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Human Parasitology

Introduction to Human Parasitology

Concept of Human Parasitology Terms of Parasitology How Parasites cause harm to humans Human Immunity against Parasites Medically important parasitic diseases

Human parasitology
Parasites are organisms whose existence depends on the availability of host animals protozoa (single celled animals ! helminths (worms and arthropods" The insects that are of most interest in human parasitology are those that are vectors of several parasitic infections

Medical Protozoology

Human Parasitology

Medical Helminthology Medical EntymologyArthropods (Insects)

Some medically important protozoa

#" $moebiasis %" Malaria &" 'ilariasis (" Trypanosomiasis )" *eishmaniasis +" Trichomoniasis


eukaryotic organisms distributed worldwide. They vary in si e! shape and li"estyle and reproduce se#ually and$or ase#ually
%&T '()T)*)A +,))- .T(EAM '()T)*)A

Entamoeba histolytica in"ects the human intestine causing amoebic dysentery or liver abscess. /Giardia lamblia causes malabsorption and diarrhea. /Cryptosporidium parvum causes diarrhea mainly in children

/Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P.

malariae and P. ovale are transmitted by "emale Anopheles mos0uitoes and cause malaria. /Trypanosoma gambiense transmitted by the tsetse "ly causes A"rican sleeping /Leishmania species are transmitted by sand"lies causing leishmaniasis. /Toxoplasma gondii

Medically important protozoa infect various parts of human body. Some protozoa infect more than one organ

Protozoa infecting various organs

.kin Eye %ut %enitourinary tract +loodstream .pleen ,iver Muscle 1M. Leishmania canthamoeba Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium Trichomonas 'lasmodia! Trypanosoma Leishmania Leishmania, Entamoeba Trypanosoma Trypanosoma, !aegleria, Toxoplasma, 'lasmodia

Class Lobosea

,ntamoeba histolytica -on.pathogenic amoeba

Class Zoomastigophorea
Leishmania sp


Trichomonas vaginalis

Class Sporozoa


To#opasma gondii 1ryptosporidium 'neumocycstis carinii

Class Ciliophora

2 "alantidium coli

Class Nematoda

Ascaris lumbricoides

Trichuris trichiura Hookworm Enterobius vermicularis Filaria Trichinella spiralis


Class Trematoda


Fasciolopsis buski Paragonimus westermani Schistosoma japonicum


Class Cestoda



Taenia saginata ,chinococcus granulosus


Class Metacanthocephala

Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus

Class Insecta nopheles sinensis Lucilia sericata

*ice /andflies !


. !erms of Parasitology

Two different organisms live together and interact! in this association one partner lives in or on another one0s body" including & types1 Mutualism! Commensalism! Parasitism"

Mutualism is a permanent association

between two different organisms where life apart is impossible! two partners benefit each other! such as termites and flagellates" The mutuals are metabolically dependent on one another2 one cannot survive in the absence of the other"

(& Commensalism is the association of two different organisms! in which one partner is benefited while the other is neither benefited nor in3ured! such as ," coli and man" (( Parasitism is the association of two different organisms! in which one partner is benefited while the other is in3ured! such as $scaris lumbricoides and man"

In parasitism! it is the Parasite who is the benefited partner" It is an animal organism which lives in or on the host in order to obtain nourishment and shelter from the host as well as does harms to the host"

Types of Parasites
endoparasite ectoparasite temporary parasite permanent parasite obligatory parasite facultative parasite accidental parasite opportunistic parasite



In parasitism! host supplies the parasite with nourishment and shelter and it is the in3ured partner" $ Carrier is a person who harbors parasite and has no clinical symptoms! is an important source of infection in epidemiology"

4efinitive(final host harbours adult or sexually reproductive stage of a parasite" Intermediate host harbours larval or asexually reproductive stage of a parasite an according to priority they are classified into first intermediate host! second intermediate host! third intermediate host"

5eservoir hosts are the vertebrate

hosts which harbor the same species of parasite at same stage as a human host" They are an important source of infection in epidemiology"

6oonosis refers to diseases of animals which can be transmitted to man" (These animals infected with parasites are called reservoir hosts"

Paratenic host or transport host is

an abnormal host in which some parasitic larvae can survive but cannot develop into adults" If the larvae have a chance to enter their appropriate hosts! they can continue to develop into adults there"

