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A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering


Third Edition
CHAPTER
8d
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
INTRODUCTION TO
BEAMS
Part II Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
Location of Plastic Hinge
For a uniformly loaded fixed-end beam
shown in Fig. 1, the location of the plastic
hinge along the length of the beam is at the
midspan of the beam.
This was concluded due to the fact that
beam is symmetrical in terms of both the
uniform loading and the end supports.
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CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Figure 1. Uniformly Loaded Fixed-end Beam
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
ft 18 = L
(k/ft)
n
w
2
L
2
L


2 Collapse Mechanism
L w
n
A
B
C
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Location of Plastic Hinge (contd)
For other beams with uniform loads, such
as propped or continuous beams, the
determination of the location of plastic
hinge may be rather difficult.
For this reason, a value, expressed as
fraction of the length L, that determines the
location of the plastic hinge is needed for
the analysis of both the propped and
continuous beams.
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
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CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Location of Plastic Hinge (contd)
Consider the propped beam of Fig. 2.
The elastic moment diagram for this beam
is shown as the solid line in part (b) of the
figure.
As the uniform load is increased in
magnitude, a plastic hinge will first form at
the fixed end.
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Figure 2. Propped Beam
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
L
( ) k/ft
n
w
x
n
M
n
M
(a)
(b)
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CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Location of Plastic Hinge (contd)
At this time the beam will, in effect, be a
simple beam with a plastic hinge on one
end and a real hinge on the other.
Subsequent increases in the load will
cause the moment to change as
represented by the dashed line in part (b)
of Fig. 2.
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Location of Plastic Hinge (contd)
The process will continue until the moment
at some other point (a distance x from the
right support in the figure) reaches M
n
and
create another plastic hinge.
The virtual-work expression for the
collapse mechanism for the beam shown in
Fig. 3 is written as follows:
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
| | ( )( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
(


x
x L
M x L L w
n n
2
1

(1)
5
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Figure 3.
Collapse
Mechanism
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
L
( ) k/ft
n
w
x
n
M
n
M

( ) x L
Real Hinge
1


x
x L
=
1


x
x L
+ =
+ =

1 2
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Location of Plastic Hinge (contd)
Or
Solving for M
n
by taking the derivative of
M
n
with respect to x and equate it to zero,
that is
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
| | ( )( )
| | ( )( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
(


=
(

= |
.
|

\
|
+ +


x
x L
x L L w
M
x L L w
x
x L
M
n
n
n n
2
1

2
1

(2)
(3)
0 =
dx
dM
n
(4)
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CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Location of Plastic Hinge (contd)
Solving for x, it can be shown that Eq. 4
yields a value of x as given by
This value is applicable to uniformly loaded
end spans of both propped and continuous
beams with simple supports.
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
L x 414 . 0 =
(5)
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Continuous beams are very common in
engineering structures (Fig. 4).
They can be analyzed by both the
elastic and the plastic theories.
However, the plastic analysis can be
more complicated.
Plastic analysis can be applied to
continuous beams as it is to one-span
beams.
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CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Figure 4. Continuous Beams
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
The resulting values definitely give a
more realistic picture of the limiting
strength of a structure than can be
obtained by elastic analysis.
Continuous statically indeterminate
beams can be handled by virtual-work
method as they were for single-span
statically indeterminate beams.
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CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Virtual-Work Method for Continuous
Beams
For each span of the continuous beams,
virtual-work expressions are written
separately.
From the resulting expressions, it is
possible to determine the limiting or
maximum loads that the beams can
support.
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 1
A W18 55 (Z
x
= 112 in
3
) has been
selected for the beam shown in the figure.
Using 50 ksi steel and assuming full lateral
support, determine the value of w
n
.
( ) k/ft
n
w
ft 30 ft 24
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CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 1 (contd)
The nominal (plastic) moment of the beam
is calculated first:
The virtual-work expressions are written
separately for each span of the continuous
beams.
The collapse mechanisms for the two
spans are drawn as shown in Fig. 5b.
( )
k - ft 7 . 466
12
112 50
= = = Z F M
y n
(6)
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 1 (contd)
( ) k/ft
n
w
ft 30 ft 24
1


2
2

Figure 5
(a)
(b)
+
ft 15 ft 15
x
x - ft 24
Real hinge
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CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 1 (contd)
Calculation of rotation angles:
Using Eq. 4, the location of the plastic hinge for
the left span is
From the triangle of the right span:
From the triangle of the left span:
( ) ft 94 . 9 24 414 . 0 414 . 0 = = = L x

15
15
tan
1
1
= =
ft 06 . 14 94 . 9 24 24 = = x
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 1 (contd)
Also
Therefore,
Virtual-work applied to right span:

06 . 14
06 . 14
tan
2
2
= =


414 . 1
94 . 9
06 . 14
94 . 9
tan
2
= = =
int. ext.

work Internal work External
W W =
=
11
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 1 (contd)
Virtual-work applied to left span:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
ft
k
30 . 8 7 . 466 01778 . 0 01778 . 0
15 30
4 2
4 15
2
1
30
2
avg 1 1
= = = =
= |
.
|

\
|

+ + =
n
n
n
n n
n n
M
M
w
M w
M L w


( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
ft
k
44 . 9 7 . 466 02023 . 0 02023 . 0 . 0
06 . 14 24
414 . 3 2
414 . 1 06 . 14
2
1
24
avg 2 2
= = = =
+ + = |
.
|

\
|

+ + =
n
n
n
n n
n n
M
M
w
M w
M L w


Controls
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 2
Using a W21 44 (Z
x
= 95.4 in
3
) consisting
of A992 steel, determine the value of P
n
for
the beam shown.
n
P
n
P 5 . 1
n
P
ft 30 ft 30 ft 30
ft 15 ft 15 ft 15 ft 15 ft 15 ft 15
12
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 2 (contd)
Collapse Mechanisms:
n
P
n
P 5 . 1
n
P
ft 30 ft 30 ft 30
ft 15 ft 15 ft 15 ft 15 ft 15 ft 15
15 15 15
2 2 2

Figure 6
(a)
(b)
Real hinge
Real hinge
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 2 (contd)
The nominal (plastic) moment of the beam
is calculated first:
The virtual-work expressions are written
separately for each span of the continuous
beams.
The collapse mechanisms for the three
spans are drawn as shown in Fig. 6b.
( )
k - ft 5 . 397
12
4 . 95 50
= = = Z F M
y n
13
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 2 (contd)
For the first and third spans:
For the center span:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) kips 5 . 79 5 . 397 2 . 0 2 . 0
15
3
2 15
int. ext.
= = = =
+ =
=
n
n
n
n n
M
M
P
M P
W W

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) kips 7 . 70 5 . 397 1778 . 0 1778 . 0
15 5 . 1
4
2 15 5 . 1
int. ext.
= = = =
+ + =
=
n
n
n
n n
M
M
P
M P
W W

Controls