lines
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
17
Grid DEM
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
18
TIN DEM
Delauney Triangulation
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
19
How to produce DEM?
Existing Contour Map
Aerial Photograph
Satellite
Optical Remote Sensing
SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar (Interferometry)
Laser Scaner
4
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
20
Existing Contours
Procedure
Digitize
Scan
Label the contour lines
Assign contour ID
Label contour line by elevation
Create TIN: by triangulation
Create GRID/lattice: by interpolation, e.g. spline,
kriging etc.
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
21
Aerial Photograph
By photogrammetric methods based on stereo aerial
photography:
Using the relation between stereo parallax and object
elevation in the scene for orthogonal and central
projection imagery.
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
22
Relation between stereo parallax and object elevation
B
hB
h
p
1
p
2
A
B
pa
pb
hA
f
parallax p
p p
f B h h h
p
f B
h
a b
A B
:
1 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

=
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
23
Stereo aerial photograph
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
25
Optical Satellite Remote Sensing
Satellite STEREO PAIR
A stereo pair is a set of two images of the same terrain
acquired from two different view angles. The view angles are
optimally adjusted to get maximum overlap.The relief
displacement from the stereo pair is used to extract third
dimension . This is done through computational based parallax
error between the images. Therefore the images should not
have undergone any manipulations such as geometric
corrections. Height information derived from stereo pairs is
more detailed than that derived from contour map.
http://www.nrsa.gov.in/engnrsa/services/stereo1.html
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
26
5
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
27
http://www.nrsa.gov.in/engnrsa/services/stereo1.html
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
28
SAR - Interferometry
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
29
RADAR Measurement
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
30
RADAR Interferometry
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
31
Geometry of Interferometric SAR
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
32
Processing chain for generation of interferometric fringes and coherence
Example of interferometric fringes with average coherence 0.5.
Filtered interferometric fringes
Synthetic interferometric fringes
Rectified height model
Existing height model
http://www.geo.unizh.ch/rsl/fringe96/papers/herland/
6
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
33
Example, Mapping Mayon Volcano,
Albay, Philippines
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
34
Interferogram 1996
0 2
Flattened Interferogram 1996
0 2
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
35
Phase unwrapped image 1996 INSAR DEM with 160-meter cycle
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
36
3D image view using INSAR DEM
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
37
http://www-radar.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/index.html
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
38
7
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
39
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
40
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
41
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
43
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
44
Topographic data improvement
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
45
Somewhere in Japan
8
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
46
Somewhere in Japan
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
47
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
48
ASTER DEM
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
49
Product Description
The ASTER Digital Elevation Model is a product that is generated from a
pair of ASTER Level 1A images. This Level 1A input includes bands 3N
(nadir) and 3B (aft-viewing) from the Visible Near Infra-Red telescope's
along-track stereo data that is acquired in the spectral range of 0.78 to
0.86 microns. ASTER DEMs can be generated either with or without
ground control points (GCPs). An Absolute DEM is created with GCPs
that are supplied by an end-user who has requested the product. These
DEMs have an absolute horizontal and vertical accuracy of up to 7
meters with appropriate GCPs and up to 10 meters without GCPs.
Alternatively, a Relative DEM can also be generated without GCPs.
These DEMs can be used to derive absolute slope and slope aspect
which is good up to 5 degrees over a horizontal distance of over 100
meters. ASTER DEMs are expected to meet map accuracy standards for
scales from 1:50,000 to 1:250,000.
These ASTER DEMs are produced upon customer requests made
through the On Demand Processing Request form
(http://e0ins02u.ecs.nasa.gov:10800). ASTER DEMs are unique in that
they are the only on-demand product that are archived in ECS. You may
search and order all previously requested DEM products through the
EOS Data Gateway (http://edcimswww.cr.usgs.gov/pub/imswelcome/).
http://edcdaac.usgs.gov/aster/ast14dem.html
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
50
EDG Data Set Name
ASTER Digital Elevation Model
Granule Shortname
AST14DEM
Data Set Characteristics
Area = ~60 km x 60 km
Image Dimensions = 2500 rows x 2500 columns
Input Image Resolution: 15 meters
Output Image Resolution: 30 meters
File Size = ~25 MB
Data Type = 32-bit real
Valid Ranges = (-)2,147,483,648 to (+)2,147,483,648
Vgroup Data Fields = 1
http://edcdaac.usgs.gov/aster/ast14dem.html
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
51
Sample of ASTER DEM
Adapted from Terrainmap.com
9
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
52
2. DEM Processing
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
53
DEM Processing
Removing Sinks
Calculation of Slope
Slope Direction (Aspect)
GRID Accumulation (Flow Accumulation)
Stream Order
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
54
Sink
Sinks are potholes in DEM. They can be natural in occurrence such as
ravine etc in the landscape but most likely they are errors in interpolation
or data preparation/acquisition
SINK
Filled SINK
There are many algorithms available to fill the sink, e.g. Honda (1992)
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
55
Slope of a surface
x
y
z

