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BABA HIRA SINGH BHATTAL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

A REPORT On

ELECTRICITY THEFT CONTROL USING RF


Submitted in partial fulfillment Of B.TECH (EE)

Submitted To: Er. H.S. Dhaliwal H.O.D (E.E)

Submitted by: Dheeraj umar Sin!h("###$#%&#'&%) (tpal Sin!h("###$#%&#''') Sha)hi umar("###$#%&#''&) Su)hant umar("###$#%&#''*) B. TECH (EE)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

+e would li,e to than, Er. H.S. Dhaliwal our -roje.t /uide for hi) .ontinuou) effort in helpin! u) de0elop our proje.t from the initial )ta!e) till .ompletion. Hi) o0erwhelmin! )upport and e1perti)e ha) been an e))ential dri0in! for.e for u) and ha) an immen)e )hare in the )u..e)) of our proje.t. 2r. Dipan)hu au)hal i) a per)on who ha) al)o played an e))ential role in thi) endea0or. 2r. au)hal i) )tudent of ECE who had helped u) in mi.ro.ontroller pro!ramin! and !uided u) throu!hout the )tep3wi)e !rowth of the proje.t. Hi) ,nowled!e in the field of .omputer )y)tem) )hed li!ht to many te.hni.alitie) and !a0e u) the ba.,3)upport we 0ery mu.h needed. +e are 0ery than,ful to him for all hi) time and patien.e with u). +e would al)o li,e to than, all our ele.tri.al fa.ulty for bein! 0ery )upporti0e and helpful in pro0idin! u) the e4uipment and te.hni.al )upport 4uinte))ential in e0ery di0i)ion of thi) proje.t. +ithout hi) )upport5 thi) proje.t would ha0e been 4uite a diffi.ult ta), to a.hie0e.

Object !e
Ele.tri.ity theft or brea, wirele)) indi.ation i) the 0a)t te.hnolo!y in ele.troni.) field. Thi) proje.t i) de)i!ned to ma,e ele.tri.ity )e.urity ea)y to .ontrol when any
per)on want to theft the ele.tri.ity for home). The )imple)t pro.e)) i) to put a dire.t wire3

.onne.tion to a main power route pa))in! by a hou)e or )hop )o that ele.tri.ity .an flow to the .on)umer without .ro))in! the ele.tri. meter that i) fi1ed by the State Ele.tri.ity Board to .alibrate the load the )ub3total of your applian.e) i) drawin!. The )afe)t time to do )o i) late at ni!ht when there i) )maller .han.e of bein! .au!ht. Other method) may in.lude openin! the meter it)elf5 without dama!in! it) )eal)5 and re0er)in! the dial): a .ompli.ated pro.edure that re4uire) e1pert ),ill. +herea) all the meter) are manufa.tured to re.ord .on)umption of ele.tri.ity at fre4uen.y of %# Hert6. So durin! the period the )aid de0i.e remain) ener!i6ed5 the meter di).ontinue) re.ordin! .on)umption of ele.tri.ity.

W"#$ n%&
7n thi) proje.t we are u)in! two 89 tran)mitter module) for .ontrol. 7f any per)on want to theft the ele.tri.ity at their re)idential area then data will be tran)mitted to re.ei0er and then our mi.ro.ontroller will !i0e u) indi.ation wirele))ly throu!h rf to the .ontrol room. Thi) proje.t Tran)mit a di!ital data throu!h 89. The ordinary *:: 2H6 89 module) are u)ed in thi) proje.t. ;#%& mi.ro.ontroller i) u)ed in thi) proje.t. 7n thi) we are u)in! 8adio fre4uen.y a) a medium to .ommuni.ate between re.ei0er and tran)mitter( a 89 module TS *:: for the tran)mi))ion of data). +e fir)t ma,e a <%0 re!ulated -ower )upply for ;#%& and other de0i.e) then we add a HT"&e 7C whi.h i) a 8adio fre4uen.y en.oder and atta.h it) parallel output to the -ort : of the ;#%& . =fter that we ma,e remote .ontrol and u)e a 7C HT"&d for the en.odin! of the data that i) addre))ed in the remote ey. +hen we pre)) the ,ey it en.ode) the uni4ue 7D of that u)er with the .ar number )tored on that uni4ue 7D and tran)mit it throu!h the 89 module the re.ei0er de.ode) it and !i0e) the input to ;#%& and !et) a output re)pe.ti0e to pro!ram.

