The Project Gutenberg EBook of Curialia Miscellanea, or Anecdotes of Old Times; Regal, Noble, Gentilitial, and Mis, by Samuel

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[Illustration: titlepage] [Illustration: REV. SAMUEL PEGGE, LL.D F.S.A. _Born 1704; Died 1796._ _Engraved by Philip Audinet from an Original Painting by Elias Needham 1788 in the Possession of Sir Christopher Pegge, M.D._ _Published by Nichols, Son & Bentley, Jan. 1, 1818._]


LIST OF PLATES. Portrait of the Rev. Samuel Pegge, LL.D. Whittington Church Whittington Rectory p. lix. lxii. lxiii. _Frontispiece._

Whittington Revolution House

ADVERTISEMENT. The publication of this Volume is strictly conformable to the testamentary intentions of the Author, who consigned the MSS. for that express purpose to the present Editor[1]. [1] See the Extract in page vi. Mr. Pegge had, in his life-time, published "_Curialia_, or an Account of some Members and had, with great industry and laborious materials for several other Portions, some completed for the press. Three Portions of of the Royal Houshold;" research, collected of which were nearly

Mr. Pegge was "led into the investigation," he says, "by a natural and kind of instinctive curiosity, and a desire of knowing what was the antient state of the Court to which he had the honour, by the favour of his Grace William the late Duke of Devonshire, to compose a part." Two more Portions were printed in 1806 by the present Editor. Long, however, and intimately acquainted as he was with the accuracy and diffidence of Mr. Pegge, he would have hesitated in offering those posthumous Essays to the Publick, if the plan had not been clearly defined, and the Essays sufficiently distinct to be creditable to the reputation which Mr. Pegge had already acquired, by the Parts of the "Curialia" published by himself, and by his very entertaining (posthumous) "Anecdotes of the English Language;"--a reputation which descended to him by _Hereditary Right_, and which he transmitted untarnished to a worthy and learned Son. It was the hope and intention of the Editor to have proceeded with some other Portions of the "Curialia;" but the fatal event which (in February 1808) overwhelmed him in accumulated distress put a stop to that intention. Nearly all the printed Copies of the "Curialia" perished in the flames; and part of the original MS. was lost. A few detached Articles, which related to the College of Arms, and to the Order of Knights Bachelors (which, had they been more perfect, would have formed one or more succeeding Portions) have since been deposited in the rich Library of that excellent College. The Volume now submitted to the candour of the Reader is formed from the wreck of the original materials. The arranging of the several detached articles, and the revisal of them through the press, have afforded the Editor some amusement; and he flatters himself that the Volume will meet with that indulgence which the particular circumstances attending it may presume to claim.--If the Work has any merit, it is the Author's. The defects should, in fairness, be attributed to the Editor. J. N. _Highbury Place, Dec. 1, 1817._ *** Extract from Mr. PEGGE'S Will.

with the addition of as much money as will pay the Tax on this Legacy. P. which I wish Mr. William Rufus Henry I. John Nichols. Cunningham Ode for the Revolution Jubilee Extracts from Letters of Dr."Having the Copy-right of my little Work called _Curialia_ in myself. SAMUEL PEGGE. Esq. Printer. intitled _Anecdotes of the English Language_. not quite finished. Nichols to bring forward from his Press. PARENTALIA: or. Gough Memoirs of Samuel Pegge. lxiv lxv lxxi lxxiii lxxiv lxxvii lxxxiii . The History of the Royal Household. and print them under the title of _Curialia Miscellanea_. John Nichols. that he would carefully peruse and digest all my Papers and Collections on the above subject. by the Editor Appendix of Epistolary Correspondence HOSPITIUM DOMINI REGIS: or. Dr. to my Friend Mr.--There is also another Work of mine. together with all my impressions thereof which may be unsold at the time of my decease. Pegge to Mr. compiled by his Son Page ix-lviii Appendix to the Parentalia: Description of Whittington Church Description of Whittington Rectory Description of The Revolution House at Whittington Origin of the Revolution in 1688 Celebration of the Jubilee in 1788 Stanzas by the Rev." CONTENTS. or some such description. Memoirs of the Rev. I also request of the said Mr. Stephen Page 1 6 18 24 38 lix lxii ibid. Introduction William I. Samuel Pegge. I hereby give and bequeath all my interest therein.

and Cognizances. &c. Edward IV. of Scottish Families 48 63 68 69 71 73 74 76 77 79 84 86 88 89 91 95 97 99 101 103 104 109 111 154 164 173 201 208 213 .Henry II. of the Kings of England Regal Titles On the Virtues of the Royal Touch Ceremonies for Healing. and Pursuivants Serjeants of Arms Minstrels A Wayte Clerk of the Crown in Chancery Supporters. Extracts from the _Liber Niger_ Knights and Esquires of the Body Gentleman Usher Great Chamberlain of England Knights of Household Esquires of the Body Yeomen of the Crown A Barber for the King's most high and dread Person Henxmen Master of Henxmen Squires of Household Kings of Arms. Heralds. for King's Evil Ceremonies for blessing Cramp-Rings _Stemmata Magnatum_: Origin of the Titles of some of the English Nobility English Armorial Bearings Origin and Derivation of remarkable Surnames _Symbola Scotica_: Mottoes. Crests. (Plantagenet) Richard I. Henry IV.

and where they left a patrimonial inheritance. William Pegge. near _Ashborne_. 1782. is an Alms-house. Vicar of Packington.S. 1768. COMPILED BY HIS SON. and another by that of the Rev. all which existed together till within a few years. Esq. Origin of the Name of the City of Westminster Memoranda relative to the Society of the Temple in London. sole daughter and heir of William Strelley. MEMOIRS OF THE REV. The Doctor's immediate Predecessors. Of the other existing branch. D. The eldest became extinct by the death of Mr. derived from a common Ancestor. written in 1760 Dissertation on the Use of _Simnel_ Bread. in Leicestershire. seated himself there. The Rev. .A. and the Derivation of the Word _Simnel_ Historical Essay on the Origin of "Thirteen Pence Half-penny. were of Osmaston. at Ashborne." as Hangman's Wages Custom observed by the Lord Lieutenants of Ireland 269 304 305 312 313 314 316 320 323 329 331 349 Parentalia: OR. antecedently to his Father and himself. Samuel Pegge. for four generations. The name occurs also on the table of Benefactors in Ashborne Church. Edward Pegge having [1662] married Gertrude. in lineal succession. PEGGE. M. Esq. DR. &c. originally founded by Christopher Pegge.Dissertation on Coaches and Sedan Chairs Dissertation on the Hammer Cloth Articles of Dress. of Yeldersley. where they resided. of Beauchief.--Gloves Ermine--Gentlewomen's Apparel Apparel for the Heads of Gentlewomen Mourning Beard. as may appear from the Heralds-office. in the Northern part of Derbyshire. LL. Nathaniel Pegge. [2] In Church-street. and F. Mr. near Ashborne. of which the Doctor died possessed[2].A. was the Representative of one of four Branches of the Family of that name in Derbyshire.

His Father (Christopher) was. by Sir Peter Lely. Viscount _Totness_. a Daughter of the before-mentioned Edward Pegge. Esq. third Daughter of Thomas Earl of Danby. Bart. of Unston. Esq.S. Pegge. and he served his time with a considerable woollen-draper at Derby. as was his Grandson. He was bred to the Sea. who died without issue 1711) at Chesterfield in Derbyshire. The Earl married the Lady Bridget Osborne. though he never resided there. now in the family: and also two of his Mother. the other. 5. and flowing hair (with a ship in the back ground of the picture). by which marriage these two Branches of the Family. surviving her. Lysons's Environs of London. and who. Dr. even after he became possessed of it. vol. 647. p. a three-quarters. Gent. vol. then a lucrative branch of traffick there. the outline _only_ of whose life we propose to give. and his Great-grandson. Esq. He had married Gertrude Stephenson (a daughter of Francis Stephenson. laced cravat. and Baron _Dartmouth_[3]. near Chesterfield. it was thought proper to put him to business. in Surrey). 1707. 1723. both either by Sir Peter Lely. The Countess re-married Dr. and. erected a handsome tablet to her memory in his Cathedral. of Osmaston. and died without issue by him[7]. N. 1680. and also. Katharine Pegge. 537. a daughter of Thomas Pegge. at Chesterfield. [4] See Sandford. their only surviving child. married Sir Edward Greene. of Samford in Essex. both by blood and name. He was born Nov. [7] There is a half-length portrait of the Earl. which line he followed till the death of his elder Brother (Humphry. [5] See Mr. and interred in Westminster Abbey[6]. with her infant Son standing by her side. Lord High Treasurer (at Wimbledon. having been for several years a Member of the Corporation.and was appointed High Sheriff of the County in 1667. when he commenced lead-merchant.) whose Mother was Gertrude Pegge. Esq. in a robe de chambre. by mistake. Lady Greene. 1739. died in his third Mayoralty. by whom she had no issue. which had long been diverging from each ether. and whom (1675) his Majesty created Earl of _Plymouth_. of Yeldersley. Vairé. Bishop of Hereford. the Earl's mother. being a younger Brother. Pegge. II. gives him the name of _Fitz-roy_. It was by Katharine Pegge. most probably in Spain. or by one of his pupils. without issue. the present Peter Pegge. that King Charles II. But to return to the Rev. 1788. Philip Bisse. 1704. where he had his . having been educated abroad. 1678[5]. was known by the name of _Don Carlos_[4]. The body was brought to England. of Beauchief. I. to whom he granted the Royal arms. 55. and died of a flux at the siege of Tangier. p. for. with a baton sinister. edit. Granger erroneously calls him _Carlo_. Strelley Pegge. in the person of Dr. as we have observed. one a half-length. [3] Docquet-book in the Crown-office. p. [6] Dart's History of Westminster Abbey. and. whom he called Charles _Fitz-Charles_. (who saw her abroad during his exile) had a son born (1647). became reunited.

Dr. Burton). on account of the insufficiency of his learning. and took an unexpected advantage of it. under the tuition of the Rev. Thomas Greene]. being placed in the situation of a Fellow-commoner. Burton and Mr. by whose death a moiety of the real estate at Unston (before-mentioned) became the property of our young Collegian. upon Lupton's Foundation. In consequence of this disappointment. representing. Mr. Having. Burton was President (_i. deem him unworthy of becoming a Fellow of the Society. that he was thenceforward considered as an honorary member of the body of Fellows (_tanquam Socius_). however. and. who was then pursuing his academical studies with intention of taking orders. it could not. that. in fact. O.S. and was admitted a Pensioner of St. by the testimonial. S. after he had taken the degree of A. John's College. to enable him to procure an establishment in the world. was matriculated July 7. no immediate prospect of preferment. Pegge. Cambridge. was declared to be so very deficient in Literature. of this testimony of the Bishop of Ely's approbation. was set aside. Pegge was chosen a Platt-fellow on the first vacancy. Burton. in so particular a manner. was elected a Scholar of the House. Mr. William Edmundson. in the following November. whose name we do not find. These were irresistible pleas on the part of Mr. he looked up to a Fellowship of the College. as the College had. e. In the same year with his Father (1723) died the Heir of his Maternal Grandfather (Stephenson). that he might receive orders. but. 1722. and became a candidate upon a vacancy which happened favourably in that very year. 1751. Mr. D. Burton took possession of the Fellowship. and another. kept his seat at their table and in the chapel. and Mr. Mr. as Founder's kin. but the Visitor did Mr. and also as a Native of Derbyshire. and undertake some cure in the vicinity of Cambridge. thought him qualified for Ordination. Pegge's Son was admitted of it. Michael Burton (afterwards Dr. in justice. which he held many years[8]. that his superior right. Pegge the favour to recommend him. upon such forcible claims as Founder's kin. upon examination. in January 1725. 1729[9]. 1726. by appealing to the Visitor [the Bishop of education. Pegge was admitted.. He was therefore. Burton had the stronger claim. to the Master and Seniors of the College. Being ordained. a minor. he turned the circumstance into a manúuvre. Burton was obliged to take new ground. A. being indubitably related to the Founder. but the contest lay between Mr. when Mr. Dr. and therefore artfully applied to the College for a testimonial. _twice_ a Fellow . May 30. [8] Dr.B. and the Visitor found himself reluctantly obliged to eject Mr. In consequence. N. but soon afterwards took the Rectory of Staplehurst in Kent._ Vice-master of the College) when Mr. which he held till his death in 1759. then. for it was a Lay-fellowship upon the Beresford Foundation. Pegge. The competitors were. Thus this business closed. and sworn Fellow March 21. and appropriated to the Founder's kin. or at least confined to a Native of Derbyshire.

and had also "An English Historical Dictionary. [9] The _Platt-fellowships_ at St. when six select additional members were chosen. and continued a member of the Club as long as he resided in the University." from a collation of them with a Duport MS. His secession was in April 1732. (Son of Sir Hugh Platt. the Fellowships cannot be enlarged in point of revenue. in the nature of statutes. æt. Platt in the Master's Lodge at St. John's. before engraved in Lewis's Seals. an Alphabetical List of Kentish Authors and Worthies. a French and Italian. with a stipend of 20_l. and his acceding to the second. a "Glossarium Generale. were agreed upon Dec. He possessed a MS "Lexicon Xenophonticum" by himself. by savings from the surplus. pp. There is good reason to believe that. 71." While resident in College (and in the year 1730) Mr. in the Library at Eton--to convince the world that the Master and Seniors of St. Lysons's Environs of London. Pegge formed a "Monasticon Cantianum. 1725. and commons at the Fellows' table. a literary Society. Pegge was the original _Mars_." in 6 volumes folio." and "Copy of a Survey and Rental of the College. in the possession of Sir Windham Knatchbull. Places in Kent. though the number has been increased to _eight_. In this latter class Mr. and denominated from six of the Planets.of St. and are not on the Foundation. They were founded by William Platt. 66. Afterwards (1728) this Society thought proper to enlarge their body. He died in 1637. The original number was _six_. which was formed from more valuable manuscripts. Kentish Collections. 1739. with the date of 1626. which he thought of publishing. vol. More of him may be seen in Mr. all corrected by his notes. in the interval between his removal from his first Fellowship. 59. John's. and engraved the seal. in the hands of Daniel Earl of Winchelsea. denominated from the Twelve Signs. but we suspect that it was thrown aside on being anticipated by Mr. a British and Saxon one. Mr. Pegge was elected a Member of the Zodiac Club. III. a MS Dictionary for Kent. It appears that he had made very large collections for such a work. as well as a Greek Lexicon in MS. There is a good portrait of Mr.. 10.. John's College did not judge unworthily in giving him so decided a preference to Mr. made about 1430." During his residence in Kent. and its neighbourhood." and two volumes of "Collections in English History. 376. out of an estate then of the annual value of 140_l. in one volume each." He also collected a good deal relative to the College at Wye. John's are similar to what are called _Bye-fellowships_ in some other Colleges at Cambridge. Esq._ Being a rent-charge. and his seat . a Latin. 47. 110. and many large MS additions to the account of that county in the "Magna Britannia. per annum_ each. Burton in their election. besides rooms. Hutchinson's Edition. though it still went collectively under the name of the _Zodiac Club_[10]. he meditated the publication of Xenophon's "_Cyropædia_" and "_Anabasis_. Knt. He had "Extracts from the Rental of the Royal Manor of Wye. This little institution was founded.) an opulent citizen of London. and articles. which consisted of twelve members. 70." in two folio MS volumes.

the caveæ 14 feet long and wide. Pegge was ordained Deacon in December in the same year. received Priest's orders. into which he was inducted Dec. and then removed thither at Midsummer 1731. Mr. Having taken the degree of A. of a London Living. without the most distant engagement on the score of the . he was soon retained as Curate to the Rev. Lynch.accordingly declared vacant. therefore. Dr. The Doctor gave Mr. Pegge the choice of three Cures under him--of Sundrich. 6. Esq. he was not a little surprized to obtain actual preferment through Dr. Mr. Thorpe. [10] Of this little academical literary Society the late Samuel Pegge. obtained for Mr. an Account of a Religious House in Canterbury. Bart. Pegge had. both of which were conferred by Dr. It was natural that he should now look to employment in his profession. possessed a particular History in MS. for a few months. at Sundrich in Kent. Bishop of Norwich. We have said _unsolicited_. In 1739. Pegge appears in a more public literary body. An Account of the Endowment of the Vicarage of Westfield in Sussex. 1731. at the moment when the Living was conferred.--among the Members of the Gentlemen's Society at Spalding. On his return. his Life of Archbishop Kempe was in forwardness for press. that Mr. found a Patron. to Leyden. Cross. in the hands of Sir Peter Webster. in the course of the preceding summer (unknown to Dr. Lynch) taken a little tour. unsolicited. and. William Baker. as will appear. Pegge. than a _reward_ for so short a service of these Cures. to which he contributed some papers which will be noticed below[11]. agreeably to his wishes. of which the Doctor was then Master. Pegge preferred Sundrich. In the same year. because. Mr. M. which he held till Dr. Mr. [11] In 1733. and he solicited assistance for it from MSS. Lynch. Within a few months after this period. Account of the Amphitheatre in the Garden of the Nuns of Fidelite at Angers: the arena 150 feet diameter. Dr. 1730. not noticed before. B. and. on which charge he entered at Lady-day 1730. who had married a daughter of Archbishop Wake. his conjectures on which were approved by Mr. with a Fellow Collegian (John Stubbing. and in his Principal. John Lynch (afterwards [1733] Dean of Canterbury). Pegge had more reason to expect a _reproof_ from his Principal. in Lincolnshire. the Vicarage of Godmersham (cum Challock). with layers of Roman brick and stone 3 or 4 feet asunder. Lynch exchanged. The case was. very unexpectedly. soon afterwards. in July 1729. EDIT. In 1734. outer wall 20 feet thick. in the February following. then a medical pupil under Boerhaave). that Rectory for Bishopsbourne. M. leaving his Curacy to the charge of some of the neighbouring Clergy. by Richard second Bishop of Chichester. or the Chaplainship of St. 1249. he sent them a critical letter on the name and town of Wye.

and his little cabinet of Coins grew in proportion. Mr. Vitam æternam et beatam fidenter hic sperat. at Godmersham. and most conspicuously. uxor Samuelis Pegge Vicarii hujus parochiæ. into his Native County. to which he was always assiduously attentive. nec erit frustra. by which two assemblages (so scarce among Country Gentlemen in general) he was qualified to pursue those collateral studies. who. Pegge's destinations. and Jane. who married Benjamin Thompson. and independent property." This event entirely changed Mr. Rector of Sutton cum Duckmanton. of whom hereafter]. Pegge printed while he lived in Kent will be mentioned hereafter. being by much the greatest number hitherto contributed by any individual member of that respectable Society. when we shall enumerate such of his Writings as are most material. either to obtain some piece of preferment. he made himself acceptable to every body. Having an early propensity to the study of Antiquity among his general researches. for he was received into the familiar acquaintance of the best Gentlemen's Families in East Kent. near Chesterfield.Doctor's interest with the Archbishop. both in Derbyshire. Esq. In that valuable collection will be found more than fifty memoirs. Mr. we find that. bears ample testimony of her worth: "MDCCXLVI. Mulier. near Wakefield. M. several of whom he preserved in his correspondence after he quitted the county. of Spital. si qua alia. In returning to the order of time. after his Mother's death. Esq. by whom he had one Son [Samuel. Elizabeth. in the county of York. and one Daughter. 1732) Miss Anne Clarke. the only daughter of Benjamin. in July 1746. by his general knowledge. Pegge. or the smallest suggestion from Mr. till the whole of those of his own standing gave way to fate before him. without neglecting his parochial duties. Pegge had the great misfortune to lose his Wife. Pegge married (April 13. and sister of John Clarke. one of two points was to be carried. To effect this. whose monumental inscription. without disadvantage. Anna Clarke. by whom she had two daughters. and Vicar of South Winfield. where he continued twenty years. Esqrs. in which last he eventually succeeded beyond his immediate expectations. his agreeable conversation. . many of which are of considerable length. _Urban_'s obligations to him in the Gentleman's Magazine) have appeared principally. sine dolo. wife of the Rev. Anna-Katharina. which may be termed the Transactions of the Society of Antiquaries. he here laid the foundation of what in time became a considerable collection of books. who married Robert Jennings. and being allowedly an excellent Classical Scholar. written and communicated by him. These (exclusively of Mr. The few pieces which Mr.A. or to exchange the latter for an equivalent. in the _Archæologia_. and his vivacity. Being now in possession of a Living. became eventually heir to his Uncle. tenable in its nature with his Kentish Vicarage. of Stanley. for he now zealously meditated on some mode of removing himself. Pegge was resident in Kent. John Bourne. While Mr.

Esq. Pegge was personally known as a Derbyshire man (though he had so long resided in Kent). the sixth Baronet of that Family. before he found an opportunity of effectually removing himself into Derbyshire. Sir Edward's personal knowledge of Mr. after he had resisted considerable offers . in March 1751. Dr. (the principal resident Gentleman in the parish of Brampton) solicited.We are now come to a new epoch in the Doctor's life. who died Dec. the proposal of removing from Godmersham to Surrenden (Sir Edward's mansion-house) to superintend Mr. if it could have been obtained. 1798. till Mr. Pegge in the centre of his early acquaintance in that County. [12] Afterwards Sir Edward Dering. but there is an interval of a few years to be accounted for. Pegge being a stranger. 8. On the other hand. Sir Edward had no opportunity. added to the Family situation of the latter. It became vacant in 1747. to whom. Mr. Thomas Cheyney. and himself reduced to a life of solitude. would not have totally estranged him from his Friends in the South of England. mutually induced the former to offer. Pegge. being tenable with his Kentish living. in which capacity he continued about a year and a half. the Right Rev. Dering was admitted of St. Fletcher. and. as often as opportunity served. of Brampton Moor. finding Mr. recourse to a friend. The patronage of Brampton is in the Dean of Lincoln. Mr. near Chesterfield. and. The first vacant living in Derbyshire which offered itself was the Perpetual Curacy of _Brampton_. His Wife being dead. Pegge's propensity to a removal so very strong. Pegge to the living. by any patronage of his own. his Children young and at school. would have placed Mr. who. in consequence. think himself sufficiently in the Duke's favour to make a direct address for his Grace's recommendation to the Dean of Lincoln. his Grace's interest with the Dean of Lincoln: who. and to preserve him in the circle of their common Friends. having always paid his respects to his Grace on the public days at Chatsworth. The mode he proposed was through the influence of William the third Duke of Devonshire. Bishop of Dromore. and the latter to accept. however. a situation peculiarly eligible in many respects. Pegge did not. the application was necessarily to be made in a circuitous manner. though the object so fully met his wishes in moderation. One point now seemed to be gained towards his re-transplantation into his native soil. so ungenial to his temper (though no man was better qualified to improve his leisure). Sir Edward Dering. He had. nominated Mr. in conjunction with Godfrey Watkinson. to whom Mr. Sir Edward reluctantly pursued every possible measure to effect it. when on a visit in Derbyshire. to qualify him more competently for the University. and obtained. Dr. Dering's education for a short time. Cambridge. permanently to gratify Mr. which Dignity was then filled by the Rev. Bart. At this moment Sir Edward chose to place his Son[12] under the care of a private Tutor at home. and in every other point. John's College. therefore. then in England. and he was obliged to employ more than a double mediation before his name could be mentioned to the Dean. Pegge. he found relief by the kind offer of his valuable Friend.

for he had not the least chance of obtaining any preferment. the result of Mr. where. under the Bishop's own hand. 1758. was the acrimony with which the Parishioners pursued their visionary pretensions to the Patronage. on the fullest and most incontestable evidence. Whatever inducements the Parish might have to support Mr. to the confusion and indelible disgrace of those Parishioners who espoused so bad a cause. and was patronised by the Parish. which was principally effected by Mr. He had a desperate game to play. Ellis so strenuously we do not say. without the intermediate nomination of the _Dean_ in due form. and too well known (even to the leading opponents to the Dean). dated Oct. could with decency advance him in the church. This revocation is contained in a letter addressed to Mr. a man of a reprobate character. These measures were principally fomented by the son of the last Incumbent. whose interest the deluded part of the mal-contents of the parish so warmly espoused. Pegge's expectations was far from answering his then present wishes. who wanted the living. and was not revoked till late in the year 1758. the Dean's _right of Patronage_ was controverted by the Parishioners of Brampton. when the right of Patronage was tried in 1748. was owing to an ill-judged indulgence of some former Deans of Lincoln. to admit of the least personal dislike in any respect. when he thought himself secure by the Dean's nomination. Henceforward. But. and a disgrace to his profession. and that nothing was wanting but the Bishop's licence. that. The evidence produced by the Parish went to prove. for his character was in all points too well established. he no doubt felt a satisfaction that he should soon be enabled to live in Derbyshire. Pegge's intercession with his Lordship. from an entry . as no individual Patron. The ground of this claim. Ellis's distressed circumstances. with a promise of future good behaviour. after all this assiduity and anxiety (as if _admission_ and _ejection_ had pursued him a second time). then. they had the audacity to carry the cause to an Assize at Derby. and occasionally visit his friends in Kent. stating Mr. a verdict was given in favour of the Dean. though they manifestly did not arise from any pique to one Dean more than to another. Pegge. who brought forward a Nominee of their own. he was soon after suspended by the Bishop from officiating at Brampton[13]. and visiting his friends in Derbyshire. [13] The Bishop's Inhibition took place soon after the decision of the cause at Derby. nevertheless. supported by the most undaunted effrontery. for. 30. which in its nature was tenable with Godmersham in Kent.had he continued in Kent. and thus did he think himself virtually in possession of a living in Derbyshire. So great. and his having made a proper submission. and we are decidedly clear that they were not founded in any aversion to Mr. who had occasionally permitted the Parishioners to send an Incumbent directly to the _Bishop_ for his licence. To complete the detail of the fate of this man. the Rev. who was even superficially acquainted with his _moral_ character alone. not content with the decision of the Jury (which was highly respectable) in favour of the Dean. Seth Ellis. Pegge as an individual. on the part of the Parish. instead of residing in that county.

Littlewood. whereby the verdict was given in favour of the Dean. Mr. and he was actually licensed by the Bishop of Lichfield. Pegge at the very moment. The Parish accompts were accordingly brought into court at Derby. _Mower_ swore that. but such an one as was detected by a living and credible witness. without the intervention of any other person or party. procured an exchange of his Deanry of Lincoln with the . for we believe that this transaction (uninteresting as it may be to the publick in general) is one of very few instances on record which has an exact parallel. In corroboration of Mr. and inserted the words "to _Lichfield_ to the BISHOP. August 28. _Cheyney_. attended to qualify at Brampton. [14] We believe this witness to have been _George Mower_. but was repelled _by violence_ from entering the Church.made nearly half a century before in the accompts kept by the Churchwardens. Cheyney was unexpectedly transferred from the Deanry of _Lincoln_ to the Deanry of _Winchester_. Dean of Lincoln. Mower's testimony. The intermediate points of the contest. in proof of their title. five shillings." in the place of the words "to _Lincoln_ to the DEAN. that they had _elected_ Mr. when Dr. had hitherto. Pegge. in the usual manner. nominated a successor to the Bishop of the Diocese for his licence. as far as it regards the contest between the _Dean of Lincoln_ and the _Parish of Brampton_. Littlewood[14]. Esq. In consequence of this decision and the Bishop's licence. being a Native of Winchester." Thus their own evidence was turned against the Parishioners. on Sunday. and which did not prominently appear to the world. Mower saw it. for going _to Lincoln to the Dean_ concerning Mr. an article in the Parish accompts and expenditures of that year was adverted to. which (we may observe by the way) he solicited on motives similar to those which actuated Mr. to uphold this asseveration. a Mr. In this state matters rested regarding the Patronage of Brampton. Cheyney. wherein there appeared not only a palpable erasement. on a vacancy in the year 1704. were interruptions and unpleasant impediments which arose in the course of this tedious process. Pegge was more peculiarly concerned. of Wood-seats. was at the sole expence of the suit respecting the right of Patronage. had clumsily altered the parish accompt-book. when Mr. an application was made by the Parish to the _Dean of Lincoln_ in favour of the Rev. for. Littlewood. 1748. and. who served the office of Sheriff in 1734. Mr. He had been nominated to the Perpetual Curacy of Brampton by Dr. and which. not suspecting that the contest could go any farther. or to collateral circumstances. and not the _Deans of Lincoln_. on a vacancy. ran thus: "Paid William Wilcoxon. and not a moment's doubt remained but that the patronage rested with the DEAN _of Lincoln_. in this county. We have related this affair without a strict adherence to chronological order as to facts. for Dr. in which Mr. that the _Parishioners_. for the sake of preserving the narrative entire." The Parishioners had before alleged.

Rev. Dr. William George, Provost of Queen's college, Cambridge, for whom the Deanry of Winchester was intended by the Minister on the part of the Crown. Thus Mr. Pegge's interests and applications were to begin _de novo_ with the Patron of Brampton; for, his nomination by Dr. Cheyney, in the then state of things, was of no validity. He fell, however, into liberal hands; for his activity in the proceedings which had hitherto taken place respecting the living in question had rendered fresh advocates unnecessary, as it had secured the unasked favour of Dr. George, who not long afterwards voluntarily gave him the Rectory of _Whittington_, near Chesterfield, in Derbyshire; into which he was inducted Nov. 11, 1751, and where he resided for upwards of 44 years without interruption[15]. [15] Dr. George's letter to Mr. Pegge on the occasion has been preserved, and is conceived in the most manly and generous terms. On account of the distance, Mr. Pegge then residing in Kent, the Dean was so obliging as to concert matters with Bishop (Frederick) Cornwallis, who then sat at Lichfield, that the living might _lapse_ without injury to Mr. Pegge, who therefore took it, in fact, from his Lordship by _collation_. Though Mr. Pegge had relinquished all farther pretensions to the living of _Brampton_ before the cause came to a decision at Derby, yet he gave every possible assistance at the trial, by the communication of various documents, as well as by his personal evidence at the Assize, to support the claim of the new Nominee, the Rev. John Bowman, in whose favour the verdict was given, and who afterwards enjoyed the benefice. Here then we take leave of this troublesome affair, so nefarious and unwarrantable on the part of the Parishioners of _Brampton_; and from which PATRONS of every description may draw their own inferences. Mr. Pegge's ecclesiastical prospect in Derbyshire began soon to brighten; and he ere long obtained the more eligible living of _Whittington_. Add to this that, in the course of the dispute concerning the Patronage of Brampton, he became known to the Hon. and Right Rev. Frederick (Cornwallis) Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry; who ever afterwards favoured him not only with his personal regard, but with his patronage, which extended even beyond the grave, as will be mentioned hereafter in the order of time. We must now revert to Mr. Pegge's old Friend Sir Edward Dering, who, at the moment when Mr. Pegge decidedly took the living of _Whittington_, in Derbyshire, began to negotiate with his Grace of Canterbury (Dr. Herring), the Patron of _Godmersham_, for an exchange of that living for something tenable with Whittington. The Archbishop's answer to this application was highly honourable to Mr. Pegge: "Why," said his Grace, "will Mr. Pegge leave my Diocese? If he will continue in Kent, I promise you, Sir Edward, that I will give him preferment to his satisfaction[16]." [16] Mr. Pegge became known, at least by name, to Dr. Herring, when Archbishop of York, by an occasional Sermon (which will be adverted to among Mr. Pegge's writings), on the publication whereof his Grace sent him a letter in handsome terms. When the Archbishop was

translated to Canterbury, Mr. Pegge was, most probably, personally known to him as the Diocesan. No allurements, however, could prevail; and Mr. Pegge, at all events, accepted the Rectory of _Whittington_, leaving every other pursuit of the kind to contingent circumstances. An exchange was, nevertheless, very soon afterwards effected, by the interest of Sir Edward with the _Duke of Devonshire_, who consented that Mr. Pegge should take his Grace's Rectory of _Brinhill_[17] in Lancashire, then luckily void, the Archbishop at the same time engaging to present the _Duke's_ Clerk to _Godmersham_. Mr. Pegge was accordingly inducted into the Rectory of _Brindle_, Nov. 23, 1751, in less than a fortnight after his induction at _Whittington_[18]. [17] More usually called _Brindle_. [18] The person who actually succeeded to the Vicarage of Godmersham was the Rev. _Aden Ley_, who died there in 1766. In addition to this favour from the Family of _Cavendish_, Sir Edward Dering obtained for Mr. Pegge, almost at the same moment, a _scarf_ from the _Marquis of Hartington_ (afterwards the fourth Duke of Devonshire), then called up to the House of Peers, in June 1751, by the title of Baron _Cavendish_ of _Hardwick_. Mr. Pegge's appointment is dated Nov. 18, 1751; and thus, after all his solicitude, he found himself possessed of two livings and a dignity, honourably and indulgently conferred, as well as most desirably connected, in the same year and in the same month; though this latter circumstance may be attributed to the voluntary lapse of Whittington[19]. After Mr. Pegge had held the Rectory of _Brinhill_ for a few years, an opportunity offered, by another obliging acquiescence of the Duke _of Devonshire_, to exchange it for the living of _Heath_ (alias _Lown_), in his _Grace's_ Patronage, which lies within seven miles of Whittington: a very commodious measure, as it brought Mr. Pegge's parochial preferments within a smaller distance of each other. He was accordingly inducted into the Vicarage of _Heath_, Oct. 22, 1758, which he held till his death. [19] Soon after the fourth Duke of Devonshire came of age, 1769, finding that he had many friends of his own to oblige, it was suggested to the Senior Chaplains that a resignation would be deemed a compliment by his Grace. Mr. Pegge, therefore (among some others), relinquished his Chaplainship, though he continued to wear the _scarf_. This was the last favour of the kind which Mr. Pegge _individually_ received from the DUKES OF DEVONSHIRE; but the Compiler of this little Memoir regarding his late Father, flatters himself that it can give no offence to that Noble Family if he takes the opportunity of testifying a sense of his own _personal_ obligations to William the fourth DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE, when his Grace was _Lord Chamberlain_ of his MAJESTY'S _Household_. As to Mr. Pegge's other preferments, they shall only be briefly mentioned in chronological order; but with due regard to his obligations. In the year 1765 he was presented to the Perpetual Curacy of _Wingerworth_, about six miles from. Whittington, by the Honourable and Reverend James _Yorke_, then _Dean of Lincoln_, afterwards _Bishop of Ely_, to whom he was but little known but by name and character. This appendage was rendered the more acceptable

to Mr. Pegge, because the seat of his very respectable Friend Sir Henry Hunloke, Bart. is in the parish, from whom, and all the Family, Mr. Pegge ever received great civilities. We have already observed, that Mr. Pegge became known, insensibly as it were, to the Honourable and Right Reverend Frederick (_Cornwallis_), Bishop of Lichfield, during the contest respecting the living of _Brampton_; from whom he afterwards received more than one favour, and by whom another greater instance of regard was intended, as will be mentioned hereafter. Mr. Pegge was first collated by his Lordship to the Prebend of _Bobenhull_, in the Church of _Lichfield_, in 1757; and was afterwards voluntarily advanced by him to that of _Whittington_ in 1763, which he possessed at his death[20]. [20] It is rather a singular coincidence, that Mr. Pegge should have been at the same time _Rector_ of _Whittington_ in _Derbyshire_ and _Prebendary_ of _Whittington_ in _Staffordshire_, both in one Diocese, under different patronages, and totally independent of each other. These two _Whittingtons_ are likewise nearly equidistant from places of the name of _Chesterfield_. In addition to the Stall at Lichfield, Mr. Pegge enjoyed the Prebend of _Louth_, in the Cathedral of _Lincoln_, to which he had been collated (in 1772) by his old acquaintance, and Fellow-collegian, the late Right Reverend John _Green_, Bishop of that See[21]. [21] The Prebend of _Louth_ carries with it the _Patronage_ of the Vicarage of the _Parish_ of _Louth_, to which Mr. Pegge presented more than once. On the first vacancy, having no Clerk of his own, he offered the nomination to his Benefactor Bishop _Green_; at the last, he gave the living, uninfluenced, to the present Incumbent, the Rev. _Wolley Jolland_, son of the Recorder of Louth. This seems to be the proper place to subjoin, that, towards the close of his life, Mr. Pegge declined a situation for which, in more early days, he had the greatest predilection, and had taken every active and modest measure to obtain--a _Residentiaryship_ in the Church of _Lichfield_. Mr. Pegge's wishes tended to this point on laudable, and almost natural motives, as soon as his interest with the Bishop began to gain strength; for it would have been a very pleasant interchange, at that period of life, to have passed a portion of the year at _Lichfield_. This expectation, however, could not be brought forward till he was too far advanced in age to endure with tolerable convenience a removal from time to time; and therefore, when the offer was realized, he declined the acceptance. The case was literally this: While Mr. Pegge's elevation in the Church of _Lichfield_ rested solely upon Bishop (_Frederick_) Cornwallis, it was secure, had a vacancy happened: but his Patron was translated to _Canterbury_ in 1768, and Mr. Pegge had henceforward little more than personal knowledge of any of his Grace's Successors at _Lichfield_, till the Hon. and Right Reverend _James_ Cornwallis (the Archbishop's Nephew) was consecrated Bishop of that See in 1781. On this occasion, to restore the balance in favour of Mr. Pegge,

then one of the Residentiaries of St. Pegge soon afterwards received a very friendly invitation from his _Grace_. and sometimes corresponded with him on indifferent matters. The little occasional transactions which primarily brought Mr. nevertheless. another old College-acquaintance. as we recollect. Pegge at the time of the vacancy of the Stall. _Seward_. Pegge's London-host for a few years. _Cornwallis_. After Dr. As matters stood. for a few years. dependent on the possession of certain _Prebendal Houses_. in this case. Dr. which took place about Easter 1783. Thomas _Seward_. removed every obstruction. who consequently waited upon his Lordship for a fortnight in the Autumn. where. he was entertained by his old Friend and Fellow-collegian the Rev. on the demise of the _Archbishop_. to constitute the eligibility which is vested in the _Dean_ and _Chapter_. Chancellor of Lincoln. [22] It was said at the time. to Mr. as a _sine quâ non_. then possessed by the Rev. as Mr. the _Rector of_ _Whittington_. from that time. S. . he adopted an expedient to change the scene. but highly gratifying. in 1790[22]. the Bishop of Lincoln. _Cornwallis_. that this piece of preferment was so peculiar in its tenure. during several years. however. to whom. fell into the hands of the Hon. Mrs. the present Bishop of Lichfield (_Dr. James Cornwallis_). became Mr. _John Green_. at the death of Mr. &c. Mr. till the _Archbishop's_ decease. had the _See_ of _Lichfield_ been possessed by a Bishop inimical to the Archbishop or to Mr. his Relict and Executrix. who fulfilled his _Grace's_ original intention in the most friendly manner. It was. Taylor's death (1766). after which the Bishop did him the honour to invite him to make an annual visit at Eccleshall-castle as an _Acquaintance_. Pegge had attended his Lordship two or three times on affairs of business. such Bishop might have defeated his _Grace's_ intentions. Mr. for. he annually paid his respects at _Lambeth-palace_. till the Bishop was translated to the Metropolitical See of _Canterbury_ in 1768. Dr. Pegge's warm Friend. Pegge paid these visits at Eccleshall-castle. (the learned Editor of Demosthenes and Lysias). Pegge. till _Archbishop Cornwallis_ began to reside at Lambeth. as will be seen. A. F. _Options_ being personal property. Pegge within the notice of Bishop (_Frederick_) Cornwallis at Eccleshall-castle led his Lordship to indulge him with a greater share of personal esteem than has often fallen to the lot of a private Clergyman so remotely placed from his Diocesan. The compliance with this overture was not only very flattering. several years before even the tender of this preferment could take place. Pegge's interest. _John Taylor_. _Seward_. likewise. _Seward_ was living. for a month in the Spring. Paul's. After this. About the same time that Mr. as his _Grace_ of _Canterbury_ died in 1783.the Archbishop had the kindness to make an _Option_ of the _Residentiaryship_ at _Lichfield_. Mr. on the death of Mr. co-operating with the Dowager Mrs. as not to be strictly _optionable_. his Grace did not forget his humble friend. This event superseded the visits to Bishop _Green_. as one of the Parochial Clergy. which are in the absolute disposal of the Bishop. by a journey to London (between Easter and Whitsuntide). while Mr. The qualifications of the Residentiaries in this Cathedral we understand to be singular.