( ) y 0, y, z =
r
( ) x x, 0, z =
r
( ) n a, b,1 =
r
( ) z 0, 0,1 =
r
n x 0
n y 0
=
=
r r
r r
a x z 0
b y z 0
z
a
x
z
b
y
=
=

z z
n , ,1
x y
| |
=
|

\ .
r
z n z n cos =
uurr r r
2 2 2
2 2
1 cos z z 1
tan 1 1
cos x y
z z
1
x y
| |
|
| | | | |
= = + +
| | |
\ . \ . | | | | |
+ +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
2 2
z n 1
cos
z n
z z
1
x y

= =

| | | |
+ +
| |
\ . \ .
rur
uur r
2 2
2 2
2 2
z z
x y z z
1
x y
z z
1
x y
| |
| | | |
| +
| |
| | | \ . | | \ .
= + +
| | |
\ . \ . | | | | |
+ +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
THEREFORE
2 2
Surface
z z
Slope
x y
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
56
Slope
i h g
f e d
c b a
x
y
z
Slope in x
S
l
o
p
e

i
n

y
R
e
s
u
l
t
a
n
t

S
l
o
p
e
x
z
Slope
x

y
z
Slope
y

( ) ( )
2 2
R x y
Slope Slope Slope = +
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
57
18 24 20
25 30 22
25 20 10
For 3 x 3 pixels, the slope at the center pixel is calculated as:
z 25 10 25 22 18 20
/ 3 0.0889
x 60 60 60
| | | | | |
= + + =
` | | |

\ . \ . \ . )
30 m
z 10 20 20 24 25 18
/ 3 0.0389
y 60 60 60
| | | | | |
= + + =
` | | |

\ . \ . \ . )
( ) ( )
2 2
e
Slope 0.0889 0.0389 0.0967 = + =
10
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
58
Example of slope
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
59
Aspect
Aspect is expressed in degrees from north, clockwise, from 0 to 360. Due
north is 0, due east is 90, 180 is due south and 270 is due west. 361 is
used to define flat surfaces such as water bodies.

x
y
n
r

a
b
1
a x
tan
b y
x 180
tan
y

= =

| |
=
|

\ .
if x and y = 0, then the aspect is flat,
otherwise, aspect=180+ .

z
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
61
Slope/flow direction
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Determine the steepest descent from
the 8 possible directions
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
62
Example flow direction
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
63
Flow accumulation
7 1 2
5 1 1
1 2 1
watershed
Flow direction
vector
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
64
Example flow accumulation
11
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
65
Example of Stream Network
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
66
Example delineated watershed
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
67
Stream Order
Strahler Ordering
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
3
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
68
DEM Utilization Sample
Debris Flow Simulation
http://www.star.ait.ac.th/~honda
2. Global DEM Fly Through
http://mission.base.com/theearth/bot.html
3. Visualization
http://www.kashmir3d.com/index-e.html
http://www.visualizationsoftware.com/3dem.html
4. SRTM DEM
http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/
ftp://edcsgs9.cr.usgs.gov/pub/data/srtm/
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
69
2. Applications to Flood
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
71
Hydrologic Cycle
From Maidment (1993)
12
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
72
Hyetograph and hydrograph
From Chow et al. (1988)
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
73
INPUT INPUT OUTPUT OUTPUT SYSTEM SYSTEM INPUT INPUT OUTPUT OUTPUT SYSTEM SYSTEM
Q
T
MODEL
RESULTS
MODEL of a SYSTEM
RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODELS
Lumped Model
e.g. CN Method
Distributed Model
2D (e.g. Mike 21)
3D (e.g. Mike SHE)
average slope
average CN value
etc.
2D
3D
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
74
Advantages/Disadvantages
Lumped
- easy to calculate
- cant evaluate all possible
scenarios
Distributed
- powerful in scenario analyses e.g
setting of boundary conditions etc.
- computational time is high
- parameterization is difficult
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
75
Peak Runoff Rate
Rational Method
R
a
t
e