B'"c$ D (%#() RF T#(n*) tte#

ANTENNA

RF MODULE 433 MHz POWER SUPPLY +5V BATTERY ENCODER HT12E

PORT 3 OF MICROCONTROLLE R

RF RECIE+ER

Met,"-"'"%.&
7n thi) proje.t we are u)in! a power )upply .ir.uit at )tartin!. Thi) will !i0e u) a 0olta!e of <% 0olt. Thi) power )upply i) .onne.ted with our mi.ro.ontroller. 2i.ro.ontroller i) the main .ontrol unit of the proje.t. +e are u)in! a rf module .ir.uit here for wirele)) .ommuni.ation. =nd that will be .onne.ted with our .ontrol unit.

P"/e# Sect "n

M c#"c"nt#"''e# Sect "n

C")0"nent -et( '


". 27C8OCO>T8O??E8(;#%&) &. Tran)former(&&#0a.3"&0a.) :. -CB *. Ener!y 2eter %. -O+E8 ?E=D '. 7> *##$ $. "###uf5&%@ ;. "#uf5 %#@ A. ?2 $;#% "#. ::# ohm "". *.$ ohm "&. ", ohm ":. ?ED "*. *# -7> 7C B=SE "%. "##nf .erami. and poly)ter .apa.itor "'. C8BST=? ""2HC "$. 8f module ";. Ht"& e "A. Ht"&d &#. 8elay deri0e .ir.uit &". Conne.tin! wire) " : " & " " " " " " & " " * " & " % "

COMPONENTS DETAIL& 1) POWER SUPPLY S2))(#. "3 c #c2 t 3e(t2#e*

Brief de).ription of operation: /i0e) out well re!ulated <%@ output5 output .urrent .apability of "## m= Cir.uit prote.tion: Built3in o0erheatin! prote.tion )hut) down output when re!ulator 7C !et) too hot

Cir.uit .omple1ity: @ery )imple and ea)y to build Cir.uit performan.e: @ery )table <%@ output 0olta!e5 reliable operation =0ailability of .omponent): Ea)y to !et5 u)e) only 0ery .ommon ba)i. .omponent) De)i!n te)tin!: Ba)ed on data)heet e1ample .ir.uit5 7 ha0e u)ed thi) .ir.uit )u..e)fully a) part of many ele.troni.) proje.t)

=ppli.ation): -art of ele.troni.) de0i.e)5 )mall laboratory power )upply -ower )upply 0olta!e: (nre!lated DC ;3";@ power )upply -ower )upply .urrent: >eeded output .urrent < % m= Component .o)t): 9ew 8upee) for the ele.troni.) .omponent) < the input tran)former .o)t<the .o)t of ener!y meter.

Sc,e)(t c D (%#()

The <% 0olt power )upply i) ba)ed on the .ommer.ial $;#% 0olta!e re!ulator 7C. Thi) 7C .ontain) all the .ir.uitry needed to a..ept any input 0olta!e from ; to "; 0olt) and produ.e a )teady <% 0olt output5 a..urate to within %D (#.&% 0olt). 7t al)o .ontain) .urrent3limitin! .ir.uitry and thermal o0erload prote.tion5 )o that the 7C wonEt be dama!ed in .a)e of e1.e))i0e load .urrentF it will redu.e it) output 0olta!e in)tead. The "###Gf .apa.itor )er0e) a) a Hre)er0oirH whi.h maintain) a rea)onable input 0olta!e to the $;#% throu!hout the entire .y.le of the a. line 0olta!e. The two re.tifier diode) ,eep re.har!in! the re)er0oir .apa.itor on alternate half3.y.le) of the line 0olta!e5 and the .apa.itor i) 4uite .apable of )u)tainin! any rea)onable load in between .har!in! pul)e).

The "#Gf and .#"Gf .apa.itor) )er0e to help ,eep the power )upply output 0olta!e .on)tant when load .ondition) .han!e. The ele.trolyti. .apa.itor )mooth) out any lon!3term or low fre4uen.y 0ariation). Howe0er5 at hi!h fre4uen.ie) thi) .apa.itor i) not 0ery effi.ient. Therefore5 the .#"Gf i) in.luded to bypa)) hi!h3fre4uen.y .han!e)5 )u.h a) di!ital 7C )wit.hin! effe.t)5 to !round. The ?ED and it) )erie) re)i)tor )er0e a) a pilot li!ht to indi.ate when the power )upply i) on. 7 li,e to u)e a miniature ?ED here5 )o it will )er0e that fun.tion without bein! obtru)i0e or di)tra.tin! while 7Em performin! an e1periment. 7 al)o u)e thi) ?ED to tell me when the re)er0oir .apa.itor i) .ompletely di).har!ed after power i) turned off. Then 7 ,now itE) )afe to remo0e or in)tall .omponent) for the ne1t e1periment.