as. _Knight_ given in the Gentleman's Magazine. Esq. which Dr. that the Plate was not finished till 1785. who had been intimate with him very nearly half a century. This Print. Mr. On some of these occasions he passed for a week into _Kent_. till the death of his much-honoured Friend. The Work went on so slowly. &c." We cannot in any degree subscribe to the resemblance.All these were delectable visits to a man of Mr. and relieved him from the _tædium_ of a life of much reading and retirement. Pegge's excursions to London terminated. Impensis. that it is Dr. was drawn by Mr.A. of Godmersham. and he felt that the lot of a long life had fallen upon him. _now_ carries with it something of a publication. Æt. for a considerable number of the impressions were dispersed after Mr.M. however. Pegge. very much against his inclination. Pegge's literary labours[24]. we may also attribute those ample Collections. when Mr. among such of his old Associates as were then living. Arm. and merits from the world much obligation. to sit for a Drawing. and the Print is often found prefixed to copies of "The Forme of Cury. but the _second_ class of his numerous distant connexions. the print is well engraved.D. he often had opportunities of meeting old _Friends_. and of that _Cathedral_ in general." a work which will hereafter be specified among Mr. 81. changed his ideas. We ought on no account to omit the mention of some _extra-visits_ which Mr. p. in 1781[23]. towards a History of the _Bishops_ of _Lincoln_. at _Buckden_. Pegge's _chef-d'úuvre_. Sir Christopher Pegge. Esq. &c. Pegge. MDCCLXXXV. persuaded him. and of making new _literary acquaintance_. having survived not only the _first_. A. F. in the course of these journeys. whose conversation was adapted to every company. it was at first only intended for. from which an octavo _Print_ of him might be engraved by Basire. vol. were sold by auction. Pegge's turn of mind. the particular Friends of Mr. . [23] The very just character of Mr. et ex Voto. Gustavi Brander. To these interviews with Bishop _Green_. when his Library. S. and distributed among. Bishop of _Lincoln_. With the decease of Archbishop Cornwallis (1783). Pegge's current age was 81. Sibi et Amicis. Pegge occasionally made to Bishop _Green_.S. and who enjoyed _the world_ with greater relish from not living in it every day. the elder _Thomas Knight_. _Pegge_. to which we are indebted for the Life of that excellent Prelate _Robert Grosseteste_. the late _Gustavus Brander_. however. in such excursions. &c. Pegge left among his MSS. and principal acquaintance there. [24] This Print has the following inscription: "SAMUEL PEGGE. His old familiar Friends. There is. and former Parishioner. A. While on one of these visits at Lambeth. The society with which he intermixed. Being a _private Print_. S. LI. though. _Brander_'s death. Brander and Mr. 147. who entertained an uncommon partiality for Mr. A.--a work upon which we shall only observe here. were gathered to their fathers. a three-quarters portrait in oil (in the possession of his grandson.

for their extended civilities. Those who knew Dr. after exhibiting it to his Patrons and Friends. &c.--A faithful Engraving from Mr. being inserted in several Provincial Newspapers. Pegge. which were chiefly what may be called Library-books. addressed to the Rev. the rest were added by his Son. that it had a due effect upon the Clergy and Laity of the Diocese in . Elias Needham. in writing. During Mr. consisted of Summer visits at Eccleshall-castle to the present Bishop (_James_) Cornwallis. he directed. good reasons to believe that. not only contributed handsomely. with the time of which we are speaking. to the honour of Mr. about fourscore of these volumes. made a present of it to Mr. by testamentary instructions. [25] He specified. being a likeness uncommonly striking. Pegge being an old gentleman well known. Pegge. Pegge's life after the year 1783 was. and have had an opportunity of comparing the Portrait with the Print. Pegge. he would have succeeded to that dignity. Needham. who. Needham's Portrait is prefixed to the present Volume. the Portrait was taken at the request of Mr. The remainder of Mr. had the late _Archdeacon_ of _Derby_ (Dr. reduced to a state of quietude. as a Prebendary. and drew up. The Letter. the Minister of All Saints (the principal) Church in Derby. as it was not in his power to make any individual return (in his life-time) to his Patrons. but not without an extensive correspondence with the world in the line of Antiquarian researches: for he afterwards contributed largely to the _Archæologia_. Pegge's involuntary retreat from his former associations with the more remote parts of the Kingdom. M. in a great measure. who (if we may be allowed the word) _adopted_ Mr. A subscription was accordingly begun by the Members of the Church. was so well seconded by Mr. and a native of Derbyshire. Hope. Henry Egerton) died at an earlier stage of Mr. which will hereafter be enumerated. by Mr. which attended Mr. that no two pictures of the same person. and have. This part of the Memoir ought not to be dismissed without observing. Pegge. The only periodical variation in life. Pegge after the Archbishop's death. and the Bibliotheca_ Topographica Britannica_. when Mr.and much valued by him) painted in 1788. he was actively awake to such objects in which he was implicated nearer home. recommending the promotion of this public design. Early in the year 1788 material repairs and considerable alterations became necessary to the Cathedral of _Lichfield_. the two Bishops of _Lichfield_ of the name of _Cornwallis_. but projected. Pegge as his guest so long as he was able to undertake such journeys. a young Provincial Artist. that _one hundred volumes_ out of his Collection of Books should be given to the Library of the Cathedral of _Lichfield_[25]. will agree with us. We have already seen an instance of his Lordship's kindness in the case of the intended _Residentiaryship_. Dr. as may appear to those who will take the trouble to compare the dates of his Writings. that. Pegge's life. supported by many Lay-gentlemen of the neighbourhood. which does the Painter great credit. with a countenance of much character. Charles Hope. can both be true resemblances. taken nearly at the same point of life. &c. A. a circular letter. moreover. and so unlike each other.

for which Mr. in plain and unaffected language. Pegge. M. with advice for their reformation. unobservedly. from the adjoining common (_Whittington-Moor_). on Nov. there can be no doubt but that he might have obtained the superior degree of D. Pegge been desirous of the title of _Doctor_ in earlier life. with a view and plan of the house by Major Rooke (reprinted in Gent. after the abdication of King James II. It must be remembered that this honour was not conferred on an unknown man (_novus homo_). upon the bare suggestion. John D'Arcy. to concert measures. which was printed at the request of the Gentlemen of the Committee who conducted the ceremonial[29]. for promoting the succession of King William III. Had Mr.--Mr. at the time. C. of name and character. from Abp. It may be thought a little extraordinary that he should accept an advanced Academical Degree so late in life. vol. by the University of OXFORD. dated May 29. 1788. p. by a sudden shower of rain. This year (1788). the Church being crowded with strangers. taking for his text Psalm cxviii. Oxford. which accidentally bore a subordinate _local_ part in the History of the _Revolution.] The celebration of this Jubilee. D. L._ for it was to an inconsiderable public-house _there_ (still called the _Revolution-house_) that the Earl of Devonshire. the Lord Delamere. but on a _Master of Arts of_ CAMBRIDGE. and. when it was first proposed to him. as he wanted no such aggrandizement in the Learned World. and the 5th of November N. was honourable to the little Parish of _Whittington_. In the year 1791 (July 8) Mr. Cornwallis. [30] Mr. on Dr. [29] This solemnity took place on _Wednesday_. he put a _negative_ upon it. was his birth-day. S. was on a visit to his Grandson. then lately elected Reader of Anatomy at Christ Church. [27] See the Appendix to this Memoir. Pegge was created D. Pegge preached a Sermon[28]. the Earl of Danby. LIX. Mag. and the Hon.[26] [26] In this year he printed "A Narrative of what passed at the Revolution-house at Whittington in the year 1688. the Sermon was repeated to the parochial congregation on the following _Sunday_. the blessings resulting from the event here commemorated to Church and State. D. or among his usual Associates. Lee's foundation. and had _voluntarily_ closed all his expectations of ecclesiastical elevation. were driven for shelter. during his familiar and domestic conversations with his Grace at Lambeth-palace. [28] In this Discourse the venerable Preacher. when he entered into the 85th year of his age. where they had met by appointment.general. and then points out the corruptions of the present age. We are confident that he was not ambitious of the compliment. at the Commemoration. the present Sir Christopher Pegge. on which day Mr. disguised as farmers." [See the Appendix. 124). for. memorable as a Centenary in the annals of England. 1788. and of acknowledged literary merit[30]. 24. which proceeded from his Church to Chesterfield in grand procession. . apposite to the occasion. 5. Pegge received a written acknowledgment of thanks from the present Bishop of _Lichfield_. first recites. is related at large in the Gentleman's Magazine of that month[27]. Pegge was then very old.

14. continued unimpaired through a very extended course of life. or more interest and enliven every company by general conversation. from motives of idleness. He left in his closet considerably more than 230 Sermons composed by himself. few men could relax with more ease and cheerfulness. all which obligations he acknowledged at the end of each such Sermon. over the East window with the following short inscription: . and even _that_ did not happen till within a few years of his death. and nearly till he had reached "_ultima linea rerum_:" for he never had any chronical disease. yet these applications. after a fortnight's illness. in the 92d year of his age. as appears by collation) from the printed works of eminent Divines. and had formed them upon the best models within his observation. Vigour of mind. and suited only to a small Church. his better qualities appeared most conspicuously in private circles. Feb. which he pursued with. did not injure his health. and in his own hand-writing. and of literary acquirements in general. Pegge's manners were those of a gentleman of a liberal education. were not taken in his early days. In his clerical functions he was exemplarily correct. and unaffected manner. Having in his early years lived in free intercourse with many of the principal and best-bred Gentry in various parts of Kent. in the chancel at _Whittington_. intelligible. These liberties. appealing to the understandings rather than to the passions of his Auditory. not entrusting his parochial duties at _Whittington_ (where he constantly resided) to another (except to the neighbouring Clergy during the excursions before-mentioned) till the failure of his eye-sight rendered it indispensably necessary. by associating with respectable company. &c. As he did not mix in business of a public nature.--could enter occasionally into temperate convivial mirth with a superior grace. but gradually and gently sunk into the grave under the weight of years. where a mural tablet of black marble (a voluntary tribute of filial respect) has been placed. to favour the fatigue of composition. his Discourses from the pulpit were of the didactic and exhortatory kind. by expounding the Holy Scriptures in a plain. 1796. His voice was naturally weak. for he possessed an equanimity which obtained the esteem of his Friends. his love of Antiquities. and (as we have seen) by forming honourable attachments. Pegge's life was sedentary. As a Preacher. who had seen much of the world. Though Dr. he was heard to a disadvantage.). or better understood the _desipere in loco_. His habits of life were such as became his profession and station. great ardour and perseverance. and an affability which procured the respect of his dependents.Dr. In his avocations from reading and retirement. from his turn to studious retirement. according to his own desire. besides a few (not exceeding 26) which he had transcribed (in substance only. or other attachments--but later in life. however. so that when he occasionally appeared before a large Congregation (as on Visitations. he ever afterwards preserved the same attentions. in proportion to his bodily strength. He was buried.

wherein all points were matured by close examination and sound judgment[32]. and was elected a Fellow of the SOCIETY of ANTIQUARIES. who had passed the major part of his days in secluded retreats from what is called _the world_. who survived Dr. A _Latin_ Ode on the Death of King George I. 1727. in which year the _Charter_ of _Incorporation_ was granted (in November). D. S. Pegge. . that the biographical history of an individual. for he had a due sense of the _nature_ and _importance_ of his _clerical_ function. Pegge. He had also re-perused the _Classicks_ attentively before he applied much to the _Monkish_ Historians. or which tended to the acquisition of _general knowledge_. N. [32] The first Piece that appears to have been. fol. Feb. of which he possessed a greater share than most men we ever knew. Pegge was then lately elected Fellow of St. Pegge had an early propensity to the pursuit of _Antiquarian_ knowledge. or engaging to private friends. who _now_ survive. will not be sorry to see a modest remembrance of him preserved by this little Memoir. was _Samuel Reynardson_. John's College (the first time) as he signs it "Sam."At the North End of the Altar Table. let it be allowed that every man of acknowledged literary merit. lie the Remains of SAMUEL PEGGE." and had outlived all his more early friends and acquaintance. nevertheless. can afford but little entertainment to the generality of Readers. or engaged in _Antiquarian_ researches. 1751. 1796. [31] The only Member of the Society at the time of its Incorporation. When he obtained allowable leisure to follow _unprofessional_ pursuits. who was inducted to this Rectory Nov. was the best foundation for any literary structure which had not the _Christian Religion_ for its _cornerstone_. Esq. it must be confessed. he had the address to make new ones. and who. cannot but have left many to regret his death. he _attached_ himself more closely to the study of _Antiquities_. and by the accuracy with which he treated every copious subject. in the 92d year of his Age. _Pegge_. b. LL. conveyed by _classical_ Authors. A. 1751. Pegge had exceeded even his "_fourscore_ years and ten. it is humbly hoped. was. 14. It appears that he had read the Greek and Latin _Fathers_ diligently at his outset in life. so long as more essential and _professional_ occupations had a claim upon him. within the Rails. yet he made ample amends by the matter. Though Dr. his reading was principally such as became a _Divine_. Though we will be candid enough to allow that Dr. Though Dr. 11. 14. Pegge's _style_ in general was not sufficiently terse and compact to be called elegant. During the early part of his incumbency at Godmersham in Kent. [Dr. z. _published_ by Dr. however learned. On the other hand. and died Feb. well knowing that a thorough knowledge of the Learning of the _Antients_. in any degree. on the one hand. he never indulged himself materially in it. wherein his name stands enrolled among those of many very respectable and eminently learned men[31]. had he made no other impression. See "Academiæ Cantabrigiensis Luctus" Signature Z." Having closed the scene.

incidentally. Travers. 1746. and dispersed. p. and Wingerworth. Henry Travers. John's-day._ Rev. after the subject was almost worn out. and a fund . the very learned Bp. C. The question engaged several other Writers. entered so late into the lists. with his name prefixed. octavo). preached also at _Canterbury_ Cathedral during the Rebellion. He." p. Sykes had been vicar of Godmersham.B. [This controversy originated from the Rev." See before. T. for an account of Mr. became some years after an _auxiliary_ contribution to Mr. gave rise to the custom of sending such _periodical exercises_ to the then Earl.--A Sermon. 1731. A brief Examination of the Church Catechism. An octavo (of 86 pages). Dr. [The avowed design of the Discourse was. who were followed by Dr. parties in the controversy. Dr. as far as we know. Evang. Thomas Hutchinson. A.--1790. Paul's). when the Doctor was an _under-graduate_ at St. who published "An Enquiry into the Meaning of the Demoniacks in the New Testament" (1737). John i. Dr. Thomas Knight. Div. Pegge. These are the principal _professional_ Publications by Dr. _viz. P. and some others.--An Examination of "The Enquiry into the meaning of Demoniacks in the New Testament. Dr.]--1731. _I_n _T_he _C_hurch _O_f _S_alisbury. of _Godmersham_. to relieve the Editor from some pecuniary embarrassments. A short Paraphrase of the Lord's Prayer (4 pages octavo). Cambridge. a circumstance which." This Sermon attracted the civilities (mentioned in p. and Rev. John's College. _Travers's_ Collection from Dr.]--A Sermon on St. that _two_ Sermons are still annually preached (the one at _Hatfield_. Newcome. His Lordship's Ancestors had been Benefactors to the College. of which we have spoken. B._ 1755. to which ought to be added some short _pastoral_ and _gratuitous_ printed distributions at various times. and the other at _Burleigh)_ by Fellows of the College. Heath. so that _two_ vicars of Godmersham became. [See "Anonymiana. being an enlarged Sermon. and afterwards reprinted and distributed in his three parishes of Whittington. at _Canterbury_ cathedral. though the practice.] A marginal note in Dr. in Derbyshire. Thus much of this Commemoration. Pegge. O. Leonard Twells. 5: "The Light Shineth in Darkness. The _Ode_. does not continue. though it attracted the applause of several competent judges. Soc. Master of St. 170." preached on St." 1739. A Discourse on Confirmation (of 23 pages. Pegge received from _Archbishop_ Herring. preached at _Chesterfield_ previously to the Bishop's triennial Visitation. xiii. 20. in a Letter to the Author.--1767. 327. Pegge. first addressed to his Parishioners of Brindle. P. Esq. xxxi. A." published (with a numerous subscription) by the Rev. O. we presume. Travers's publication tells us. octavo. An _irregular English_ Ode on Joshua vi. that this _Ode_ was an _academical exercise_. for the Use of those who are just arrived at Years of Discretion. remains. Arthur-Ashley Sykes. such as the Rev." The interpretation of this is. _viz. Joh.) which Dr. in Lancashire. and inscribed to his much-respected friend. 1742. I. however. John's. 1753. Rev. Rev. and this publication. p. that his Publication was not much attended to. Coll. Smalbroke. as we believe. jointly with other contemporaries. under the obscure signature of "T. Taylor (late Residentiary of St. which he contributed to a Collection of "Miscellaneous Poems and Translations. William Winston. which we apprehend to have been enjoined by the Benefactor. Pegge's copy of Mr. S. _T_he _P_recentor _A_nd _P_rebendary _O_f _A_lton-_B_orealis. to prove that "Popery was an encouragement to vice and immorality. which was sent to the _Earl_ of _Exeter_. in _Kent_. 1790.

p. shewing it might possibly be part of the Stylus sent by that King. 100. p. [See vol. No. pp. where the subject requires but _one_ bias. p. more than would have displayed itself in any greater work. A Dissertation on the Crane. p. or by the loan of his MSS. [See vol. Wise's Conjecture concerning the famous Jewel of King Alfred further pursued. I. p.--No. to the Monastery at Athelney. Some Observations on an antique Marble of the Earl of Pembroke. Art. scattered up and down in the GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE.--No. II. Hearne in respect of King Alfred's Present to the Cathedrals. XIV. 319. I. or more ready to communicate it. XXXVIII. 319. X.--No. A Copy of a Deed in Latin and Saxon of Odo. 979. XVIII. XXXVI. 155. Derby]. 1. Dissertation on an Anglo-Saxon Jewel. Pegge's several Memoirs printed (by direction of the Council of the Society of Antiquaries) in the Archæologia. IX. The Question considered. 67. I.]--No. Progress. This Question was answered by the Hon. XIII. as a Dish served up at great Tables in England. p. A. as many of his living Friends can testify. Vol. p. p. In his publications he was also equally _disinterested_ as in his private communications. p. Herein we shall proceed as they successively occur in those volumes. 1081. with the sole reserve of a few copies to distribute among his particular Friends[34]. or Instrument of Conveyance.of knowledge. considered. in the Reign of K. Vol. of the Vine in Britain. either _vivâ voce_. XIX. may appear to some Readers. Lisle and Mr.--No. The late use of the Stylus. p. XXV. LV. No. a love of investigation. 53. Vol. Mr. 276. that few men were so liberal in the diffusion of the knowledge which he had acquired. 68. 335. 125. Observations on Dr. as a Charter. Observations on Stone Hammers. XI. It is but justice to say. 124.--No. as being the principal _combined_ work to which he contributed. Bishop of Baieux. p. A succinct and authentic Narrative of the Battle of Chesterfield [co. p.--No. 39. rather than by the times at which the communications themselves were actually read before the Society. p. [33] An accurate list of these detached publications may be seen in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1796. Of the Introduction. they may be called the ruminations of a busy mind. XXXVII. XVI. LVII. for he never. and Condition. 310. with Gregory's Pastorals. On Shoeing of Horses among the Antients. Frivolous as many detached _morsels_. as likewise on the Nature and Kinds of those Horns in general. III. Samuel Foxlow's Horn.--No. which shews an universality of reading. LV. received any _pecuniary_ advantage from any pieces that he printed. Daines Barrington in the 12th article of this volume.--No.--No. whether England formerly produced any Wine from Grapes.]--No. Observations on the Mistakes of Mr. D. Of the Horn. or metalline Pen. p. . p. in Staffordshire. State. No. 1266. p.--No. p. III. committing them all to the press. and _one_ peculiar attention[33]. XXXIV. Some Observations on Mr. Percy's (afterwards Bishop of Dromore) Account of Minstrels among the Saxons. 171. 161. as far as can be recollected. Henry III. The Bull-running at Tutbury. 86. with some Observations thereon. Remarks on Belatucader. Art. p. [34] We shall here specify Mr. 101.

Memoir concerning the Sac-Friars, or _Fratres de Púnitentiâ Jesu Christi_, as settled in England.--No. XIX. p. 132. Ἀlektruόnwn Ἀgώn. A Memoir on Cock-Fighting; wherein the Antiquity of it, as a Pastime, is examined and stated; some Errors of the Moderns concerning it are corrected; and the Retention of it among Christians absolutely condemned and proscribed.--No. XX. p. 151. An Inscription in honour of Serapis, found at York, illustrated.--No. XXXIV. p. 310. A Letter to Dr. Percy (afterwards Bishop of Dromore), on the Minstrels among the antient Saxons, occasioned by some Observations on the Subject printed in the second Volume, p. 100. [In this short Letter, Dr. Pegge very candidly acknowledges that the Bishop had removed all his doubts in the most satisfactory manner, by a more copious discussion of the subject in a subsequent edition, which the Doctor had not seen when he wrote the Memoir in vol. II. p. 100]--No. XXXVI. p. 316. Remarks on the first Noble (coined 18 Edw. III. A. D. 1344) wherein a new and more rational Interpretation is given of the Legend on the Reverse.--No. XLII. p. 371. Observations on two Jewels in the Possession of Sir Charles Mordaunt, Bart. Vol. IV. No. III. p. 29. An Enquiry into the Nature and Cause of King John's Death; wherein it is shewn that it was not effected by Poison.--No. IV. p. 47. Illustrations of a Gold enamelled Ring, supposed to have been the Property of Alhstan, Bishop of Sherburne, with some Account of the State and Condition of the Saxon Jewelry in the more early Ages.--No. VIII. p. 110. Observations on Kits Cotty House in Kent.--No. XVII. p. 190. A Dissertation on a most valuable Gold Coin of Edmund Crouchback, son of King Henry III.--No. XXVI. p. 414. Remarks on the Bones of Fowls found in Christ-church Twynham, Hampshire. Vol. V, No. I. p. 1. Observations on the History of St. George, the Patron Saint of England; wherein Dr. Pettingall's allegorical Interpretation of the Equestrian Figure on the George, and the late Mr. Byrom's Conjecture, that St. George is mistaken for Pope Gregory, are briefly confuted; and the Martyr of Cappadocia, as Patron of England, and of the Order of the Garter, is defended against both. [N. B. Dr. Pegge's Name to this Article is omitted in the Contents to the Volume; but see the Signature, p. 32.]--No. V. p. 95. On the Rudston Pyramidal Stone.--No. VII. p. 101. Remarks on Governor Pownall's Conjecture concerning the Croyland Boundary Stone.--No. XIII. p. 160. An Examination of a mistaken Opinion that Ireland, and [The Isle of] Thanet, are void of Serpents.--No. XXI. p. 224. Observations on the Stone Coffins found at Christ Church [in Hampshire].--No. XXVII. p. 272. An important Historical Passage of Gildas amended and explained.--No. XXXVI. p. 346. The Question discussed concerning the Appearances of the Matrices of so many Conventual Seals.--No. XXXIX. p. 369. Remarks on the ancient Pig of Lead [then] lately discovered in Derbyshire. [The Date is 1777.]--No. XLI. p. 390. The Penny with the name of Rodbertus IV. ascribed to Robert Duke of Normandy, and other Matters relative to the English Coinage, occasionally discussed. Vol. VI. No. VIII. p. 79. Observations on the Plague in England--No. XX. p. 150. The Commencement of the Day among the Saxons and Britons ascertained. Vol. VII. No. II. p. 19. Illustration of some Druidical Remains in the Peak of Derbyshire, drawn by Hayman Rooke, Esq.--No. IX. p. 86. Observations on the present Aldborough Church, in Holderness;

proving that it was not a Saxon Building, as Mr. Somerset [_i. e._ John-Charles Brooke, Esq. Somerset Herald] contends.--No. XIII. p. 131. A Disquisition on the Lows, or Barrows, in the Peak of Derbyshire, particularly that capital British Monument called Arbelows.--No. XVIII. p. 170. Description of a Second Roman Pig of Lead found in Derbyshire, in the Possession of Mr. Adam Wolley, of Matlock, in that County, with Remarks.--No. XXIV. p. 211. Observations on the Chariots of the Antient Britons.--No. XXXVIII. p. 362. Observations on a Seal of Thomas, Suffragan Bishop of Philadelphia. Vol. VIII. No. I. p. 1. A Sketch of the History of the Asylum, or Sanctuary, from its Origin to the final Abolition of it in the Reign of King James I.--No. III. p. 58. Observations on the Stanton Moor Urns, and Druidical Temples.--No. XX. p. 159. A circumstantial Detail of the Battle of Lincoln, A. D. 1217 (1 Henry III). Vol. IX. No. V. p. 45. Description of another [a third] Roman Pig of Lead found in Derbyshire.--No. IX. p. 84. Observations on some Brass Celts, and other Weapons, discovered in Ireland, 1780.--No. XVIII. p. 189. Discoveries on opening a Tumulus in Derbyshire. Vol. X. No. II. p. 17. Derbeiescira Romana.--No. IV. p. 50. Some Observations of the Paintings in Brereton Church.--No. XIX. p. 156. On the hunting of the antient Inhabitants of our Island, Britons and Saxons.--No. XXIII. p. 177. Observations on an antient Font at Burnham-Deepdale, in Norfolk. The following articles appear to have been contributed by Mr. Pegge to that useful and interesting reservoir of British Topographical History, the _Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica; viz._ No. XVII. A Memoir on the Story of Guy Earl of Warwick [1783].--No. XXI. The History and Antiquities of Eccleshal-Manor and Castle, in the County of Stafford; and of Lichfield House in London [1784]. [This Memoir is inscribed to four successive Bishops of Lichfield: the Right Rev. Dr. John Egerton (then Bishop of Durham); Hon. and Right Rev. Dr. Brownlow North, then (and still) Bishop of Winchester; Right Rev. Dr. Hurd, then Bishop of Worcester; and the Hon. and Right Rev. Dr. Cornwallis, the present Bishop of Lichfield, who has done Dr. Pegge the honour to deposit a copy of it among the Archives belonging to that See.--No. XXIV. The Roman Roads (Ikenild-Street and Bath-Way) discovered and investigated through the Country of the Coritani, or the County of Derby; with the Addition of a Dissertation on the Coritani. [1784.]--No. XXV. An Historical Account of that venerable Monument of Antiquity, the Textus Roffensis; including Memoirs of Mr. William Elstob, and his Sister, Mrs. Elizabeth Elstob. [1784.]--No. XXVIII. Some Account of that Species of Prelates formerly existing in England, usually called "Bishops _in Partibus Infidelium_." [1784.] [The article before us is combined with some others to consolidate what has been written on the subject. It begins with a Letter from the Rev. Thomas Brett, LL. D. on Suffragan Bishops in England, extracted from Drake's Antiquities of York (p. 539), which is followed by a Memoir on the same Topick from the Rev. Mr. Lewis, of Margate. To these is subjoined Dr. Pegge's Account of "Bishops _in Partibus Infidelium_." [N. B. This Number closes with "A List of the Suffragan Bishops in England, drawn up by the late Rev. Henry Wharton, M.A. and extracted from his MSS. in the Lambeth Library."]--No. XXXII. Sketch of the History of Bolsover and Peak Castles, in the County of Derby (in a Letter to his Grace the Duke of Portland), illustrated with various Drawings by Hayman

Rooke, Esq. [1785].--No. XLI. A Sylloge of the authentic remaining Inscriptions relative to the Erection of our English Churches, embellished with Copperplates. Inscribed to Richard Gough, esq. [1787.] Independent Publications on Numismatical, Antiquarian, and Biographical Subjects: 1756. No. I. "A Series of Dissertations on some elegant and very valuable Anglo-Saxon Remains." [42 pages, 4to. with a Plate.] 1. A Gold Coin in the Pembrochian Cabinet, in a Letter to Martin Folkes, Esq. late President of the Royal Society, and Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. [Dated Godmersham, 1751.] 2. A Silver Coin in the Possession of Mr. John White. [Dated Whittington, 1755.] 3. A Gold Coin in the Possession of Mr. Simpson, of Lincoln, in a Letter to Mr. Vertue. [Dated Godmersham, 1751.] 4. A Jewel in the Bodleian Library. [No place or date.] 5. Second Thoughts on Lord Pembroke's Coin, in a Letter to Mr. Ames, Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries. [Dated Whittington, 1755.] [These Dissertations are prefaced by a Question, candidly debated with the Rev. George North, Whether the Saxons coined any Gold?]--No. II. 1761. "Memoirs of Roger de Weseham, Dean of Lincoln, afterwards Bishop of Lichfield; and the principal Favourite of Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln." [60 pages, 4to.] [This work (as we are told in the title-page) was intended as a prelude to the Life of that most excellent Bishop, Robert Grosseteste; which accordingly appeared (as will be mentioned) in the year 1795. These Memoirs were compiled soon after Dr. Pegge was collated, by Bishop [Frederick] Cornwallis, to the prebend of _Bobenhull_, in the church of Lichfield, 1757, (founded by Bishop Weseham) and gratefully inscribed to his patron the Bishop of Lichfield, and to his friend Dr. John Green, then Dean of Lincoln, as Roger de Weseham had successively filled both those dignities.-- No. III. 1766. "An Essay on the Coins of Cunobelin; in an Epistle to the Right Rev. Bishop of Carlisle [Charles Lyttelton], President of the Society of Antiquaries." [105 pages, 4to.] [This collection of coins is classed in two plates, and illustrated by a Commentary, together with observations on the word _tascia_. N. B. The impression consisted of no more than 200 copies.]--No. IV. 1772. "An Assemblage of Coins fabricated by Authority of the Archbishops of Canterbury. To which are subjoined, Two Dissertations." [125 pages, 4to.] 1. On a fine Coin of Alfred the Great, with his Head. 2. On an Unic, in the Possession of the late Mr. Thoresby, supposed to be a Coin of St. Edwin; but shewn to be a Penny of Edward the Confessor. [An Essay is annexed on the origin of metropolitical and other subordinate mints; with an Account of their Progress and final Determination: together with other incidental Matters, tending to throw light on a branch of the Science of Medals, not perfectly considered by English Medalists.]--No. V. 1772. "Fitz-Stephen's Description of the City of London, newly translated from the Latin Original, with a necessary Commentary, and a Dissertation on the Author, ascertaining the exact Year of the Production; to which are added, a correct Edition of the Original, with the various Readings, and many Annotations." [81 pages, 4to.] [This publication (well known _now_ to have been one of the works of Dr. Pegge) was, as we believe, brought forward at the instance of the Hon. Daines Barrington, to whom it is inscribed. The number of copies printed was 250.]--No. VI. 1780. "The Forme of Cury. A Roll of antient English Cookery, compiled about the Year 1390, Temp. Ric. II. with a copious Index and Glossary." [8vo.] [The curious Roll, of which this is a copy, was the property of the late Gustavus Brander, esq. It is in the hand-writing of the time, a facsimile of which is given facing p. xxxi. of the Preface. The work

Pegge's elucidation of the Roll was finished. Soon after Dr. "The Life of Robert Grosseteste. Jacob . DERBYSHIRE. a Matter hitherto unknown. we shall give (as far as possible) their respective dates. we refer to the Preface for a farther account of it. 2d. to whom it is _dedicated_. and faithfully published from the original MS. Brander's decease. which a literary man can obtain. "Annales Eliæ de Trickenham. The Dependance of this House on that of Welbeck. 1789. Wherein the three following material Points. into a great many hands. "_Anonymiana_. "_Laudatus à laudatis viris_" may peculiarly and deservedly be said of Dr. WHITTINGTON CHURCH." [4to. are clearly established: 1st. but as. and.]--No. That the Founder of it had no hand in the Murder of that Prelate. p. The annexed View was taken in 1789. though it was dedicated to him. Pegge. 1. The greatest honour. together with abundant collateral matter. with the Addition of a copious Index. Supp. Pl." [4to. VIII. in the County of Nottingham.] [Both parts of this publication contain copious annotations by the Editor. to whom it is _inscribed_. _Gent. Printer. Ex Bibliothecâ Ducis Devoniæ. in opposition to vulgar Prejudices. by sale._ _Schnebbelie del. it has fallen. The latter was published by permission of his Grace the Duke of Devonshire. Monachi Ordinis Benedictini. 1809. Mr. 1201. in the County of Derby. Compiled by a late very learned and reverend Divine." [4to. Ten Centuries of Observations on various Authors and Subjects. 1809." To which is added.]--No. 1793. however." [8vo. "An Historical Account of Beauchief Abbey.]--No. Pegge's _contributions_ to various _periodical_ and _contingent_ Publications.] [This Work we have justly called his _chef-d'úuvre_. The respective Prefaces to these pieces will best explain the nature of them. but modesty forbids our enumerating them. 3d. "Compendium Compertorum. John Nichols. for. Mag. distinct from his independent WORKS. 1801. the celebrated Bishop of Lincoln. from its first Foundation to its final Dissolution. [Illustration: WHITTINGTON CHURCH. consequently. that the House was not erected in Expiation of that Crime. Ex Bibliothecâ Lamethanâ.]--The two following works have appeared since the Writer's death: No. VII. or.]] In the following Catalogue we must be allowed to deviate from chronological order._] APPENDIX TO THE PARENTALIA. in addition to the life of an individual. X. IX. is the _eulogies_ of those who possessed equal or more learning than himself. since Mr. II. by the ingenious Mr. as might be exemplified from the frequent mention made of him by the most respectable contemporary writers in the _Archæological_ line. to all which. Brander presented the autograph to the British Museum. The former was communicated by Mr.before us was a _private_ impression. 1789. it comprises much important history of interesting times. That this Abbey did not take its name from the Head of Archbishop Becket. for the sake of preserving Dr.

&c. in the gift of the Dean of Lincoln. to take its products.. timber. Mary at Lincoln but the church of Chesterfield. or Saints Bell. It abounds with all kinds of conveniences for the use of the inhabitants. _Fig. It has a remarkable fine shrill tone. distant from the church and old market-place of Chesterfield about two miles and a half. _Beckering.Schnebbelie. of which I will give the following short but convincing proof. of Whittington Church. between three water-bougets Sable. and I suppose by mutual agreement of the curate of the chapel." No. which is that in use before surnames were common. a martlet. It is very antient." and in his "Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica. In the East window of the church is a small Female Saint. Perhaps it may be as old as the fabrick of the church itself.. as I said._ At the bottom of this window an inscription. and others may be found in Mr. in a pure and excellent air. and. a fess Vaire G. Schnebbelie. the rector of the mother church. This bell. as appears both from the form of the letters. It lies in the road from Chesterfield to Sheffield and Rotherham. and the name (of the donor. Nichols's "History of Hinckley. A. commonly called _The Revolution House_. &c. But whence comes it. Bonteshall. it is said. for such it has been many years? I answer. of whose Church the annexed Plate contains a Drawing by the late Mr. In this window. three or four miles off. which is seen in the annexed view. 27 July. by the then worthy and venerable Rector._ 1 is an inscription on the _Ting-tang_. drawn by Mr. is a small parish of about 14 or 15 hundred acres. The situation is exceedingly pleasant. and the diocesan. but it is certain that chapels of ease have been frequently converted into rectories. Bradley. moreover. . stone. or tabernacle. a very large manor and parish. I neither know how nor when. _Dethick._ 2 is a stone head. and O. from an impression taken in clay. hangs within a stone frame. whence it follows. as Matlock. 1789. Instances of the like emancipation of chapels. that it became a rectory. _Fig. that Whittington must have been once a part both of the rectory and manor of Chesterfield. on a bend S. and yet William Rufus gave no other church in this part of Derbyshire to the church of St. you will say. and the following concise account of it was communicated in 1793. VI. The Dean of Lincoln. Whittington is at this day a parcel of the great and extensive manor of Chesterfield. besides its proximity to a good market. as coal. near the roof on the North side of the church. and transforming them into independent rectories. is Patron of this Rectory. and G. At first it was a Chapel of Ease to Chesterfield. on the outside between the Nave and the Chancel. if the wind be right. though this is very antient. The Church is now a little Rectory. there are several in the county of Derby. "WHITTINGTON. whose roads divide there at the well-known inn _The Cock and Magpye_. Schnebbelie. and is heard._ Cheque A. I suppose). at the top of the church.

p. and died 1413. and very sufficient for this small benefice. John." [35] Both these are engraved in the "Antiquaries Museum. _Barley. by pulling down the West end. WHITTINGTON RECTORY. a chief A. and.Rogero Cric. distant about two miles and a half. and a small orchard. in 1789. "The Parsonage-house at Whittington is a convenient substantial stone building. and G. making a cellar. Barry wavy of 6 A. There is a glebe of about 30 acres belonging to it with a garden large enough for a family. one of my predecessors. and. 1793. his right hand holding a book with the Holy Lamb upon it: and the forefinger of his left hand pointing to the Cross held by the Lamb. this Rectorial house may be esteemed a very delightful habitation. This View was taken also. with the Church to the West. an angel at his left hand sounding a trumpet[35]. I enlarged it. Pegge. Ermine and Gules. Schnebbelie. as uttering his well-known confession: "Behold the Lamb of God." 2. by Mr. and of Bolsover Castle to the West. erected by the Rev. a brew-house. There is a fair prospect of Chesterfield Church. It was. three quatrefoils Argent. Schnebbelie._ SAMUEL PEGGE. and South. a kitchen." from drawings made by Mr. Rector. as I take it. S. spent many happy hours with . or lozengé. is a picture in glass of our Saviour with the five Wounds. accompanied by his late excellent Friend Mr. 1. Roger Criche was rector. at the advanced age of 88. _Jan." Plate XIX.--On a pane of the upper tier of the West window is the portrait of St. 37. then resident in it. East. Gough's "Sepulchral Monuments of Great Britain. Nothing remains of the inscription but Amen." In this Parsonage the Editor of the present Volume. and his slab is engraved in the second volume of Mr. EDIT. with chambers over them. In the upper part of the South window of the Chancel. The garden is remarkably pleasant in respect to its fine views to the North. and a pantry._ This window has been renewed. on a chief indented G. In the South window of the Chancel is. PEGGE. _Eyre. which taketh away the sin of the world[35]. He is buried within the rails of the communion-table. In the Easternmost South window of the nave is A. Gough. on a chevron Sable. when I had been inducted. before which there were other coats and some effigies in it. Thomas Callice. and probably made the window._ Ermine. and the account of it drawn up in 1793 by Dr. on the whole.

upon Whittington. and Properties[40]. [39] Rapin. which he. 258. to consult about the Revolution. and Aston. of the small public-house at Whittington. [37] Kennett. THE REVOLUTION HOUSE. _Gent. is this Nation indebted for the establishment of her rights and liberties at the glorious Revolution. where the Declaration for a free Parliament. 217. and finished their conversation at a public-house there. as that in which it is said the Earl of Devonshire sat. Pegge. The cottage here represented stands at the point where the road from Chesterfield divides into two branches. Kniveton. Gentry. Mag. ROOKE. and Commonalty of the Northern Counties. privately one morning. in which he succeeded: after which. XV. The part assigned to the Earl of Danby was. [Illustration: WHITTINGTON RECTORY. and William Cavendish Earl of Devonshire. and to the concurrence of these Patriots with the proceedings in favour of the Prince of Orange in the West. 28._ _Schnebbelie del." It obtained that name from the accidental meeting of two noble personages. 1688[39]. but a shower of rain happening to fall. Thomas Osborne Earl of Danby. as a middle place between Chatsworth. a third plate is here given. p. from another Drawing by Mr. Moor. 1810. To complete the little series of Views at Whittington more immediately connected with Dr. an ancestor of the present Earl of Stamford and Warrington. [36] It appears. then in agitation[37]. and he tells with equal pleasure. still remaining in it. was also at this meeting. Pl. and derived equal information and pleasure from his instructive conversation. that Lord Delamere. to Sheffield and Rotherham._] 3. 199. Schnebbelie. from traditional accounts. assembled there for the defence of the Laws. and is to this day called _The Plotting Parlour_. the Earl of Devonshire was to take measures at Nottingham. their respective residences. at the head of a number of Gentlemen of Derbyshire. Mr. The old armed chair. how it was visited by his descendants. and the descendants of his associates. which has been handed down to posterity for above a century under the honourable appellation of "The Revolution House.the worthy Rector for several successive years. is shewn by the landlord with particular satisfaction. 1688. II. had signed Nov. The success of these measures is well known. in the year . they removed to the village for shelter. the sign of _The Cock and Pynot_[38]. The room where the Noblemen sat is 15 feet by 12 feet 10. Religion. p. John D'Arcy[36]. was adopted by the Nobility. with a third person. [40] Deering's Nottingham. H. Sep. [38] A Provincial name for a _Magpye_. to surprize York.