o
f

r
a
i
n
f
a
l
l

a
n
d

r
u
n
o
f
f

Time
Rainfall rate, i
D
I
Q
T
c
C=q/i
P
e
a
k

r
u
n
o
f
f

r
a
t
e

q 0.0028CiA =
q - the peak runoff rate, m
3
/s
C runoff coefficient
i rainfall intensity, mm/h
A watershed area, ha
0.77 0.385
c g
T 0.0195L S

=
T
c
time of concentration, min
L maximum length of flow, m
S
g
watershed gradient, m/m
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
76
Curve Number (CN) Method
R
a
i
n
f
a
l
l
Abstraction
Excess
rainfall
Runoff
f(CN)
CN=f(landuse, AMC)
P
I
a
F
a
S
P
e
Deep infiltration
P
e
= P I
a
F
a
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
77
Runoff Volume
P
r
e
c
i
p
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e
Time
I
a F
a
P
e
a e
a
F P
S P I
=

e a a
P P I F = + +
The hypothesis of the
SCS method is that the
ratios of the two actual
(F
a
, P
e
) and the potential
quantities (S, P-I
a
) are
equal
Continuity
Equation
P total precipitation
P
e
excess rainfall
I
a
initial abstraction
F
a
continuing abstraction
S potential maximum retention
SCS-CN Method
13
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
78
( )
2
a
e
a
P I
P
P I S

=
+
a
I 0.2S =
( )
2
a
e
P I
P
P 0.8S

=
+
Depth of Runoff
Therefore:
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
79
Graphical Solution of the SCS runoff Equation
CN=100
impervious and
water surfaces
G
o
o
d

F
o
r
e
s
t
U
r
b
a
n
1
0
0
%
Cumulative Rainfall (in)
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

d
i
r
e
c
t

R
u
n
o
f
f

(
i
n
)
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
80
Group A: Deep sand, deep loess, aggregated silts
Group B: Shallow loess, sandy loam
Group C: Clay loams, shallow sandy loam, soils low in organic
content and soils usually high in clay
Group D: Soils that swell significantly when wet, heavy plastic clays
and certain saline soils.
CN(II)
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
81
1000
S 10
CN(II)
=
(inches)
4.2CN(II)
CN(I)
10 0.058CN(II)
=

23CN(II)
CN(III)
10 0.13CN(II)
=
+
Total 5-day antecedent rainfall (in)
AMC Group Dormant Season Growing Season
I Less than 0.5 Less than 1.4
II 0.5-1.1 1.4-2.1
III Over 1.1 Over 2.1

Classification of antecedent moisture classes for the
SCS-CN method
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
82
DEM
Forest, 55%
CN=77
Agriculture,
30%
CN=88
Residential,
15%
CN=79
From RS
CN
Watershed
=80.6
S=(1000/80.6)-
10=2.41 inches
Precipitation=4.5 inches
P
e
=(4.5-
0.2*2.41)
2
/(4.5+0.8*2.41)
=2.51 inches
I
a
=0.2*2.41=0.482 inch
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
83
Time Distribution of SCS Abstraction
( )
a
a
a
S P I
F
P I S