1) REGULATOR 4567

Fe(t2#e* I Output Current up to "= I Output @olta!e) of %0 I Thermal O0erload -rote.tion

I Short Cir.uit -rote.tion I Output Tran)i)tor Safe Operatin! =rea -rote.tion

8) LCD =n HD99456 C,(#(cte# LCD i) a de facto indu)try )tandard liquid crystal display (LCD) di)play de0i.e de)i!ned for interfa.in! with embedded systems. The)e ).reen) .ome in a 0ariety of .onfi!uration) in.ludin! ;1"5 whi.h i) one row of ei!ht .hara.ter)5 "'1&5 and &#1*. The mo)t .ommonly manufa.tured .onfi!uration i) *#1* .hara.ter)5 whi.h re4uire) two indi0idually addre))able HD**$;# .ontroller) with e1pan)ion .hip) a) the HD**$;# .an only addre)) up to ;# .hara.ter)

The)e ?CD ).reen) are limited to te1t only and are often u)ed in .opier)5 fa1 ma.hine)5 la)er printer)5 indu)trial te)t e4uipment5 networ,in! e4uipment )u.h a) router) and )tora!e de0i.e).Chara.ter ?CD) .an .ome with or without ba.,li!ht)5 whi.h may be ?ED5 fluore).ent5 or ele.trolumine).ent. Chara.ter ?CD) u)e a )tandard "*3pin interfa.e and tho)e with ba.,li!ht) ha0e "' pin). The pinout) are a) follow): ". /round &. @CC (<%@)

:. Contra)t adju)tment (@O) *. 8e!i)ter Sele.t (8S). 8SJ#: Command5 8SJ": Data %. 8eadK+rite (8K+). 8K+J#: +rite5 8K+J": 8ead '. Clo., $. Bit # (>ot u)ed in *3bit operation) ;. Bit " (>ot u)ed in *3bit operation) A. Bit & (>ot u)ed in *3bit operation) "#. Bit : (>ot u)ed in *3bit operation) "". Bit * "&. Bit % ":. Bit ' "*. Bit $ "%. Ba.,li!ht =node (<) "'. Ba.,li!ht Cathode (3) The nominal ba.,li!ht 0olta!e i) around *.&@ at &%LC.

:) Re* *t"#&
= #e* *t"# i) a pa))i0e two3terminal ele.tri.al .omponent that implement) ele.tri.al re)i)tan.e a) a .ir.uit element. The .urrent throu!h a re)i)tor i) in dire.t proportion to the 0olta!e a.ro)) the re)i)torE) terminal). Thi) relation)hip i) repre)ented by OhmE) law: @J78

where 7 i) the .urrent throu!h the .ondu.tor in unit) of ampere)5 @ i) the potential differen.e mea)ured a.ro)) the .ondu.tor in unit) of 0olt)5 and 8 i) the re)i)tan.e of the .ondu.tor in unit) of ohm). The ratio of the 0olta!e applied a.ro)) a re)i)torE) terminal) to the inten)ity of .urrent in the .ir.uit i) .alled it) re)i)tan.e5 and thi) .an be a))umed to be a .on)tant (independent of the 0olta!e) for ordinary re)i)tor) wor,in! within their ratin!). 9) 5671 M c#"c"nt#"''e#
Embedded )y)tem employ) a .ombination of )oftware M hardware to perform a )pe.ifi. fun.tion. 7t i) a part of a lar!er )y)tem whi.h may not be a N.omputerO+or,) in a rea.ti0e M time .on)trained en0ironment. =ny ele.troni. )y)tem that u)e) a C-( .hip5 but that i) not a !eneral3purpo)e wor,)tation5 de),top or laptop .omputer i) ,nown a) embedded )y)tem. Su.h )y)tem) !enerally u)e mi.ropro.e))or)F mi.ro.ontroller or they may u)e .u)tom3de)i!ned .hip) or both. They are u)ed in automobile)5 plane)5 train)5 )pa.e 0ehi.le)5 ma.hine tool)5 .amera)5 .on)umer and offi.e applian.e)5 .ell phone)5 -D=) and other handheld) a) well a) robot) and toy). The u)e) are endle))5 and billion) of mi.ropro.e))or) are )hipped e0ery year for a myriad ofappli.ation). 7n embedded )y)tem)5 the )oftware i) permanently )et into a read3only memory )u.h a) a 8O2 or fla)h memory .hip5 in .ontra)t to a !eneral3purpo)e .omputer that load) it) pro!ram) into 8=2 ea.h time. Sometime)5 )in!le board and ra., mounted !eneral3 purpo)e .omputer) are .alled Hembedded .omputer)H if u)ed to .ont.