1788. Some new rooms, for the better accommodation of customers, were added about 20 years ago. The Duke of LEEDS' own account of his meeting the Earl of DEVONSHIRE and Mr. JOHN D'ARCY[41] at Whittington, in the County of Derby, A. D. 1688. [41] Son and heir of Conyers Earl of Holderness. The Earl of Derby, afterwards Duke of Leeds, was impeached, A.D. 1678, of High Treason by the House of Commons, on a charge of being in the French interest, and, in particular, of being Popishly affected: many, both Peers and Commoners, were misled, and had conceived an erroneous opinion concerning him and his political conduct. This he has stated himself, in the Introduction to his Letters, printed A. 1710, where he says, "That the malice of my accusation did so manifestly appear in that article wherein I was charged to be Popishly affected, that I dare swear there was not one of my accusers that did then believe that article against me." * * * * *

His Grace then proceeds, for the further clearing of himself, in these memorable words, relative to the meeting at Whittington, the subject of this memoir. "The Duke of Devonshire also, when we were partners in the secret trust about the Revolution, and who did meet me and Mr. John D'Arcy, for that purpose, at a town called Whittington, in Derbyshire, did, in the presence of the said Mr. D'Arcy, make a voluntary acknowledgment of the great mistakes he had been led into about me; and said, that both he, and most others, were entirely convinced of their error. And he came to Sir Henry Goodrick's house in Yorkshire purposely to meet me there again, in order to concert the times and methods by which he should act at Nottingham (which was to be his post), and one at York (which was to be mine); and we agreed, that I should first attempt to surprize York, because there was a small garrison with a Governor there; whereas Nottingham was but an open town, and might give an alarm to York, if he should appear in arms before I had made my attempt upon York; which was done accordingly[42]; but is mistaken in divers relations of it. And I am confident that Duke (had he been now alive) would have thanked nobody for putting his prosecution of me amongst the glorious actions of his life." [42] For the Earl of Devonshire's proceedings at Derby and Whittington see Mr. Deering's History of Nottingham, p. 260. Mr. Drake, p. 177 of his Eboracum, just mentions the Earl of Danby's appearance at York. * * * * *

Celebration of the REVOLUTION JUBILEE, at Whittington and Chesterfield, on the 4th and 5th of November, 1788. On Tuesday the 4th instant, the Committee appointed to conduct the Jubilee had a previous meeting, and dined together at the Revolution House in Whittington. His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, Lord Stamford, Lord George and Lord John Cavendish, with several neighbouring Gentlemen, were present. After dinner a subscription

was opened for the erecting of a Monumental Column, in Commemoration of the Glorious Revolution, on that spot where the Earls of Devonshire and Danby, Lord Delamere, and Mr. John D'Arcy, met to concert measures which were eminently instrumental in rescuing the Liberties of their Country from perdition. As this Monument is intended to be not less a mark of public Gratitude, than the memorial of an important event; it was requested, that the present Representatives of the above-mentioned families would excuse their not being permitted to join in the expence. On the 5th, at eleven in the morning, the commemoration commenced with divine service at Whittington Church. The Rev. Mr. Pegge, the Rector of the Parish, delivered an excellent Sermon from the words "This is the day, &c." Though of a great age, having that very morning entered his 85th year, he spoke with a spirit which seemed to be derived from the occasion, his sentiments were pertinent, well arranged, and his expression animated. The descendants of the illustrious houses of Cavendish, Osborne, Boothe, and Darcy (for the venerable Duke of Leeds, whose age would not allow him to attend, had sent his two grandsons, in whom the blood of Osborne and D'Arcy is united); a numerous and powerful gentry; a wealthy and respectable yeomanry; a hardy, yet decent and attentive peasantry; whose intelligent countenances shewed that they understood, and would be firm to preserve that blessing, for which they were assembled to return thanks to Almighty God, presented a truly solemn spectacle, and to the eye of a philosopher the most interesting that can be imagined. After service the company went in succession to view the old house, and the room called by the Anti-revolutionists "The Plotting-Parlour," with the old armed-chair in which the Earl of Devonshire is said to have sitten, and every one was then pleased to partake of a very elegant cold collation, which was prepared in the new rooms annexed to the cottage. Some time being spent in this, the procession began: Constables with long staves, two and two. The Eight Clubs, four and four; _viz_. 1. Mr. Deakin's: Flag, blue, with orange fringe, on it the figure of Liberty, the motto, "The Protestant Religion, and the Liberties of England, we will maintain." 2. Mr. Bluett's: Flag, blue, fringed with orange, motto, "Libertas; quæ sera, tamen respexit inertem." Underneath the figure of Liberty crowning Britannia with a wreath of laurels, who is represented sitting on a Lion, at her feet the Cornucopiæ of Plenty; at the top next the pole, a Castle, emblematical of the house where the club is kept; on the lower side of the flag Liberty holding a Cap and resting on the Cavendish arms. 3. Mr. Ostliff's: Flag, broad blue and orange stripe, with orange fringe; in the middle the Cavendish arms; motto as No. 1. 4. Mrs. Barber's: Flag, garter blue and orange quarter'd, with white fringe, mottoes, "Liberty secured." "The Glorious Revolution 1688."

5. Mr. Valentine Wilkinson's: Flag, blue with orange fringe, in the middle the figure of Liberty; motto as No. 1. 6. Mr. Stubbs: Flag, blue with orange fringe, motto, "Liberty, Property, Trade, Manufactures;" at the top a head of King William crowned with laurel, in the middle in a large oval, "Revolution 1688." On one side the Cap of Liberty, on the other the figure of Britannia; on the opposite side the flag of the Devonshire arms. Mrs. Ollerenshaw's: Flag, blue with orange fringe; motto as No. 1. on both sides. Mr. Marsingale's: Flag, blue with orange fringe; at the top the motto, "In Memory of the Glorious Assertors of British Freedom 1688," beneath, the figure of Liberty leaning on a shield, on which is inscribed, "Revolted from Tyranny at WHITTINGTON 1688;" and having in her hand a scroll with the words "Bill of Rights" underneath a head of King William the Third; on the other side the flag, the motto, "The Glorious Revolter from Tyranny 1688" underneath the Devonshire arms; at the bottom the following inscription, "WILLIELMUS DUX DEVON. Bonorum Principum Fidelis Subditus; Inimicus et Invisus Tyrannis." The Members of the Clubs were estimated 2000 persons, each having a white wand in his hand with blue and orange tops and favours, with the REVOLUTION stamped upon them. The Derbyshire militia's band of music. The Corporation of Chesterfield in their formalities, who joined the procession on entering the town. The Duke of Devonshire in his coach and six. Attendants on horseback with four led horses. The Earl of Stamford in his post chaise and four. Attendants on horseback. The Earl of Danby and Lord Francis Osborne in their post-chaise and four. Attendants on horseback. Lord George Cavendish in his post-chaise and four. Attendants on horseback. Lord John Cavendish in his post-chaise and four. Attendants on horseback. Sir Francis Molyneux and Sir Henry Hunloke, Barts. in Sir Henry's coach and six. Attendants on horseback.

ditto. without a single burst of unruly tumult and uproar._] The whole was conducted with order and regularity. The approving eye of Heaven shed its auspicious beams._ _Schnebbelie del. Prosperity to the British Empire. _Gent. 7. down the street past the Mayor's house. The Members for the Borough of Derby. KING. and blessed this happy day with more than common splendour. 15. three and three._" the Clubs and Corporation still proceeding in the same order to the Mayor's and then dispersed. 2. at the risk of their lives and fortunes. 3. 17. The Duke of Devonshire. The PRINCE of WALES. All the Friends of the Revolution met this year to commemorate that glorious Event. 14. The Dke of Portland. The Duke of Leeds. The following toasts were afterwards given: 1. 16. 6. 12. 8. All was joy and gladness.And upwards of forty other carriages of the neighbouring gentry. &c. The procession in the town of Chesterfield went along Holywell-Street. The Law of the Land. THE The The The . and an astonishing throng of spectators. from thence past Dr. Memory of the Glorious Revolution. 13. to Vol. Gentlemen on horseback. It would be a piece of injustice not to mention the dinner at the Castle. with their attendants. The Earl of Stamford. p. 4. for notwithstanding there were fifty carriages. and prosperity to the House of Cavendish. The Earl of Danby. [Illustration: REVOLUTION House at WHITTINGTON. The QUEEN. The company was so numerous as scarcely to be accommodated at the three principal inns. then to the left along the upper side of the Market-place to Mr. 5. LXXX. not an accident happened. who. Prosperity to the County of Derby. and prosperity to the House of Osborne. Part II. Saltergate. Suppl. Glumangate. Wilkinson's house. 400 gentlemen on horseback. Mag. and prosperity to the united House of Boothe and Grey. 609. Memory of those Friends to their Country. where the Derbyshire band of music formed in the centre and played "_Rule Britannia_. glorious and immortal Memory of King William the IIId. Servants on horseback. Milnes's house to the Castle. and prosperity to the united House of Osborne and Darcy. 11." "_God save the King. along the lower side of the Market-place to the end of the West Barrs. were instrumental in effecting the Glorious Revolution in 1688. and the rest of the Royal Family. 9. which was served in a style of unusual elegance. The Members for the County. 10.

by the Rev. CUNNINGHAM. your faithful humble servant. that all party distinctions were forgotten. at which were present near 300 gentlemen and ladies. 1788. I shall be happy if these poetic effusions should be considered by you as a proof of the sincere respect and esteem with which I subscribe myself. SAMUEL PEGGE.18. 5. Nov. _Eyam. surrounded by the bloom of the Derbyshire hills. whose ancestors were the source of this felicity. would be regarded as an additional token of implied respect. that it has pleased Divine Providence to prolong your days. a sensation which Monarchs in all their glory might envy. The Duchess of Devonshire. P. . where the Duke of Devonshire gave also three guineas to each of the eight clubs. 1788. And the most respectable Roman Catholic families. Stanzas. Near 250 ball-tickets were received at the door. 2. In the evening a brilliant exhibition of fireworks was played off. must have excited in the breasts of those noble personages. Dear Sir. Letter from the Rev. P. &c. and the Ode for the Jubilee. You will please to accept of the inclosed Stanzas. under the direction of Signor Pietro. The utmost harmony and felicity prevailed throughout the whole meeting. is a picture not to be pourtrayed. AND DEAR SIR. P. Having accidentally heard yesterday the Text you proposed for your Discourse on Wednesday. Rector of Whittington. I thought the adoption of it. and three hogsheads at Chesterfield. to take a distinguished part in the happy commemoration of the approaching Fifth of November. The Duchess of Devonshire. amongst whom were many persons of distinction. Inscribed to the Rev. as an additional truth to the one I had chosen. near Tideswal. An hogshead of ale was given to the populace at Whittington. It was not the least pleasing circumstance attending this meeting. and of his congratulations._ REV. occasioned by the Revolution Jubilee. The warm expression of gratitude and affection sparkling in every eye. The day concluded with a ball. Persons of all ranks and denominations wore orange and blue. _Cunningham_. CUNNINGHAM to Mr. during which the populace were regaled with a proper distribution of liquor. satisfied with the mild toleration of government in the exercise of their Religion. as a little testimony of the Author's respectful remembrance of regard. vied in their endeavours to shew how just a sense they had of the value of CIVIL LIBERTY. at Whittington and Chesterfield. In that light I flatter myself you will consider it. Nov. in memory of our glorious Deliverer. PEGGE.

Of Soul heroic. heaven-directed in an happy hour. serene his air. . See! Britain's Weal employs his latest care. Her venerable Laws their fasces rais'd. to grace her long-loved Nation's head. And. P. And hark! the solemn Pæans grateful rise From rural Whittington's o'erflowing fane. And. That to the free. from Belgia. For then._ Round the starr'd Zodiack. worthy of their Sires. Whence her three Champions[46]. To eternize the delegated hand. Majestic seems the Hero's shade to rise. heaven-born Queen. and Empire. Undimm'd his[43] Eagle-eye. And Laws that guard the Cottage as the Throne. born. Welcome again. See! pointing to the memorable scene. when tender Mercy first design'd To raise the Citizen of Earth to Heaven. we will rejoice and be glad in it. in his train. given To Man. When Britons. Her stern-eyed Champions grasp'd th' avenging lance. Broke the dire Sceptre of Despotic Power. the fair auspicious To Freedom. Britain's good Genius. with the heart's pure incense to the skies. Ev'n now. Her Liberty and Laws his latest breath. like a Phúnix Reviving Britain rose in Glory's Morn! the year. first and fairest of When from her ashes. Wealth. now the golden Sun Eventful Time a Century hath led. with her choicest wreath. Since Freedom. unite Their Orisons at Freedom's Shrine to pay. "Esto perpetua!" _F. unconquerable mind Secur'd the sacred Rights of Conscience."This is the day which the Lord hath made. That seal'd their great forefathers' fields their own." With your still-growing lustre gild the day. And pure Religion's trembling altars blaz'd. starting from their mournful death-like trance. When. as in Fields of Death. "Visions of Glory! crouding on his sight. Freedom. through the billowy storm. Fix'd on the triumphs of his Patriot-Reign. sphere. begun Smiling. With Commerce. Led with fresh glories to the British Throne. Its venerable Shepherd's[44] hallow'd strain. bearing WILLIAM'S form. Rais'd ev'ry art that decks a smiling land. to Fancy's retrospective eyes. Sarpi da Venez. He bids that Heath[45] to latest times be known." Psalms.

[48] Father Paul. John D'Arcy. Eclips'd her Son of Glory's light. EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS TO MR. Indignant freedom veil'd the sight. When seventeen Lustres mark thy letter'd days. On WILLIAM'S glorious name. thy pray'r With Life shall close in _his_ emphatic Strain. ever fair. When lawless Power his iron hand._ P. 1788. * * * * * Ode for the Revolution Jubilee. Though hoary Time's centennial snows New silver o'er her fame. Distrest she wander'd:--when afar She saw her NASSAU'S friendly star Stream through the stormy air: She call'd around a Patriot Band. and for ever reign!" _Eyam. Her cause their dauntless hearts inspir'd. GOUGH. With fav'ring gales from Belgia's shore Her heaven-directed Hero bore. . may Freedom. patriot Sage. [46] Earl of Devon. [45] Whittington Moor.Oh. For hark. When blinded Zeal her flaming brand O'er Albion's Island wav'd. Derbyshire. With ancient Roman virtue fir'd. Friend! upon whose natal morn[47] 'tis given. C. Earl of Danby." [44] Samuel Pegge. and Mr. Still grateful Britons love to dwell. They plough'd the surging main. [43] Sir John Dalrymple's "Continuation of Memoirs of Great Britain. Like hoary Sarpis[48]. 1704. [47] Birth-day of the Rev. In Britain flourish. what songs of triumph tell. Her fav'rite Realm enslav'd. And blend the Christian's with the Briton's praise. And Freedom crown'd his Reign. And deathless glory share. She bade them save a sinking land. "As on _this_ day. With equal warmth her spirit glows. To lead the Hymn of Gratitude to Heav'n. Samuel Pegge.

on the 5th day of November next. James's of Whitehall. That a subscription of one guinea each be entered into for defraying the extraordinary expenses on the occasion. That the meeting be open to all friends of the Revolution. 1788. That the Gentlemen who intend to honor the meeting with their company._ MY DEAR MR. 1788. and the London and English Chronicles. and the Earl of Stamford. to conduct and manage the Celebration of the intended Jubilee. The Resolutions of the Committee were ordered to be inserted in the London prints[49]. have this day met. That they go in procession from thence to Chesterfield. come to the following resolutions: That General Gladwin do take the chair at this meeting. That the Rev. Wilkinson's. at the Angel Inn. 29. &c. in Chesterfield. in these midland parts. to request the honour of their attendance at that meeting. and Falcon inns. on the Hundredth Anniversary of the glorious Revolution. and Lloyd's Evening Posts. where ordinaries will be provided at the Angel. at one o'clock. and to distribute then to his friends his drawing. PEGGE. That immediately after service. Rooke slept at the Vicarage on the 4th. S. with a paper of mine. in the County of Derby. 1788. The 5th of November is now gone and over. annexed. That letters be written to the Dukes of Devonshire and Leeds. Sept. they meet at the Revolution House.DEAR SIR. &c. GOUGH. I remain your much obliged._ HENRY GLADWIN. of the _Revolution House_ at Whittington. Nov. _Whittington. which he had caused to be engraved by Basire. _Chesterfield. where a cold collation will be provided. and in the St. Mr. and that the same be paid into the hands of Messrs. which he did. and they said I . do assemble at Whittington Church._ We are to have most grand doings at this place. at Whittington Church. and that I am desired to preach the Sermon. 11. 5th of November next. 27. Chairman. exactly at eleven o'clock in the forenoon of that day to attend divine service. the Earl of Derby. so I presume you may have seen them. in Chesterfield. and upon consideration. in order to be ready for our grand celebrity the next day. where measures were first concerted for the promotion of that grand constitutional event. which I believe you saw when you was here. Oct. That the Committee do meet again on Wednesday the 8th of October next. That there be a ball for the Ladies in the evening at the Assembly Room in Chesterfield." * * * * * _Whittington. Samuel Pegge be requested to preach a Sermon on the occasion. in 1688. That these resolutions be published in the Derby and Nottingham newspapers. respecting the meeting there of the Earl of Devonshire. Castle. at the _Revolution House_. [49] "The Committee appointed by the Lords and Gentlemen at the last Chesterfield Races. at the Revolution House in Whittington.

that the Sermon will not read so well as it was heard. such as I am. But I must observe to you on the occasion. at nine. requesting me to print my Sermon. B. 22. negus. Hogsheads of liquor were given by the Managers at Whittington and Chesterfield. Jackson. and it is now printed at Chesterfield. so that I have no fear of your concurrence in that . and very admirable they were. It happened to be my birth-day. though it is large. because having good command over myself at the time. but. and. The Duke of Devon was too late. Lord Danby (Son of the Marquis of Carmarthen). but we had the Earl of Stamford at church. your sentiments in politics coincide with mine. and Lord Francis Osborne. Rooke and I returned to Whittington. there could be but little dancing. large and fine banners. The cavalcade from Whittington to Chesterfield. &c. as I desired my Son to send one copy to you. There will be a monument erected at the Revolution House in Whittington. with orange cockades. and not the least accident happened. and 148 guineas are already subscribed. S. The ball was given to the Ladies. Hunloke. By this time I hope you are in possession of my Sermon. sweetmeats. no less than 50 coaches and chaises with horses dressed with orange ribbons. The ball room. &c. Dec. N. but was not at church. I grow very idle and good for nothing. Nichols. If I know you. We have a very fine time here. where we were to dine at four o'clock. and went in the cavalcade. Prebendary of Westminster.acquitted myself very well. considering the time of year. by an Italian artist. and when Mr. Nichols. we had a sober driver. with an entertainment of cakes. began. I remain your very affectionate and much obliged servant. as my Son-in-law read the prayers. which being known to some gentlemen at all the three great inns where the company dined. * * * * * _Whittington. and is even distressing. though it is supposed not less than 30. a Catholic. There were about 1000 on foot. This request I have complied with. the want of water however is very wonderful. 1788. PEGGE. and about 300 on horseback. The Duke of Devon and the Earl of Stamford were excepted from subscribing. and another to Mr. with sundry bands of music.000 people were assembled. is a subscriber. no signs of winter but the absence of leaves. I saw nobody however in liquor. I was in good spirits. he had twenty pounds given him by the _Managers_. with orange capes._ DEAR SIR. many of whom. as you may suppose. were in blue. At half past six the fireworks. I will take care that a copy be sent to you and Mr. It was a fine day. I delivered it with energy and emphasis. Indeed. a column I suppose. besides cockades. I went fresh into the pulpit. so they reluctantly desisted. with their Preceptor Dr. with Lord George and Lord John Cavendish. was so crowded that. and the Duke of Devon gave twenty-four guineas to the footmen mentioned above. was amazingly grand. at one o'clock or after. they drank my health with three cheers. Sir H.

His death is thus recorded on an upright stone on the West side of Kensington church-yard: . Esq. and sister to the Rev. 1793. He was accordingly elected in 1796. daughter of Dr. John Bourne[52]. Charlotte-Anne. Samuel Pegge. Pegge married Martha. BY THE EDITOR. [54] A few extracts from his Letters are given in p. during which period he enjoyed but an indifferent state of bodily health.respect and have only to wish that the composition may please you. S. lxxxiii. in his 89th year. Mr. S. who died. York. and an Esquire of the King's Household. he had one son. though somewhat advanced in life. appointed one of the Grooms of His Majesty's Privy-Chamber. were. 1807. of Spital. however. in her 82d year. Pegge married. your truly affectionate and much obliged servant. secondly. co. then Lord Chamberlain. Cambridge. he was admitted a Barrister of the Middle Temple. Pegge's only sister. [52] Who married Anne-Katharine. Esq. co. strong and unimpaired. Christopher. March 17. the only surviving Son[50] of the venerable Antiquary whose Life has just been recorded. in Derbyshire[51]. Mr. at St. Goodeth Belt. having previously shewn that he was well deserving of that distinction. his manners truly elegant. of Bossall. By this lady. an eminent Physician. I am. near Chesterfield. and was soon after. [51] Who died in 1775. Henry Bourne. Derby." He survived his Father little more than four years. and one daughter. daughter of Robert Belt. was desirous of becoming a Member of the Society of Antiquaries. Christopher. and died in 1767. who was born in 1732. SEQUEL TO THE PARENTALIA. John's College. was born in 1731. by the favour of the Duke of Devonshire. Mr. Pegge. His mental faculties. PEGGE. [53] She died Oct. Rector of Sutton. After the death of his Father. by the accuracy and intelligence displayed in the "Curialia. and Vicar of South Wingfield. of whom hereafter. [50] Another son. by whom he had no issue[53]. 23. and his epistolary correspondence[54] lively and facetious. dear Sir. to the last. died an infant in 1736. his conversation always sensible and pleasant. After an excellent classical education. unmarried. Mr.

Esq. Esq.S. of the Gentlemen of the King's Most Honourable Privy Chamber. Pegge lived to have completed his whole design. addressed to the President of the Society of Antiquaries. consisted of "Two Dissertations. and very favourably received by the Publick at large." he bequeathed to Mr. Wife of SAMUEL PEGGE. the materials for which. But his principal Work Was intituled. and for several occasional communications to the Gentleman's Magazine. 1782." Part III." . we are indebted for the foregoing circumstantial Memoir or his very learned Father. _viz.A. CHARLOTTE-ANNE. Mr. Collected and digested by Samuel Pegge. 1793. the Lord Chamberlain. MARTHA. A. Duty. Mrs. the Master of the Horse. from its Institution. Esq. In 1806 Mr." Part V. "A History of Somerset House[56]." Part II. or. Pegge. This Work having been noticed with much approbation in the principal Reviews. died May the 22d. the Title would have run thus: "_Hospitium Regis_. aged 35 years. Nichols. CHRISTIANA PEGGE died July 1. Nichols published Two additional Numbers of the "Curialia:" Part IV. from its Establishment to the present Time. or. aged 67 years. D." To Mr. Esq. aged 31 years. "A Supplement to the Provincial Glossary of Francis Grose. and also his "Anecdotes of the English Language."SAMUEL PEGGE. On the original Nature. &c. Pegge. an Historical Account of some Branches of the Royal Household[55]." Three Portions of which he published in his life-time: Part I. 1784. "A Dissertation[57] on the ancient Establishment and Function of the Serjeant at Arms. "_Curialia_." During the remaining period of his life. died June 28. 1791. To this Edition was added." compiled by Mr. F. is "A Memoir respecting the King's Body-Guard of Yeomen of his Guard. 2. London. and the several Officers thereof. 1767. who printed "The Anecdotes of the English Language" in 1803._ 1. contains "A Memoir regarding the King's Honourable Band of Gentlemen Pensioners.) was published in 1814. principally in the Departments of the Lord Steward. Pegge amused himself in preparing several other Numbers of his "Curialia" for the press. the only Daughter of SAMUEL and MARTHA PEGGE. 1790. and the Groom of the Stole. 1800. from the Commencement of its Erection in 1549. On the obsolete Office of the Esquires of the King's Body. died March 17. a History of the Royal Household. a Second Edition (corrected and improved from his own detached MSS." [55] Had Mr. 1485.

I. an Epilogue spoken by the same excellent Actor. particularly. 642. and another Epilogue.)--The two last mentioned Tracts are re-printed in the present volume. 1770. He composed a complete Melo-Drama. Esq. and several of the most popular Songs for Vauxhall Gardens were written and set to music by him. in 1782. Edit. and of some pleasant Tales and Epigrammatic Poems. Yates at Birmingham in 1760. he was the Author of some occasional Prologues and Epilogues which were favourably received by the Publick: a Prologue."[59] 3. Pegge also superintended through the Press the greater part of his Father's "History of Beauchief Abbey. at her Benefit. His only Son." 4. He was the Author also of a pathetic Elegy on his own Recovery from a dangerous Illness. with the exception of the two concluding pages. 1797. Pegge printed only a few copies to be given to particular Friends. in three different seasons. but. His other acknowledged writings were. (late one of the Representatives in Parliament for the County of Derby). [58] Of this Elegy Mr. of Chesterfield. The further continuation of that interesting work was broken off by the melancholy accident mentioned in page v. Many Catches and Glees also. filled with pertinent allusions to the Game of Quadrille.[58]" 2. and 1774. and though his modesty forbade the avowal. Pegge a favourite subject. Mr. the present Sir Christopher Pegge. there in 1786. p. which still remains in MS. spoken by Mr. IV. Yates.) 5. it was re-printed for sale by Mr. Joseph Bradley." (Antiquarian Repertory. In the early part of his life Mr. took the Degree of B. 1809. "Memoirs of Edward Capell." but died before it was completed. was elected Fellow of Oriel College in 1788. he had put the finishing hand." in the "Illustrations of the Manners and Expences of Antient Times.[56] The History of Somerset House was with Mr." (Ibid. A. 1. on taking the Theatre into his own hands." vol. p. at Drury Lane. on his return from France. 622. and by himself very nearly completed for the press. "An Elegy on the Death of Godfrey Bagnall Clerke. York. both the words and the musick in score. resigned . by his permission. 427. His Muse was very fertile. was admitted a Commoner at Christ Church. p. Esq. vol. and to this. "On a Custom observed by the Lord Lieutenants of Ireland. 1774. [57] Announced by the Author in his Introduction to Part III. Pegge was a considerable proficient in Musick. 1769. who died Dec. [59] See the "Illustrations of Literature. "Historical Anecdotes of the French Word Carosse. 26. spoken by Mrs. Oxford. "Illustrations of the Churchwardens' Accompts of St. Michael Spurrier Gate.

Lee's Reader in Anatomy (which situation he resigned in 1816. Nichols. Mary. and M. Oxford (second son of Joseph Boultbee. with every kind remembrance.--and to you (who know this house) I may say that I am enveloped in as much dust[60] as would ransom an Emperor. He was elected one of the Physicians to the Radcliffe Infirmary in 1791 (which he resigned in 1803).his Fellowship in 1790. as Botanists allow nothing to be weeds. 1796. an asthmatic complaint having rendered change of residence adviseable). having been appointed. Richard Moore Boultbee. No. _Whittington. married in 1816 to the Rev. and report upon them when I return to Town. I shall be in Town at the end of May at the farthest. D. Warwickshire). 1817._ DEAR SIR. of Whitehall. 1792. Dr. near Knowle. L. and was re-admitted of Christ Church. To RICHARD GOUGH. a circumstance which will enable me to pay every attention to what may be of real use to my Father's Friends: for. respecting my late Father's Collections in the literary line. and that of M. A. I daily see obligations. Esq. What I write to you I mean should be said to Mr. II. and would wish to work double tides in . 1795. received from his Majesty the Honour of Knighthood in 1799. Nichols. March 30. S. F. in 1791. APPENDIX. Esq. 1789. and Fellow of the College of Physicians 1796.R. which must be in May or June. as to yourself and Mr. which call for every acknowledgement. Esq. 9._ DEAR SIR. born Dec. and believe I shall be amply indulged. of Merton College. from Books which you have respectively conferred upon him. There are no persons in the world to whom so much regard is due. Amey. I am as daily concerned in looking over papers of various kinds. the eldest daughter of Kenton Couse. A peck of March dust is said to be worth a King's ransom. March 17. B. _Whittington. through favour of the Dean and Chapter. I am labouring to keep possession of this house as long as I can. Deputy NICHOLS. 1792. and the Dignity of Regius Professor of Physic in 1801. so I admit nothing to be waste paper. F. I have only to desire that I may be considered (by descent at least) as Your obliged Friend. Sir Christopher Pegge married.S. PEGGE. took the Degrees of M. of Springfield House. by whom he has issue one daughter. and had a daughter. * * * * * To Mr. 1796. S. and will preserve them all sacredly.

Sir. S. I thank you for the favour of your Letter. 1796. The honourable mention I hear of my late Father. April 12. 1796. Pegge) among other Books made me a present off "The Northumberland Household Book. * * * * * _Whittington. [60] The Books in the Library at Whittington had. in hopes of being honourably cut down. Gough was then Director of the Society of Antiquaries. Esq. almost every day. which was anticipated by a line from Mr. May 23. and I shall always honour my Father's Friends. Gough also through you. &c. PEGGE. I have heard my Father often speak of you. I take the liberty of wishing to have it returned soon. I am really so much engaged (for I am not half through my Herculean labour) that I have not leisure to think of my late nearest Friend. Your obliged Friend. advising me that "The Northumberland Household Book" was safe in his hands. I write to Mr. I have written to Lord Leicester and to Mr. I am. Dr. and receiving Christian Burial. according to Law_. May 2." which he told me (as I since find by his memoranda) was lent to you. 1796. In the course of the last year my late Father (Rev. for I shall find it necessary to pass as long a Summer as I can here. . I trust. God send me a good deliverance! What I write to you. with much respect. at the Society of Antiquaries. Nichols._ SIR. PEGGE. Darlington. will appear _to character_ when my Trial comes up. probably. S. [61] Mr._ SIR. _Whittington. so as to _erect_ any memorial in the Gentleman's Magazine _at present_. to request that I may be _hung up. is very gratifying to me._ DEAR SIR. Topham by this post. S. &c. directed to my Friend Mr. * * * * * _Whittington. Nichols. * * * * * To GEORGE ALLAN. not been dusted for 20 to 30 years.the History of Beauchief-Abbey while I stay. where (by the new Rector's leave) I hope to continue till the approach of Winter. The _Director_[61]. PEGGE.

but did not _make_ Whittington till last Sunday the 24th inst. Yours. The Historian of Leicestershire must have had repeated experience of this circumstance in his investigations. accompanies the present Publication. dear Sir. Sept. admirably executed by Philip Andinet. as far as may be. from my own connexion with it. 1796. S. PEGGE. 1796. Pegge. Sir Christopher Pegge. Your very obedient humble servant. S._ DEAR SIR. PEGGE. &c. * To Mr. 20. Brander's Print of my father. is now in the possession of his Grandson. We passed part of Wednesday the 13th. I have a very few in London. and all the 14th and 15th. July 28. Where and when this will find you. Whether you ever insert it in your _Leicestershire_ or not. I wish to have it completed. by whose kind permission a faithful Engraving from it.though I know it is not undeserved on his part. Feb._ DEAR SIR. I cannot think the Print in the least like my Father. [62] This striking resemblance of my worthy old friend Dr. which I have often had the agreeable opportunity of comparing with the Original when conversing with the good Doctor at Whittington. _Whittington. which _blew_ us into parties of company and venison. * * * * * * * * * _York. and one of the best of them shall be at your service. * * * * * _Scotland yard. I know not: but the purport of it is to desire that you would send me (to Whittington) the _last Impression_ of the Family Pedigree of _Bourne_. but were detained there by _contrary winds_._ DEAR SIR. and had a very pleasurable visit. but I have a Painting[62] which is a very strong resemblance. . Sunday. at Southwell. yours very sincerely. whether in _Urban_ or in _Sylvan_ scenes. As to Mr. and as we thought only for three or four days. S. NICHOLS. and because I know that every difficulty is doubled to every succeeding generation. I am. We left London on Monday the eleventh. 1797. with the new Rector of Whittington. 11. PEGGE. We next _touched_ at Spital.

Yours. I hope this will find you safely returned from your excursion. As you are connected with the Representatives of Dr. In this situation it would be much to the honour of your humanity to come and pass an evening with us. . and my original wish to return it. or the person who acts for them. dated so long ago as the 4th of February last. Send me word what evening you can best spare. Bowyer Nichols would tell you that I am now at leisure to go on with "Beauchief Abbey" for a little while. and I have been for several days on the point of writing to him a line of thanks. Gough was so obliging as to mention hopes of seeing us at Enfield. which was found in my Father's collection after his death. alas! I have got as much gout as will last me till we go into Derbyshire in the second week in July. &c. I shall soon put an end to the Session. June 18. As I hear that Dr._ DEAR SIR.I am now going seriously to work. which I imputed to his then bad state of health. know not how. S. which has probably been found among his papers. and let it be very _speedily_. Farmer's Library is intended for sale. I am sure to be found at home. for. to bring the Coins forward by auction. P. Farmer. I received no answer to it. and disengaged. as I wish you to pass a _long_ evening with me. I should be glad that this book might be soon restored to the Executors. then to meet for dispatch of business. 1797. and which was evidently Mr. and the weakness of the flesh._ DEAR SIR. The whole collection amounts in number to between 1100 and 1200. PEGGE. * * * * * _December 7. may appear from a letter of mine to Dr. 1797. and to express the willingness of the spirit._ DEAR SIR. Mr. Farmer. and bring your Son with you. S. S. and this _Printing-ment_ will be prorogued to the 5th of October. * * * * * _Scotland yard. Farmer's property. Mr. * * * * * _June 10. but without your assistance. PEGGE. I wish you would procure a receipt for a copy of Skelton. 1797. but of what value the hammer must determine.

is briefly this. for as many days. or lap-dogs. as others do. * * * * * _March 17. I don't know at present. S. and made our quarters good at the humblest house we could find. 1800. 1800. besides that it is difficult for one who cannot walk. and made a journey of three days to Spital. of Spital. In some houses they dine 120 people!!! The water of this place is a very strong sulphur. with some gout. 23.S. I am a lodger in my own first-floor. which is scarcely practicable here._ DEAR SIR. 1800. daughter of the Rev. Your very sincere friend. PEGGE. Our history. * * * * * _Harrowgate. [64] Mr. After resting there. Esq. Surgeon. died Jan. January 27. PEGGE. which we found very full. near Chesterfield. Aug. I do not ask Mr. which will neither lead nor drive. tolerably habituated to noise and talk. S. of York. to Robert Jennings. Jan. and are not pestered with gamblers. was married._ DEAR SIR. and I believe. We dine (_en masse_) about 20 on the average. * * * * * _Monday. The Lady[63] mentioned in the enclosed Article is my Niece. I have been three weeks in writing this letter. [63] Elizabeth. however. and whose death has long been expected. or even saunter about. but with the most comfortable accommodations that a very uncomfortable place can afford. as I cannot encounter more than one person at a time. John Bourne. who hopes to open the Ball in the List of Marriages in this Month. but I should be very happy to receive a charitable visit of chat in any evening that you can spare. 1. and am told _con_-valescence will follow. The most quiet of this sort of houses is much too turbulent for me. the death of a Brother of my Wife. and as to the art of doing nothing. I find myself. 1799. 25. 1800. since I saw you. is the most powerful of any in the kingdom. I have experienced much _non_-valescence. ladies-maids. As a proof of it. to fill up the chasms between meals. PEGGE. we set off for this place. of Hull. except by reading. I send also an article for the Obituary[64]. If you ask me how I do? I answer. and are reconciled to our situation. Bowyer Nichols. keep good hours. John Belt. I have made myself perfectly master of it._ . We left London on the 18th of July.

Having free access to the use of a large Library. to compose a part. as times and circumstances have required. THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL HOUSEHOLD. and have borne very different complexions according to times and circumstances: and having occasion to consult some MSS. by his Lordship's permission. for at that time of the day I see nobody else. to those of any Court in Europe. either from their extensive liberality. and by the favour of many friends. that I may _rectify_ my spirits accordingly. they have thereby lessened the estates of the Crown so very much. in the Lord Chamberlain's Office. Notwithstanding ample revenues have always been provided for support of the dignity and splendour of the Royal House of the Kings of England. though not always for laudable reasons.DEAR SIR. though but by a glimmering light. OR. Adieu! S. that retrenchments. Hospitium Domini Regis. I was enabled to trace back the state of the Court in darker ages. and _have nothing in the world to do_. that. I hope you will give us your company in an evening very soon. Presuming that you are returned from Hinckley. if not perhaps superior. or more frequently worse inducements. to whom I take this opportunity of testifying my obligations. [65] So he humourously styled the Printer's Errand Boys. I thought I discerned. PEGGE. It is obvious to suppose that so large a body must have undergone various revolutions. Let me hear by one of your _Representatives in Parliament_[65] on what evening I may expect you. that materials were to be found sufficient to furnish out a detail. and a desire of knowing what was the antient state of the Court to which I have the honour. in the course of my search. by the favour of his Grace William the late Duke of Devonshire. upon a matter of no consequence to relate. yet we shall find they have varied very much in different Reigns. INTRODUCTION. Some of our Kings have been so profuse. I was led into the following investigation from a natural and kind of instinctive curiosity. equal. either in the number or expence of their Households (and sometimes both) have become the .

several of each sort will be seen in the following sheets. The Emperor of Germany has one very singular prerogative. [68] See Letters concerning the present state of Poland.necessary consequence. Ambassadors. and since that period there have been repeated occasions for _reductions (ex necessitate rei)_ in the tumultuous reigns of Charles the First. their salaries would not afford them food and raiment[69]. but. in order to enable themselves to support the Regal dignity with a proper degree of splendour. exercised in a Royal manner. [66] Henry II. In France they figure away with thousands of livres _per annum_. could we know the Establishments of the rest. that no other makes so liberal appointments to its Officers. [67] William Rufus. pp. have rendered it necessary for them to resume even _their own_ grants. For particulars relative to the Court of Denmark. the salaries of the Officers of the Court are extremely small. says my Author[70]. unless the King chose to reward them with a _Starostie_. when these come to be liquidated into pounds sterling. published 1773. it may be . 295. so that. p. insomuch as that. [69] Lord Corke's Letters from Italy. on this account. usually inhabit the second stories. and every way inadequate to their rank. in Germany. Charles the Second. 57. in his Present State of Munich. if the Officers of State had not an income arising from their patrimony. Others[67]. are the characteristics of that Court. very inconvenient to the inhabitants of Vienna." The houses being so large. and the appointment of a Lord of the Bed-chamber sinks down into a salary not superior to our Gentlemen Ushers. the idea is lost. a kind of Fiefs inherent in the Crown for this purpose. from a wanton spirit of prodigality. and even fifth floors (the houses being large and high) are well fitted up for the reception of opulent and noble families. printed for T. Letter iii. 52. As to _resumptions_. 1773. a measure equally scandalous to the character of the Prince. [70] Dr. In Poland the Officers of the State and Household have no salaries nor fees[68]. we may add. Burney. and James the Second. and the third. Others[66] have found the Crown Revenues so much contracted at their Accession. vol. 205. again. I. Frugality and úconomy. a single floor suffices for most of the principal and largest families in the City. and Nobles. that they have been obliged to demand resumptions of grants made by their immediate Predecessor. "Princes. as derogatory to the honour of the Crown. Payne. p. When we speak of the superior magnificence of our own Court. At the Court of Turin. antecedent to the Reformation. but are content with the honour. that of taking to himself the _first floor_ of every house in the City (a few privileged places excepted) for the use of the _Officers of his Court and Army_. fourth.

perhaps. besides the public branch of it for the defence of the Kingdom against invasions from abroad. though rather. i. but we know that the Conqueror's Revenues were very great. who resided several years as Envoy Extraordinary from King William III. vol. were appropriated to the Crown. and distributing the rest. See Sir John Spelman's Life of Alfred. WILLIAM I. and besides quit-rents paid out of other subordinate manors. from an ambitious than a covetous motive. upon the whole. which we call _Domesday Book_. to which some think William added the forfeited estates of those who opposed him at the decisive battle of Hastings[74]. and the feudal profits to which he was legally entitled. the alienation of which was held impious. and he laid up wealth in his coffers. by annexing part of such lands to the Crown. After that great Revolution called _The Conquest_. though by the greatness of the antient Crown-estate. The Saxon Chronicle says. was allotted for the support of the Dignity of the King's House. who afterwards forsook him. We may add to these. was placed first. [71] Called Codex Wintoniensis. notwithstanding there had been a Survey taken within less than 200 years by King Alfred. at least his avarice was subservient to his ambition. to be drawn out on proper occasions. He saw the necessity there was to make the most of things. 8vo. who were numerous. p. These advantages he might. The _Terra Regis_ is said to have consisted of such lands as Edward the Confessor was found to have been possessed of. is hard to say. William. it is to be supposed that a competent part. 74. for the defence and enlargement of his dominions[72]. edit. particular attention was first paid to the King's right. which consisted of such lands as either had belonged to the Crown. In William's Survey. as he did arms in his magazines. as they enabled him better to reward his Norman friends and followers. besides lands and farms. perhaps.[71] But William's jealous caution did not permit him to trust to this. and the _Terra Regis_ (as it was called). but it is to be supposed he was not very sparing or delicate. and. How large the establishment of the Household was. and that no inconsiderable one. or lordships. he accumulated as much as he could. as soon as he was seated on his new Throne. and likewise the lands of such Barons. and that. Whether William assumed to himself and the Crown more than he ought. [72] Lord Lyttelton's Life of Henry II. and others. then remaining at Winchester. many apparently unjustifiable means which the Conqueror used to enrich himself. with a reservation of quit-rents and services.sufficient to refer to the account given by Lord Molesworth. there must have been an ample residue to maintain the Court in dignity and magnificence at home. and furnished him likewise with a plea to enrich himself. he was already one of the richest Monarchs in Europe. and. was careful to make a general and accurate Survey of the whole kingdom. looking on money as a necessary means of maintaining and increasing power. 1422[73] manors. be glad to take. it would be very difficult to ascertain at this distance of time. or to the King individually. he omitted no opportunity of .