=
+
a
P I
( )
2
a
2
a
dF S dP dt
dt P I S
=
+
Differentiating and noting that I
a
and S are constants
dP/dt rainfall intensity
14
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
84
Column 1
Time(h)
2
Cumulative
Rainfall, P
(in)
3
Cumulative
Abstractions
(in), Ia
4
Cumulative
Abstractions
(in), Fa
5
Cumulative
excess
rainfall,
Pe(in)
6
Excess
rainfall
hyetograph
(in)
0 0 0 - 0
0
1 0.20 0.20 - 0
0.06
2 0.90 0.50 0.34 0.06
0.12
3 1.27 0.50 0.59 0.18
0.58
4 2.31 0.50 1.05 0.76
1.83
5 4.65 0.50 1.56 2.59
0.56
6 5.29 0.50 1.64 3.15
0.06
7 5.36 0.50 1.65 3.21


CN=80, S=2.50, I
a
=0.5
All abstracted
( )
a
a
a
S P I
F
P I S

=
+
Col2-col3-col4
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
85
Unit Hydrograph
The unit hydrograph is the unit pulse response function
of a linear hydrologic system.
The unit hydrograph of a watershed is defined as the
direct runoff hydrograph (DRH) resulting from 1 inch
(usually taken as 1 cm in SI units) of excess rainfall
generated over the drainage area at a constant rate for
an effective duration.
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
86
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
87
Discrete Time Convolution Equation of a Linear
System
n M
n m n m 1
m 1
Q P U

+
=
=

Direct runoff
Pulse
(rainfall)
unit
hydrograph
ordinate
n index for time
m index for pulse
M no. of pulse
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
88
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
89
U
1
=Q
1
/P
1
U
2
=(Q
2
-P
2
U
1
)/P
1

ALSO
Unit hydrograph
ordinate
15
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
90
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Time (every 0.5 hr)
R
a
i
n
f
a
l
l
,

m
m
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
U
H
,

m
3
h
r
-
1
m
m
-
1

o
r

Q
,

m
3

s
-
1
Unit
hydrograph
Direct
runoff
hydrograph
Rainfall
pulse
Unit hydrograph application
3D Water Discharge Model
Water Discharge Model
Motion Equation of Water
Surface Information + DEM Processing
Forest Classification
Ground Water
Saturation
Red 12 hr
Green 18 hr
Blue 24 hr
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
96
Debris Flow Simulation
flx_118_91_saido_15sph.mov
River Saido h
Debris Flow
High Density
High Speed
High Power to destroy
everything ( houses, roads, bridges )
16
Mt. Mayon Volcano Comprehensive
Disaster Prevention Master Plan
GIS Data
Development for
Planner
Historical River
planform Change by
lava, pyroclastic flow,
lahar
Sediment Production
Estimation for river
structure planning
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
98
Lava Deposit of Mr. Mayon
(Pawa Burabod riverbed)
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
99
Estimation of Lava Deposit Height using SAR Interferometry
INSAR result Topographic difference
Volcanic Activity
INTRODUCTION
Lava flow Pyroclastic flow
Volcano Activity Map
Landscape photo
Monitoring During Eruption
Lava Location, Movement
Ground based digital image ->
continuous monitoring
3D View
3D Graphics
DEM
Ortho-view
3D view
Orthophoto from Ground Digital Camera Image
1st Image 2min, 2nd and later image 3sec.
METHODOLOGY (Rectification)
Skyline Matching
Rectified Image
Reference Edge
Overview of Skyline Matching
Reference
Original
Original Edge
Sobel Filter
Sobel Filter
17
METHODOLOGY (Rectification)
Reference
Rectified Image
Overlaid Reference and Rectified mage
Rectified Image
Shift X: -51 Shift Y: 111 Rotation: 1.4
Orthophoto from Ground Digital Camera Image
1st Image 2min, 2nd and later image 3sec.
Orthophoto from Thermography Image
(night time )
Advanced RS; Honda Kiyoshi; 2. DEM
106
CONCLUSION
DEM has numerous applications in research
and practice.
DEM from RS are potentially easier to
acquire and use for terrain modeling,
hydrological modeling etc.
Spatial Functions in GIS add more value to
DEM for modeling purposes.
Let us use DEM