*arva migrans means that the larvae living in their abnormal hosts in can not grow into adults but can wander everywhere and cause the local and systemic pathological lesions of the hosts"

Life cycle
*ife cycle is the process of a parasite0s growth! development and reproduction! which proceeds in one or more different hosts depending on the species of parasites" Infective /tage is a stage when a parasite can invade human body and live in it "

Infective route is the specific entrance through which the parasite invades the human body" Infective mode means how the parasite invades human body! such as the cercariae of the blood flu7e actively penetrate the s7in of a swimming man and the infective ascaris eggs are swallowed by man"

Life cycle
$lternation of 8eneration1 In life cycles of some parasites! there

are the regular alternations of sexual and asexual reproductions ! this phenomenon is called alternation of generation! such as the life cycle of Plasmodium vivax"

Mechanical Transmission1 $rthropods play a role of the transportation of pathogens! which is not indispensable for the disease transmission! such as flies carry typhoid bacilli! ascarid eggs and amoebic cysts"

9iological Transmission1 Pathogens have to spend a part of their life cycle in the vector arthropods in which they multiply or develop into the infective stage and then invade the human body under the help of the arthropod! such as $nopheles mos:uitoes transmit malaria"

Evolution of Parasitism

endoparasite ectoparasite temporary parasite permanent parasite obligatory parasite facultative parasite accidental parasite opportunistic parasite

'ree living /ymbiosis Commensalism Mutualism Parasitism carrier parasite Host Patient

'inal host Intermediate host

5eservoir host 6oonosis

Paratenic host *arva migrans

How parasites cause harm to men

Mechanical effects of parasites on host tissues and

organs1 e" g" ! biliary ascariasis and larva migrans"

4epriving nourishment from hosts1 e"g"

hoo7worms suc7 blood"

Toxic effect1 e" g"! mos:uitoes! spiders and tic7s

introduce venom when they insert their mouth parts into the s7in"

Immuno.pathological lesion e"g" schistosoma

liver cirrhosis2 when hydatid fluid is released from the rupture of a hydatid cyst anaphylaxis often results"

5. Human Immunity against Parasites

Its intensity and specificity are usually at a lower level than those produced by bacteria and viruses" It refers to #" -on. sterilizing immunity (Premunition %" Concomitant immunity" The host may be protected from superinfection as long as the parasites remain in the body" This situation is 7nown as premunition" This may be of great importance in endemic areas in limiting the severity of infection with Plasmodium! /chistosome ! hoo7worms and other parasites"

"#H$% & Priority 'iseases

;hy were they selected<

/chistosomiasis . %==!===!=== infected )==!===.#!===!=== deaths>year Malaria . )==!===!=== infected %!)==!=== deaths>year 'ilariasis . %)=!===!=== infected Trypanosomiasis . %)!===!=== infected +)!=== deaths>year *eishmaniasis . #!%==!=== infected *eprosy . #!&==!=== infected $pproximately %)? of world@s population infected by one of these"

General Characteristics
#" Chronic diseases %" -o effective vaccine &" -o practical chemotherapy (" $ffect young )" $ffect underprivileged +" Aector.borne

8eographic 4istribution 'actors (,ndemicity 1

#" Presence of a suitable host %" Habits of the host &" ,scape from the host (" 'avorable conditions outside of host )" ,conomic and social conditions

Presence of 4iseases in a Population (Prevalence 1

'actors re:uired1 #" /ource infected persons carriers animals

Presence of 4iseases in a Population (Prevalence 1

%" Mode of transmission direct indirect vectors &" /usceptible host immunity

Three 7ey lin7s of disease transmission

#"/ource of infection %" 5oute of transmission &" /usceptible people

excrement secretion blood focus of infection

food! water! finger direct or indirect contact blood transfusion! in3ection! intermediate host! insects suc7ing blood! congenital ! touch soil! water! grass

mouth s7in or wound mucosa placenta

4iagnosis of Parasitic Infections1

#" Clinical diagnosis %" *aboratory diagnosis

Treatment of Parasitic Infections1

#" Medical and surgical %" Chemotherapy &" $de:uate nutrition

Prevention and Control1

#" 5eduction in sources %" ,ducation &" 4estruction and>or control of reservoir

hosts and vector