though the rudeness of the times rendered most of the offices now in being unnecessary. it was not meanly parsimonious. of course. i. He supported the _dignity of the Crown_ with a _decent magnificence_. at this day. that what was wanting in parade. anno 1091. and adequate to every expence both foreign and domestic. [75] "_Pro more suo_. the Court was chiefly composed of Ecclesiastics. It is. (says Lord Lyttelton) that. [74] Rapin. composed of Officers and Offices very different from what have been adopted in succeeding Reigns. vol. Barons. Knights. it was likewise magnificent. "partim justè. though. 74. while William Rufus was engaged in a war with Scotland. as it was numerous. Thus did the Conqueror leave an ample and splendid revenue to his Successor. maximâ verò ex parte injustè. which last is a title of a late introduction.extorting money from his subjects upon the slightest pretext. if his avarice was insatiably and unjustly rapacious." p. 191. meretricis. as luxury and refined necessity required. [73] Domesday Book.--Filî. ait. nor of that sordid kind which brings on a Prince dishonour and contempt. though he never was _lavish_. In another place the writer says. the latter would probably have been styled the _Gentleman_." Chron. employ a great many Domestics of different kinds in their several departments. which the situation of the Conqueror rendered necessary in his new dominion. who conquered Wales. p. 187. _Gentleman of the Bed-chamber_[77]. Had the first been originally called _Lords_. I should suppose. rebus parùm urgentibus. When the _Gentleman_ was the superior. was equalled by an expence in hospitality. by the rough language he uses to him. Sax. for such a King _must_ have: and in the next Reign mention is made of Robert Fitz-Hamon. [77] _Gentleman of the Bed-chamber_ means what we now call a _Lord of the Bed-chamber_. however. and in conformity to the pride and ostentatious spirit of the Prince who erected them. perhaps. and. and we afterwards read of other Officers similar to what we have at present. [76] Lord Lyttelton's Henry II. he means an inferior Officer of the _Bed-chamber_. however. he was sometimes _liberal_[76]. no less than calling him a _son of a whore. We read of Treasurers. but most probably. by whom._ It is probable. which last title continues to this day. the next subordinate Officer was the _Groom_. There being but few Placemen in those times. and speaks of it as a thing of course[75]. It must be owned. which must. to which we may suppose were added many of a Military nature. sufficient to maintain his Court in dignity and magnificence. sive jure sive aliter. he extorted money. William of Malmsbury speaks of the _Cubicularius_ in that ridiculous instance of William Rufus's absurd profusion with respect to the price of a pair of hose. p. almost impossible to discover the nature and magnitude of William's Household. and other Military . extorsit multum pecuniæ suis subditis ubicunque haberet aliquem pretextum. which seem to have been added from time to time.

wait _four months_ in the year. in compliment to his Norman adherents. and adopt a plan similar to the French Court. in his Life of King Alfred. [79] Dividens Familiam in tres Turmas. singulis Turmis singulos Principes imposuit. from the number of classes. "He [Alfred] having. et unusquisque Princeps cum suâ Turmâ per unum mensem in Regis Ministerio Palatium conservavit. William was always liberal to his Soldiers and to the Church[78]. et tertius Princeps per alium mensem post illum in Regis Palatio ministrabat: ut postea propriis utilitatibus per duos menses quælibet Turma vacaret. that the Officers of King Alfred's Household were divided into three classes. It is true. This routine of waiting. but no part of them attended for a quarter together. from their title. usus est omni tempore vitæ suæ. supposes that the Officers who are now called _Quarter-waiters_ are. exiens ad proprios agros cum suâ Turmâ. i. they would renew their waiting once in a quarter of course. Sir John Spelman. it seems. not quarterly. 74.Gentlemen. Hist. assigned to the work. wrought there a month. observed the course that Solomon took in preparing timber at Lebanon for the Temple. who were appointed to wait by turns. at this time of day. who. and on these accounts the Court must have been crowded. they held their Baronies of the King. Ingulph. who says. led by the hopes of preferment or promotion. not much unlike the present mode. propriis negotiis per duorum mensium spatium intendebat. The Barons were. 870. [78] Life of Henry II. I mean the Attendants on the Royal person. waited daily by turns. Whether this mode was continued by his Successors. William might perhaps reject it as being Saxon. went by ten thousand at a time. who lived 200 years before the Conquest. King Alfred. vol. Uno mense completo. p. I shall now give Sir John Spelman's account at large (as I have Ingulphus's). totiusque familiæ suæ rotatione. As to the internal part of the Court. But this (with deference to the Gentlemen of that Corps) seems to be going too far. and Lord Lyttelton says. during his attention to the Police of his Kingdom in general. however. with an interval of two months between each wait. reason for this mode of attendance. from whom Sir John takes his account. wait in _classes_ quarterly. p. Alfred's Household most resembled the Gentlemen Pensioners in the mode of attendance. and agreeable to themselves. _monthly_. so that no one class waited two consecutive months. I do not learn. the Daily-waiters. and each would. and not improbable. the chief Council of the Realm. of course. where thirty thousand. et interim secundus Princeps per unum mensem. and that each class waited alternately monthly. stayed two months at . rendered the service of Alfred's attendants both úconomical. and then returning. where he gives a supposed.--at least much frequented. did not forget the internal good government of his Household. as their superiors. and I apprehend the Quarter-waiters received their name because they waited a quarter of a year at a time by turns. Hâc revolutione Servorum suorum. and does not agree with Ingulphus. we know but very little. for we learn from Ingulphus[79] that he divided his Attendants into three classes. to this day. a relique of this mode of waiting established by Alfred. for which they were perpetually doing homage.

to have confounded them with the _Sewers_. Car. by themselves. renew their monthly service at the Court. making a triplicate thereof. would be new-modelled. Regi ad _mensam_ ministrant. fairly suppose his Retinue in number. what was the nature and office of the individuals of it. Neither used he this course with some of his Officers only (as there are those who understand it to have been a course taken only with those of his Guard). at this day." It is allowed that King Alfred enlarged his Household very much. for his more honourable attendance. stayed there a month. of Officers. The Doctor seems. it was necessary for the common-wealth that he should remit them the other two months unto their own occasions. whose service. and I little doubt but that the use at Court. by the word _Dapiferi_. who. applying this to his own occasions. Dr. and they again by the third. and assume a different . under the command of a several _Major-domo_[81]. there being (as it then stood with the State) very few men of quality fit to stand before a King. who. had the first beginning even from this invention of the King[83]. but for his whole life. any great assurance to be had of any man. I. The Translator of this Life of Alfred into Latin. were supplied by the second ternary. His words are. or Master of the Household. "qui ad _mensam_ ministrant. took this course in point of Royalty and State. in those times. to wait at Court. with the King's _table_." [80] Ingulph. by their post. Of the _Conqueror's Court_ we know still less.home. insomuch that he had a three-fold shift of all Domestic Officers. however. Ingulphus. [83] Spelman's Life of Alfred. has taken a little latitude in the last sentence of this passage. ab hoc Regis instituto. and has wandered totally from the mark. neither used he it for a time only. [82] This. "Neque multum dubito quin _Dapiferi_ hodierni (quos _Quarter-waiters_ appellamus) qui per singulos anni quadrantes. we shall probably never be able to gather. neither was there. manarint. as well as the _Kingdom_. neither do I learn that King Alfred's establishment was followed by his immediate successors. We may. until the course coming about. until their turn in the fourth month came about again[80]--he. edit. they being a secondary degree of _Gentlemen Ushers_. which is strengthened by the following words. but with all his whole attendance. I suppose. in eod. ubi supra. (in Rymer's Fúdera) _Ante-Ambulones_. the first of them (after two months recess at home) did. _Quarter-waiters_. Obadiah Walker. unless he were one of such condition. Hearne. were not otherwhere besides engaged. and then returning home. by their fortunes or dependency. p. [81] Princeps. called in a grant of Fees temp. and his Court in splendour. was far superior to those of any of his Predecessors." Now it is pretty certain that the Quarter-waiters are not Officers at all connected. ordained the like course in his attendance. each of which were. when the King was fain to use one month in the quarter. led Sir John into the above supposition about the Quarter-Waiters. but. with the quarter[82]. coming with his servants under his charge. but it is reasonable to suppose that the _Court_. 198. I should conjecture (continues he) that the King.

were alienated. in those times of Papal tyranny. the successor. vi. 87.000 pound _weight_ of silver. for. WILLIAM RUFUS.--after he had seized the vacant Benefices. a Norman. and a measure equally scandalous and iniquitous. plate. but. who lived very near the time. [86] Lord Lyttelton calling him Ralph Flambard. as a dernier resort. he was necessitated to make frequent demands upon his people. for the Crown-lands. besides many other Benefices of less consideration[88]. to 60. or to take any measure. Notwithstanding the fair inheritance left by the Conqueror. [85] Introduction to the Life of Henry II._. so little regard has ever been paid to things _sacred_ by Arbitrary Princes (as our Kings were at that time) to gratify either their necessities or their passions. but ran into so extravagant a profusion of expence. The Saxon Chronicle says. to resume his own grants. vol. though made for valuable considerations. Salisbury. p. made in a manner necessary by his former profusion. twelve[87] rich Abbeys.000_l. that he might take the profits to his own use. over weak Princes. The late King's treasures were said to amount to 60. the King's Treasures were _difficiles numeratu_. Considering the influence of artful Churchmen. that he was at last obliged to apply to resources. Lib." [84] Erant autem in Thesauro 60 Mille Libræ Argenti. as he ran into more needless and wanton expenses. and "the silver money alone (says Lord Lyttelton[85]). upon so great a revolution as that of the Conquest. a practice now used for the first (but not the last) time. 192. Bishop of Durham[86]. was equivalent at least to nine hundred thousand pounds of our money at present:" but this would not suffice. it is not to be wondered that Rufus should be easily prevailed upon by Ranulphus. Amongst other acts of rapacity. exclusive of gold. Winchester. who was Master both of his Councils and his Conscience. according to Henry of Huntingdon[84]. The Reader may see his Lordship's grounds of computation in a long note on this passage. nay. but. however unwarrantable and unprecedented-"Tantum Religio potuit suadere malorum. to which he was entitled. and at the time of his death he had in his hands the Sees of Canterbury. and pillaged them of every thing valuable (even .face. and the exigences of the State. where his character may be seen at large. not satisfied with the First-fruits. i. p. and all others that became void in his Reign. and derogatory to his Crown and Dignity. according to the best computation I am able to make. But this was not the worst part of the story. equal to the Regal Dignity. to resume his own grants. he did the same by the Bishoprick of Lincoln. not only dissipated the great treasure of which he was possessed at the demise of his Father. and he was at last compelled. unwarrantable in themselves. Life of Henry II. and robes. which were held so sacred by his ancestors. Rufus's ordinary revenues did not probably exceed those of his Father. jewels. he kept the See of Canterbury vacant four years (upon the death of Lanfranc). William Rufus.

listed thus against their wills. "In the magnificence of his _Court_ and buildings. which called forth rigid edicts in the next Reign. and required an uncommon exertion of severity. as.000_l. without regard to merit or capacity[89].) that there was occasion for supplies of men. or to whom it was very inconvenient to leave their families. Various other instances of extortion and rapacity (though not attended with so much ingenuity as this) might be adduced from the history of this Reign. "Under pretence (says M. p. It is related that. to speak thus freely of this King's rapacity. some of them. always in want. By this means William raised the sum of 10. Though William was thus continually filling his coffers with these dishonourable and sacrilegious spoils. to raise. from Simeon Dunelmensis. however. 20. 424. covetous and prodigal at the same time. After having been led. the King's Treasurer told them. if he had. Rapin. he sold them publicly to the best bidder. [89] Saxon Chronicle. two Monks striving to outbid each other for a rich Abbey." This news was so acceptable to the soldiers. i. who did not bid any thing. of the most serious nature. octavo. I have seen a private letter from his Lordship in defence of his opinion. "he had no the very Shrines). I cannot omit one artful and almost ludicrous method which Rufus practised to raise money. in order to supply the . vol. that there was not one but who was glad to be dismissed at so easy a rate. his conscience would not suffer him to lay it out in that manner:" upon which the King swore his usual oath[90] "that he best deserved it. with all possible speed. and devising new ways to raise money. In raising this army. however mean and despicable. but enough has been mentioned to convince us that but little order or decorum is to be expected within the walls of the Court of so unprincipled a King. &c. [91] Higden. "that they might every man return home. recorded by contemporary writers. and should have it for nothing[91]. William Rufus [then in Normandy] sent orders into England. yet was he avaricious without frugality. as we shall see presently. The crimes laid to the charge of his retinue were." [90] "Per Vultum di Lucca. [87] The Saxon Chronicle says but Eleven. When these levies were going to embark. for the suppression of vices which had grown too flagrant to be removed by reprobation alone.) he _greatly_ exceeded any King of that age. such were purposely taken for soldiers who were well to pass. On the contrary. But though his profuseness (continues his Lordship) arose from a noble and generous nature. all writers agree[92] in their accounts of the dissolute manners of his Household and Adherents. to whom the King addressing himself._ with which he bribed the French to retire. (says Lord Lyttelton[93]. by the nature of the subject. [88] Matthew Paris. Matthew Paris. the King perceived a third standing by. it is but justice to mention an instance of his generosity. in the war with his brother Robert. by his order. asked "how much _he_ would give?" The Monk replied.000 men. upon payment of ten shillings each. indeed. who had engaged the French in his interest." See Lord Lyttelton's note. it must be accounted rather a vice than a virtue. and.

" but yet. and keeping them in his hands for five years. on occasion of the marrying his eldest daughter[96]. publicly condemned[95]. 237. This is. Among other things. [93] Introduction to History of Henry II. and. et subvertebant. In this he might be justifiable enough. after the example of the very man whose rapacious conduct he had. as the Saxon Chronicle says. was now revived. many good qualities. and a less abandoned Retinue about the Royal Person. and. after one so very much disfigured as that of Rufus. It will be found that he died exceedingly rich for those times (by whatever means the wealth was amassed)._ sterling. quicquid fraudis et nequitiæ antea non erat. the _Minister_ and instrument of all those oppressive and unwarrantable measures. Ranulph Bishop of Durham. but was one of the antient aids due to the King from his subjects. Thus he availed himself of an antient Norman feudal custom.000_l. where he could do it with a tolerable grace. but just before. among the rest. who succeeded: for a moderate character will appear with some degree of lustre. expressions. Henry had. however. very soon after. It is true he recalled many grants bestowed upon _creatures_ and undeserving persons in the late Reign. for it is said. p. After so bad an úconomist (to say no worse of William Rufus). though he did it not in so bare-faced a manner as Rufus had done. "magno honore habitus[94]. than that Henry happened to be the first King. one of his ruling passions was avarice. we may hope to see a more prudent direction of the revenues of the State. his temporibus pullulavit. He was a wise and prudent Prince. HENRY I. but whether upon motives of justice or avarice I do not determine. omnia conterebant. and yet. There was a glaring inconsistency in his very outset." Henry of Huntingdon uses nearly the same. for he did not omit any opportunity of taxing his subjects. we find him punishing and imprisoning the abettors of William Rufus's exactions. as some have supposed[97]. when we come to look nearly into his interior conduct in life. we behold Henry sequestering to his own use the revenues of the Archbishopric of Canterbury. . but then he seems to have laid the tax at a prodigious high rate. of the Norman race.unbounded extent of it. he was very rapacious. that even if his temper had not been despotic. [94] Saxon Chronicle. If he had lived long. et qui ei famulabantur (says Matthew Paris) omnia rapiebant. by some calculations. his expences would have undone him. et _impunè_ committebant. to have amounted to upwards of 800. his _necessities_ would have rendered him a Tyrant. but rather stronger. This custom was not now first established by Henry himself. [92] "Ipse namque. we shall discover. and they had brought him some years before his death into such difficulties. without question. for. and having lain dormant many years. soon after his accession. who married his eldest daughter. no great compliment to Henry. Henry was very attentive to the reformation of abuses and irregularities that had crept into the _Court_ during the Reign of his Brother. Adulteria violenter. but not introduced otherwise.

it appears to be a practice that has existed time immemorial. Vanity. [96] Aide à Fille marier. To return to Henry. trailing garments with long sleeves. which. To remedy these disorders in his _Court_. So that we see the French have. but cut short behind[100]. lust. not only in England. notwithstanding men's minds were then so much turned to war and athletic diversions. on the fore-part of their heads. and became as magnificent in their dress as their fortunes could bear[99]. Eadmer. been the standard of the English dress. "Mollitie corporis certare cum fúminis--gressum frangere--gestu soluto--et latere nudo incedere. after the manner of the Asiaticks. excess and sensuality prevailed in a very scandalous manner among the Nobility. and particularly against _Adulterers_. which. were universally worn. The accounts given of William's Court are surprizing for that age. they gloried in it publicly. and even among the Clergy. [97] Polydore Vergil. and intemperance. The men were also very nice in curling and dividing their hair. even the Nuns were not free from it. before their intermixture with the Normans. [99] Lord Lyttelton. reigned through the whole kingdom. and totally unacquainted with the effeminacies of succeeding times. says. The _Courtiers_. for the most part. ever since the Conquest. it may be inferred from hence that similar beings have long subsisted in some shape or other. in adopting French modes. was suffered to grow very long. Lord Lyttelton informs us (from Ordericus Vitalis) that there was a revolution in dress in William Rufus's reign. however. and . [98] Eadmer. Adolescentium specimen erat: enerves--emolliti--expugnatores alienæ pudicitiæ. but we find that. little addicted to the softer vices. if introduced now. We find the reformation of his _Court_ was one of the first steps towards ingratiating himself with his subjects. were wont to tyrannize over the people in a shameful manner. when one would suppose our ancestors to have been rough and unpolished. The garments of the English. sure of impunity. but they soon adopted the fashions of these new-comers." By many evidences it appears that a luxury in apparel was very general among the Nobles and Gentry of that age.--a style of head-dressing. would spoil all the _Macaroni's_ of the age. which till then had been used. that they shewed themselves men in nothing but their attempts upon the chastity of women[98]. as most commodious for exercise and a military life. but in all the Western parts of Europe. Henry published a very severe edict against all offenders in general. instead of close coats. and though we often complain of the folly of our times.[95] Morem fratris sui Willielmi Regis secutus. speaking of the effeminacy of William Rufus's Court. and of secretly attempting the chastity of women. Not content with every species of oppression. The men appeared so effeminate in their dress and manners. prodigi suæ. for their comfort. were generally plain. [100] Introduction to Life of Henry II. and that. So William of Malmsbury.

. but it must be remembered that. an object of redress. at so distant a period. Coiners of false money were grown so numerous and bare-faced. he ordered to be put to death without mercy. from the connivance which offences of every kind had hitherto met with.--but we can but ill judge. among whom was Ranulph Bishop of Durham. by the King's command. in his progresses. This was in the first year of Henry's Reign. with still greater penalties. such as extorting money from the hosts who entertained them. for. for Henry's Attendants. Taking the whole together. that whoever. but arbitrary. and nothing to regulate the hand of Justice. [103] Eadmer. of the necessity there might be for such severity. plundered every thing that came in their way. so that the country was laid waste wherever the King travelled. and but little statute-law. moved their _Court_ very frequently. and abusing the chastity of women without restraint. for fear their provisions should be taken away by the King's Purveyors[102]. on proof. which was directed by caprice. These things called loudly for redress: it was therefore made public. and the penalty inflicted was the loss of eyes and genitals. or their hands and feet cut off[103]. punishments were not prescribed. in places where they lodged. to check the licentiousness that had crept in. Some who were already notorious on that account were banished the Court. employed and even protected by the great men about the Court. have their eyes put out. and wanton cruelty. there was no common law. nor is it an easy thing to subdue so many-headed a monster as Vice in power. the inferior Officers are always ready to ape them. carrying away what provisions they could. in these ages. and this severity was unavoidably necessary. the dissoluteness of William Rufus's Court did not die with him. one must conclude that the profligacy. who was likewise imprisoned by the advice of the great Council of the Kingdom[101]. at this day. and the temper of the reigning King. and. belonging to the Court. among the rest. and crimes that in the commission are common to all men very soon descend from the _Prince_ to the _Page_. it was necessary to publish another. we see. for which reason people. or abused the persons of their hosts. [101] Matthew Paris. the _Court_ and its Followers committed many outrages of a very serious nature. should. they were forced to accommodate themselves as well as they could at such houses as lay convenient. To us these seem cruel and unwarrantable punishments. Thus. but it had so little effect. In the King's progresses during the late Reign. left their houses. of the King's _Suite_ must have been very enormous. But now the grievance was become much worse. and sheltering themselves in the woods and bye-places. to have required punishments so repugnant to natural mercy. there being then no receptacles of a public nature. spoiled any goods of those who entertained them in these progresses. the former proclamation being ineffectual. when they knew of his approach. When the Magnates set bad examples in _Courts_. The Kings. that five years afterwards we find a _second_ reformation. and often to considerable distances. that this kind of imposition on the publick became. [102] Eadmer. as the state of the roads would not permit them to travel far in a day.such as abused their power by oppressing the people.

were often. vowing they would never wear them again. et _diviti apparatu_ celebravit. however. he built it. and more might be produced. at Gloucester. a post which is now in being. But. Worcester. Salisbury. . for which purpose. Eadmerus." Wherever the King kept his Court. who were called the King's _Cart-takers_. too numerous to mention _nominatim_. 190._ ad Pentecosten in _Westminster. for this purpose.. and sometimes at another. or for greater magnificence. I suppose. although the Court was not fixed in these times. yet the Kings generally kept the Feast of Christmas in one place[104]. and many other places. after Henry II. as it happened. atque ita Itinera instituit ut esset ad _Pentecosten_ apud _Westminster. as the Monkish writers say: though Henry I. of themselves." Chronic. William Rufus was not so uniform. William I. except by the persons authorized and appointed to the office. added to the frequency of them. ad _Pascha_ eam gessit in _Winchester. p. but for the most part the Easter-Court at Winchester. and his Queen. as his Father had done. very oppressive to the Yeomanry. _there_ was. He sometimes held his Court at one. had stated places for each Feast. According to the Saxon Chronicle. nobody has told us. they having Palaces almost at every considerable place in the Kingdom.These motions of so large a body of people. after their third Coronation at Worcester. but it was held oftener in Westminster Hall than any where else. and Lord Lyttelton does not even guess at the reason. of course. he kept his Court for the first time in his new Hall at Westminster (Saxon Chronicle). when the public observance of them was dropped by the King and Court. though out of use.) were kept with great solemnity. says." p. It is said to have grown by degrees into disuse after Henry II. and on these occasions the Kings wore their Crowns. does not appear to have confined himself to keep the Feast of Christmas at one place. who brought with them. the general resort of all the great men of the time. perhaps on account of its novelty and convenience in point of magnitude. At Whitsuntide 1099. and in so great a concourse it is no wonder there should be many disorderly and abandoned people. "Rex Henricus [in Festivitate Pentecostes] _curiam_ suam Lundoniæ in _magnâ_ mundi _gloriâ_. at York. Marlborough. even so late as the Reign of King . according to their liking or convenience. [104] _Pro more_. laid their Crowns on the Altar. who were obliged to supply the Court with carts and horses from place to place. Bath. after the institution of the Order of the Garter. George. and the abuse the people sustained in this kind of Purveyance was the occasion of edicts afterward to restrain any from _taking carriages_ from the subject. 1136. Henry was not wanting in splendour and magnificence on these occasions. Henry I. Saxon. speaking of one of them. or indeed wherever he resided. "Ter gessit [Willielmus] suam Coronam singulis annis quoties esset in Angliâ._ et ad _Natales_ in _Gloucester_. in spite of all edicts and penalties. The other Feasts they kept at different places. 187.._ ubi armis militaribus honoravit filium suum Henricum. The custom of wearing the Crown during the celebration of the great Festivals was much left off. was not regular in the places where he kept his Court. Winchester. _viz. no doubt. What the occasion of this vow was._ besides London and its environs. So before anno 1085 "Rex _induta Corona_ tenuit Curiam in _Winchester_ ad _Pascha_. large retinues. The great Feasts (together with that of St.

or such as delivered out provisions of various sorts in their several provinces. qui Vinum Convivis miscet. which Du Cange says. The Bishops. in the sense of _Camerarius_." Idem in voce. whom Lord Lyttelton calls. _Cubicularii_[108]. he says. We have the term _Chamberlain_. it is said there perished "quamplurimi de Regis familiâ. These. as his Predecessors had done. Butlers." Du Cange in voce: and _Pincernare_. after some debate about the succession. King Henry's son. is "Vinum prægustare priusquam Principi propinetur. and indeed this Officer. [105] Du Cange.. Stephen. The Latin term for these is _Cambellanus_. where the Treasurer is called the _Chamberlain_. and who appertained to the King's person. but be content with the Forests which belonged to the two Williams.Hitherto I have met with very little mention of any Officers of the _Court_ or _Household_. [109] The _Pincernæ_. In this Reign. at his accession. the fruits of Henry's rapacity and oppression. aliique Ministri. is--"diversus à _Camerario_. found in his Uncle's Treasury upwards of 100. and not the great Officer we now understand by the _Chamberlain_. they imposed a new oath upon their new King. In the account given by the Saxon Chronicle[106] of the persons who were so unfortunately drowned with Prince William. it is supposed. upon frivolous pretences. of every Corporation. As Stephen came in upon a doubtful title. 222. except one man. for the most part. called the _Chamberlain_. and accordingly. the people were willing to take this opportunity of securing themselves against future usurpations and exactions. and the office the _Chamber_. probably being on board the same ship with himself. Gloss. on the other hand. we hear of William de Tankerville. _Dispensatores_[107]. however.000_l. that they would pay allegiance no longer than he should continue to maintain the privileges of the . that he should fill the vacant Bishoprics. So that it seems to be what we call _A Yeoman of the Mouth_. is. but this unquestionably means _Treasurer_. in voce _Cambellanus_. &c. in returning from Normandy. still preserved in the City of London." indeed all who were on board perished. _Camerarius_. or the _Great Chamberlain_. were all menial and inferior Officers of the King's Household. or _High Treasurer_. _Pincernæ_[109]. in the year 1120. when Stephen was placed on the throne._[110] besides plate and jewels. "Henry's _Great Chamberlain_.--"_Pincerna_. and Matthew Paris. and make restitution of such as Henry had usurped. those of a higher rank. [106] P. that he should not seize the Woods which belonged to private persons. Pantry. which imported. [108] The _Cubicularii_ I have already supposed to mean the inferior Officers of the Bed-chamber." The Annotator on M. penes quem erat cura _Cameræ_ seu Thesauri Regii--_Cambellano_ autem fuit cura _Cubiculi_[105]. took a conditional oath. STEPHEN. Rapin calls him only _Chamberlain_. [107] The _Dispensatores_ should seem to be something like our Gentlemen of the Buttery.

These promises (which. The filling the Court with Normans. upon the death of the Archbishop. sufficient to secure the allegiance of his Courtiers. The greatest after-engagements that the King could devise were not. that he would not intermeddle with the revenues of the vacant Bishoprics. . the same estates. that they did not receive rewards and emoluments equal to their expectations.Church. others. and were the sole motive that induced the Barons to concur so warmly in his interest. From the time of Stephen's accession. he only followed the examples of his Predecessors. by securing to him the Crown. and felt himself a King. than they had possessed in the Reigns of his Norman Predecessors. and to buy off the reproaches of his subjects (of whose assistance he foresaw he should soon have occasion. for. to the exclusion of the English. at his accession. not many months after the signing the Charter. he not only became lavish of _titles_ and _honours_. do we find that. It is true. which proved the source of the approaching troubles. to secure the interest of such as he thought might be serviceable to him. But this bounty had not the desired effect: some who accepted his favours thought them no more than their due. with so little regard to every tie. but that they should be sequestered in the hands of Ecclesiastics till the vacancy was filled. To heal this wound. and had given them strong assurances that they should enjoy more privileges and offices under him. Stephen." p. heaping favours and honours on the Normans. and often by actual grants. to satisfy those that were most importunate. but alienated many of the Crown lands. Their private resentments were covered with public outside[111]. was weakening the attachment of the English to such a degree. the natural security of the Kingdom (the People) divided. were never intended to be performed) answered Stephen's end. who were passed by. All this. So difficult is it to regain the lost esteem of a brave and spirited people! [110] William of Malmesbury. however. Stephen afterwards confirmed by Charter. and Stephen's promises. and their hearts turned against the King and his Adherents. that it became eventually out of the power of the latter to support the Royal Family when it wanted protection. by which the affection of the Natives was warped. No wonder then that a King. and kept them in his hands above two years. wherein he particularly covenants not to meddle with vacant Bishoprics. had made large promises to the Barons. and thought themselves neglected. which he was forced to parry by other still larger promises. and the non-performance was the cause of the general revolt that happened in a few years. every one was grasping at the same posts. but with this aggravation. and that the true reasons of discontent were. he had been perpetually reminded by his _Courtiers_ of his large promises. that Stephen had given the most sacred engagements that can be had between men. "Æstimabantur denarii fere ad centum millia libras. but yet it tended only to amuse the people. the same honours. to engage them in support of his weak title to the Throne. became jealous. but most Writers agree that this was only an ostensible excuse for an opportunity to gratify their revenge. 179. he seized the revenues of the See of Canterbury. One very great error in the politics of the preceding three Kings was. and lavishing honours and estates amongst them. and more. and soon shewed their resentment. should soon be involved in tumultuous scenes of disaffection and revolt. however sacred. till he was fully seated in his Throne. perhaps. in growing ruptures with neighbouring Powers).

for in the time of Edward I. in the next Reign. magnitudine. This custom of strewing the rooms extended to the apartments of the Kings themselves in those days. [111] The breach of his oath to Matilda. This custom of strewing the floor. as the exigency of affairs required. and all Royal magnificence was broken down and defaced. . gemmis. it is not to be supposed that much attention should be paid to the interior regulation of the King's House or Household. at London. [112] Quâ nunquam fuerat splendidior _in Angliâ_ multitudine. and the jovial company drank wine out of gilded horns. and in summer with rushes. and sang songs when they became inebriated with their liquor[113]. there was little time to study _State_ and _Magnificence_ in his _Court_. which was the most splendid. that had yet been seen in England[112]. During so turbulent a period. from John of Salisbury. [114] Fitzstephen. vol. But even this rustic simplicity was mixed with great magnificence in gold and silver plate[115]. omnimodâ dapsilitate. according to a contemporary Author[114]. And in houses of inferior rank.. when he was Chancellor. viii. Lib. and _Becket_. fresh gathered. upon occasions of feasting. He held his Court at Easter. and this reason is given for it. in those days. "Willielmus filius Willielmi de Aylesbury tenet tres virgatas terræ . and many ages after. and it is no wonder that the situation of the parties should kindle a flame that should spread itself over the whole Kingdom." It may be observed. who were daily fed at their cost. [113] Lord Lyttelton. to strew with rushes. that such Knights as the benches could not contain might sit on the floor without dirtying their fine cloaths. or green leaves. it was probably as much distracted as the rest of the Kingdom. argento. ordered his hall to be strewed every day. One may judge a little of the hospitality of the Court in those days. that there is a relique of this custom still subsisting. [115] Idem. auro.Reason has little weight among such claimants. Had it not been for the turbulency of the times. the floor was strewed with flowers. exceeding that of his Predecessors. iii. p. in the winter with fresh straw or hay. by the manner of living among the Nobility: for at this time. per serjeantiam inveniendi _stramen_ ad straminandam cameram Domini Regis in _Hyeme_ et in _Æstate Herbam_ ad juncandam[116] cameram suam[117]. [116] _Juncare_ is properly. [117] Blount's Jocular Tenures. in every respect. further. with an annual salary. Vide Lord Lyttelton's Life of Henry II. The King being obliged to fly about from place to place. 483. Vestibus. was a part of the luxury of the times. in the first year of his Reign.. called the _Herb-strewer_. Henry of Huntingdon. for at Coronations the ground is strewed with flowers by a person who is upon the establishment. the great halls of the castles or principal manor-houses of the Nobility and Gentry were crowded with vast numbers of their vassals and tenants. In the former part of Stephen's Reign his Court was extremely magnificent. But the commotions of this Reign even put a stop to these meetings of the Court and Council[118].

after having been Abbess of Ramsey. added to the wealth he inherited with the Crown from his Predecessor. fines. and being embroiled in domestic wars with his Cousin the Empress Maud. Eustace and William. allowed for ransom of the King's Person if taken prisoner. if we may take the Court which attended him in his first year. and Mortaine. His two elder Sons died in his life-time. which. that some spirited measures became necessary. and afterwards released at the suit of his Son _Eustace_. to enable him to support his dignity equal to the Sovereign of a great Kingdom. and his third.) Henry at his Accession found himself so contracted in his Royal Revenues. who. had he lived in times more favourable to it. have shone with great lustre in his _Court_ and _Household_. and the magnificence there exhibited. Henry soon saw that the resumption of several grants made by Stephen was absolutely necessary. [118] Jam quippe Curiæ solennes. and no doubt were _Knights_. and indeed it will admit of a question whether the Norman _aid_. every person of the least consequence was. for. HENRY II. King Stephen. Surrey. during the internal disquietudes in the Kingdom. William. escheats. by the imprudence of his immediate Predecessor. restored to his titles of Earl of Bolleigne. King Stephen. Stephen. and several others. and these having been conferred on great and powerful men. Annals of Waverly. The Kingdom was divided. and at last to resume what he had before given. being a Foreigner. according to the complexion of the times. might not choose to ask _Aids_ of the people of England. but the exigency of his affairs. King Stephen was unpopular. probably. who. and his own wishes. and it does not appear that he did. he had large revenues. the measure must be conducted with firmness and delicacy. so that. after the . In a Treaty made at Winchester. was Earl of Bolleigne. was married to the second son of Theodoric. feudal profits from the demesnes of others. It is not said that any sum of money was paid on the occasion. the Empress. derived from different sources. and loved splendour. for a specimen. the price of the dissembled affection of his Courtiers. made no demands of _aids_ of this sort of which we are speaking. was by Henry II. and an Usurper. he would. both of whom lived to be married. (PLANTAGENET. _viz. in her right. was succeeded by his sister Mary. it was difficult for the Nation at large to refuse or comply. and the situation to which he was reduced with his Barons. et ornatus Regii Schematis prorsus evanuerant. and a splendid Court. was taken prisoner by _Maud_. aids. would extend to such a domestic war. though these Princes do not appear to have received that honour in England. He had two sons. and dying without issue.Stephen might doubtless have kept a very large Household._ the demesnes of the Crown. and the Title to the Crown suspended. Earl of Flanders. obliged him to give largely. and in such an unquiet hour. Stephen had liberality.

Among these resumable gifts were some made by Matilda. from the . Policy and Law concurred in demanding these concessions back again. for. The grants he reclaimed were such as sound policy and the exigencies of the State demanded. in giving away certain parts of the Estate of the Crown. and had not been transmitted down through several generations. and proceeded to put it into immediate execution. that he met with less opposition than he had reason to expect. then Duke of Normandy. obtained their concurrence to it. much that had been usurped by the Barons of both Parties. for she too. and having properly laid before them the wants of the Crown. acting as Sovereign. had this not been now executed. who were numerous and powerful. all which were to be restored. set about the execution of this secret article of the Treaty of Winchester. The necessity of this measure. had been also granted away. even by virtue of grants from the Crown. which could not be suffered to continue in the hands of the Nobles. on unjustifiable pretences[120]. The vigour of his government was such. by the licence of the times. that the King (Stephen) "should resume what had been alienated to the Nobles.close of the Civil Commotions in the late Reign. _inter alia_. against the claim of succeeding Princes[121]. and the urgent necessity of a speedy resumption. except those that Stephen had granted to William his Son. or usurped by them. reserving to himself only _the Image of the Royal Dignity_. appeared in the most glaring colours to Henry. without endangering the peace of the Kingdom. a Sovereign without a Royal Revenue--"Rex et preterea nihil. Henry would have been little better than Stephen. or usurped by them. having usurped the Crown Lands. by a separate and secret article. This was base and unmanly. being made by a weak Prince in embarrassed situations. of the Royal Demesne[119]. which Stephen had neglected. and revoked them at pleasure. for Stephen's extravagance. to supply his extravagance and ridiculous humour. the illegality of the grants. therefore. Add to these. and the insatiable demands of his faction. would very soon have contended for the Sovereign Power: and had not Henry exerted the spirit and conduct which he soon shewed. Royal Cities. had induced him to alienate so much of the ancient Demesne of the Crown. had followed Stephen's example. The Antient Demesne of the Crown was held so very sacred. He therefore summoned a Parliament. or had bestowed on the Church."--His power would soon have vanished. should assume the Rights and Power of a King. indigent as he was. it is more than probable the Government of the Kingdom at this period had sunk into an Aristocracy. relating to the alienated lands. the losses it had suffered. it was stipulated. that the remaining Estate was not (as has been said) sufficient to maintain the Royal Dignity. and so inalienable. however arduous and disagreeable in itself. however. and the Barons." This article was limited to whatever lands or possessions had belonged to the Crown at the death of King Henry I. which had been neglected by Stephen.. Henry was cautious not to act without a legal sanction. Foreseeing. Henry. that this step would raise much discontent in those who were to be affected by it. very near all that had been granted to Laymen. and Forts of great consequence. No article of the Treaty of Winchester was more necessary to be fulfilled than a resumption of all these alienations. and the approbation of his Council. after Stephen had contented himself that Henry. William Rufus made grants. to reward her adherents. as they were all of no earlier date than the Reign of King Stephen. without any warrant. that no length of time could give a right of prescription to any other possessors. Henry's resumptions neither impeached his generosity nor his justice. wherein almost all his Nobles were present. as soon as he was well and fully confirmed on the Throne.

the castle of Bridgnorth. among others. or a King whose personal virtues could render his safety so dear to a subject whom he had not obliged by any extraordinary favours[126]. No distinction was made between the grants of Stephen and Matilda. It is hard to say which deserves the most admiration (continues my Noble Author[125]) a subject who died to save his King. The King. but of party revenge. [119] Lord Lyttelton. that it is no wonder Historians are silent as to lesser matters. an only child. confirmed the Charter of his Grandfather. The King erected a monument (1773) to his memory. one would infer that his _Court_ was likewise equal (at least) to any other in dignity and . Clare[123]) who stood by his side. [125] Lord Lyttelton. I think. seeing an arrow aimed at Henry by one of Mortimer's archers. in Shropshire. This Reign is so pregnant with interesting events. and was afterwards married to a Nobleman of great distinction. [124] The daughter was educated by Henry with all the affection he owed to the memory of her father. to the care of that Prince[124]. which was defended by Mortimer himself. and exposed himself to so much danger. and by this equal and impartial proceeding. such as the internal direction of his _Court_. possessed of an ample Royal Revenue. and as England became in his Reign one of the most powerful States in Europe. however. which obliged Henry. not of Royal economy and public expediency. with which he assaulted. now firmly seated on his Throne. [126] A very similar circumstance happened in our times in Poland.Royal Demesne. Henry. he enforced a due execution of them. The cause assigned for these resumptions was not a defect in the title of the grantor. if a faithful vassal (Hubert de St. and an infant. he stepped before him. he left the adherents of Stephen no reason to complain. a Hussar. after a little delay. [123] Constable or Governor of Colchester Castle. and some ineffectual marks of reluctance in a few of the greatest Barons[122]. Butzau. for Roger de Mortimer would not submit. to lead an army against him. not content only to restore good Laws. but there is. In the course of this business. for that would have carried an appearance of Henry's acting from motives. and he expired in Henry's arms. was surrendered to him without bloodshed. recommending his daughter. [120] Lord Lyttelton. and received it in his own breast. and received the arrows in his own breast. that he would have been infallibly slain. little question to be made but that it was magnificent. H. [122] Lord Lyttelton. nor any unworthiness in the grantee. anno 1771. and shining transactions of a public nature. [121] Lord Lyttelton. Henry I. but. Henry commanded in person. incensed by his obstinacy. had not preferred the King's life to his own. The wound proved mortal. See the public prints of the years 1771 and 1773. of which wounds he died. but the apparent and indispensable necessity of recovering the just and inseparable Rights of the Crown. being shot at with arrows by the Regicides. Henry was once very near losing his life. interposed. for.

"His own table (continues his Lordship) was frugal. and both received from. were not wholly laid aside. in cold and stormy weather. He appears himself to have lived in a great degree of familiarity with his Courtiers. and was termed in Latin _Opera Phrigia_. and was fond of the _desipere in loco_. Earl of Flanders: an uncommon resort in these days. But "his good humour and jocularity. considering the hospitable manner of living in those days." He introduced the Angevin fashion of wearing short cloaks or mantles (contrary to the mode that prevailed in William Rufus's Reign). "it was much desired by the Popes. Archbishop of Triers. nam iste primus omnium _curta mantella_ ab Andegaviâ (Anjou) in Angliam transvexit. coming towards . disliking all ornaments which might encumber him in his exercise.splendour." In a note on this passage.e. and of Philip. which one must imagine to have been a very considerable donation. and highly esteemed in Italy. of Court-Mantle[128]. to relieve the Reader. however. were riding together through the streets of London. and lay aside the King. "seems to have been sometimes too _playful in the eye of the public_. or shew an effeminate regard to his person. The use of silk made by silk-worms (the _Bombycina_) was brought hither from Sicily about this time. [130] Camden's Remains. _that_ was much worn by the Nobility. 194. who. and added. or nick-name. and would frequently unbend. of William. "Whatever it was. so that Henry's fashion did not prevail universally[129]. whom he honoured with his intimacy. speaking of his munificence." says he. and the People. for it is every day seen how fast the fashions of the Great descend into the remotest parts of the Kingdom. after giving an account of his person and temper. and from which he obtained the sobriquet. Mr. were attracted by the power of the King." [128] _i." Brompton. p. He entertained at one time. and in his dress he affected the utmost simplicity. but supposes it _not_ to mean Embroidery. [127] Speed. Will. iii. doubtless. there was also a costly stuff at this day in great request here. Rufus. of the Duke of Saxony. and to have carried him into things that were _infra_ _dignitatem_[131]. called in Latin _Aurifrisium_. or the internal disposition of his Family. Emperor of the Romans. In this he would soon be followed by his Court. 519. by other testimonies. his diet plain. Lord Lyttelton. p. "As the King and Becket." says Lord Lyttelton. observes. his Lordship gives a pleasant story. and certainly cannot do it better than in his Lordship's own words. in his Palace at Westminster. the several Ambassadors of Manuel. the King saw. [129] Vide note to vol. Camden declares himself ignorant[130]. from Fitz-Stephen's Life of Archbishop Becket. although. lustre to the brilliancy and magnificence of his Court[127]. his Chancellor[132]. and the corruption seems very easy and allowable._ Short Mantle. Hitherto I have not been able to learn any thing concerning Henry's _Household_. that the long garments introduced temp. which I shall relate. of Frederic. 1150.--"Ab Infantiâ vocabatur Henricus _Curtmantell_. octavo. Emperor of Constantinople. which he himself had worn from his childhood. p. Lord Lyttelton. says. he assigned the tenth part of the Provisions of his _Household_ to be constantly given in daily alms to the poor. What it was called in English.