7)RF )"-2'e*
7n thi) proje.t we are u)in! two 89 tran)mitter module) for .ontrol. 7f any per)on want to theft the ele.tri.ity at their re)idential area then data will be tran)mitted to re.ei0er and then our mi.ro.ontroller will !i0e u) indi.ation wirele))ly throu!h rf to the .ontrol room. Thi) proje.t Tran)mit a di!ital data throu!h 89. The ordinary *:: 2H6 89 module) are u)ed.

=ntenna i) u)ed to tran)mit )i!nal between tran)mitter and re.ei0er.when power theft will o..ur rf tran)mitter will tran)mit )i!nal whi.h will be re.ei0ed by rf re.ei0er and led or the 0oi.e bu66er .onne.ted with will be a.ti0ated.(led i) u)ed in thi) proje.t). >ote3 7f another *:: 2H6 fre4uen.y i) bein! u)ed nearby then output may 0ary and re)ult in failure of .ommuni.ation.

;) KEIL PROGRAMMING STEPS

Open eil from the Start menu The 9i!ure below )how) the ba)i. name) of the window) referred in thi) do.ument

Sele.t >ew -roje.t from the -roje.t 2enu.

>ame the proje.t PTo!!le.a%"Q Cli., on the Sa0e Button.

The de0i.e window will be di)played. Sele.t the part you will be u)in! to te)t with. 9or now we will u)e the Dalla) Semi.ondu.tor part at;A)%&. Double Cli., on the =tmel Semi.ondu.tor.

S.roll down and )ele.t the at;A)%& -art Cli., O

Cli., 9ile 2enu and )ele.t >ew.

= new window will open up in the eil 7DE.

Copy the e1ample to the 8i!ht into the new window. Thi) file will

to!!le -ort) " and & with a delay. O8/ #H 2O@ =5 R%%H =/=7>: 2O@ -"5 = 2O@ -&5 = =C=?? DE?=B C-? = SS2- =/=7> DE?=B: 2O@ 8:5 R&## O(TE8: 2O@ 8&5 R#&%% 7>>E8: DS>C 8&5 7>>E8 DS>C 8:5 O(TE8 8ET E>D Cli., on 9ile menu and )ele.t Sa0e =)T

>ame the file To!!le.a%" Cli., the Sa0e Button

E1pand Tar!et " in the Tree 2enu

Cli., on -roje.t and )ele.t Tar!et)5 /roup)5 9ile)T

Cli., on /roup)K=dd 9ile) tab (nder =0ailable /roup) )ele.t Sour.e /roup " Cli., =dd 9ile) to /roupT button

Chan!e file type to =)m Sour.e file(U.aUF U.)r.) Cli., on to!!le.a%" Cli., =dd button Cli., Clo)e Button Cli., O button when you return to Tar!et5 /roup)5 9ile)T dialo! bo1

E1pand the Sour.e /roup " in the Tree menu to en)ure that the file wa) added to the proje.t

Cli., on Tar!et " in Tree menu Cli., on -roje.t 2enu and )ele.t Option) for Tar!et "

Sele.t Tar!et Tab Chan!e Vtal (2h6) from %#.# to "".#%A&

Sele.t Output Tab Cli., on Create He1 9ile .he., bo1 Cli., O Button

Cli., on -roje.t 2enu and )ele.t 8ebuild all Tar!et 9ile) 7n the Build +indow it )hould report P# Error) ())5 # +arnin!)Q Bou are now ready to -ro!ram your -art

Comment out line =C=?? DE?=B by pla.in! a Semi.olon at the be!innin!. Thi) will allow you to )ee the port .han!e immediately. Cli., on the 9ile 2enu and )ele.t Sa0e

Cli., on -roje.t 2enu and )ele.t 8ebuild all Tar!et 9ile) 7n the Build +indow it )hould report P# Error) ())5 # +arnin!)Q Cli., on Debu! 2enu and Sele.t StartKStop Debu! Se))ion

The eil Debu!!er )hould be now be 8unnin!.

Cli., on -eripheral). Sele.t 7KO -ort)5 Sele.t -ort "

= new window )hould port will pop up. Thi) repre)ent the -ort and -in)

Step throu!h the .ode by pre))in! 9"" on the eyboard. The -arallel -ort " Bo1 )hould .han!e a) you .ompletely )tep throu!h the .ode.

To e1it out5 Cli., on Debu! 2enu and Sele.t StartKStop Debu! Se))ion