This was effected by Itinerant Justices. in a thin coat. he came over into England. and you do the duty of a King. among several others of equal age. iii. which is all that concerns the matter before us. . 1366. the Empress. for. for his transfretations (to use a Monkish word) into foreign parts. answered that Minister. and so generally and indiscriminately imposed. upon the face of common history. prevailed. lined with fur. in turning your eyes and thoughts to such objects. though there was a national contribution or _Aid_ demanded for the marriage of one of his daughters. consisted of four Sons: Henry. vol. His issue. at the feast of Pentecost[134]. inter Decem Scriptores. p. as he attained his _sixteenth_ year.them. against the Usurper. and at Carlisle. on his subjects." [131] Life of Henry II.--_You shall have the merit of this good deed of charity_. however. [133] Life of Henry II. 1149. tallages. Dorob." This took place in the year 1170. yet it does not transpire but in a general Inquisition for the purpose of discoverig what monies had been received. Would it not be a great charity (said he to the Chancellor) to give this naked wretch. Henry was a Prince that would not forego his rights and privileges. worn to tatters. and. Alianor. King of Scots. as his Children were all natives of England. and as would operate in his favour on their account. D. in a Reign where the subjects were so loaded with taxations of every kind. though I have not the least doubt but that it was comprehended in some of those numerous subsidies. a good warm cloak? Certainly. in every township. to separate any particular charge from the aggregate. the man came near. and Joan. 311. and the Courtiers laughed. Maud. &c. It does not appear. would doubtless avail himself of such laws and indulgences as he found established. in the sixteenth year of the King's Reign. [134] Gervas. and of every man. and for which no _Aid_ could be demanded. The poor man had the cloak. in every County. King Stephen. they were directed to inquire--"concerning the _Aid_ to marry the King's Daughter. at the pleasantry of the King[133]. what was received in every hundred. who were dispatched over the whole Kingdom. col. after some struggle. It is difficult. he tried to pull it from him. then lay. that any _Aid_ was paid for the _Knighthood_ of his eldest Son. in which they had both like to have fallen from their horses. was by him made a Knight. While they were thus talking. by the Sheriffs. vol. then suddenly laying hold on a fine new scarlet cloak. Geoffrey. [132] He was not then Archbishop. who is so needy and infirm. from time to time. and who received it[135]. Richard. and John. which depended upon the success of his Mother. in the early part of his life. turning to the Chancellor. and. which Becket had on. King Henry II. among other articles contained in their general commission. &c. and three Daughters. was in a very doubtful situation with regard to his accession to the Crown of England. said. the King asked him if he wished to have a good cloak? and. As soon. There is some ground for the surmise that the charge might be enveloped in some of those exactions. iii. a poor old man. A. and. 40. which he levied. like good Courtiers. where his Great Uncle David. p.

a _Subsidy_. and Richard. p. or a _Tallage_. properly prepared with horse and arms. With regard to this King's _transfretations_. which had been taken. [137] Consult Brady. with which Richard was. These levies were made in the most oppressive manner. which fell not a little heavy on the subject. D. in what is known by the name of the _Holy War_. [136] Brady. to join in this undertaking. who ransacked every corner of his Kingdom for money to carry on this work of zeal. when he passed _outre-mer_. whereby Richard. could withstand Richard. who cites Gervas. I can but remark one. p. left behind him great treasures. to attend him in person. which had seized all Christendom. as I have called them. 344. and was now in the hands of the Saracens. It ought not to be forgotten that those who _did_ go. and this was not called an _Aid_. and Knights. Most of the Crown lands which Henry had. the King commanded all his _Tenants in capite_. col. the then eldest. whether Clerk or Layman. who gives authorities. would not answer the purpose of his Successor.[135] From Brady's History. St. most infatuated. 1410. thought he saw so fair a prospect of reaping honour and renown. however sacred. 309. Paul. 1177. Nothing. the then second Son) with two Daughters of France. he was not contented with mere feudal contributions in lieu of personal service. imputable indeed to the religious frenzy of the times. and other valuable things[140]. or to supply money towards the expence of the expedition. every one who _did not_ go in person being taxed to the extent of his property real and personal. Henry left in his treasury at Winchester more than nine hundred thousand pounds[139]. or ten times as much. on the Throne of a great and opulent Kingdom. but (forsooth!) an ALMS[137]. and the Pope[138]. but. St. by the good government and direction of his revenues. . were to have a free pardon of all sins repented of. Henry had. [138] Ibid. _ad Regis exemplum_. but this would go but a very little way towards recovering Jerusalem. to afford much matter for our purpose. A. To conclude all I have to observe upon the subject of exactions towards the King's expences in foreign wars. Earls. Richard had bound himself in a vow to Philip of France. and every one. upon a rupture with France. Before the death of Henry. respecting settlements upon an intended marriage between two Sons of Henry (Henry. above all men. Barons. in his schemes to raise money for this purpose. strove either to go in person. The following Reign is too full of the business of the Holy War. who were to serve a whole year in Normandy at their own charge[136]. 330. and their securities were God. besides jewels. Dorob. RICHARD I. which was occasioned by a joint resolution of _Henry of England_ and _Philip of France_ to go to the relief of _Jerusalem_. but these. Peter.

in his Expedition to the Holy War. were again put up to public sale. For this purpose he revoked all the grants of the Crown lands. however. One would think the great wealth that Richard had amassed would have answered all his purposes. This was one device._ for the _ransom_ of the _King's Person_. to create a fund for this enterprize. King Richard I. and was afterwards found with it about his neck.000 marks. The Clergy laboured as zealously to procure him soldiers. to be purchased by such as were able. let the means be ever so dishonourable. to renew them. [141] In passing between Cyprus and Rhodes. the next was. and money must be had at any rate. who had the Great Seal in his custody. his army soon became very numerous. This was the manner in which the Seal was formerly carried by the Chancellor himself--"_circa_ cujus _Collum suspensum_ Regis Sigillum postea repertum est. there was not an opening for demanding the two common _Aids_. that the purchasers had enjoyed them long enough to re-imburse themselves out of the profits. he compelled. and therefore he did them no injury by taking the lands back again. three of his Ships were lost." Brompton. and little able to furnish out supplies for a war with France. The people murmured at his oppression. as he himself had been active in raising subsidies.with so much prudence and address. by which he must have raised a considerable sum[141]. could be properly . if he could meet with a purchaser_. to be excused. he had occasion for fresh supplies. and the alienation of the estates of the Crown. and annexed to the State. as soon as Richard returned home. _he would sell London itself. The Bishop of Norwich paid him 1000 marks. and among other persons that perished was the Vice-Chancellor. Every expedient was devised. and obliged all who had commissions under the old one. The pretext for this was." Matthew Paris. by ordering a new one to be made. was exercised for the first time in this Reign. not to our immediate purpose. Where he could. were copiously extorted from the subject. on his being taken prisoner by the Emperor Henry. If ever the Latin adage." are Brompton's words. to avail himself of the loss of the Great Seal. and where he could not borrow. to carry on a war with Philip of France. but a few years before. he borrowed. "Quicquid delirant Reges. that he had less difficulty in raising men than money. recovered out of private hands. he could no longer deny himself the satisfaction of revenge. but Richard was resolved. on frivolous and nugatory occasions. and among the rest. was the general infatuation. _viz. by which he raised very large sums. by leaguing himself with his Brother John. amounting to 150. et Lapides pretiosos. but the third. Philip of France had so maltreated Richard. et Jocalia. Other taxations. having no child of either sex. So great. His Kingdom was already drained. which were raised for the occasion by his subjects in England. but in a few years after. Brompton. [139] "Numero et Pondere. he obtained of the Pope a power to dispense with the vows of such who had rashly engaged in the Crusade. and bribing the Emperor to detain him prisoner." &c. but Richard told them. not to mention the ransom which was paid for his release. and at a cheap rate. heavy and enormous. and have them resealed. in the order they are usually placed. for every officer and private soldier provided himself with necessaries. that. [140] "Præter Utensilia. which he had made before his expedition to Palestine. and even in a shameful manner[142].

of subsidies in several ports. Subsidies. let it be either of them. 610. [143] Consult the Monkish Historians.applied. and. In the Reign also of King Edward IV. 4486. assembled in the King's Council[145]. in default of payment. tom. &c. who delivered him into the hands of the Emperor. almost amounted to _sacrilege_[144]. Upon these assignments the Assignees had Patent-Letters. and. Tallies. and call it 100. Failing in the attempt to recover Jerusalem from the Saracens. assignments for their salaries. and of the profers [_sic_] of escheators and sheriffs. upon such Assignments. eventually. though some writers reduce it a third part. [145] Rymer's Fúdera. made forth for their avail. were. a certain portion of the customs in the several ports.000 _marks_. viii. 73. p. This was done by the assent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal. a sum not to be raised without the greatest extortion.000_l._. The church was ransacked for plate. set apart for the expences of his Household. but. forgetting that it was one of the established Norman _Feudal Aids_. [142] Sir Richard Baker. where he remained a captive full _fifteen months_._ upon Sheriffs of Counties. [144] Sir Richard Baker reckons this no more than a voluntary contribution. The favourite system of this King was the _Holy-War_. till he was ransomed[143]. in those days. or . EDWARD IV. HENRY IV. _viz.--From Madox's MSS. or debts. In the eleventh year of King Henry IV. 70. and his intemperate zeal led to the point before us. which was pretended to have been only borrowed for the moment--but the debt was never repaid. was made prisoner by the Arch-duke of Austria (upon a pretext that he had killed the Margrave Conrade at Tyre). p. it was not done without what. or ministers. n. or Writs of Liberate currant. on his return towards England through Germany. it was usual for the King to grant to his servants. it was. The sum demanded for the King's release is generally allowed to have been 100. by the King's letters patent. or _Men_ [fortè Mayors] of Towns. and I am justified in saying. p. Tallies of the Exchequer. it belonged to Richard. Collectors of Customs. they brought actions of debt in the Court of Exchequer. though now first brought forward since the Conquest. he concluded a truce of three years with Saladan their King. upon divers officers who were concerned in receiving his revenue. Bailiffs. of the issues of the hamper [now the Hanaper].

23. Master Surgeon. part of it to the expences of his Household. Wardrobe of Beds. n. Wardrobe of Robes. 4486. p. Six Infants. in the Placita coram Baronibus. or other Officers aforesaid. Henxmen. . A Secretary. p. Yeomen of Chamber (four). He assigned. 69. in the Rolls of the Exchequer[146]. A Sewer for the King. or Bachelor Knights. [147] Idem. Gentlemen Ushers of Chamber (four)._ of the Dresser. Pages of Chamber (four). Barber. The King was wont to distribute his revenue in such manner as he thought fit._ Edward IV. before the Steward and Marshal. Surveyor for the King. at his pleasure. 5 Edward IV. Doctor of Physic. An act done within the verge of the King's Palace was said to be done in _præsentiâ Regis_. The party offending was tried in the Court held in the Palace. 71. against the Sheriffs. Squires of Household.Liberates. Chaplains (four). and relates to the following Officers: A Chamberlain. Master of the Henchmen. and the proceedings there. e. [146] Madox's MSS. e. Grooms of Chamber (ten). Knights of Household (twelve) to do the Office of Ewerers. and other parts to the expences of either civil government or war[147]. Yeomen of the Crown (twenty-four). Wardrobe. anno 1478. to be Carvers and Cup-bearers (four).] contains Orders for his said Majesty's Household. [148] Idem. many instances of which may be seen in the fifth year of King Edward IV. Bannerets. 22. Apothecary. Jewel-house. pp. Esquires for the Body (four). EXTRACTS FROM THE LIBER NIGER. _i. The Liber Niger Domûs Regis Angliæ[149] [_i. were styled _Placita Aulæ Domini Regis de Coronâ_[148].

Clerk of Crown in Chancery. Treasurer of Household. N. Minstrels (thirteen). _one_ talshed and an _half_. EXTRACTS FROM THE LIBER NIGER. &c. Marriage of Wards. I presume. Chaplains. Yeomen of the Chapel (two). in the British Museum. watching upon them by night-time in the Chapel.] Messagers (four). send his _rod_ by any mean person or persons. and Clerks of the Chapel (twenty-six). _i. to teach the Henxmen and Children of the Chapel. [150] By white lights I understand tallow candles. and for their livery at night. and July. Wherefore he hath of fee all the watching cloathing that the Knights should wear upon [them. e. chaundry. that all Knights for the Body. Squires for the Body. But if he . B. Clerk of the Works. Item. A Wayte. and _three_ sizes of white lights[150]. This Yeoman (for such was his rank) waiteth (_i. Clerk of the Closet. spicery._ playeth. and Knight Carvers. and _a_ gallon of ale. [may have] every of them. GENTLEMAN USHER. buttery. April. Children of the Chapel (eight). or cellar. to pantry. _two_ Yeomen sitting in the hall. ne Usher of the Chamber. I suppose) at the making of Knights of the Bath. and Pursuivants. Cofferer. Controller of Household. N^o 369. Among the provisions. [149] Harleian MSS. for a quarter of a year. Item. they being so distinguished from wax in other places: which last. at that time were yellow. corrected by N^o 642. _one_ loaf and _an half_. Dean of the Chapel._ Vestry. Cup-Bearers. January. Clerks of Green Cloth.Kings of Arms. Master of Grammar. Heralds. it is said _Knights of the Body_. KNIGHTS AND ESQUIRES OF THE BODY. and a book thereof delivered from the King's Highness into the compting-house. be put to their attendance. that the Marshall. but go in his own person. and Cup-Bearers. Serjeants at Arms (four). or any other office. the quarters to begin at October. Office of Vestiary. Carvers. Clerk of the Market. e. Steward of Household.

and for his fee of the King's Household. by even portions. and that of the Esquires of the Body. This was called _checquing_. Item. [152] Of this Office. so that he may not. or else by special token from the Steward of the Household. _Squires for the Bod_y. that is to say. to be taken of the counting-house by even portions. that weekly there be warned and appointed by the Huishiers [Ushers] of the Chamber. the office of a Clerk of the Cheque. GREAT CHAMBERLAIN OF ENGLAND. Part I. that every Lord. no officer abide in his office. and also that he will breve for. as other within the Household. Item. that the liveries for _All-night_. nor resort unto his said office after his departing. Item. and Esquire. and that none of the said Squires fail hereof. the party to be warned to amend. then he send such one with his _rod_. for the feasts of Christmas and Whitsuntide. and for his winter and summer robes. as well _Squire for the Body_. whereof _four_ to be continually abiding and attending upon the King's Person in Court. ten pounds thirteen shillings and four pence. of every Country. as he will answer for on the morrow. cometh to this Court at the six principal feasts of the year. twenty marks in the counting-house. [those] who shall attend and serve the King for the week next following. Pegge's Curialia. sufficient and most valiant men of that order. upon pain of losing a week's wages. a discharge from his office[151]. and more in number if it please the King. Item. For the first offence. takes such livery and service after the estate he is of. [151] In the time of Henry the Eighth (as in some cases in these Orders) they used stoppages of wages in lieu of imprisonment. and in the winter time. upon pain of six days wages. Twelve Bachelors. Cup-Bearers. I apprehend. beside the Carvers occupied. Knight. And for the third offence. after the King and Queen's liveries delivered as aforesaid. from Candlemas to Michaelmas. For the second offence. see Mr. for the King and Queen be set by day-light. wear daily a collar of the King's livery about their _nekket_ (sic) as to them appertaineth. at the two terms of Easter and Michaelmas. imprisonment at the discretion of his Superior. KNIGHTS OF HOUSEHOLD[152]. to eight of the clock at farthest. for to serve the King . Carvers. without a special commandment of the King or of the Queen. Hence. Punishment for neglect of Duty. or from the King or Queen's Chamberlains. and others. Sewers.

one gallon of ale. one tallwood and an half. and besides his watching cloathing of Chamber of the King's Wardrobe. and to dress him in his cloaths. sitting in the King's Chamber and Hall with persons of like service. two candles pis. and clothing. till their said Masters come again. from All-Hallowtide till Easter. two candles pric. and taking for his chamber. one quart of wine. one _percher_ wax. This letting blood. to array him. _Four_ Noble. [154] Fortè _Prickets_. and cloathing with the Household. for the carriage of their own stuff. Taking. if any thing lack for his person or pleasance. or else fore-watched. within seven miles to [of] the King. _two_ Knights together. watch day and night. or else forty shillings. And they be callers to the Chamberlaine. some sitting in the King's chamber. and to purvey for their stuff. therefore it was left. ESQUIRES FOR THE BODY.of his bason. and not for every sickness in man continuing in this Court. _three_ persons. which is called _Knight's service_. or such other service as they may do the King. one candle wax. is to avoid pestilence. Oftentimes these stand instead of Carvers and Cup-bearers. and unarray him. and not of the Treasurer of Household. half a chet loaf. Waiters. from All-Hallowen-tide till Easter: rushes and litter all the year. amongst them all. abiding in this Court. for his livery at night. if it may be. after time eight of these Knights be departed from Court. one candle wax. four Yeomen. one loaf. and therefore the people take livery out of the Court. every of them. and for keeping of their stuff and Chamber. some in the hall with persons of like service. and. And if any Esquire be let blood. winter and summer. Also at their livery in the Country. if he be sick. or of the Treasurer of England. and for winter livery. _four_ loaves. by the Herbergers sufficiently lodged. of _ten_ marks. livery sufficient for his horses in the country. for winter livery. besides his other fee of the Jewel-house. by the Herberger. the remanent of their servants to be at their livery in the Country. or clystering. whereof always two be attendant on the King's person. He hath. every of them have eating in the hall one Yeoman. Item. Also they pay. but because[153] their clothing is not according for the King's Knights. of condition. or clystered. half a pitcher of wine. so that the number of Knights' servants be not increased when their Masters be present. and wages in the compting-house. Their business is in many _secrets_. _two_ gallons of ale. he shall have like livery with Knights. Some time Knights took a fee here yearly. or specially let blood. it is by warrant made to the King's Wardrober. of the Serjeant Usher of the Hall and Chamber. If he be present in the Court daily. but two servants. Every Knight shall have into this Court resorting. one quart of wine. one gallon of ale. [153] N^o 369 reads _Ray_ Clothing. seven-pence halfpenny. one pitcher of wine. .[154] one talshide and an half. And if a Knight take clothing. then he taketh livery. Litter and rushes all the year. in absence of the Carvers. of the Serjeant Usher. in this Court. and the four Yeomen to eat daily in the hall with Chamberlains. _two_ mess of great meat and roast. at noon and night.

of the which to have sitting in the Hall two persons. that then immediately the Pages are to shew the same to the Lord Chamberlain. but be attendant at the door. so as they may be ready. _six_ horses and _two_ beds. Sir Humphrey . and the residue _ut supra_ [_i. and the King's Chamber dressed in every thing as appertaineth. and beds for their servants. Sir Edward Baynton. every of them to have for their livery at night._ to have no meat or drink within the House. and make a fire. Sir Arthur Poole. _six_ horses and _two_ beds. three white lights. _four_ horses and _one_ bed[155]. the 19th of January. To every Esquire for the Body. Item. at the request of the said Esquires. Every Gentleman Usher of the Privy Chamber. half a pitcher of wine. that. and two faggots. In the appointment of Herbagage be ordinary for all Noble Estates.] [155] _Sic_: but query if not Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber. and one gallon of ale. is a chamber for the _six_ Gentlemen _and_ Ushers of the Privy Chamber. and other Knights. their night-gear. both at night and in the morning. Every Groom of the Privy Chamber. _two_ horses and _two_ beds.* * * * * _In the "Statutes of Eltham. [N. and warn the Esquires of the Body of that hour. two talsheds. to the intent they may then arise. by _eight_ of the clock at the farthest. one size wax. For the good order of the King's Chamber. [In the appointment of Lodgings. and likewise to make them ready. _three_ horses and _one_ bed. in the 17th year of his Noble Reign. if the Esquires for the Body do not arise at the warning of the Pages. or soon after. mentioned to have been at Eltham at that time. it is said. with such gear as their Masters shall wear. which explains the above article. e. they not being otherwise mentioned in either copy. at his Manor of Eltham. to have ordinary within the Court _four_ persons. B. Every Gentleman Usher Daily Waiter. to sup in. And the said Pages. Every Gentleman Usher of the Privy Chamber. so as the King's Chamber may be ready and dressed by the hour afore limited. Item. for stabling of their horses. every of them. _five_ horses and two beds.] The Esquires for the Body. It is appointed to Knights for the Body."_ Esquires of the Body. as well at night as in the morning. that none of the servants of the said Esquires come within the Pallet Chamber. and for their bouche of Court. and bear out. and others. the Pages of the King's Chamber must daily arise at _seven_ o'clock. appointed by the King's Highness. but to be at board wages in the town]. one chet loaf. whereof six. and all other their apparel. were. to fetch in.

Forster. if it please the King. shooting. he must remove out of the Court. Another to keep his Dogs for the Bow. cleanly and strongest Archers. and of behaviour. Sir Roger Ray. and litter for their beds of the Serjeant Usher of the Hall and Chamber. And if any of them be sick. yearly. joining to the Yeomen of Household. another to be Yeoman of the Wardrobe of Beds in Household. be always attending upon us. except the first four persons. . They have nothing else with the Household _sans_ carriage of their beds. Twenty-four most seemly persons. or let blood. by deliverance or assignment for that carriage of the Controllers. * * * * * In the New Book of the King's Household of Edward IV. at the end of which they were relieved by _five_ Knights and four Esquires. Other two be Yeomen Ushers of Chamber. and if it be of great sickness. as nigh together as the Herbiger of Household may dispose. in the Noble Edward's Statutes. eating there also. hath daily allowed in the counting-house _three-pence_. and two Yeomen Ushers. two men together. and specially of virtuous conditions. and always two Yeomen of Crown to have an honest servant in to [the] Court. These two. Another Yeoman to keep the King's Books. one mess of great meat. One to be Yeoman of the Robes. being Vice Chamberlain. Another to be Yeoman of the Stole. and all the remnant eating in the Hall. and vacat in the Cheque Roll till he be seen in Court again. and [Mr. in certainty. as the Usher. Also lodging in the town. Deputy to my Lord Chamberlain." YEOMEN OF THE CROWN[156]. And." These were called the King's Watchment. one gallon of ale. except at the five Great Feasts of the year. "We will that Sir Roger Ray.. sufficient for their horses. and every of them present in Court. sitting together above.] Francis Pointz. then he taketh his wages of the Jewel-house. Another to be Yeoman of the Bows for the King. &c. for it is said afterwards. a Yeoman took but ten shillings for his gown. or else eighteen shillings. Another to be Yeoman of the Armory. then as many Yeomen of Crown and Chamber as may sit in the King's Chamber shall be served there during the Feast. At this [or rather that] day. In the King's Chamber be daily sitting four messes of Yeomen. And these were called "The Twenty-four Archers de pié courants entièrement devant le Roy par pairs pour Gard [de] Corps du Roy[157]. at least. was in both lists. and four shillings and eight pence for his hosen and shoone. he taketh for all day a cast of bread. two Gentlemen Ushers. Also it accordeth that they be chosen men of manhood." Part III. or in the country. or another to keep his best. the remnant may to the Hall. and cloathing for winter and summer. and . And if any of them be sent out by the King's Chamberlain. bold men chosen and tried out of every Lord's house in England for their cunning and virtue thereof. [156] See the "Curialia. honest of conditions. and thus they may be put to business.. beside their watching cloathing of the King's Wardrobe. anno 1478: Six Knights and five Squires appear to have been on duty for eight weeks from the last day of October. eat in the King's Chamber daily.

And if these Gentlemen. Also. and beddings. by oversight of the Comptroller. &c.[157] Sic lego. or Groom. the Steward and Treasurer. and things necessary. three talsheds. MASTER OF HENXMEN. This Barber shall have every Saturday at night. this Barber taketh his shaving cloths. Gentleman. or else Squire for the Body._ granted them during non-age. a gallon of ale. and to array him in this Court whilst their Masters be present in Court. Also. and livery nightly for them all to their chamber. they should be gird with their swords. A BARBER FOR THE KING'S MOST HIGH AND DREAD PERSON. by the Chamberlain's assignment. [159] _i. And all their competent harness to be carried. one gallon of ale. Also we find how this hath been used among . and every of them an honest servant to keep their chamber and harness. Serjeant. e. two loaves. Also. HENXMEN. for their supper in fasting days. by a well-betrusted Yeoman of Chamber. and sitting at one board together. be present every time when the King will be shaven. if it please the King to cleanse his head. when they make watch nightly. And all other findings for their beds they take of the King's Wardrobe. but it be in his instrumental tools used by occupation. till the King's Grace hath given or sold[159] their lands and wards. and all his other towels[158]. according to their age. then. by suit of the Master of Henxmen. or more. Six infants. and harness about them. be Wards. To be taking in this Court after that he standeth in degree. It is accustomed that a Knight of Chamber. or with other weapons ready. after their births and degrees. legs.. if this be necessary dispended or no. a mess of great meat. made to the King's Chamberlain for warrants. . and for his shaving. amongst them all. of the Jewel-house. or any of them. four candles p'is. or other. [158] _Tools_ in No. or both. may appoint the service more large in favour by their discretions.. and the Ushers of Chamber ought to testify this. when as often as them needeth. taking daily for their breakfasts. basons. Yeoman. as it shall please the King. and to be served two or three to a mess. It hath been much accustomed to one or two well-known Officers of the Ewry in Household. and for winter livery. one pitcher of wine. in Bib. of the Serjeant Usher of the Hall and Chamber. all these eating in the Hall. 642. Rushes and litter all the year. Harl. as the Sovereigns appoint. or feet. two loaves. for them all. Two lodged together at the King's carriage. with the Chamberlain. for lack of cunning of these other men. or else to allow here no chamber dokyns. one loaf. two candles wax. such as been for the month. and that by allowance of the King's Chamberlain. no fees of plate or silver.

how mannerly they eat and drink. and to their communication. upon such pain as Steward. He taketh daily.To shew the schools of urbanity and nurture of England. Twenty take not the whole wages _of the year_ [sic]. and to have into this Court one servant.--It may be. that the King taketh into Household in all Sixty Squires. and each of them to be used to that thing of virtue that he shall be most apt to learn. week. to assign amongst themselves some to serve the King's Chamber. one gallon ternoise[160]. and clothing winter and summer. and for winter season. and the King's profit saved. so that thereof be nothing withdrawn by the Squires. Moreover to teach them sundry languages. When any of them is present in Court. by their common assent. each of them taketh two candles parris. It hath ever been in special charge to Squires in this Court. at one day. and other liveries.--Every of them taketh for his livery at night. if it please the King. or let blood. SQUIRES OF HOUSEHOLD. and to help serve his table from the Surveying-board. deeds. some the first meal. as the Assewar will assign. to be continually in this Court Twenty Squires attendant upon the King's Person. he is allowed for daily wages. of every mess that cometh from the dressing-board to their hands for such service. This Master sitteth in the Hall next unto beneath these Henxmen. save he is not charged with serving of the Hall. according to such gentlemen. will award. and yet. and sufficient liveries for his horses. to learn them wear their harness. and other learnings virtuous. And for the fees that he claimeth among the Henxmen of all their apparel. and from other places. . to be chosen men of their profession. This hath be [been] always the manner amongst them for honour [and] profit to the King. or more. with other honest and temperate behaving and patience. two mess of great meat. cloathing. some to serve the Hall at another time. in riding and going at all times. or Controller. to pipe. and other forms curial. to harping. some the latter. and ease to them self. And of these. or time. he taketh two loaves.--Also. half a gallon of ale. and to keep daily and weekly with these children due [discipline]. by the Herberger. by whom it may be known the disposition of the Countries. to draw them also to justs. in the town or country. by assent. to have all courtesy in words. by the advice of his High Council. diligently to keep them in rules of goings and sittings after they be of honour. Treasurer. wherefore the number of persons may be received and suffered the better in the checque-roll for a worship. [160] Fortè _Tournois_. also to be of sundry Shires. after the book of urbanity. after their demerits. or in their absence other Judges at the counting-board. the Chamberlain is the judge. amongst them all. with remembrance daily of God's service accustomed. sing. whilst he is present. wages. or else forty shillings. at the same board. to wear the King's Livery customably. to have his respects unto their demeanings. and degrees. worship. sitting together at any of the both meals as they serve. Forty.--They eat in the hall. and wisdom. if he be present in Court. one faggot. and dance. to learn them to ride cleanly and surely. And if he be sick in Court. with corrections in their chambers. or else half talwode. seven-pence halfpenny. as other Esquires of Household. Carriage also for harness in Court competent by the Comptroller to be with the Henxmen his harness in Court. in the checque roll.

nor Yeoman. 177. and litter all the year of the Serjeant Usher of the hall for their beds in Court. that then they to be corrected therefor. and their Chambers. commanded by the Counting-house. or else to hurt or little the almesse [alms] of Hall or Chamber. neither with chamber nor with hall. specially such as bear wages. and in worship of this honourable Household: and every of them to have in to this Court an honest servant.--That no Serjeant of Office. to dine or sup out of Hall and King's Chamber. that know how the King is accompanied best: and to take a day when they should come again. of whom _twelve_ to serve at the first dinner. HERALDS. upon pain of loss of wages at his next coming. be accustomed. [161] Sic. and to dine at the second. after their cunning. and to begin . two loaves. sitting at meats and suppers in the Hall." It hath been often.--And if any of them be let blood or sick in Court. and there to awaite to serve the King and Queen[162]. or nigh. KINGS OF ARMS. in days before. Coming into this Royal Court to the worship of these five Feasts in the year. They take no part of the general gifts. Treasurer. or other of the counting-house. for all day. 97. or Sovereigns of the Counting-house. Two Gentlemen lodged together.--And if any of these Squires be sent out of Court.--Rigid Orders regarding Offenders. that daily there awaite twenty-four Squires to serve the King and Queen. and accompany strangers. and they be coupled bed-fellows by the Gentlemen Ushers. by the herberger. there to keep honest company. he taketh livery in eating days. and sufficient livery in the towns or countries for their horses. Treasurer. that in ferial days. None of these should depart from Court but by licence of Steward. and the Sovereigns of Household in the Hall. be served. or in piping or harping. that then such honest Yeomen of Household be called or assigned to serve from the dresser to the hall the remnant. till the time require of departing. or other acts marriables[161]. that. but as be appointed in this Book. in talking of chronicles of Kings. but if the giver give them specially a part by express name or words. two mess of great meat. by Steward. &c. if any service be withdrawn by them. winter and summer. "Item." [162] Harleian MSS. and other servants. and of other policies. upon such pain as the Sovereigns of Household will award by the Statutes of Noble Edward III. b. in afternoons and in evenings. AND PURSUIVANTS. Also they pay for their carriage of harness in Court. to serve the second dinner. nor Groom." Dom. p. after that the King and Queen. These Squires of Household. Regis Angliæ. p. or Controller. one gallon of ale. for matter touching the Household. nor Squire. to help to occupy the Court. "In none office. 642. nor to withdraw any service. songings. to draw to Lord's Chambers within Court. then he hath daily allowed him twelve pence by petition.for the more glory. thereto. of old. The Esquires--"oftentimes these stand instead of Carvers and Cup-Bearers[162]. and the twelve sitting at the first dinner.

by the Marshall's assignation. when he is present in Court. that directeth them all in festival .that one end of the table together. riding before his Highness when he journeyed by the country for a Garde de Corps du Roi. or for his Household. were thirty Serjeants of Arms. for the King. whereof one is Verger. and Controller. by the Marshall's assignation. one gallon of ale. They take neither wages. for hasty errands [when] they fall. Hall. These Kings of Arms are served in the Hall as Knights. Treasurer. two gallons of ale. and for winter livery. day and night. And. they cry the King's largesse. at night. and for winter season." Part V.--Alway remembered. by the Compting-house. By the Statutes of the Noble Edward. No more having in Household. They take their largesse of the Jewel-house. he taketh daily two loaves. and Comptroller. then these walk before the Steward. one tortays at chandry. after their abilities. not far from Court. if there be present a King of Arms. one talshed. two candles p'is. [164] See the "Curialia. at one meal. whereof two alway to be attending upon the King's Person and Chamber. or be let blood. rushes [and] litter for their chamber of the Serjeant Usher all the year. service and livery for their horses nigh the Court. together or with Squires of Household. And if any of these be sick. but livery for their chamber. or four-pence. to be taken of the issue and profit growing to the King in divers counties of England. also observing for [of] the King's commandments. it appeareth next after the chapter of Squires. for them all. and during these Festival-days they wait upon the King's Person coming and going to and from the Church. and to avoid the press of people before where as the King shall come: in like wise at the conveyance of his meat at every course from the surveying board. taking their wages of twelve-pence by [the] day. for the King and his Honourable Household. nor fees. three talsheds. before his Highness. in the Hall. a gallon of ale. and so after the Steward. Thirteen. 642 reads _Service_. shaking their great cup. They eat in the Hall. cloathing. by the Herberger. and not upon the Treasurer of Household. that the cup which the King doth create any King of Arms or Herald withal. and every of them to have in to this Court. sufficiently armed and horsed. And if the King keep estate. and clothing also. Chamberlain. [163] Rectiùs. Treasurer. in their coats of arms. coming with the King's Surveyor[163] from the surveying-board at every course. two candles wax. three candles p'is. amongst them two loaves. Also sufficient lodging assigned these Serjeants together. by letters patents. as it pleaseth the King. MINSTRELS. one honest servant. upon days of estate. but every of them. and Chamber. The fees that they shall take at the making of Knights of the Bath. Four chosen proved men. SERJEANTS OF ARMS[164]. by the hands of the receivers of them. a pitcher of wine. of haviour and condition. one candle wax. it standeth in the charge of the Jewel-house. two messes of great meat. They pay for the carriage of their proper harness and bedding. No. and thus to be brevied in the Pantry-Roll. after the last course.

wherefore he hath of fee all the watching cloathing . and other things. And if it please the King to have two strange Minstrels to continue in like wise. or Minstrels. in the Receipt of the Chequer. and then to take their wages of Household after four-pence halfpenny a day. six candles p'is. if they be present in Court. whilst they blow to suppers. some shalmuse[165] and small pipes. and other revels at Chaundry. and good deserving. like to the other _Grooms_ of Household. Also having in the Court two servants. at meats and suppers. half a gallon of ale. And if any of these two Minstrels be sick in Court. He eateth in the Hall with the Minstrels." [165] Shawms. and he to make _bon Gayte_. half a bushel of coals. Also cloathing with the Household Yeomen. The King woll not for his worship that his Minstrels be too presumptuous. if he can excuse the Yeoman in his Office. by the Herbergers for them and their horses in the Court. _a Groom Wayte_. a mess of great meat. honest. he taketh _two_ loaves. half a mess of great meat. They have part of any rewards given to the Household. meet rewards. and hath his bedding carried. and daily. and for summer nights. whereof some use trumpets. to be the more ready in all services. to bear the trumpets. And if he be sick. and a torch for winter nights. or twenty shillings a-piece. _two_ candles p'is. a gallon of ale. pipes. as oft as it shall require. A WAYTE. _four-pence halfpenny_.days to their stations. as well for fire as for other pikers. then he taketh reward and cloathing. remembering "De Henrico Secundo Imperatore. winter and summer. and then they to avoid the next day after the feasts be done. according to the wages that he taketh. from Michaelmas till Shere-Thursday[166]. scilicet. by the Cheque Roll. watching by night-time upon them in the chapel.. That nightly. quod ipsi Domini donatores pro Regis amore citius pauperibus erogarent. Besides each of them another reward yearly. by the discretion of Steward and Treasurer. Also he partaketh with the general gifts of Household. taking [taken] of the King. Also this _Yeoman_ wayteth at the makings of _Knights_ of the Bath. or _three pence_. half a loaf. being present to warn at the King's ridings. and livery in Court at even--amongst them all four gallons of ale. and sufficient lodging. half a gallon of ale. and his grooms together. and after the cunning that he can. if he be present in Court. and for winter nights. four candles p'is. and other instruments. monuerit ut nullus eorum in ejus nomine. and some are strange-men coming to this Court at five feasts of the year. and in summer nights _three_ times. and absence. And by their blowings the Household-men may follow in the countries. or let blood. vel dummodo steterunt in servicio suo. to blowings and pipings to such offices as must be warned to prepare for the King and his Household. [and] one gallon of ale. three candles wax. and cloathing with the Household. qui omnes Joculatores suos et . by the Controller's assignment. when he goeth to horseback. And always two of these persons to continue in Court in wages. nor too familiar. or pellys[167]. And under this Yeoman. and all these sitting in the Hall together. half a paine. four tallow candles.. and every chamber-door and office. half a bushel of coals. to ask any rewards of the Lords of his land. and for winter season. pipeth the watch within this Court _four_ times. he taketh two loaves. nihil ab aliquo in regno suo deberent petere donandum. and taketh livery at night.

[171] [171] Ibid. _viz. 195. Dexter. I. Also a Peascod Branch. a _Swan_. This Officer was anciently one of the Chancellor's Family[168]. The fee of the Clerk of the Crown. HENRY IV._[172] [172] See Peck's Desiderata Curiosa. OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND. Sir George Copping was Clerk of the Crown. Reads the Titles of Bills in the House of Lords[170]._--A Fox's Tail dependant. CLERK OF THE CROWN IN CHANCERY. but the Peas out. i. Was the first who bore his Escocheon supported. . RICHARD II. 197. _Cognizance. in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. [169] Ibid. [166] _i. Formerly accompanied the Masters in Chancery in carrying Bills to the Lower House[169]. [167] Perhaps Perils._ by Two _Angels_. [168] Lex Parliamentaria.that the Knights do wear upon [them]. CRESTS. under a Tree. Sinister. 51. _Cognizances. SUPPORTERS. [170] Ibid. was 20_l._--A White Hart couchant. e. gorged with a Gold Chain and Coronet. with the Pods open. anno 1 Jac. an _Antelope_. AND COGNIZANCES. p. vol. derived from the Princess Joan his Mother. 301. p._ Maunday Thursday.

. when Prince of Wales. a _Lion_ and an _Antelope_. Two _Boars_. EDWARD V._--The Rose. The Rose is in the centre. B. RICHARD III. The _Lion_ and a _Hinde_. and wrote himself King of _England_ and _France_.HENRY V. A _Lion_ for Marche. and chained Or. Argent. and Lord Lovel. e. creatures of King Richard. Two _Swans_._--The _White Rose_. Two Antelopes." _i. Rule all England under the _Hog_. instead of the Semée. The _Fetter-Lock_. when King. and a _Bull_ for Clare. EDWARD IV. Argent. the Rat. _Cognizance. _Two Lions_. HENRY VI. and Lovel the Dog. whereas those before him wrote _France_ and _England_. A White Boar. holding in their beaks an Ostrich-feather and a Scroll. [173] Leigh's Choice Observations. N. _Cognizance. accolled with Coronets. Argent. "The Cat. which immediately conjoined. He first bore three Fleurs de Lis. The _Lion_ and the _White Hart_ of Richard II. One Collingborne was executed for this poetry[173]. Sir Richard Ratcliff. _Cognizances._--The Rose and the Falcon in a Fetter-Lock. The _Sun_ after the Battle of Mortimer's Cross._ Sir William Catesby. attired._--Two Feathers in Saltire. when three _Suns_ were seen. _Cognizance.

Time winged._--A Red Rose. as of the year 1554. with a Pomegranate for Spain. _Cognizances._ . drawing Truth out of a Pit. accolled Gules. A _Greyhound_. An Eagle and Lion. EDWARD VI. 151. gives a Lion and a Griffin. put up 1772.--These are the Supporters in the Coat of Philip and Mary._--When Princess. Sinister.--When Queen. A Fleur de Lis. HENRY VIII. over the chimney in the Hall of Trinity College. the White and Red Rose for York and Lancaster.HENRY VII." taken at the interview between him and Francis I. The Lion and Red Dragon._--The _White Rose_ united to the _Red_. Argent. _Cognizances. A Portcullis. impaled. when Lord North. the _Dragon_ Sinister. in his Divi Britannici. Dexter. the _Lion_ Dexter. Richard's Crown was found in a Hawthorn Bush after the Battle of Bosworth[174]. with "Cui adhæreo præest. became Chancellor[175]. _Red Dragon_ (for Cadwallader). A Hawthorn Bush with the Crown in it. afterwards Earl of Guilford. _Cognizance. An Archer (Green) drawing his Arrow to the Head. Oxford. A Portcullis for Beaufort. for Nevile." _Queen Elizabeth. QUEEN MARY. though never created. _Cognizance. with "Veritas Temporis Filia. The _Red Dragon_ and _Greyhound_. [174] Leigh's Choice Observations. [175] Churchill. p. Afterwards._--He bore the device of Prince of Wales.

_Cognizances.A Lion and Red Dragon.[179] [178] Mortimer's Dictionary. A. REGAL TITLES. [180] Platina. the Title of _Catholick King_._--A Rose. a Fleur de Lis. 693. and the Unicorn (for Scotland). on account of his great zeal for the good of Christendom. 800. First given to (or rather assumed by) King James I. HIS SACRED MAJESTY THE KING OF GREAT BRITAIN. The Lion (for England). Pope Alexander VI. a Harp (for Ireland). in memory and acknowledgment of the many Victories he had obtained over the Moors[180]. HIS CATHOLIC MAJESTY. gave to Ferdinand._--A Sieve. King of Spain. Taceo.--MAJESTY succeeded to it at the latter end of the Reign of Henry VIII. [176] Vide Camden's Remains. _Cognizance. was the first King of France that attributed to himself (I rather think received from the Pope) the Style and Title of _The Most Christian King of France_. [179] Mortimer's Dictionary. and from him his Successors have continued it[177]. p. being chosen Emperor. Semper Eadem[176]. (SPAIN. in voce _Sacred_. The words Video." Stowe says that Charlemagne. a Greyhound current.) About the year 1493.[178]--GRACE was the old Title. without a motto. JAMES I. "HIS MOST CHRISTIAN MAJESTY THE KING OF FRANCE. [177] Chronicle. ON THE VIRTUES .D.

however. or rather let us say. though other examples are too ludicrous and futile to attract serious attention. that the evidence. _viz. such a wonderful gift. at this time. [182] Obiit 1214. As the following subject. as to the cures performed by the Royal Touch. As Mr.OF The Royal Touch. there was such astonishing virtue in Quintus Curtius. Well-attested instances of the effect of this power of healing may be produced. . King of Spain[182] was healed by reading his works. which for many years. exceeds my comprehension. were cured of desperate distempers by reading Livy and Quintus Curtius[181]. speak freely on a subject. on the Study of History. ever since the accession of the House of Hanover. p. if concealed under petticoats. comes before me in the light of a religious ceremonial. Amyot. and this foolish affectation of a divine inherent power has wisely been laid aside. As to the subject. and all its wonderful consequences. absorbed the faith of whole Nations. and other writers. when brought forward. of the same opinion. Every body is. that the incredulity of the world has increased. that Ferdinand King of Spain. If Kings really possessed such an uncommon. so am I loyally and religiously induced to "honour the King. The cases brought forward by the advocates for this Gift are exceedingly strong and well attested. Addison. after having in vain read the Bible throughout fourteen times[183]. KINGS OF ENGLAND. I may say centuries. but yet there is something so palpably absurd in the mere supposition. will be found to destroy itself on a cross-examination. I have just as much faith as I have in the two following circumstances: Lord Bolingbroke tells us." as a part of our excellent Constitution: but why Kings should have in themselves a preternatural gift above other men. which has exercised the faith and incredulity of mankind for so many ages. and Alphonsus King of Naples. professed a modest veneration for a couple of sticks. 22. p. I shall not attempt to defend or depreciate the validity of this gift. Again. by healing the most stubborn of all diseases. We may. in these enlightened and unsuperstitious times._ the Cure of the King's Evil by the Royal Touch. Alphonsus IX. from Bodin. in the quality of The Spectator. I dare believe. why has it been taken away? The same legal rights remain in the Royal Person now that have adhered to it for ages--while this Divine Prerogative has fallen away. [181] Bolingbroke._ And yet I could as soon subscribe to these. Query if not the same as Alphonsus above? [183] Warton's History of English Poetry. 133. though it may be necessary to observe some circumstances as they occur. which may point different ways. that we are further told. _Credat qui vult.

even of this age. [184] See the story at large in Granger. This gentleman wrote an account of his several cures. denounced him to be an impostor[184]. and especially the King's Evil. and never killed any body (for he was a gardener. and to have been discovered by a revelation made in a dream to one Matthew Chancellor. "I was myself a witness of the powerful workings of imagination in the populace. and might kill with impunity. which was printed in 1668. The master of the workhouse procured her several bottles of water. as the old women. that when the force of imagination had spent itself. was strongly inclined to drink of the Glastonbury waters. who was the seventh son of a seventh son. 32. and not long after. where. and those his medical abilities were reverenced for that reason only by the common people.' I need not inform the Reader. was told me by a gentleman of character. which fell off by degrees. Thus I have a case before me in the Reign of King Charles I. The people did not only expect to be cured of such distempers as were in their nature incurable. who had long been a cripple. The next person who appears to have usurped this Gift was Mr. Charles Goodall's Works. he obtained great reputation. contend it does in Agues. and fetched the water from an ordinary spring. but it was a crime to heal. he might have obtained a comfortable subsistence from his credulous patients. and not a physician). This was extolled. p. that he had imposed upon her. but that unfortunate intrenchment on the Royal Prerogative drew down upon him the double vengeance of the Court of Star-Chamber. vol. where a poor unfortunate man. at first. but it tempts me to transcribe the following story. Whether Mr. How far imagination will operate in such cases. Boyle was a believer I know not. when the waters of Glastonbury were at the height of their reputation. was severely treated. and of the College of Physicians. So far the Doctor would be safe. and he was looked upon as a heaven-born Doctor. The following story. the other. But the man protested to his friends.Anciently there was great reputed sanative virtue in a seventh son. and their mutilated limbs. at that time. 'An old woman in the workhouse at Yeovil. from Dr. as a miraculous cure. because he pretended to have in him the faculty of healing several disorders. by the Touch or stroking of his hand. otherwise. which last. that she soon laid aside one crutch. IV. as given by Mr. so that he might think it prudent to conceal his real sentiments. Valentine Greatrackes._ It was highly necessary for the reputation of the Royal pretensions that this man should be proscribed. who first practised his art of healing by the Touch in his own country. which had such an effect. Granger. in the most courtly manner. a gentleman of Ireland. but it was at a time when the King practised. is a question not for me to discuss. but even to recover their lost eyes. and made use of crutches. _Delenda est Carthago. and afterwards came into England. so that there was no occasion for any violent measures to prevent his intrenching on the Royal Prerogative. The virtues of the spring there were supposed to be supernatural. This man was imprudent enough to depreciate the Royal Touch. she relapsed . in a Letter to the Honourable Robert Boyle. which she was assured would cure her of her lameness. which scarce exceeds what I observed upon the spot.

Dieu te guerisse. it is known where the blame is to lie. a contemporary with our Henry III. The advocates for the priority of the Kings of England in this wonderful Gift." 1684. by the accounts of their Historians. Francis. in case the Touch fails. I do not find that the French Kings ever touched. e. which I shall hereafter preserve at length in the Appendix. though with some address in the words spoken by the King. The name of this person was Lancinet. in a palpable instance which happened to Louis XI. as the French Kings possessed the faculty sooner than our Kings. this Gift was bestowed upon him at his baptism. as was the custom with us. sent for a famous man to cure him. if not an annual ceremony with us. In reward for Clovis's faith and conversion. so did it last longer. had the Evil. from a dream._ IX]. ii. Unfortunately for the French Kings. D. whereas we do not pretend to go higher than Edward the Confessor. performed daily for a certain season[189]. I cannot decide. unhappily. How it was first discovered to be inherent in the French King we are not told. compiled for the purpose. seeing it with a jealous eye._ "The King touches you. Whether the French Kings possessed this Gift in a greater or less degree than our own. The usual date of the introduction of this miraculous Gift into France is fixed in the Reign of St. [186] Browne's "Adenochoiradelogia. and.into her former infirmity. by name Francis of Poul. attended with a Form of Prayer. _viz. and may God heal you!" ["Le Roy te touche. Louis [_i. 181. 496."] So that. which overthrows their healing power. like many other similar wonders. that the knowledge of such power in King Edward was discovered. invented a tale. had the good sense not to pretend to it. and carried their claim up to Clovis. which is to be attributed to the anger of God. together with the Ceremonial. except upon Coronations. after having given such accounts of the Practice itself. alas! the Saint could not cure the King. A. who having had an apoplexy. though we are assured as to our own. See hereafter. for King George I. what was worse. [185] See Mezeray. that the French. or the want of faith in the party[188]." FRENCH KINGS. On the other hand. but. [187] Davies. under Charles II. but I find no mention of particular pieces. the first of that name in France. and which he accordingly exercised immediately on one of his favourites[185]. though it was a repeated. under the . about 160 years after the death of the Confessor[186]. they exceed us by many centuries. the King could not cure the Saint[187]. who died in 1066. but in point of antiquity. The French Kings gave alms on the occasion. who acceded to the Throne A. and their first Christian King. whereas the French Kings kept up the farce at least till 1775. there is a story extant. D. tell you. 481.

Gemelli(the famous Traveller) gives an account of 1600 persons being presented for this purpose to Louis XIV. The French confined their expression to the word _Touch_. Stowe's words. Plate 16. and this disease so corrupted her face with stench. and Louis XIV. untill hee hadde brought forth all the corruption with pressing: this done. and shee shoulde bee whole. and the King hearing of this matter. No. Thus then it is: "A young woman. and this hee did oftentimes. Louis XV. sometimes also signing it with the signe of the Crosse. D. 1775. was white. touched no less than 2000 persons. the hard crust or skinne was softened and dissolved. § 125. from the Latin account by Alfred. [191] Stowe's Annals. touching for the Evil. had a disease about her jawes. upwards of 2500. within one yeere shee had a childe by her husband. which was within a weeke after. as appears from the Formule of his Coronation. and every Foreigner 30. but without children. having a bason of water brought unto him. on Easter Sunday 1686. whereof they were full with corrupt matter and blood." [190] Dr. Regis Consiliario et Medico Primario. Abbot of Rivaulx. and under her cheeke. A. and touched the diseased place. [188] Louis XVI. To begin in order of time. as are recorded by Writers on the subject. 1609. married. out of the kernels came little wormes. . in which are introduced many Patients and Officers of the Court. To the Court shee came. he says. published at the time. [189] See Browne. hee dipped his hand therein. Authore Andreâ Laurentio. like unto kernels. when he was in Normandy[191]. representing King Henry IV. which they termed akornes. and drawing his hand by divers of the holes. which after hee hadde thus washed it." is a very curious Print. the King still pressed it with his handes to bring forth the corruption. and get him to washe her face with water. 98. 10. to go to King Edwarde. yet the Normans sayde that hee often did the like in his youth. The ribbon. and washed the womannes face. that shee coulde scarce without great shame speake to any man. And although this thing seeme strange. hee commanded her a sufficient allowance every day for all thinges necessary. though we use the term _Heal_. c. and whereas shee was ever beefore barren. gives a Drawing of the Touch-piece. In "De mirabili Strumas Sanandi vi solis Galliæ Regibus Christianissimis Divinitus concessa. and disdained not to suffer the stench of the disease.respective Kings. Plot. disdained not to doe it. untill she hadd received perfect health. 5. I shall give you the narrative in Mr. p. in his Natural History of Oxfordshire. Every Frenchman received 15 sous. of France went through this ceremony. supposed to have been given by Edward the Confessor. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR[190]. This woman was admonished in her sleepe.

I have called him Saint-like. but however. in quieter times. [195] Barnes's History. Nothing but a special bounty of Heaven could convey to him this privilege. so that it must have slept during all the wars between the Houses of York and Lancaster. as will be mentioned in its place. Browne likewise believes that several blind persons were restored to sight by King Charles II. [196] Book iv. because he never was canonized. that this Gift was bestowed upon him from Heaven[194]. consequently. for reasons to be seen in Fuller's Church History of Britain[196]. . But this is not all: for Stowe affords us but one instance of the cure of a blind man by King Edward. in abeyance during the Civil Wars between the Houses of York and Lancaster. and his successors followed him in the practice. ii. and not to extend to Usurpers. ch. as Heir to both the Realms of England and of France. and such interference was necessary. ii. besides another who had lost one of his eyes." [193] Mr. 154. p. but he continued to use it ever after. [192] See the "Decem Scriptores. no doubt. Whether he ever exercised it does not appear. EDWARD III. all of whom were restored to perfect sight by the King[193]. sect. 5. the most copious Historiographer of this Reign. would deny it to him. the then French King[195]. I have already conceived the Gift of healing by the Touch to have been. more eminently endowed than Philip of Valois. and therefore have found no historical record of Cures performed by this _Saint-like_ King. 180. for it was anciently held not to be inherent in any but lawful Kings. as it were. 7. Mr. that some dependants endeavoured to persuade the world. does not positively say that King Edward exercised this Gift. enjoy this Kingly attribute (though only a Bastard Son of a Territorial Duke). presuming only that he had a double right to it. The French. though they could not refuse his right. without thinking of such a matter as this. HENRY VI. as an usurping claimant of their Crown. whereas the Abbot's account[192] extends to six men totally blind. Joshua Barnes. till resumed by Henry VII. that he might. b. WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR Had business enough upon his hands to employ his time.It does not appear that the King knew of this Gift before. and. who had such ample religious claims. Voltaire tells us. though it was attempted and refused by the Pope in the Reign of Henry VII. [194] See Davies. as derived to him as a legal King of England.

[197] Id. performed no Cures in his life-time. 143. that the Touch-pieces given were Nobles. who wrote his History at the command of King Henry VII. are to be found not only in MS. amounted to a charge of three thousand pounds _per annum_. together with those of divers others. after going a little into the origin of this Gift. It is evident. the King crossed the Sore of the Sick Person. for such a wonderful deliverance. and went speedily (as in duty bound) to return thanks at the King's Tomb at Chertsey. Another proof arises from charges made for pieces of money delivered for this purpose in that Reign. those above-mentioned: ["quibusdam hymnis non sine ceremoniis prius recitatis[199]._ in value[198]. in the office of the Remembrancer of the Exchequer. wherein the Writer. that the man was really innocent. or the suffrages. "that the Angels issued by the Kings of England on these occasions. in eod." From these sums it is evident. yet was a man miraculously saved from death at the gallows by the appearance of the King. after having hung the usual hour. p. that the Kings of England. But. for the convict was found alive. which might be chanted. "for heling 3 seke folks."] From looking over the Ceremonial. although King Henry VI. [199] Polydore Vergil. adds. Benedictions. being not less than 1500 ducats of gold. and other devout cæremonies. Suffrages.Two reasons against the canonization are suggested by different Writers:--1. 1686. I conceive that by hymns. was willing to defray. Basil edit 1546. even in his time. That the contingent expence amounted to more than King Henry VII. 257. healed persons afflicted with this disease ["Nam Reges Angliæ _etiam nunc_ Tactu strumosos sanant."] I shall give a transcript of the service appropriated to this . in his Treatise on Purveyance. p. in the British Museum. &c. too simple to be sainted:--2. That the then Pope thought King Henry VI. a large sum at that time of day[197]. Polydore Vergil means the Gospel. (though it was not made public till the following Reign). meaning. presumed to have been guilty. otherwise the Ghost of so pious and merciful a King had doubtless never appeared to him and interposed. [198] In the Ceremonial. by which intervention the halter had no effect._ for heling 2 seke folks. with an _Angel-Noble_. The accounts of this John Heron are preserved. from various concurrent circumstances. in the 18th year of Henry VII. during his Reign. A. 40 years after his demise (in the 10th year of Henry VII. The Story states._ 8_d. for. we find a disbursement of 20 shillings. asserts. however. or 6_s. The fact is further established from the testimony of Polydore Vergil. D._ 4_d. but were afterwards printed by order of King James II. no doubt." and again. that this King touched for the Evil. that the exercise of it was attended with hymns.)."] He further subjoins. from circumstantial evidence. which at that time was _sung_. such as Prayers. though. Fabian Philips. "13_s. HENRY VII. as the Religious Ceremonial used upon those occasions. made by John Heron. both in Latin.

" and. to the great disquiet and concern of the King. EDWARD VI. I. in a more notable instance than any cure he might have performed by the operation of his Touch. and in an ill-humour. once hint that he touched for the Evil. however. who related it to the grandson of Sir John Cheke (Sir Thomas Cheke. the Earl of Huntingdon. that the _Tudors_ possessed the Gift of Healing. when he says that "this miraculous Gift was left to be claimed by the _Stuarts_. lay very dangerously ill. that she unguardedly. though the King lived but one year afterwards. does not." said the King. for this morning I begged his life from God in my prayers." . to disgrace the Protestant Religion by his revolt.--This Ceremony of consecrating the _Cramp-Rings_ will be added to this account of the King's Evil. That the Queen touched.occasion in the Appendix. contrary to all medical expectations. _I_ cannot cure you. See Appendix. "No. of Pirgo. The King now before us. "Alas. for she once threw out an expression tending much to disparage the validity of it. I cannot dismiss this Reign without observing that the learned Editor of the Northumberland Household Book[200] is hereby proved to have been very inattentive. book vii. 425. our ancient _Plantagenets_ were humbly content to cure the _Cramp_[201]. but it is as evident that she had no high opinion of the efficacy of such operation. [202] Fuller's Church History of Britain. but ample proof has been offered. exclaimed." This accordingly came to pass. No. and Sir John recovered speedily. by whom it was mentioned to my Author[202]. Sir John Cheke." [200] The late truly venerable Bishop Percy. "he will not die now. The truth was ascertained by an ear-witness. What part the _Plantagenets_ took in this business. and Cheke survived. if there be any truth in the immediate prevalence of prayer on the ears of Heaven. had it ever taken place. after frequent and daily inquiries. III. who. it is God alone who can do it. and obtained it.) as the printed copies are very scarce. it was on this occasion. (No. must be left doubtful. though he kept a journal of all material occurrences. Essex). who pressed about her person in hopes of obtaining the Royal Touch. as probably his natural piety would have led him to have done. 334. Being on a Progress in Gloucestershire. "Nec Deus intersit nisi dignus vindice Nodus. his Tutor for the Greek language. poor people. an instance is recorded wherein the King obtained his request. for want of information. [201] Notes to p. QUEEN ELIZABETH. p. but. _I_ cannot. learned from the Physicians at last that there was not the least hope of life. if ever necessary. is acknowledged. her Majesty was so pestered with applications from diseased people.

[207] By a Proclamation.This was interpreted by some. or some other occasion. a rigid Papist was under a necessity of applying for the Queen's Touch. 1575. [208] The following interesting remarks on this subject were communicated to Mr. A. the virtue appeared in him. and was. where she was entertained by the Earl of Leicester at Kenilworth Castle. He cured by his words only[212]. after having tried every other means in vain. 1616. Margaret. says my Author. The Queen. ii. being on a Progress in Warwickshire. this King had the same title to the Gift as Henry himself. D. raised the reputation of this Gift in the Royal Line of England. still extant[207]. 394. and he exercised it. It does not appear that the Kings of Scotland ever pretended to this Gift. [203] Browne. nevertheless.. 6. [206] Davies. iv." ch. p. in 1781. but when their James VI. 124. JAMES I. as has been seen. and by what kind of evidence they have been able to . at another time. perfectly healed. One is dated soon after his Accession. and Tooker's "Charisma. and so jealous of every prerogatory right. came to the Throne of England. could not fail to exercise this preternatural endowment[208]. divine and human. So pious a King. by the learned and very ingenious Dr. "Though the superstitious notions respecting the cure of the King's Evil by the Touch of our English Kings are probably at present entirely eradicated. by divers Proclamations[209]. though descended from a line of Usurpers. [204] Browne in eod. and one in particular was healed[203]. seeing that the Pope had no power to divest the Queen of it[204]. in 1621[210]. Being lineally descended from Henry the Seventh's Daughter. used it. as is evident from a passage in Macbeth[206]. Nichols. by what means they were so long supported. book iii. p. Aikin. the Queen afterwards admitted a general resort to her for the purpose of being touched." [205] Strype's Annals. and accordingly we find him regulating the manner and time that persons shall be admitted to the Royal Touch. CHARLES I. and a third in 1628[211]. it is still a curious and not uninstructive object of enquiry. who. as a renunciation of the Gift. it appears that the Kings of England would not permit patients to approach them during the summer. March 25. "touched nine for the King's Evil[205]. 179. but. This happening soon after the Pope had denounced the sentence of Excommunication against her Majesty. another in 1626. and still more strongly from Proclamations in this Reign. On this. during her abode there.

' The question which will naturally arise upon this passage is. or neck. with whatever other circumstances they are accompanied. "Several Chirurgical Treatises. that the worst kind of cases were seldom or never offered the Touch.gain credit even in the dawning of a more enlightened period. treated it with escharotics. I would have persuaded her to admit of a resolvent emplaster._ in other cases we give our judgment more warily. assisted by a resolving plaster. yet both are in some degree probable. Wiseman applied a large caustic to it. 'In case of the King's Touch. but she did not. It was indeed proposed in a single instance. the very _gummata. In the history of the disease. but the complaint was now too . or was he knowingly promoting an imposture? Both suppositions have their difficulties. brought it to suppuration. after allowing his patient to undergo a course of very severe surgery. but under such circumstances as furnish a stronger proof of imposture than any thing hitherto related.' Here is a selection of the slightest cases. It was his business. as she said. to select such afflicted objects as were proper to be presented for the Royal Touch. and. and Guernsey. that the Touch was by no means infallible.' From this we learn. On the subject of the Royal Touch he delivers himself in the following strong and unequivocal terms: 'I myself have been a frequent eye-witness of many hundreds of cures performed by his Majesty's Touch alone. might in some measure make his faith preponderate against his judgment. as Serjeant-surgeon. intituled. without any assistance of Chirurgery.' he says. the resolution doth often happen where our endeavours have signified nothing. and felt a small gland. nor are we difficult in admitting the thick-chapped upper lips. The testimony of Richard Wiseman. and cured it. lying lower on that side of the neck. His warm attachment to the Royal Family.' Here. and eyes affected with a _lippitudo. or resolved unexpectedly from accidental ferments. Scotland. and to be touched. and what I have received acknowledgments of by letter. A young gentlewoman had an obstinate scrophulous tumour in the right side of the neck. and his Works (collected in a folio volume. he says. on the other hand. has been alleged as one of the strongest and most unexceptionable in favour of the Touch. and those many of them such as had tired out the endeavours of able Chirurgeons before they came thither. and that the pretence of its succeeding was not given up till a fortnight had passed without any change for the better. Serjeant-Surgeon to King Charles I. observing that the _strumæ_ will often be suppurated. Jersey. he is willing to trust the relics of the disease to the Royal Touch. and in not one of these did he call in the assistance of the Royal Hand. 'Those which we present to his Majesty are chiefly such as have this kind of tumour about the _musculus mastoideus_. and a manifest doubt expressed concerning the success in more inveterate ones. believe it to be the King's Evil. A little below. under the maxilla. Serjeant-Chirurgeon. by Richard Wiseman. relating its various states and appearances. not only from the several parts of the Nation. and early prejudices. Indeed it appears very plain. certain passages in his treatise necessarily shew a consciousness of collusion and fraudulent pretensions. for in no disease does Wiseman produce more observations from his practice of difficult and dangerous chirurgical treatment. 'I saw her again in town. of the bigness of a lupin. It were endless to recite what I myself have seen._ insomuch that I am cautious of predicting concerning them (though they appear never so bad) till 14 days be over. but also from Ireland. He was a man of the greatest eminence in his profession. yea. he says. Did Wiseman really believe what he asserted. 1676") bear all the marks of an honest and upright disposition in their author. 'About a year after.

Browne says. it is ordered. that the disease was mistaken in many instances. Mr. on. who was the Operator. over which the Royal Hand had no divine influence. for which the former was touched. he relates a story of a father and a son.). From another passage in Mr. or Evil. but in the Ribbon to which it was pendent. in several instances. The case was. Browne adds. he tells us. their diseases have seized them afresh. Mr. p. he tells us that "some. [213] Sir Kenelm Digby informed Mons. Among other salvos in case of failure of the Touch. Mr. 1023. Browne does not deny but that a Silver two-pence has effectually done the business. [212] Browne. became better. and received great relief from it. . in itself. the complaint immediately returned. that such as failed of their cure--_wanted Faith_. and therefore. [211] Id. but the latter never was touched. was then a Prisoner at Hampton Court. when the disease is now so nearly worn out. without Gold or Silver. by way of salvo. and had no Gold. but some other similar disorder. would work as effectually as a fresh piece of Gold. have been cured with the Touch only. but Mr. and received a piece of Gold. and that the Patients did not labour under the Struma. p. [210] Rymer. and new Gold. added to the want of faith. as to the virtue contained in the Gold. persons who had never received the Touch. Browne's preface. their diseases have been seen to vanish. June 18.trifling to engage her attention. received back his Gold. tom. who both were afflicted with the Evil. and this practice was pursued for several years. Monconys. he used Silver. One would naturally be surprized to read of such numbers who received the Royal Touch in the 17th century. upon obtaining a second Touch. p. and. newly strung upon a White Ribbon. upon which the son borrows the father's Gold. a regulation which undoubtedly arose from some supposed patients. for he assures those who contended that a _second_ piece of _Gold_ was necessary on a _second_ Touch. after all. for Mr. losing their Gold[213]. As to the giving of a piece of Gold. Surely the greatest opponent of the Touch will not place it in a more contemptible light!" [209] By a Proclamation. xviii. that no one shall apply for this purpose. with which many were known to have been cured:--but. "it only shews his Majestie's Royal well-wishes towards the recovery of those who come thus to be healed. after wearing it a little time. when. that the King (Charles I. who had attempted to receive the bit of gold more than once. is. book iii." In other parts of his book. Browne likewise gives other examples of the operation of the Gold." Again. 118. who does not bring a certificate that he was never touched before. and perhaps had no Gold to spare. Browne tells us it raged remarkably at the period when he lived. that if the person had lost the piece of gold. that the same Gold. 135. however. 1626. During this interval the father grew worse. one would be tempted to think that the virtue neither consisted in the Gold or the Silver. was anciently reckoned to have a sanative quality in itself.--Though we have called it Gold. Some. yet Silver would do as well. which.

Vicar of that Parish. rubbed on a stye upon the eyelid. Earl of Peterborow. But she soon recovered her health. who had formerly been cured by King Charles I. Thomas Carte the Historian. Lord Privy Seal. This is still a superstitious notion among the common people at this day. foreseeing that in this (as in all other things) order is to be observed. by many ages past. when he was living[214]. CHARLES II. they find a vent. by their sacred Touch. having had good success therein. Chancellor of the Duchy. Duke of Ormond. and fit times are necessary to be appointed for the performing of this great work of charity. used to be esteemed a sovereign remedy. at Wapping. Secretary Jenkins. if bought at all. being as ready and willing as any King or Queen of this Realm ever was. Browne seems to believe a case that had been sent to him. 109. the King's Most Excellent Majesty. at a distance from London. and. if I mistake not. The effect of this Divine Emanation has been said even to extend beyond the life of this unfortunate Monarch. no doubt. and his Majesty. though she was so ignorant of the world as not to know that it was to take place. yet. Earl of Huntingdon. in any thing to relieve the distresses and necessities of his good subjects. Mr. and a child's cawl is a preservative against drowning in the notions of sailors (who are extremely credulous in general): one often sees them advertised for sale. in his princely wisdom. Present. and. placed there by the Rev. it must be applied nine times. Mr. his Majesty was therefore this day pleased to declare in Council his Royal will and pleasure to be. Samuel Carte. in no less measure than any of his Royal Predecessors. Earl of Chesterfield. Earl of Oxford. Lord Bishop of London. A wen is said to be cured by the hand of a dead man while hanging on the gallows. and whose sores broke out afresh upon the day of the King's death. Godolphin. and brother of Mr. in his most gracious and pious disposition. That (in regard heretofore the usual . Martin's Church at Leicester. and invocation of the name of God. that Mr. [214] Browne. "At the Court at Whitehall. [215] One of these is still preserved in a frame in the Vestry of St. of a woman.There was such sympathy between the Royal Hand and the part touched. Earl of Nottingham. book iii. have had the happiness. for part of the blood of this King being preserved on a piece of linen dipped therein. Earl of Bridgewater. was found to have the same effect as the Touch. p. but. A wedding ring of gold. Earl of Clarendon. Mr. Earl of Craven. In January 1683. Earl of Rochester. to cure those who are afflicted with the disease called the King's Evil. by the grace and blessing of God. the Kings and Queens of this Realm. or his Prayers. Whereas. 9th of January 1683. Lord Chief Justice Jeffryes. Lord Keeper. the following Proclamation was ordered to be published in every Parish in the Kingdom[215]. Earl of Bathe. Duke of Beaufort.

Sworn Chirurgeon in Ordinary to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. except in the Libraries of the curious. continued with their admirable Effects and miraculous Events. that they have not. and of both or one of the churchwardens of the respective parishes where they dwell. and then to cease till the Passion-week. being times most convenient. who are to take care that the same be delivered to all parishes within their respective provinces. deceased. his Majesty was pleased to direct. exploded at this day. which may happen in this near access to his Majesty's sacred Person. testifying. and a convenient number of copies sent to the Most Reverend Father in God the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. performed for above 640 years by our Kings of England. till a week before Christmas. And his Majesty was farther pleased to order. all which are succinctly described by John Browne. vicar. and Chyrurgeon of his Majesty's Hospital. The Titles to the three Books are--1. And all ministers and churchwardens are hereby required to be very careful to examine into the truth before they give such certificates. from the time of publishing this his Majesty's order. or King's Evil Swellings. and then be affixed to some conspicuous place there. that this Order be read publicly in all parish-churches. that all such as shall hereafter come or repair to the Court for this purpose. both for the temperature of the season. commonly called Alhallow-tide. Printers to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. and for that end the same be printed. "London. been touched by his Majesty. an Anatomick-Chyrurgical Treatise of Glandules and Strumaes. shall bring with them certificates. as well as many new and important discoveries been made. by contact or imposition of Hands. to the end that all his Majesty's loving subjects may the better take knowledge of this his Majesty's command. printed by the Assigns of John Bill. not now easily to be met with. and the Lord Archbishop of York. one of His Majesty's Chyrurgeons in Ordinary. Together with the Royal Gift of Healing or Cure thereof. since it was written. and also to keep a register of all certificates they shall from time to time give. and from whence they come. published . until the first day of March. and concluded with many wonderful Examples of Cures by their Sacred Touch. "_Adenochoiradelogia_. LOYD. And when his Majesty shall at any time think fit to go any progress. published a work. It is in three Books.times of presenting such persons for this purpose have been prefixed by his Royal Predecessors) the times of public healings shall from henceforth be from the Feast of All-Saints. and perhaps. at any time before. to the intent to be healed of their disease. John Browne. that. according to the truth. And his Majesty doth hereby accordingly order and command. but only at or within the times for that purpose hereby appointed as aforesaid. or. he will be pleased to appoint such other times for healing as shall be most convenient. under the hands and seals of the parson. for its general subjects. or minister. none presume to repair to his Majesty's Court to be healed of the said disease. and after Christmas. And." A regular Notice to the same effect was published by authority in the London Gazette. and by Henry Hills. In 1684. as the fashion of physick has much altered. and in respect of contagion.

Sex. and Cure. or more willingly or freely. or Constitution. curing all that approach his Royal Touch. in that modest and plain Dress. over-against Exeter Change in the Strand. Esq." says Mr. continues the Numbers as follows: 1667 1668 1669 1670 1671 3078 3543 2983 3377 3568 . Form. without superstition. from which I shall copy the totals of each year: 1660 1661 1662 1663 1664 6725 4619 4275 4667 3335 Another account. Browne. or King's Evil Swellings. book iii. performed by his Majesty's Sacred Hands. This is followed by accounts of about 70 "wonderful and miraculous cures. and divers general Rules for the meanest capacity to find out the Disease. seated on his Throne. by His Late Majesty's precious Blood." and a curious frontispiece. who knows all things. in the presence of the Almighty." Prefixed to the work is a portrait of Browne. inscribed "Johannes Browne. Sold by Samuel Lowndes. touching for the King's Evil. p. He does it with a pure heart. nor sinking so low as others do. without any respect either to their Age. Temper." representing Charles II. White. Shewing the Gift itself. And this I may frankly presume to aver. wherein are discovered their Names and Natures. to perform the same by Black Art or Inchantment. given them at their Inaugurations. we must and shall ever acknowledge[216]. with the Manner. Keeper of his Majesty's Closet belonging to the Chapel Royal. Swellings. or an Exact Discourse of Strumaes. 126. _Charisma Basilicon_. and certainty of cure. whose wonderful effects." 2." and also by "An Account of the Number of Persons touched for the King's Evil. Regis Britannici necnon Nosocomii sui Chirurgus Ordinarius. This ceremony seems to have been in high vogue during this reign. "The King gives freely. from the Registers kept by Thomas Haynes. Signs. by His Majesty's Benediction. and its continued Use. The best expedient to prevent poor People from unnecessary Journeys. Thomas Donkley. the Royal Gift of Healing Strumaes. Presages. surrounded by his Court. The whole concluded with above Sixty admirable Cures. or. Differences. Serjeant of the Chapel Royal. performed with and without Gold. entitled "The Royal Gift of Healing. Causes." 3. engraved by R. by Contact or Imposition of the Sacred Hands of our Kings of England and of France." [216] Browne. from May 1660 to September 1664. and the like. or King's Evil. that the meanest capacity may hereby find out the Disease. "not calling the Angels to witness. and Ceremonies thereof. "_Chæradelogia_. also engraved by White. declaring all Persons Healed thereby. that never any of his Predecessors have ever exercised it more.with His Majesty's Royal Approbation: Together with the Testimony of many eminent Doctors and Chyrurgeons. kept by Mr.

Amongst these was _Samuel Johnson_. by his evidence. on his making. but that his parents were poor." [217] The Ceremony used in this Reign is given in the Appendix. "that this piece of gold. but somehow a sort of solemn recollection of a Lady in diamonds. then a Physician at Lichfield. which he heard from an old man who was witness in a cause with respect to this supposed miraculous power of Healing. and touched him. said. accounts for the great resort upon this occasion. The Honourable Daines Barrington[218] has preserved an anecdote. _two hundred_ persons were touched by Queen Anne[217]. II. "He had." GEORGE I. I had an opportunity of asking him. had the good sense not to pretend to this miraculous Gift. for the Evil. which was given to those who were touched. whilst a child.1672 1673 1674 1675 1676 1677 1678 1679 1680 1681 1682 3771 4457 5079 3471 4454 4607 3456 3752 3796 2461 8577 92.107 Summa Totalis QUEEN ANNE. It appears by the Newspapers of the time. who succeeded to the Crown in 1714. afterwards the justly celebrated Moral Writer. Although this Monarch. No. When he had finished his evidence. the substance of which shall be here given: "Whatever is to be said in favour of its being appropriated to the eldest Descendant of the first branch of the Royal Line of . Carte's (in other respects very excellent) "History of England" fell into almost immediate disrepute. by Queen Anne's having been at Oxford. fixed the time of a fact. being asked if he could remember Queen Anne. whether he was really cured? Upon which he answered. a bold assertion." [218] Observations on the Statutes. and the supposed afterwards miraculous cures. "he had a confused. And it is well recollected. it was assumed by the Descendants of the race of Stuarts. 1714. that on the 30th of March. in one of his notes. _and had no objection to the bit of gold_. He was sent by the advice of Sir John Floyer. and a long black hood. The learned and honourable Writer very properly observes on this occasion. "that he believed himself to have never had any complaint that deserved to be considered as the Evil. and many years afterwards. with a significant smile. that Mr.

but which were otherwise entirely healed. as the most wonderful thing that ever happened. at the end of August. at Bristol. Lane. carrying me to the man. and forced him to keep his head always awry. that. as left no hollow between his cheek and the upper part of his left shoulder. in his recovered vigour of body. indeed. there was such a tumour on one side of his neck. From thence Christopher made his way first to Paris. where he got his living by labour. The young man was reduced. to the lowest state of weakness. and. D. Lane. who had tried in vain. and found upon the whole. of being one of the most wonderful events that has ever happened. appeared a miserable object in the eyes of all the inhabitants of that populous city. in the beginning of January following. Pye. who was an old seaman. however. without any remains of his complaint. whom I visited on my arrival. No. at least at that time. by the eldest lineal Descendant of a race of Kings. Martin's in the Isle of Ree. was extremely afflicted for many years with that distemper. and Mr. cured that distemper by the _Royal Touch_. and as sound as any other part of his body. and pressed me as well to see the man upon whom it was performed. and he recovered strength daily. though it found a vent by five running sores about his breast. told me of this cure. without receiving any benefit. the humour dispersed insensibly. where he put him on board a ship that was bound to St.the Kings of France. according to the rites prescribed in the office appointed by the Church for that solemnity. I." APPENDIX. but what were to be seen in the red scars then left upon the five places where the sharp humour had found a vent. to which a small piece of silver was pendant. been crowned or _anointed_. A. that if it is not to be deemed miraculous. I have _myself_ seen a very remarkable instance of such a cure. One Christopher Lovel. that I saw the man. as they were practised in the time of King Henry VII_[219]. 1716. by the virulence of the humour. relating as well to his illness as his cure. who had. Dr. after dining together. and such a flow of the scrophulous humour. Paul's fair. having spent only four months and some few days in his voyage. Samuel Pye. England. along with him to Cork in Ireland. The usual effect. for three years together. a very skilful surgeon. in the beginning of November following. I had an opportunity of doing both. He had an uncle in the place. his sores healed up. and arms. and in the week preceding St. . There it was. it at least deserved the character given it by Dr. an eminent physician in the place. _The Ceremonies for the Healing of them that be diseased with the King's Evil. &c. to cure the man by physical remedies. as to talk about his case with Mr. having for many years tried all the remedies which the art of physic could administer. and thence to the place where he was touched. which could not possibly be ascribed to the Royal _Unction_. and I believe still living in that city. resolved at last to go _abroad_ to be touched. But this descendant and next heir of their blood had not. till he arrived in perfect health. I examined and informed myself fully of all particulars. neck. but when he grew up residing in the City of Bristol. for a long succession of ages. born at Wells in Somersetshire. and carried him from Bristol. followed: from the moment that the man was touched and invested with the narrow riband.

_--The Chaplain shall read the Gospel. Euntes in mundum universum. gratiam et consolationem Sancti Spiritûs.[219] Published by Command of King Charles II. in nomine Patris. _Rubrick. and say. 1686. Domine. In nomine Patris. et Spiritûs Sancti. the King. _Rubrick. and say. liberet Vos ab omni malo. Amen. ad confitendum omnia peccata tua. et demittat Vobis omnia peccata Vestra. for his Household and Chapel. Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. _Rubrick. non crediderunt. et emendationem vitæ. Qui crediderit et baptizatus fuerit. _Rubrick.] Precor Sanctam Mariam. shall begin. _Rubrick. prædicate Evangelium omni creaturæ._--Or else to say. spatium veræ púnitentiæ._--The Chaplain shall answer. mea culpa [sic. Misereatur Vestri Omnipotens Deus. _Rubrick. _Rubrick._--First. Amen. quia peccavi nimis in cogitatione. qui iis qui viderant eum resurrexisse. In illo tempore. tribuat Vobis omnipotens et misericors Dominus. hæc . _Rubrick. qui verò non crediderit._--The Chaplain. in nomine Patris. the Chaplain shall say. qui crediderint. Signa autem eos. et Spiritûs Sancti._--This done. et ad vitam perducat æternam. and printed by Henry Hills._--The King shall answer. recumbentibus undecim Discipulis apparuit illis Jesus. Absolutionem et Remissionem omnium peccatorum Vestrorum. condemnabitur. et exprobavit incredulitatem eorum. et Filii. having a stole about his neck. _Rubrick. kneeling before the King. locutione. Et cum Spiritu tuo. Gloria tibi. et Filii. et Filii. salvet et confirmet in bono. He shall say. Omnibus Sanctis._--The King shall answer.. Dominus Vobiscum. shall answer. _Rubrick. omnes Sanctos Dei._--Then by and by the King shall say. kneeling. et Vos. et duritiem cordis. et opere. Amen. Confiteor Deo. Benedicite. _Rubrick. Dominus sit in corde tuo et labiis tuis. et Vobis. Jesus nos exaudiat. orare pro me._--And so soon as He hath said that. salvus erit. et Spiritûs Sancti. Sequentia Sancti Evangelii secundùm Marcum._--The Chaplain. Beatæ Mariæ Virgini. and say. Amen. Et dixit eis.

et sedet à dextris Dei.sequentur: In nomine meo dæmonia ejicient. _Rubrick. In propria venit. &c._--The King shall answer. This done. Gloria tibi. neque ex voluntate carnis. Erat Lux vera quæ illuminat omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum. Et Verbum caro factum est.] the Clerk of the Closet shall kneel before the King. and then the King shall lay his hand upon the Sore of the Sick Person. And the Sick Person to have the same Angel hanged about his neck. assumptus est in cúlum. et sine ipso factum est nihil. Quot quot autem receperunt eum dedit eis potestatem filios Dei fieri._--Then the Chaplain shall begin to say again. postquam locutus est eis._--The Chaplain then shall say this Gospel following. qui credunt in nomine ejus. et mundus eum non cognovit. Hic venit in testimonium._--The Chaplain. neque ex voluntate viri. qui non ex sanguinibus. et sermonem confirmante. serpentes tollent.] shall still be repeated so long as the King shall be crossing the Sore of the Sick Person with an Angel Noble. Hoc erat in principio apud Deum. _Rubrick. --In mundo erat. et si mortiferum quid biberint non eis nocebit. and to wear it until he be full whole. prædicaverunt ubique. Fuit homo missus a Deo. cui nomen erat Joannes. --Et Dominus quidem Jesus. as he did before. sed ut testimonium perhiberet de lumine. et habitavit in nobis. _Rubrick. Et cum spiritu tuo. plenum gratiæ et veritatis. et vidimus gloriam ejus. Initium Sancti Evangelii secundum Joannem. And in the time of the repeating the aforesaid words [super ægros. super ægros manus imponent. Domino cooperante. linguis loquentur novis. et Tenebræ eam non comprehenderunt. the Chirurgeon shall lead away the Sick Person. _Rubrick. sed ex Deo nati sunt. having the Sick Person upon the right hand. et bene [seipsos] habebunt._--Which last clause [Erat Lux vera. Dominus Vobiscum. &c. and in the mean time the Chirurgeon shall lead away the Sick Person from the King. _Rubrick. and the Sick Person shall likewise kneel before the King. _Rubrick. quod factum est: in ipso vita erat. et Verbum erat apud Deum._--Which clause [super ægros. This done. gloriam quasi unigeniti a Patre. Illi autem profecti. sequentibus signis. Omnia per ipsum facta sunt. and then the Chaplain shall make an end of the Gospel. et vita erat Lux hominum. et sui eum non receperunt. In principio erat Verbum. . _Rubrick. Domine. et Deus erat Verbum. ut testimonium perhiberet de lumine. et mundus per ipsum factus est. et Lux in tenebris lucet. ut omnes crederent per illum._--The King shall say. Non erat ille Lux.] the Chaplain repeats as long as the King is handling the Sick Person. his. the Chaplain shall make an end of the Gospel. &c.

Regibus ejusdem concessa est. exaudi nos pro famulis tuis. No. pro quibus misericordiæ tuæ imploramus auxilium. Mark. ut solâ manuum illorum impositione. after the Sick Persons are departed from the King. at his pleasure. ut non corpus solùm ab infirmitate. praying for the Sick Person or Persons._Rubrick. ut summo Medico et omnium morborum depulsori. &c. beginning at the 14th Verse: . qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Sancti Spiritûs. et tanta gratia pro incredibili tuâ ergà hoc regnum bonitate. Domine exaudi orationem meam [nostram]. sicque deinceps vitam instituant. Amen. O Lord. ut. Oremus. hâc tuâ virtute in illis operante et nobis ministrantibus. nosque sic ad pietatem semper exerceamus._--This Prayer is to be said secretly. II._--The King shall answer. per omnia secula seculorum. ut tuam nobis donatam gratiam non solùm diligenter conservare._ Prevent us. perpetuò nobiscum gratias agant. morbus gravissimus fútidissimusque depellatur: concede propitius ut tibi propterea gratias agamus. sed indies magis magisque adaugere laboremus. et pro isto singulari beneficio in nos collato. From the 16th Chapter of St.[220] [220] "Ritualia Varia. redditâ sibi sanitate. Ex hoc nunc et usque in seculum. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus. sed anima etiam à peccato omnino sanata videatur. surdi audiunt. cujus benignitate cæci vident. Sit nomen Domini benedictum. _Rubrick. APPENDIX. Dominator Domine Deus Omnipotens. _Rubrick. tibi in Ecclesiâ tuâ referant actiones. _Rubrick. claudi ambulant. et pro eâdem tibi._--Then shall the Chaplain say this Collect following. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. muti loquuntur. _At the Healing. eam conservent. Gospel. sed nomini tuo assiduè gloriam demus. omnes infirmorum curantur languores. Amen. leprosi mundantur. non nobis ipsis. et præsta ut quorumcunque corporibus in nomine tuo manus imposuerimus. ad pristinam sanitatem restituantur._--Then the Chaplain shall say. From a FOLIO PRAYER BOOK. Et clamor meus [noster] ad te veniat." in the British Museum._--The King shall answer. salus æterna credentium. et à quo solo donum Sanationis humano generi etiam tribuitur. Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum Filium tuum. printed 1710. _Rubrick.

&c."Afterwards he appeared. and grant that _these_ Sick Persons. --[Then shall the Infirm Persons. ._--[Then the Chaplain. Amen._--Who put their Trust in Thee. may give Thanks unto thee in thy Holy Church. the Chaplain that officiates. be now and evermore your Defence. but only the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ. through Jesus Christ our Lord. _Resp.] Let us pray. shall say these words following:] God give a Blessing to this Work. O God of our Salvation. Our Father._--[These answers are to be made by them that come to be healed. _Resp.] _Verse. do bow and obey. and while the Queen is laying her Hands upon them. and the Aid of them that seek to thee for Succour. the Chaplain shall say. be presented to the Queen upon_Rubrick. shall say. who is a most strong Tower to all them that put their Trust in him. and under the Earth. &c._--And let our Cry come unto Thee. turning himself to her Majesty. as every one is presented._--[After all have been presented. in whom. _Verse. Christ. _Rubrick. Lord have mercy upon us. you may receive Health and Salvation. standing with his face towards them that come to be healed.] The Almighty Lord. _Verse." Let us pray. and. _Resp. on whom the Queen lays her Hands._--O Lord. that there is none other Name under Heaven given to Man._ their Knees. being healed of their Infirmities. _Rubrick. may recover. one by one. Amen._--And evermore mightily defend them. O Almighty God. and make you know and feel. in Earth. _Verse. and through whom. who art the Giver of all Health._--Send them Help from thy Holy Place." to the end of the Chapter: "and confirming the Word with Signs following. to whom all things in Heaven. and be merciful to us Sinners for thy Name's Sake. &c. Lord. hear our Prayers._--O Lord._--And. save thy Servants. and putting the Gold about their necks. that they. &c. we call upon thee for thy Health and Goodness mercifully to be shewed upon these thy Servants. through Jesus Christ our Lord. _Resp._--Help us. for the Glory of thy Name deliver us. _Rubrick.

Amen. may all people acknowledge thee.* and doest guide nations on the earth. because thou iudgest people with equity. and by thy greate power purify them so. The Blessing of the Rings. and so the metal.* may he send forth the light of his face upon us. which by Thee was created." May God take pity upon us. and the Origin of all blessings. so by Thee they may prove beneficial to them.* and may all the bounds of the earth feare him. whom thou hast raised to the Royal dignity.* the earth has sent forth her fruit. to the end that._ The Psalme "Deus misereatur nostri. and take pity on us." &c. and bestow thy favours on the people: Graciously heare our prayers. Let nations reioice. Glory be to the Father. APPENDIX. used by the Catholick Kings of England.* and to the Holy Ghost. and govern others. that all the malice of the fowle and venomous Serpent be driven out. As it was in the beginning. that Thou mayst grant to us. &c. artificially fram'd by the workman. continually to grant us many and various meanes to relieve us in our miseries. with the "Gloria Patri. III. Amen. and favourably receive those vows we powre forth with humility. who beg with the same confidence the favour which our Ancestours. and free from all dregs of the enemy: through Christ our Lord. flowing from the unexhausted fountain of thy bounty. and now. may remaine pure. O God:* may all people acknowledge thee. that God who is ours: may that God blesse us. and the most gracious Restorer of mankind. this prayer is to be said over them: O God. The Rings lying in one bason or more. Amen. . and ever.The Grace of our Lord. Then the King reades this Prayer: Almighty eternal God. May people acknowledge thee. and art willing to make those the instruments and channels of thy gifts. as by Thee they Reign. and be glad. and blesse us. who by the most copious gifts of thy grace. Amen.* and for ever. by their hopes in thy mercy have obtained: through Christ our Lord. May God blesse us. May people acknowledge thee. O God. and to the Son. the Dispenser of spiritual grace. the Maker of heavenly and earthly creatures. hast been graciously pleased. _The Ceremonies of Blessing Cramp-Rings on Good-Friday. for the comfort of mankind. No. and ever. That we may know thy ways on earth* among all nations thy salvation. and to grace those persons with more excellent favours. send downe from heaven thy Holy Spirit the Comforter upon these Rings.

but that in all sort of diseases by thy help they may find relief. heare mercifully our prayers. that he may sanctify ++ and blesse ++ these Rings. may infest them. Amen. become profitable to all such as weare them.* nor has he rendered unto us according to our offences. by the invocation of thy holy name. who hast manifested the greatest wonders of thy power by the cure of diseases. May they in fine. and that no contraction of the nerves. like that of the eagle. with earnestness and humility.* and do not forget all his favours. and in this Kingdom a remedy for divers diseases. He forgives all thy iniquities. Be propitious to thy suppliants. the Lord. graciously be pleased to blesse ++ and sanctify ++ these Rings. O God. a priestly ornament in Aaron. or any danger of the falling-sickness. ++ and of the Holy Ghost. thy most serene piety. the Lord.* he crownes thee with mercy and commiseration. to the end that all such who weare them may be free from all snares of the Devil. upon those who feare him. so has the Lord taken pity of those who feare him. the mark of a faithful guardian in Darius. He has not dealt with us in proportion to our sins. O my soule. The Lord is he who does mercy. He fils thy desires with what is good:* thy youth. O my soule.* and let all things which are within me praise his holy name.* and does. ++ Amen. A Blessing. for the health of their soule and body.* he heales all thy infirmities. After the manner that a Father takes pity of his sons. and accuse themselves of the sins which ly upon their conscience: who deplore their crimes in the sight of thy divine clemency.* so far has he divided our offences from us. and beseech.* so has he enforced his mercies.* because he knows what we . iustice to those who suffer wrong. The merciful and pitying Lord:* the long sufferer. As far distant as the east is from the west. and most mighty merciful. Blesse. Spare those who feare Thee. shall be renewed. ++ and of the Son. God of Jacob. and graciously be pleased to send downe from Heaven thy holy Angel. He redeemes thy life from ruin. Because according to the distance of heaven from earth. Blesse. He wil not continue his anger for ever.* neither wil he threaten for ever. God of Isaac. and who were pleased that Rings should be a pledge of fidelity in the Patriark Judah. In the name of the Father.O God of Abraham. through Christ our Lord. to the end they may prove a healthy remedy to such as implore thy name with humility. may be defended by the power of celestial armour.

and he wil not be able to subsist. and of the Holy Ghost. and to the glory of thy name let all things succeede: to the end thy beleevers may understand Thee to be the dispenser of all good. O Lord. Blesse yee the Lord. But the mercy of the Lord is from all eternity. and to the Son. O Lord. the King's Highnes rubbeth the Rings between his hands. Blesse yee the Lord. May all superstition be banished hence. Amen.are made of. and publish. Blesse yee the Lord. and a pious assurance of mind: with the like devotion thy beleevers may follow on these tokens of thy grace. the only begotten Son of God. Then must holy water be cast on the Rings. As it was in the beginning. so wil he fade away. is derived from Thee: through Christ our Lord.* like the flower in the field. like hay. In the name of the Father.* and for ever and ever. thy infinit clemency. and consecrate them by the rubbing of our hands. Sanctify. all yee vertues of his:* yee Ministers who execute his wil. that whatsoever is profitable to soule or body. yee who are powerful in strength:* who execute his commands. and graciously bedew them with the dew of thy benediction. such are his days. all yee Angels of his.* to those who keep his wil. these Rings. Amen.* to performe them. Mediatour of God and men.* and wil be for ever upon those who feare him. saying. The Lord in heaven has prepared himself a throne. Man. Wee humbly implore. all yee works of his throughout all places of his dominions:* my Soule praise thou the Lord. And his iustice comes upon the children of their children. And are mindful of his commandments. and sincere faith.* and it wil find no longer its owne place. Glory be to the Father. may be wrought by the greatnes of thy grace: through Christ our Lord. O merciful God. at the hearing of his voice when he speakes. . and now and ever. saying. Amen. and of the Son. He remembers that we are but dust. that as we come to Thee with a confident soule. Amen. Because his breath wil passe away through him. which thou hast been pleased according to our ministery to sanctify by an external effusion of holy oyle upon them: to the end that what the nature of the mettal is not able to performe.* and to the Holy Ghost. and his kingdom shall reign over all. far be all suspicion of any diabolical fraud. and may be sensible. These Prayers being said.

may be prevalent to the defense of our soule and body on earth.--Bartholomew. didst promise. 1285. Son. Baron of Burghersh. "When Adam dolve. and to such as hope in thee givest an easy acces to thy Father: who.Jesus Christ. WESTMORELAND. . one God for ever and ever. at the Institution 1350. A. wee supplicate and beseech thee. world without end. Father. that the Spirit. and Holy Ghost. that what is here performed by pious ceremonies to the sanctifying of thy name. approaching with confidence to the throne of thy grace. and gather'd Good. in right of his Mother. who married Edward Le Despenser. Stemmata Magnatum. we may efficaciously obtaine by thy gracious gift: through Christ our Lord. O most clement God. Wee beseech thee. in the unity of the Holy Ghost. by an assured oracle flowing from thy sacred mouth. which proceedes from thee. and Eva span. and profitable to a more ample felicity in heaven: who livest and reignest God. that thy Father should grant whatever was asked him in thy name: Lend a gracious eare of pity to these prayers of ours. Amen.--From the County. Earl of Westmoreland. ORIGIN OF THE TITLES OF SOME OF THE ENGLISH NOBILITY. The Earldom and Barony of Burghersh passed to a distant branch. to the end that what we beg with confidence for the good of the faithful. and was for a long time merged in the Family of Fane. by the benefits conferr'd upon them. _Burghersh_[221]. Amen. to the end that. And thence arose the Gentle Blood. which official Title was afterwards erected into a Barony by Summons. nor no Nobility but is descended of Beggary. p. till the failure of Male Issue in a direct line. that by thy mediation we have obtained what we have most humbly begd in thy name: who livest and reignest with God the Father. but the Barony of Le Despenser went by a Female to Sir Francis Dashwood. the beleevers may find. was the Tenth Knight of the Order of the Garter. who left a Daughter and Heir. of the name of Fane. when conversing among men. Baron (_Fane_). Who was then a Gentleman? Then came the Churle. in whose name alone salvation is sought for. Amen. Bart. that there is no Poverty but is descended of Nobility. D." "It is an ancient received saying. Earl. 94." History of the Gwedir Family. O Lord. may prevent and follow on our desires. thyself a man. 1762.

1595[225]. LE DESPENSER.. s. 1702. and she walked at the Coronation of Queen Anne as Baroness _Wentworth_ in her own right.--The second Title of Sheffield Duke of Buckingham.--After the Barony of _Wentworth_ had continued for several successions in the name of _Wentworth_.--A Barony in the Duke of Bedford." The Dukedom became extinct. See Camden's Brit. He was created Viscount Wentworth of Wellesborough. 1762. on the River Rother. for the words of the Patent. 1719. and the eldest Son of Lord William Russell. i. if a claim to it can be established. as Heir of Margaret. Esq. [225] See Camden. A. as that creation bears date A. by Anne.--From Wardour Castle in Wiltshire. and after him to his Sister. by Descent. who was beheaded 1683[223].D. co. Bart. being a Fee. p._ which Title became extinct.--The Patent is dated April 29. NORMANBY. wherein the Grantee is styled "Duke of Chandos in the County of Hereford. 1667. 1745. whose Daughter Martha inherited the Barony of _Wentworth_. 1788. . Bart.D. of Nettlestead in Suffolk. Bart. D. Baron (RUSSELL). Anno 23 Edward I. and now. 267. of Oxfordshire. in Parliament. it passed by Marriage to the Earl of Westmoreland. He is a Count of the Empire by Grant of Rodolph II. who succeeded to his Father's Title of Baronet. who had married Margaret. the Heiress of Wentworth Lord _Wentworth_. WENTWORTH[222]. 1295. col. Baron (ARUNDEL[224]). and. Duke (BRYDGES). _Earl of Cleveland. 112. by the death of James the third Duke. granted in honour of Elizabeth. the Title devolved on Anne. a little Village in Sussex. A. She dying without Issue.--A nominal Title from official derivation. 272. Hence the Title passed to Edward. Daughter of John Howland. 1745.[221] A corruption of Burghwash. The Barony passed as above. taken from an obscure place in Lincolnshire. [223] See Collins's Baronage. and to the Barony of _Wentworth_. D. Leic. and to whom the Title was confirmed. is vested in Sir Thomas Stapleton. Lady Austen. Grandson of the first Duke of Bedford. 1554. A. for want of Male Issue. The Barony exists (1790). extinct (SHEFFIELD). of Streatham in Surrey (by whom the Family acquired that estate). HOWLAND. 1733. the Title devolved on the Descendants of Sir William _Noel_. the eldest Son of Sir Clobery _Noel_. another Daughter of Lord Lovelace. Baron (STAPLETON). descended to Sir Francis Dashwood. It was held originally by Descent and Summons. CHANDOS. who married Wriothesley. 1789. [222] The Ancestor of this Family was Thomas Wentworth. Marquis. ARUNDEL OF WARDOUR. [224] See Camden's Britannia. the Wife of John Lord Lovelace. Bart. Viscount (NOEL).

--This Barony is both nominal and local. and took the name of Clifford. to which it was confirmed A. 182. the present Seat of the Family. Earl. to whom he was related. The first Fitz-Ponce came hither with the Conqueror. 1776[227]. DUCIE. whose Father possessed it by marriage. with a Limitation to Thomas and Francis _Reynolds_. 1775. [226] Clendon is the Seat of the Family in Surrey. then Lord Onslow. in the Parish of _Cranley_. on the death of his Cousin Richard Lord Onslow. George Lord Onslow and _Cranley_ was created into the latter Title. _Thomas_ Reynolds succeeded . whence came the second Barony by creation to George Onslow.--The Peer of the name of _Ducie_ was descended from Sir Robert Ducie. May 14. in honour of his Wife's Father. ONSLOW AND CRANLEY. for the Family came from Onslow in Shropshire. 1714. The Estate at Lees-Court in Kent came by the above marriage.--From Berkeley Castle. Lord Ducie of _Morton_ in Staffordshire. 1776. and succeeded his Cousin Richard in the Title of Onslow. 1631. OF MORTON AND TORTWORTH (REYNOLDS). in the life-time of his Cousin Richard. Lewis Watson. to Matthew Ducie. 1697. where Walter Fitz-Ponce.[228] [228] Dale's Catalogue of the Nobility. and their Heirs Male successively.B. the original Seat of the Family. to the Son of Arthur (the Speaker). which carried the Title of Baron Onslow of Onslow and Clendon[226].--A revived Title. 1776.B. col. on the 8th of the following October. N. the Son of Arthur (the Speaker). was limited to the Heirs Male of his Father.D. Baron (ONSLOW). Bart. Baron (WATSON).--From Clifford Castle in Herefordshire. to Richard (who was Speaker also) the eldest Son of Sir Arthur Onslow. so that the present Title is nominal. Baron (SOUTHWELL). DE CLIFFORD. Lord Mayor of London. in Gloucestershire. K. the Title was renewed by Patent. having married the Heiress of Sir George _Sondes_. and who had been created a Baronet[229]. 1295. resided. Their first settlement in Surrey was at Knowle. [227] See Camden's Brit. 72. The Barony of Berkeley is a Feudal Honour by the Tenure of the Castle of Berkeley. The Issue Male of the name of _Ducie_ failing. from the inheritance of part of the estates of Lewis Watson. The original Patent. Viscount. by the Style of Lord Ducie of _Tortworth_ in Gloucestershire. anno 23 Edward I. Earl of Rockingham and Viscount _Sondes_. 1716.--From Dursley in Gloucestershire. The first Summons to Parliament was anno 23 Edward I. The Barony passed in the Female Line to the Family of Southwell. p. 1763.SONDES. his Nephews. as to the Family. and the Possessor of it had Summons to Parliament as a Baron by that Tenure. BERKELEY. was created Earl of Rockingham and Viscount _Sondes_. Baron. DURSLEY.

[234] Pennant's Journey from Chester to London. and taken. The honour of Peerage in the name of Touchet. 1784. Earl (HERBERT).--From the Name. Baron (THICKNESSE-TOUCHET). and who has taken. Esq. fourth edition. Baron (WILLOUGHBY). by sign-manual. 1777. p. LUDLOW. Earl. NEVILE. among many others now merged or extinct. The first Baron was created by Henry I. II.D. on the death of the Earl of Castlehaven.--From the Town of that name in Shropshire[231]. and dying without Issue 1785. A. Pennant says. 1782. the Barony (being a Fee) passed to George Thicknesse. near Sutton-Coldfield. who was also Earl of Castlehaven in Ireland.--This is a Title derived from a Lord Marcher. .--From the City. was succeeded by his Son Thomas. p. 4to. Viscount. [229] Pennant's London. ABERGAVENNY. Earl (NEVILE). still known by the name of this Title on the death of his Uncle. DEERHURST. STANHOPE. in Warwickshire[234]._ who dying in 1808. Earl. Mr. her Son. and Baron Stanhope of Elvaston.--From a place in Gloucestershire. or the Name. p. Audley is in Staffordshire. POWIS. [230] Pennant's Tour in North Wales. ended in a Daughter (Lady Elizabeth). Viscount (COVENTRY). and had Summons to Parliament. leaving Issue. and died in 1762. 346.--From an obscure Village. [232] Collins's Peerage. II. from the place conquered. whose Descendant was found Heir. on a surrender of the actual Territory. AUDLEY. 4to. MIDDLETON. 1296[232]. present Lord Ducie. 1770. The Earldom is extinct. vol. COVENTRY. [233] Tour in North Wales. vol.--Powis is a part of Shropshire bordering on Wales. who married Philip Thicknesse. John Touchet married Joan. it devolved on his Brother _Francis. 439. 436. eldest Daughter of Lord Audley of Heleigh. the additional name of Touchet.--A nominal Title. Viscount. and was formerly a little Kingdom. p. The first Peer of this Branch was created Viscount Stanhope of Mahon. and an acknowledgment of service[230]. [231] The Barony of Herbert of Cherbury was revived in this Branch in 1743. 127. it is the only surviving Title of that nature[233].

It was conferred by William III. was created Baron of Dorchester in _Oxfordshire_. from his having taken Port-Mahon.--From Carmarthen in Wales. Earl (DAMER). B. [236] Sir Michael Stanhope. LEEDS.--From Milton Abbey. was created Earl of Dorchester in _Dorsetshire_. in Dorsetshire. Earl. and was conferred in 1644.--The same Peer was created Earl Stanhope 1718. Earl (STANHOPE[236]). Viscount (STANHOPE). Marquis.--In Suffolk. denied by the Heralds that Sir Guy is of that Family. Viscount (KEPPEL).--Lord Milton. when at war with Louis XIV. from a Town in Normandy. and Aumale [Albo Marla. . in the Island of Minorca. by which his second Title became "Viscount Mahon. as also of Earl Stanhope. Viscount (WARD). ALBEMARLE. was the common Ancestor of the Earls of Chesterfield and of Harrington.--The Barony of _Ward_ is nominal. The Viscounty (by creation in 1763) is derived from a Village near Birmingham in Warwickshire. 1786." DUDLEY AND WARD. K. Viscount. which gave Title to a Peer of France. 1717. the Seat of the Family. Duke (OSBORNE). The Title of Viscount was granted by the Patent in 1792. N. Dorset. which was in the late Dukes of Kingston.--From a Village in Northamptonshire. MILTON. of Harington in Northamptonshire. DANBY. [235] The Marquisate of Dorchester. The Viscounty includes both Honours. 1708. Sir Dudley Carleton was created Baron Carleton 1626. a District of Yorkshire. and Viscount Dorchester in _Oxfordshire_ 1628. HARRINGTON. Earl.--From a Castle of the name in Cleveland. It is. CARMARTHEN. B. DORCHESTER. DORCHESTER. was from Dorchester. or White Marle].--otherwise Aumerle.--From the Town of Leeds in Yorkshire. however. the Title being Viscount _Dudley and the County of Derby. a Baron both of England and Ireland. 1792.--Sir Guy Carleton. Baron[235] (CARLETON). BURY. MAHON.

.--A Village near Richmond in Surrey[237]. [237] At Petersham was a Villa belonging to the Earl of Rochester. on his Natural Son by the Duchess of Cleveland. col. D. The Earldom was erected in 1749. of Kinderton. VERNON. and which is also the Title of a French Dukedom. the first Norman Earl of Chester. in Cheshire. from a Town in Normandy.--Richard Vernon was possessed of the Barony of Shipbroke. p. in the time of Richard the First[239]. in Cheshire. Baron (HUSSEY-MONTAGUE). HARCOURT. [240] Pennant's Tour in North Wales. BEAULIEU.--From the County. Viscount (HOWARD). who married Sir Edward Hussey. SUFFOLK. was one of the Barons (of the Palatinate of Chester) created by Hugh Lupus. ORWELL. Upon this marriage he took the additional name of Montague. It was the Seat of Lord Marney (A. 1778.--Vernon. p. after which the Earl of Harrington possessed and took it for his second Title in 1742. which was burnt down in 1721. The Descent is from Hamon de Massie-Venables. 1779. which was erected into an Honour.PETERSHAM. inherited by his Daughter and Co-heiress the Duchess of Manchester. 19. [241] Collins's Peerage. which is local.--The Title is from the Name. [239] Pennant's Journey from Chester. NUNEHAM. Earl.--In Dorsetshire. Baron (VERNON). Viscount (HARCOURT). who was one of Hugh Lupus's Palatinate Barons. from _Vernon_ in Normandy[241]. 57. and was part of the Estate of John (Montagu) Duke of Montagu. Duke. and came to this Branch of the Family of Howard by a Marriage with the Heiress of Lord Marney[238]. as Earl of Chester. BEAULIEU. [238] Camden.--The Title is nominal and local. Baron of Shipbroke. Earl.--From the Earl's Seat in Oxfordshire. Baron (VERNON). 1607).--From a Village in Northamptonshire. Viscount (STANHOPE). B. Earl. BINDON. SHIPBROOKE. and conferred by King Charles II. Extinct[240]. 1782. 125. GRAFTON.--Beaulieu is an Abbey in Hampshire. Viscount. K.

vol. and was followed by his Brother Henry. e. as his Father had been before him[243]. From the City. Top. . whose Descendant was created Duke of Beaufort. a Seat of this Branch of the Family. as what was Beaufort Duke of Somerset is now Somerset Duke of Beaufort. EFFINGHAM. was a Shop-keeper in London. had a Natural Son.[244] [244] Kelham's Key to Domesday Book. which gave name to the person who accompanied William the Conqueror[245]._ Magna Villa). Guil. and where there was a Castle. Earl. the Seat of the Family. the Second Baronet. Earl (HOWARD). Lord Grey of Ruthyn.--From the Town. Marquis (SOMERSET).--Sir Henry Yelverton. who was created Viscount Longueville 1690. Daughter and sole Heiress of Charles Longueville. Earl (FITZROY).EUSTON. the eldest Son of Henry. SUSSEX. the Name and Title have changed positions. BEAUFORT. from D'Ewes's MS Journal in the British Museum. [242] See Cavendish's Life of Wolsey. temp. Marquis (CAVENDISH). Viscount (YELVERTON). p. Duke. was created Earl of Sussex in 1717. Lord Cranfield. by a Child of Casualty.--From the Seat in Suffolk. VI. Sir Lionel Cranfield.--A nominal Title from Geoffrey de Mandeville. Collins's Collections. to whom he gave the names of Charles Somerset (afterwards a Knight). Duke. [243] Bibl.--Henry Beaufort. _i. DORSET.--From the County. Duke. MANDEVILLE. Henry VII.--From an obscure Village (the Property of the Duke) in the Peak of Derbyshire.--From the County. temp. married Susan Baroness Grey of Ruthyn. third Duke of Somerset. To this Title the eldest Son of Sir Henry succeeded on the death of his Mother (being a Barony in Fee). Thus.--From Effingham in Surrey. &c. 35.--From the County. WORCESTER. DEVONSHIRE. Brit. Descended from a Gentleman Usher to Cardinal Wolsey[242]. Duke (CAVENDISH). Knight. LONGUEVILLE. Viscount (MONTAGU). MANCHESTER. Conq. Mandeville is a Village in Normandy (a corruption of Magnaville. Talbot Yelverton. No XV. HARTINGTON. who possessed Kimbolton.

--From a place in Somersetshire[246]. Earl of Mount-Edgecumbe by Creation. co. RUTLAND. Earl. had the Title[249]. [247] Ibid. MONTAGU. was nominal (though local in itself. [246] Camden's Britannia. he called _Mons acutus_. 72. built a Castle. Viscount (DIGBY). and Bishop Gibson.[245] Vincent on Brooke.--From the County. the elder of whom married Lord Noel. col. GAINSBOROUGH.--Waldegrave is a Village in Northamptonshire. in his Edition of Camden's Britannia. CHEWTON.--From the Town. Thus far the tradition. the first Viscount.--Baron Edgecumbe by Creation.--Campden is in Gloucestershire. the late Peer. allows this to have been the place from which Sir Anthony Browne. col. VALLETORT.--From a high Hill in a Village in Somersetshire. when a Barony. created Viscount Campden 1628. Earl. on a charge of High Treason in supporting Perkin Warbeck. left two Daughters.--In Warwickshire. one of whose Descendants (Edward) was created Earl of Gainsborough 1682. Viscount (NOEL).--From an old Norman Barony (De Valle Tortâ). 85. 1789. Maternal Brother to William the Conqueror. CAMPDEN. p. then Deputy Constable of Coleshill Castle[248]. WALDEGRAVE. Earl. or MONTACUTE. was succeeded by Edward the present Earl. Duke. 1742. in Devonshire. the property of the Family[247]. with Lands annexed. [249] Camden's Britannia. was created Earl of Digby in 1790. . DIGBY. Sir Baptist Hicks. Viscount (EDGECUMBE). 129. as it rises from its base to a sharp point. MOUNT-EDGECUMBE. [248] Pennant's Journey from Chester. where William Earl of Moreton. Viscount (WALDEGRAVE). col.--This Title. from Digby. when it was given to Simon Digby. Viscount (BROWNE). He dying in 1793. COLESHILL. Lincoln) till Henry. 21. which. From the Family Seat in Cornwall. The Manor of Coleshill was forfeited by Sir Simon Montfort. Earl.

Baron (BERTIE). the Arms of the Family are. Baron (ROPER. the first Earl of Abingdon (who was the second Son of Montagu Bertie. col. Viscount. The Barony of Roos of Hamlake[250] gives Title to the eldest Son of a Marquis of Granby. _viz.--From a Hill (perhaps anciently a Seigniory) in Cornwall. that _Hamlake_ is the same as _Hemsley_ in Yorkshire (North Riding). _viz. Earl. Earl.--Originally from a Town and Castle in . in his Father's life-time. an Eagle displayed between three Fleurs de Lis Argent [253]. and Lord Dacre of the South. TANKERVILLE. "White Eagle. Marquis (MANNERS). He had Summons to Parliament as Baron Norreys in 1572. RIALTON. Being a Barony in Fee. it has had owners of different names[252]. Both at length centered in Barrett-Leonard Lord Dacre. GODOLPHIN. Earl (GREY)." [253] See Camden's Britannia. and was created Earl of Abingdon in 1682[251]. and on his death." agreeably to which. NORREYS. Duke.--From a Village in Cornwall[254]. col. his first cousin. the Barony devolved to Francis. The word signifies.--From a place of the name in Bedfordshire._ Lord Dacre of the North. in his Peerage 1735. [251] See Camden's Britannia. DACRE. became extinct. [252] There were two Barons of this Title existing at the same time. HAROLD. 14. corrupted into _Godolphin_. says.GRANBY. in the Cornish language.--In Berkshire. Earl.--James Bertie. in 1785. [250] Collins. There was in this Family the Viscounty of _Gooderich_.--From a Village in Nottinghamshire. The proper name is _Godolcan_. from _Gooderich_ Castle in Herefordshire. the first Peer having been _Dacre_ of _Dacre_ Castle in Cumberland. ABINGDON. the second Earl of Lindsey) was the Issue of a second Wife. Extinct. KENT. 315._ Bridget Baroness Norreys of Rycote in her own right. 1766. late BARRETT-LEONARD). "Gules.--Originally both nominal and local.--From the County. [254] On the death of Francis Earl of Godolphin.

1711. had Estates in the neighbourhood of Exeter[258]. alias . This Earl left an only Daughter. Viscount (CONWAY). USSULSTON.--The Title was derived from Arlington in Middlesex. BRIDGEWATER. Viscount (LUMLEY. Pennant's Tour in North Wales. HERTFORD. who married Charles Bennet. Bart. II. BEAUCHAMP. Earl of Devonshire. LUMLEY. _De Redvers_. from a place in Normandy. SCARBOROUGH. Earl. a Female Barony. denominated from Wilton in the County of Hereford[257]. [255] See Peerage.) is descended from Bridget. THETFORD.--In Norfolk.Normandy[255]. notwithstanding his claim by Descent. in the corrections and additions to vol.--From Scarborough in Yorkshire. I. by the Daughter of one Sparks of Bickerton[256]. Baron (PITT). Baron (EGERTON).--The present Peer (Sir Thomas Egerton.--From the Town. p.--His Lordship was in 1801 advanced to the Titles of Viscount Grey de Wilton. vol. RIVERS. Baron of Ussulston. Knight. who was created Baron Arlington 1664. in the Bishoprick of Durham. GREY DE WILTON. came hither with William the Conqueror. Earl. and vol. the Seat of Sir Henry Bennet. and Earl of Wilton. who was afterwards (1714) created Earl of Tankerville. Duke (EGERTON). I. who was created Earl of Tankerville (a dormant Title in his Family) in 1695. Viscount (BENNET). [258] See Tanner's Notitia. He died in 1685.--From one of the Hundreds of Middlesex. Earl.--The name is written _Ridvers_. with the additional name of SANDERSON). Baldwin de _Redveriis_ (or _Riveriis_).--The Lord Chancellor was the founder of this Family. II.--From Lumley Castle. and was made Earl of Devonshire. vol.--The first of the name. ARLINGTON. sole Sister and Heir to Thomas Lord Grey of Wilton. Baron (BENNET). Extinct. p.--Nominal and local. and was a Natural Son of Sir Richard Egerton. of Ridley in Cheshire. [256] For other circumstances see Mr. 105. The present Title is derived from Ford Lord Grey of Werk. and Earl of Arlington in 1672. [257] The Barony was conferred upon Sir Thomas Egerton by Creation in 1784. 187.

to those of De Cardonel only. Viscount Tyrconnel. in the Bishoprick of Durham. in Camden's Brit.--A nominal Title. by Sign Manual. of the Kingdom of Ireland. and partly from her first Husband. Marquis. BAYHAM. Arms. She is the Daughter of the first Earl Talbot. Viscount (PRATT). George Pitt. married Anne Daughter of Sir William Brownlow. on the Earl's death.--Though this Family is styled of Walcot in Oxfordshire. with limitation to his Daughter and her Issue male. the sixth Lord Chandos. and Crest." was fought on this spot[259]. but was afterwards revived.--From his House at Chislehurst in Kent. to John Brownlow. formerly the residence of Camden the celebrated Antiquary. CAMDEN. in the Bishoprick of Durham. K. who. Sister. in May 1793 [See the Gazette]. She enjoyed the Title till her death.--Sir George Augustus Eliot. Baron (ELIOT). BARNARD. seated at Belton in Lincolnshire. in pursuance of the Will of his Grandmother. and at length Heir. and which took place on the Earl's death. B. HEATHFIELD.--From Darlington. passed to his Nephew. Bart. col. BROWNLOW. 156. changed his Name._Redvers_.--From Dinevawr in Caermarthenshire. married Jane Daughter of Savage. it was originally seated at Hawkesbury in Gloucestershire. 1793. DARLINGTON. Earl Rivers of Rock-Savage in Cheshire. Viscount (VANE). and now called Camden Place. chose this place in Sussex (his property) for his Title. Baron (JENKINSON). HAWKESBURY. Baron (CUST). Baroness (RICE and DE CARDONEL). Relict of George. Earl. partly as Heiress of Savage Earl Rivers. Lady Talbot (whose maiden name was De Cardonel). when it descended to her eldest Son George Talbot Rice. 73. though the Earldom became extinct. . in Sussex. called "The Battle of Hastings. for Sir Richard Cust. [259] East-Bourne Guide. DYNEVOR. It is said that the decisive Battle. who commanded at Gibraltar during the celebrated Siege. The Barony of Talbot. In the year 1780 the Earl was created Baron of Dinevawr.[260] [260] The Baroness had taken the Name and Arms of De Cardonel on the death of her Mother in 1787. p. in 1782. Esquire.--From Barnard-Castle. and now in possession of the Marquis. an Estate in the Family of Pratt. Bart. and Widow of George Rice.--From Bayham Abbey. She brought a large Estate to her second Husband. Ancestor of the present Lord Rivers (created in 1776).

for his Armorial Bearings. Amongst these the Sign in question is one. vol. Nothing is more common than for a Tenant or Dependant to take the Crest of his Lord or Chief for a Sign. p. its Origin is a circumstance of no small curiosity. 96._ "Argent. _Carey. 24. _Monteagle. Extinct. "The Eagle and Child" having been adopted as the Crest of the Earl of _Derby_. the Importer of such . in the Kingdom. Sc. (Hen. and took his Coat Armour in lieu of his own. Son of Sir John Carey. NORTHAMPTON. Three Roses of the First:" which have ever since been borne by the name of _Carey_. Act ii. Vide Hon. from the time he is said to have seen Three Suns at one time. though. at Smithfield. Carey vanquished the Aragonese. But the account agrees with the Arms of Viscount _Falkland_. English Armorial Bearings. Lord Mayor of London[261].--From Sir William Holles. Earl (DARCY). whose antient Coat was "Gules. HOLDERNESS. _Edward_ IV. on a Bend Sable. Lions. These are the Arms of _Carey_. one whereof they still retain in their Crest[263]. Griffins.--For the origin of this Family. as those people who had occasion for Signs emigrated from their own Counties and Districts.)[262] [262] Consult Sandford. [261] See Collins's Collections. _viz. is by Shakespeare made to say that he would bear Three fair shining Suns on his Target. N. 239. p. Boars. Anglic. Part III. VI. see also Leland's Itinerary. _Cooper_ and _Cowper_. Thus from one quarter they straggled into different places. and a Foreign Knight. Extinct. so entitled for his valour at Flodden Field. p. p. VI. Duke (HOLLES).--For the origin of the Family. i. Baron of Monteagle. Knight. 109. because his Ancestors bore an Eagle for their Crest. Marquis (PARR)." one would think _Carew_ was intended. a Just between Robert Carey _of the West_. Book iii. VIII. vol.NEWCASTLE. a Chevron between Three Swans Proper.--_In the Reign of Henry V." [263] Stowe's History of London. &c. &c. and is to be found in various places that have no present connexion with the original. of the Kingdom of Aragon.--Cooper Earl of Shaftesbury bears Three Bulls: Cowper Earl Cowper does not. see Leland's Itinerary. which will account for the greatest part of the Bulls' Heads. Falcons. B. was held._--Stanley. from the words "_of the West_.

with the true spirit of Errantry. and at length. Such were the Descendants of the Child we are going to speak of more largely. and how it was conveyed into the Eagle's nest. . upon credible tradition. by the name of Sir _Oskytel Latham_. He (the Child) was knighted by King Edward III. Sacheverell goes no further into the Story. This addition to his fame raised his reputation among the men. who by marriage brought the honours of _Latham_ and _Knowsley_. covered with a Royal Cloth and Cushions. Sacheverell then relates the story which gave birth to this appendage to the Armorial Bearing of the _Stanley_ Family. rich. by Homage and the Service of a [265]Cast (of Falcons). payable on Coronations. the Sword borne before them. by Grant of Henry IV. [265] _i. The first account of this matter I shall give from "A Survey of the _Isle of Man_[264]. e. but find. he was followed by a _Frenchman_. making Laws.Device being. The good old lady looked upon it as a present sent from Heaven. holding of the Kings of England. Esq. &c. long since dead. Squires. it most probably was first used in Lancashire. [264] By William Sacheverell. On his return. married the Lady. as they were walking in the Park. _viz. 1702. in rich swadling-cloaths. He had one daughter. and beautiful. _Sir John Stanley_ (temp. and the Reader will be naturally inclined to know whose Child this was. called _Oskytel_. who relates the Story more circumstantially. who was young. perhaps. sitting in a Chair. that there is not only probable. (anno 7). with their Visage to the East. fought. and gave it the Surname of _Latham_. For this we must have recourse to Sir William Dugdale[266]. and slew him in the presence of the King. named _Isabella_. and. to _Sir John Stanley_. heard a Child crying in an Eagle's nest: they immediately ordered their servants to search the Eyery. and left sole Heir of that vast estate. They appeared on a certain day in Royal Array. with the point upwards. Dugdale's Baronage. having been a great Traveller. who. who challenged the whole English Nation." Mr. about them. declared it was for her he fought. Knights. as the major part of the Estate is derived to the Family from the Issue of the very Child in question. with their Barons. and the parts contiguous. was known for his prowess in most parts of Europe._ That a _Sir Thomas de Latham_ had a natural Son. from good and respectable authorities. The _Stanleys_ were Kings as much as any Tributary King whatsoever. Earls of Derby. printed at London. contrary to the inclination of her Father. Richard II. _Sir John_ accepted his challenge. late Governor of the Island. and procured him so much favour with the ladies. as a Sign. being the Crest or Cognizance of the Stanleys. but substantial History contained in it. I at first conceived it to be a fabulous affair." of which the _Stanleys_ were for several ages Kings and Lords.) was a Knight of the greatest fame in matters of Chivalry. being Childless. as he says. &c. _Sir John_._ Two Falcons. This. that he attracted the particular attention of the Heiress of the Family of _Latham_. Mr. These are his words: "The Lord of _Latham_ and his Lady. who presented them with a beautiful Boy. ordered it to be carefully educated. with many other Lordships.

called anciently _Levechenora_[267]. that. whilst the Male Line endured. and that. p. _Muncaster.[270] [270] Brady's Hist._--The same as _Champion_. and (as a wonder) presently called forth his Wife to see it._--From _Mesonero_. The Danish word[268]. vol." The Diploma is dated Warsaw. he caused the Child in swadling cloaths to be privily conveyed thither. and so preserved. that he looked upon it as a miracle. whereupon he became Heir to that fair inheritance. an Inn-keeper. for their Crest._--The old name of Newcastle upon Tyne. educating him with no less affection than if she had been his natural Mother. [266] Baronage. _Kempe. General Preface. . disguising the truth so artificially from her. representing to her. II._--Sir Lewis. Master of the Ceremonies. _Lewkenor. "having no Child by his Lady. Member of the Royal Academy. but the _Stanleys_ proceeding from the said Isabel (the Heir Female). that an Eagle had built her Nest in a large spread oak within his Park at Lathom. a messuage[269]. Spanish. February 16. p. but so that he himself might not be suspected to have been the Father. had leave from King George III. ORIGIN AND DERIVATION OF A FEW Remarkable Surnames. with the Eagle thereon. 50. Observing. who lived near him. [269] See Blount's Dict._--From _Meze_. 1791. quasi _Monk-Caster_. in token thereof. therefore. 257. The present name was perhaps taken on its being rebuilt. have ever since borne the Child in the Eagle's Nest. p. that she forthwith took him (the Child) with great fondness into the house._--Cardinal _Hugezun_ came over as the Pope's Legate. [267] Brady's History of England. God Almighty had thus sent him a Male Child. he designed to adopt this _Oskytel_ for his Heir. not only his Descendants. _Hugesson. to wear the Polish Order "Merentibus. 150. having no Issue. Henry II. * * * * * _Francis Bourgeois_. an obscure woman. 415. from one of the Hundreds of Lincolnshire. _Misenor. [268] Brady's Preface to the Norman History. _Mease. Ordered to be registered in the College of Arms. p. temp.

and took that name as a prefix._--There was an Archbishop of York of the name of _Aldred_. _Ridgeway. The _Finches_ were called _Finch-Herbert_ formerly. _Duppa. 124. Perhaps contracted from _Alured_. and that with mariage of the Finche-Heyre._--_De Uphaugh_ and._--It is written Filius-Herberti in very old deeds[276]._Dempster._--From St. _D'Uphaugh_. [274] Ibid. which led Daniel Earl of Winchelsea to think he was related to the Fitzherberts. say. the seat of the Earl of Errol[274]. 2._--A local term for the way of the ford. p. which they soon corrupted into _Fitz-herbert_. [277] Itinerary. We drop the apostrophe. _Larpent. Thus Leland: "The Finches that be now. Fermin in France.--Corrupted from _Buchan-Ness_. _Bownas_ and _Bonas_._--Signifies a Promontory in the Highland. that theire propre name is _Hereberte_. Baronetti. _Herbert_ of Kent married the heiress of Finch. 52. Dom. VI." [276] Ex inform. they tooke the Finche's name._--An official name of such person or persons who had the care of the pales of a forest[272]. [273] Pennant's Tour. _Ord. joining booth names[277]. _Arpent_ signifying an acre._--From the French. _L'Arpent_. I presume. by apostrophe. _Paliser. the Latin of Alfred._--The Judges of the Isle of Man were called Deemsters[271]. _Eldred. 196. _Fitzherbert. [275] Hasted's History of Kent. [272] Manwood's Forest Laws._--Something of this name may be seen in Brady's History. So we have corrupted the name of _Frescheville_ into _Fretwell_. [271] Sacheverell's History of the Island. or passage over a stream. William the Conqueror. _Brettell. is Erse[273]. and . But the Fitzherberts were a family before the _Finches_ were fledged. _Ryd_ and _Rith_ signifying a ford[275]. p. and. p. Gul. 158. _Firmin. Fitzherbert. and were called Finche-Herebert. temp. according to Anthony Wood._--There is a Seignory in Normandy of the name of Bretteville. _Belassis. p.

a Bishop of York and Martyr. _Osbald his Town_. 35. Tollemache Legarde Lyttelton Fauconberg Cholmondeley Osbaldiston. Names of old deeds the name is given _Filius Herberti_. [281] For both the places see Spelman's Villare._--Ralph Luvel (or Lovel) an ancestor of the Percivals. We have the name _Bernardiston_. This difference consists in the want of claws. what is now called the sea-cray-fish. called. where _Crevise_. I take this to be a local name. in the time of King Stephen. [280] So Shakspeare has it. _Lovel and Holland_. of Places. [278] Britannia. is properly the lobster. in both cases. This too is the radical word. pronounced _Osberwick_. appears to be a corruption of _Rothersbridge_. have changed. for Men. the word for a _Cray-fish_. art. was._--Devonshire: a corruption of _Campernulph_. Thus. is _ecrevisse_. have got home again. or _De Campo Arnulphi_. for which no reason is given[279]. as _Crevisses_. from a place of the name in Suffolk[281]. Symbola Scotica. says Camden. _Smelt. _Champernoun. called also _Simelt_. * * * * * There are some terms which. * * * * * _Robertsbridge_. It should be _Oswald_. as I have been informed that in old Latin deeds it is styled _Pons Roberti_. [279] See Collins's Peerage. is a corruption: but it gets home by it. in Derbyshire. There is in Yorkshire _Osbaldwick_. by a double corruption. in Sussex. and called _l'ecrevisse de mer_. col. for it is situated on the river _Rother_: but the former is the truth. and by seeming corruption have come right again. _Champernoun_[278]. or _sea-cray-fish_. for the French word from whence _cray-fish_ was first formed. . from _Osbaldiston_ in Lancashire. for the lobster is but a species of it. q. 1779. and Things. Talmash Ledgiard Littleton Falconbridge Cholmley Osberton Tollemache Legarde Lyttelton Fauconberg[280] Cholmondeley Osbaldiston. as it was long called. and with plausibility.

I have no doubt. though perhaps it was conceived at the time the _Adsum_ was dropped. for their foundation. of Stanford. Boyer gives no reason for it). as a whimsical bearing. with these words. and have adopted the French word _Gardez_ for the Motto." Had the _Cavè_ stood alone. The French call it a _Mot_. President of the Society of Antiquaries. "Adsum. with a label issuing out of its mouth. the ancient Crest being a Grey-hound currant. at this day. appear to have been sensible of this awkward compound. and hanged the Grey-hound. or some distant allusion to the name. The true Scottish term is a _Ditton_. though I think they had better have kept the _Cavè_ (as I have observed). I make no doubt (though Mr. Boyer (in his Theatre of Honour) gives. The original idea of these words._ "Arma Viramque. whereas the former (though one may sometimes answer both purposes) seems more to relate to some historical circumstance by which the Family have been signalized. by an augmentation. and operated as what we now call the Watch-Word. since Mr. which last we have adopted when we speak in an heraldic style. and have operated religiously. morally. and your love of investigation. We must. distinguish between the Motto and the _Slug horn_ (or. _Slogan_[282]). have little more than the fancy of the party. in Northamptonshire. or politically: but otherwise the Dog seems to run away with the Wit. with us in England. a happy conceit. principally the MOTTOES used by many of the Scottish Families. _In a Letter to the Earl of LEICESTER. the latter being a _cry de guerre_. which Mr. having. and refer to your extensive knowledge in the science of Heraldry. and the Italians. to trouble your Lordship with my thoughts on a few of these Mottoes (as we call them). related to War. Agarde's time. for the rest of these obscure impreses. upon the more Southern pronunciation. and perhaps in those of many Families of inferior Rank. Take one singular instance of this last case. a reference to the election of St. in the . though these last do not so easily come under our observation. or Armory. it might have been very well. Cave. _Motto_. An Attempt to Elucidate some of the more Obscure Armorial Bearings. that Ca-vè. the _Slughorn_ being properly the _cry de Guerre_. The Arms of the name of _Matthias_ are three Dice (sixes as the highest throw). Agarde) thinks the old Motto of the _Caves_. and more emphatically _the Word_ by the circulation of which the King can. My intention is. as the Chiefs of Scotland formerly assembled their Vassals in their respective divisions or clans. call his guards about him. as Sir George Mackenzie gives it. Not to go into the antiquity of Mottoes." One of the writers in the Antiquarian Discourses (Mr. with Heraldic sanction. The Family. I shall content myself with observing that Armorial Bearings in general.OR. without the Dog or the _Adsum_. Matthias into the Apostleship: "And the lot fell upon Matthias. however. further than the subject in question shall lead me." There seems to be something peculiarly significant and quaint in the greatest part of the Mottoes and Devices used by the Scottish Nobility.

and there interred it[283]. 208. he tells us at the end of his Memoir. without another Latin word to denote that language. _Cave_. which shews itself to be French. The original Coat Armour of Douglas was. I wish to premise something on the grounds of a few of the ARMORIAL BEARINGS among the most ancient Scottish Families. "Azure. as your Lordship well knows. p. "that he rather supposed the Motto related to the floors than the name. on his visiting Chatsworth. was. [284] Idem. I cannot help mentioning a _bon mot_ of a friend of mine (and he has so much wit that I shall not rob him in the least by the repetition). for the French verb _Garder_ was originally _Agarder_. Marquis of Lorn. p. but that is a later introduction[285]. before I proceed to them. (of the name of Bruce) to Jerusalem. which. might be confounded with the English. not borne at least by those who merely quartered the Arms. p. carried the Heart of King Robert I. interficere. Before I quit the subject in general. waxed. when. Duke of Argyle. would have enabled him to have made the pun complete--_Dieu m'Agarde_. Mr. as he is styled. [282] The Glossary to Douglas's Virgil adduces the Term from the Anglo-Saxon _Slegan_. CAMPBELL. Armories." as a fixed principal Charge. because the Good Sir James Douglas." * * * * * But it is time to lead to the matter I proposed. * * * * * The principal Family of the name of DOUGLAS carries "A Man's Heart Gules._ the SCOTTISH MOTTOES. [285] Nisbet. and therefore might take _Gardez_. 178. and very slippery.Latin." The Heart is now imperially crowned. and yet. but at the same time this would have admitted of improvement. &c. in consequence of which my friend had very near fallen down. and from the Fore and Hindermost Parts of the . Agarde's own Motto is much more apposite to his name. with Flames of Fire issuing out of the Top of the Mast. which have originated from History. bears in the Second and Third Quarters (for the Lordship of Lorn) a Feudal Charge of "Or. to see the house. had he known it. a Limphad (or small Ship) Sable. _Cavendo Tutus_. recovering his equilibrium. 199. he observed. which. The Motto of the noble owner is. The state rooms in that house are floored with old oak. _Dieu me Garde_. _viz. in chief Three Stars Argent[284]. [283] Nisbet's Cadencies. to which the Family has happily adhered in their Political concerns. and that it would have appeared as if they had taken the name for the Motto.

then Earl of Argyle. was afterwards appointed Seneschal of Lenox. as we must now call him. of the name of Maurice. a Sword erected in pale. if required. his Mother Agatha. alluding to his original Profession of a Naval Officer. were embarked. See the Works of Drummond of Hawthornden. and in memory of his having conducted the then Queen safe through the Storm into the Port in Scotland[287]. DRUMMOND carries. This Maurice so ingratiated himself with King Malcolm. and Lordships similarly situated. and particularly those at Drymen or Drummond. for the provision of "Unam navem viginti Remorum. tempore Belli. and his Sisters Margaret and Christian. after many generations. with its Sails furled. in the Reign of Malcolm III. [287] Douglas's Peerage. Drummond. 547. involves a Piece of History. afterwards Earls of Winton. in their return from England to Hungary. supporting an Imperial Crown Proper. The Scottish Writers give different Derivations of the Name of Drummond. for which no particular reason appears: but the Lords of Seton have for some hundreds of years carried. "Or. betwixt . a Ship. were _Crescents_. where they were landed in the Frith of Forth. and drove them on the Coast of Scotland. Sable. &c. The Earl of Orkney (and from thence the Earl of Caithness) bears a Ship of a more modern form. this Bearing was indicative of the Tenure by which the Lands were held in capite. not to our present purpose. who afterwards married Margaret. "Argent. says my Author." This simple Bearing. but with Differences. was called in old blazonry St. as the Territory lay upon the Coast. SETON EARL OF WINTON. p. that. to shew its connexion with Royalty. A Storm arose. By Marriage. by supplying a Ship with twenty Oars in time of War." The Earls of Orkney and Caithness have the Bearing of a Ship for the like reason. si petatur.Ship:" which Fire. the Flames issuing from the Ship have been extinguished. Thus the Arms of the Isle of Arran are."[286] [286] Nisbet. and entertained by the King. This was not an uncommon Armorial Appendage to other Feudal Lords. p. Three Bars wavy Gules. this Lordship. counter-fleured. The reason is. The _Reddendum_ runs. or Feudal Earldoms. Anthony's Fire. The Paternal Arms of Seton. and had grants of many Lands. came into the Family of Campbell. 203. and the King assigned him the above Arms. but. in process of time. situate on the Coast. Armories. we are told. for that an Hungarian Gentleman. _viz_. being Lordships. with three Masts. which he did. but it has the honour of being within a double Tressure. that he was solicited by the King to settle in Scotland. of which last he took the name. "Or. though all seem to agree as to the reason of the Armorial Bearing of the Family. had the command of a Ship in which Edgar Atheline.

_viz. (during the Civil Commotions) was killed by a Shot from the King's Enemies. an old Family in Mid-Lothian. These. with a Banner in his hand. Daughters of the Blood-Royal[288]. broken down in several parts. By the Dyke the Scots seem to mean the Wall. in the Service of his King and Country. Sir Christopher had married). to difference the Bearer from his Chief. when he had overcome his Enemies. had this Motto. together with his Life. "Free for a Blast. who bore "Or. assumed the Armorial Bearing of "An Heart distilling Drops of Blood[289]. as Historical Bearings. and added the Double Tressure. in the Reign of King Charles I. which at that time was given to none but such as had married. who have Armorial Devices allusive to gallant actions. Alexander Nisbet. had lost two Estates of great value. Of those. upon which account King Robert (whose Sister. a Fess between Three Hunting Horns Sable. stringed Gules. by the ancient Tenure of their Lands. p. restored his Nephew. 191. upon the event of the death of his Father. and to perpetuate that action of Gramus (one of the Predecessors of the noble Family of Graham) in pulling down the Wall [anno 420] built by the Roman Emperor Severus." N. of a second Marriage. or were descended from.e. to perpetuate their gallant Actions. who. of Pennycuik. Sir Alexander Seton. most easily occur. B." and. my Lord. _i. Sir John Clark. CLARK of Pennycuik. though he could not re-possess him of the English Estate. a Dyke [or Wall] fess-wise. Cadencies. Gules. of the first Earl of Montrose. granted the Augmentation of the _Sword and Crown_ to his Paternal Coat-Armour." [288] Nisbet. to attend in the Forest of Drumsleich. which they derived. Azure. descended of an eldest Son. which is formed out of the Dyke._ Sir Alexander Seton of Pitwedden (at one time a Lord of Session). for the special and seasonable services performed by him and his Father Sir Christopher to that Monarch during the time of his troubles. and the Motto. gives. but many may likewise be found among the _Gentry_. were obliged." which is explained in part by the Crest. Sir Christopher Seton. one in Scotland. the other in England. or other honourable circumstances. GRAHAM of Inchbrackie. of that Ilk." This honourable Augmentation was granted by Robert the Bruce to his Nephew Sir Alexander Seton. which was thereafter called "Graham's Dyke. [289] Ibid. I offer in the line of _Nobility_. from the Pennycuiks of that Ilk. we must look into the Tenure of the Estate. &c. Mr. to the Lands in Scotland which his Father had lost. which is a Man blowing a Horn: but for both the Crest itself. "Or. p._ the Vallum.Three Crescents within a Double Tressure. counter-fleured. 200. Christian Bruce. most probably by Marriage. One branch of the Family. ." The Dyke there is assumed. the few that follow. from the works of that laborious Herald. once a year. high employments. it seems.

Another Branch of the Family gave a Hunting-horn hanging upon the Branch of a Tree. ch. a Dexter Hand couped at the wrist. [291] Nisbet. See also Hume's History."[290] [290] Nisbet. carries." Mr." as being Constable of Aberdeen: and for a Difference from the Grays. p. xiii. who gave the last Blow to Cummin. _I will secure him_. places a Quill or Pen in the Paw of the Lion in the Arms of Gray._ Or). for killing the Cumming. 147. counter-fleured Gules: the Lion naissant intimating his original right to the Crown[291]. FARQUHARSON. to shew he was the King's Forester[293]. p. the Hand grasping a Dagger. charges his Coat with an "Escocheon Argent. a Fir Tree growing out of a Mount Proper on a Chief Gules. 33. CARRICK. STEWART. a Sword and Key in Saltire Gules. "Lest he should not be quite dead. Nisbet says[292]. as Admiral to King James III.since called Barrowmuir. grasping a Dagger. Gules. of Invercald. p. "Argent. WOOD. to give a Blast of a Horn at the King's Hunting. Hence the Family took the Crest of "A Hand holding a Dagger in Pale. The Chiefs of this name have given Trees in different forms. in addition to his Paternal Coat. and IV. 202. because the Grand-father of the present John Farquharson (1702) was killed at the Battle of Pinkie. Cadencies. FORBES. supposed to have been slain. Cadencies. because his Ancestor was Sheriff's Clerk . Earl of Carrick." or. but Wood of Largoe placed his Tree between Two Ships under sail. distilling Drops of Blood. 196. [292] Cadencies.--the Banner of Scotland in Bend. and the Banner is lately added. of Watertown. [293] Nisbet. in whose reigns he defeated the English with an inferior Force. they carried the Fir Trees because their Country abounded with such Trees. preserved the Motto." and stabbed him with his Dagger. out of which was a _Lion naissant_. carrying the Banner of Scotland. all within a Double Tressure. KIRKPATRICK. holding by the same Tenure. cried out. p." and with the Motto "I'll make sicker (sure). "I'll make sure. and on a Canton of the first (_viz. The _Clarks_. The Paternal Arms of Stewart. point downwards.

a Bend engrailed Sable. in their Troubles. an Eagle displayed Sable. that one of the Name accompanied the . the Baton of this description. for Difference. on a Bend engrailed Azure. grasping a Sword in pale. descended of the Ramsays of Wylicleuch in the Merss. Three Buckles Or. This Family bears "A Baton Peri Or. charged on the top with one of the Lions of England. and thus borne. all within a double Tressure. within a Padlock Sable. in the Reign of David the Bruce[297]. on the Bend. carries "Argent. who was Page to King James VI. charged with a Naked Arm issuing out of a Cloud from the Sinister side. of Kippo. Knight. was granted to Sir John Ayton of Kippo. AYTON. of Glorat. then in the possession of the English. thereafter Earl of Holdernesse. with a Man's Heart on the point. is an uncommon Bearing for a younger legitimate Son."[296] [295] Nisbet.of Angus[294]. who carried "Argent. from the Conspiracy of the Earl of Gowrie and his Confederates. 196. [294] Idem. but he tells us. [297] Nisbet. and King Charles II. Upon the Family Coat he therefore carried "A Baton Sable. "An Arm holding a naked Sword enfilé of a Crown." which. they tell you." STIRLING. couped. because he and his seven Sons went in a Waggon covered with Hay." added. and therewith guarding an Imperial Crown. Nisbet says. and surprised and took the Castle of Linlithgow." Which honourable Addition was granted to this Family for special Services done to King Charles I. a Waggon of the first. p. Cadencies. a Cadet of Binning of that Ilk. because he had been Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod to that King. it being a mark of Bastardy by its position. LOCKART. The Paternal Coat was. counterfleured of Thistles Vert. [296] See Nisbet's Armories. p. This Name now bears a Man's Heart Proper. 195." because he rescued King James VI. Cadencies. in perpetuation. p. as an Augmentation. of Easter Binning. a Chief Gules. 203. "Argent. BINNING."[295] These are what the Scottish Heralds call "Arms of Special Concession. got for addition to his Paternal Bearing. JOHN RAMSAY. Mr. by King Charles II.

92. Thus _Cockburn_ has a Charge of Three Cocks. with the Heart of King Robert the Bruce. to be accounted for. and the Peer of that Name and Title has for his Motto. for Crest has a Garb (or Wheatsheaf). A Sword in Pale. but Mr.'" [298] Marks of Cadency. NORFOLK.--Like the Motto of our Corbet. thy Horn. Fero]. Three Crows[300]. [300] This Bearing is of late introduction. Proper. _pierced through the Mouth with an Arrow_. Crawfurd of Cloverhill has a still stronger relation both to the Name and to his Seat. Three Frases or Cinquefoils. a Fess Ermine. 'Feroci Fortior. as alluding to the Name. _Craw_ and _Craufurd_." [Nisbet]. 91. p. p. Be that as it may. _Falconer_. Three Daggers. "God feeds the Crows. [299] Nisbet's Cadencies. The Duke of Norfolk has an augmentation. These Devices are differently placed by different Branches." _Fraser_. a Falcon. "Deus pascit Corvos. and. pp. the Crest. which was granted by King Henry VIII. not at this day easily. the Motto. for those of the Name anciently gave for Arms "Gules. like ourselves. or to the Blazonry of the whole.good Sir James Douglas to Jerusalem. Three Men's Hearts._ an _Escocheon Or_." and another Branch gave "Argent. and for Motto. till within a century before he wrote [1702]. 199. without attending to the Colours. Of these I have selected the few which follow. Three Stags' Heads erased Gules. several that are responsive to the Name." _Heart_. "Corda serata Pando" [some have it. the Scots have. _Justice_. some Branches of the Family have strengthened it by the Motto. _Hog_." Id. in the middle of the Bend. Three Boars' Heads. _viz. it is intended to play upon the Name. Three Bugle Horns. "Blow. _Skene_. for his services at the Battle of Flodden Field[299]. * * * * * Besides these and many other Bearings. Nisbet insinuates[298] that this Bearing is an assumption of a modern date. Hunter. for to the original Bearing he adds Three Crows. "Three Boars' Heads erazed. and have given their material Charge. charged with a _Demi-Lion_ Rampant. . in the Scottish Language called Skenes. _Forester_. within a double Tressure counterfleur'd Gules. and that the old Arms were. a Dexter Hand holding a Boar's Head erazed. supporting a Balance. to preserve the Story the more entire. if at all. 57.

dropped the Gallows and the Rope.e. to the King. The Historian says. which is." for his Motto. offered a large Reward to him who would rescue the Body. Alpinus. infested the County of Galloway.Mottoes. "I Dare. several instances of which may be seen in Camden's Remains. and the King being much concerned that the Body should be exposed in so disgraceful a situation. Some one of the Family having. But to proceed to the Motto. "Think on. but for that of some young Favourite. the Family took the above-mentioned Coat-Armour. the Baron took for his Crest a Moor's Head." and accordingly performed the hazardous exploit. It may be difficult to ascertain the meaning of these words. with the words "Think on. owing to accidents and incidents. now an attainted Title. had been inhumanly put to death. 41. [301] Buchanan. perhaps of equal age. no one was found bold enough to undertake it. in the Reign of King James II. A Man hanging on a Gallows. in his Marks of Cadency. Lord Kircudbright. as deeming it an ignominious Bearing. in his Peerage of Scotland. having been hanged by the Picts. for the King appears to have been beheaded. that the new King. is. "I Dare. offered the Reward. upon the authority of Mr. with many of his Nobles. In memory of this circumstance." as a Motto. Similar to the case of Dalziel. advising them to Think on the gallant Action whereby they became ennobled: but I more incline to the former . from Ireland. and one is at liberty either to suppose he addressed them to the King on the occasion. as well as atchievements. though it is now only a Naked Man with his Arms expanded. neither is the original Coat Armour of the Gentleman mentioned." This was performed by the Son of the Laird of Bombie. is the reason given for the Motto of _Maclellan_. have always been common. placed upon a Pole. Kenneth. These circumstances are related by Crawfurd. to perpetuate which action. as if he had said "Think on your Promise:"--or they may apply to Posterity. on the Point of his Sword. who put him into the immediate possession of the Barony." Crawfurd's account is to this effect. It was not for the redemption of his Father's Body. till a Gentleman came to the King and said. was exposed to the Populace. dead or alive." the reason of which is given by Crawfurd. The ancient armorial bearing of this Family was. Occasional changes in Coats of Arms. A Company of Saracens. Earl of CARNWARTH. that a Favourite of Kenneth II. Nisbet. it is very well known. and likewise the Name of _Dalziel_. "Dal Ziel. should have the Barony of Bombie for his reward. The Maiden Name (as I may call it) of this Family is not recorded. p._ "I Dare. and bring their Captain. the Father of Kenneth. who brought the Head of the Captain. with the interpretation of it." _i. and the Head of the King (Alpinus). perhaps. on the Point of a Sword. who was thus ignominiously hanging as a public spectacle. declaring that "Whoever should disperse them.[301] This being an enterprize of great danger. The Motto of DALZIEL. whereupon the King issued a Proclamation.

perhaps." On this marriage. in Yorkshire. charged with a St. words. "Follow me. especially when added to the new Crest." Our expression is. "always ready to follow you. Slug-Horn. and the Holly-Leaves (quasi Holy-Leaves). ancestor of the Earls of Breadalbine. "Hæc prestat Militia[303]." Sir Alexander Napier was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field (1513)." This may. the Sister of King Robert I. the elder having ended in Daughters. 1692. by religious attachments. A similar change appears to have been brought about. 138. "Gules. _primâ facie_. and to imply. as to the Motto of Lord NAPIER. bore.interpretation. which is. "I am Ready. but a younger Son of this House bore (when Mr. when religious party spirit ran high in Scotland[304]. _Pro Patriâ_. and praying posture. 415. in certain case we shall see hereafter. The _Crest_ is "A Man's Head looking upright." MAXWELL. if not responsive. _viz_. p." This Bearing is by Grant." and "I would have done so and so. which seems to extend to the rest of the Armorial Bearings. a Native of Scotland. holding in his Right Hand a Sword Proper. in the Female line. Something like this appears in the Motto of FRASER. but I did not think on. but it is grounded upon the authority of a Friend. alternately. appear too hypothetical. charged with Four Buckles Azure. at least expressive of Loyalty. because. which is. and as many Holly-Leaves Vert. Andrew's Cross. which abounds with Scottish idioms." That Family is descended from a younger Branch. . Crest. admit of a religious interpretation." as if he had said. therefore. who once told me that the Mottoes of the Lairds often had a reference to that of their Chief.. [302] See Nisbet's Heraldry. seem to have a similar import. the Daughter of Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy. a Banner displayed Argent. "I will do so and so when I think on. The Motto. [304] See Memoirs of Ker of Kersland. aye Ready. * * * * * Ross. and thereon a Canton Azure. [303] Nisbet's Heraldry. "Think on" _Eternity_[302]. on a different idea. was. * * * * * I shall now proceed to another conjectural interpretation. the chief. or rather. p. 414. perhaps. they say." to which the _Motto_ seems to give a religious interpretation." This change might possibly take place about the enthusiastic time of the Union of the two Kingdoms. has the same Motto as Dalziel Earl of Carnwath." with this Motto. Lord Ross. leaving Issue Alexander. "Ready. I am led to believe that Alexander Napier might take the responsive Slug-Horn of "Ready. but on what pretensions does not appear. of the Laird of Glenorchy. a Demi-Man in Armour. in the _Crest_ and _Motto_ of BANNERMAN. and proverbs. late Lord Lovat. aye Ready. Motto." Buckles. Nisbet wrote) the Field and Banner as above. and the Motto seems. has the same Motto. who married Margaret. They had for their Ancestor. "Think of it. of Calderwood. Sir Alexander Bannerman of Elsick. "A Man issuing out of the Wreath in a Priest's habit. "within a Bordure Argent.

supposing their Enemy had received a reinforcement. joined the Procession. to speak in the language of noble Blazonry. after a palpable Defeat. the Crest is a Falcon. Earl of ERROL. for the Supporters are Two Labourers with each a Yoke on his Shoulder. Abercrombie. at the instigation of one obscure Man.This sort of Motto seems to prevail in the Family of DOUGLAS. when the Danes. says Dr. to intimate that the Father and his Two Sons had been the three fortunate Shields by which Scotland had been defended and saved. obtained. and is founded on a well-attested historical fact. and the other a Pick. and. The King. and. or title. near Perth. that. with no other distinction than the Yoke upon his shoulder. and gave him as much Land as a Falcon." to which the younger Branches reply. related to this effect by Mr. when the Danes invaded this Island. the Supporters are likewise Two Husbandmen. which is. "Serva Jugum. That of the elder Branches is." which may. continues my Author. . to whom I refer your Lordship. fled in their turn. under the Command of this unexpected Leader and his Sons. the Family took from thence its designation." deserves our particular attention. Earl of KINNOUL. Three Escutcheons Ruby. and four or five broad. "Hard at your Back. persuaded them to rally. that they might be distinguished in a Triumphal Entry which was to be made into the Town of Perth. the old Man having the Yoke of the Oxen for his own Weapon. perceived his Countrymen flying before the Enemy. "Renovate Animos. the limits of which are still extant. when he and his two Sons. should compass at one flight. They accordingly. being called _Errol_. arming themselves with their Plough-gear. preceded and followed by the King's Train. More minute circumstances of this extraordinary Victory. This Tract of Ground. from the waist upwards. upon the Shoulder of a Demi-Man. armed with Yokes and Plough-shares. whom they had routed at the Village of Loncarty." Buchanan. seemed sensible of the merits of those that were to enjoy it. are related by Buchanan. and the _Amor Patriæ_. when they were brought to the King. and the Motto "Serva Jugum. further tells us. for she made a circuit of seven or eight miles long. and gave Battle to the Scots." The Coat Armour likewise is. The lucky Bird. perhaps. after much difficulty. wiping the dust from his ordinary Clothes. Argent. renewed the Engagement. "Jamais Arrière. so much boasted of among the Ancients. (anno 980). but the old Man rejected them with a decent contempt. be best translated by the vulgar Scottish expression. Pearl. Crawfurd. who was tilling his Land. or Spade. the one having a Plough-share. "Forward. with regard to the modesty of these unexpected Conquerors. upon his Shoulder. with a Bordure for difference. The Yoke is preserved in the Crest. and you will find it equal to any instance we have of Roman Virtue. advanced _Hay_ to the Rank of Noblesse.) gives the same Coat. in reward for this uncommon Service. Another Branch of the Family (HAY. In the Reign of Kenneth III. upbraided the Scots for their Cowardice. and the Motto seems to refer to the rallying of the Scottish Army in these words. rich and splendid Garments were offered to them. Three Escocheons Gules. let loose from the Fists. a certain Husbandman of the name of Hay." The Motto of HAY. To these circumstances the Armorial Bearings of the Family have very strong allusions. or.

the Land over which the Falcon flew in the first case. was a good Genealogist. called in Scotland a Shake-Fork. charge the Breast of their Blue Eagle with a Cup of Gold. Nisbet observes. was official. the Son of Friskine. that any person of the name of Hay was concerned. he says. in his Worthies. was forced at a place to hide his Master by forking Straw or Hay above him. viz. however. for which surmise a very vague reason is given. the three ends of it being square. Such official Charges and Sur-charges were common in Scotland: thus." alluding to the principal Charge upon the Shield. a Norwegian. rewarded his Preserver Malcome with the Thanedom of Cunnigham. an account of the rise of some Scottish Families. Archbishop of Canterbury. among his observations on the Life of James Hay. though their Sur-charge of a Man on Horseback upon the Shake-Fork may perhaps be such an official Bearing. Mr. some of their Heralds tell us. and left in MS. because. from which he and his Posterity have their Surname.Lloyd. Earl of GLENCAIRN. but rather that this story has been confounded with the other. Malcome. forked Hay or Straw above the Prince. according to Dr. credited by the Family when this Bearing was granted or assumed. "saved the King of that Country from the Gowries at their House with a Cultre (or Plough-share) in his hand. It does not appear from the accounts we have of the Gowry conspiracy. Earl of Carlisle. is very differently represented. And after. was in a part of Scotland known by the name of Gowry. which is the rude and ancient Hay-Fork. that an Ancestor of the Family was concerned in the Murder of Thomas Becket. and Mr. and took this Figure to represent the Shake-Fork with which he. and does not come in contact with the edges of the Shield. Earls of Southesk. they say. and among the rest of this of Conyngham. would in such case operate rather as an abatement than a badge of honour[305]. that James Hay. for a Pall. from which MS. Abercrombie's account. The account which comes nearest the point in the present question is given by Mr. has this very singular Motto." Admitting this to be a fact. Mr. * * * * * CONYNGHAM. to perpetuate the happy deliverance their Progenitor had the good fortune to give to their Prince. 600 years afterwards. or even a legendary tale. Which Bearing. This Bearing. he. "Over Fork Over." and that he had as much Land assigned him as he could ride round in two days. of which employment this instrument was indicative. which generally assist to explain each other. This conjecture. Nisbet from Frederick Van Bassen. the King. CARNEGIE. and being hotly pursued by the Usurper's Men. whereas the device before us is pointed at the ends. Camden and some others have interpreted the Fork to have been an Archiepiscopal Pall. will not hold good on heraldic principles. and even touching the borders of the Escocheon. Different conjectures have been brought forward. after having mentioned slightly the above fact. upon that Prince's happy accession to the Crown. But this will not hold good as to the CONYNGHAMS. . the Family had been Hereditary Masters of the King's Horses and Stables. when used as a Charge. assisting Prince Malcom (afterwards surnamed Canmore) to escape from Macbeth's tyranny. because. who. Nisbet gives this account--"that Malcome. But what has the Pall to do with the Motto? We must therefore advert to other circumstances for an interpretation of both the reason of the Armorial Bearing and the Motto. tells us a chimerical story. being Hereditary Cup-Bearers to the Kings of Scotland. but on what authority I do not discover. and is in shape not unlike the Roman letter Y.

there is an affinity between the Device and the Motto not to be found among the other conjectures. [305] Becket's Murderers were Four Barons, and Knights, no doubt, of course; _viz._ Reginald Fitz-Urse, William de Tracy, Hugh de Morville, and Richard Breto. [Consult Lord Lyttelton and his Authorities.] There is another Family where the true Armorial Ensigns are illustrated by the Motto; _viz._ the Arms of BAILIE of Lanington, which have often been blazoned as Nine Mullets or Spurrials (or 3, 3, 2, and 1); whereas it is evident they were Stars from the Motto, which is, "Quid clarius Astris?" I make no doubt there are many others of a like kind to be found, arising from inattention or ignorance. It has been observed, that the Shake-Fork is now much obscured by an Armed Man on Horseback within an Inescocheon, which is supposed to allude to the Hereditary Office of Master of the Horse; though whether this was the case, or whether that Bearing came by alliance, may be doubtful; for Mr. Crawfurd, in his Peerage, does not give it as a part of the Family Coat of Conyngham in 1716; though the more modern Peerages have it. The shape of the Fork is more discernible in the Arms of Conyngham, Peers of Ireland, where it is not covered by a Sur-charge. The meaning of the name is local, _Konyng-Ham; i.e._ The King's Village or Habitation; which Etymon has been so long obscured by age, that the Lion Office, on granting Supporters to the Family, have given Two Rabbits, or Conies. The Irish Branch has different Supporters; _viz._ a Horse and a Buck; though it preserves the Motto. * * * * *

The Earl of TRAQUAIR has for his Motto "Judge noucht;" though there is nothing in his Armorial Bearings to which it can allude. One is therefore to look for some event interesting to the Family to ground it upon, which probably was this: Sir John Stewart, first created Baron, and afterwards Earl, of Traquair, by King Charles I. was Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, anno 1635, and remained a firm friend to the Royal Cause to the last. His adherence to it, however, drew on him the resentment of the opposite party, insomuch that he was, 1641, impeached of High Treason, and found guilty; but the Parliament submitted his punishment to the King, who ordered him a Pardon under the Great Seal, the Preamble to which sets forth the King's high opinion of his abilities and his integrity in the discharge of his duty. Upon this transaction, it seems more than possible that the Earl, alluding to the rash and cruel treatment he had received from the Parliament for his loyalty to the King, might assume the Motto "Judge noucht;" the complement of which, we all know, is, "That ye be not judged." * * * * *

JOHNSTON, Marquis of ANNANDALE.--The modern _Motto_ is "Nunquam non paratus;" but in the original _Motto_ there is History, which connects with other parts of the Bearing. The _Crest_ is "A winged Spur," and one of the _Supporters_ is "A Horse furnished." The _Crest_ was taken, because the _Johnstons_ were often Wardens of the West Borders, and active in suppressing Thieves and Plunderers, who infested them during the Wars between England and Scotland; whence was derived the original _Motto_, "Alight Thieves all;" commanding,

either by their authority or prowess, those Thieves to surrender. The _Horse_ as a _Supporter_ alludes to the same circumstance, or might be considered as a Bearing of Conquest, from a _Horse_ taken from some famous Marauder[306]. [306] Peerage of Scotland, 1767, octavo. The Johnstons of Westrow, or Westerhall, have a different principal Bearing in their Arms; _viz._ "A Man's Heart, ensigned with an Imperial Crown proper, in base," being part of the Arms of Douglas, in memory of the apprehension of Douglas Earl of Ormond, when in rebellion against James II.[307] [307] Nisbet's Heraldry, p. 146. * * * * *

HAMILTON, Duke of HAMILTON.--Motto, "Through." This Motto is older than the Nobility of the Family, if my conjecture be true; as it seems to have originated from a circumstance which happened in the Reign of the Scottish King, Robert I. in England, at the Court of our King Edward II. Battles, sieges, &c. had been maintained, with various success, between the two Kings, for a long time. During these animosities Sir Gilbert Hamilton, an Englishman, happening to speak in praise of the intrepidity of Robert I. King of Scots, one of the De Spencers (John, Mr. Crawfurd says,) who was of King Edward's Bed-chamber, drew his falchion, and wounded him. Sir Gilbert, more concerned at the contumely than at the wound, and being prevented at the moment from resenting it; yet when he met his antagonist the next day in the same place, ran him _through_ the body. On this he immediately fled for protection to the King of Scots, who gave him lands and honours for this bold vindication of his valour[308]. [308] Crawfurd's Peerage, in Duke of Hamilton. Buchanan, vol. I. p. 332, 333. Dr. Abercrombie, however, gives us reasons to doubt that this was the first introduction of the name of Hamilton into Scotland: though that is not material, if it was the occasion which introduced the _Motto_. This has no apparent connexion with the Crest or Arms, and is therefore, more conclusive. Query as to the Crest? * * * * *

The Motto of MURRAY, now Duke of ATHOL, is, "Furth, Fortune, and fill the Fetters;" but it was originally given to John _Stewart, Earl_ of Athol, and came to the Family of Murray by an intermarriage with the Heiress of Stewart. The first _Earl_ of Athol of the name of _Stewart_ was constituted Lieutenant to King James III. (1457); and for his defeating, and bringing to submission, Mac-Donald, Lord of the Isles, who had rebelled, he had a special grant of several lands, and the above Motto added to his Arms[309], which seems to mean, _Go forth, be successful, and fill the Fetters with the Feet of all other rebellious Subjects_; for I understand "_Fortune_" to be a verb, and chosen probably for the sake of the alliteration. One appendage to the Arms of _Murray_, probably received from Stewart, has an allusion to the Motto; for the Supporter, on the Sinister side, is a Savage, with his Feet in Fetters.

[309] Crawfurd's Peerage. * * * * *

SETON, Earl of WINTON (attainted). The original Motto of _Lord_ Seton was "Invia Virtuti Via nulla;" but another was assumed by the first _Earl_, alluding to an additional charge which he took, by grant I presume, when he was created into that dignity with great pomp (1601) at Holy-Rood House. To the original _Sword_ and Imperial _Crown_ which he bore in an Inescocheon with a Tressure, was added a Blazing Star of Twelve Points, with this new Motto, "Intaminatis fulget honoribus[310]," expressive of the unshaken Loyalty of the Family, which the last Peer unhappily forgot, and forfeited in the Rebellion 1715. [310] Nisbet's Cadencies, p. 192. See also Douglas's Peerage. The Slughorn of the Family is _Set on_[311], which, by amplification, I apprehend, means _Set upon your Enemy_, as an incitement to ardour; and is rather analogous to the Motto _Think on_, of the Lord _Kirkcudbright_, before-mentioned. [311] Douglas's Peerage, in the Arms. * * * * *

BRUCE, Earl of ELGIN. This, and other Branches of that ancient and once Kingly Family, has, for its Motto, "_Fuimus_," alluding strongly to their having been formerly in possession of the Crown of Scotland. The Crest is likewise denotative of Royal pretensions, _viz._ "A Hand holding a Sceptre." Something, however, is worth observing in several of the subordinate Branches, more distant from the original Stock, where one may discern the gradual dispirited declension of the Family, in point of Regal claims. One private House, indeed, bears the Lion Rampant in the Arms, and likewise the Crest, and the Motto of the Peer. Another descendant drops the Lion in the Arms, and only bears for Crest, "_A Hand holding a Sword_," with this modest Motto, "_Venture forward_." A third seems to give up all for lost, by the Crest, _viz._ "_A Setting Sun_," with this Motto, "_Irrevocable_;" while a fourth appears to relinquish a Temporal for the hope of an Eternal Crown, by this Motto, "_Spes mea supernè_."[312] * * * * *

GORDON, Duke of GORDON. The primitive Bearing of this Family was, "Azure, a Boar's Head couped, Or;" though at present it carries "Azure, _Three_ Boars Heads couped, Or." The first is the more honourable Charge, as the Unit is always accounted in Heraldry preferable to Numbers, not only on account of its simplicity[313], but in a religious sense (often couched in Armory), as it betokens God the Father, while the Charge of Three has the like reference to the Trinity. The traditional story, however, relating to the particular Coat Armour before us, is told by Douglas, in his Peerage of Scotland, to this effect; _viz._ that in the Reign of King Malcolm Canmore, in the eleventh century, a valiant Knight, of the name of _Gordon_, came into Scotland, but from whence is not said, and was kindly received by that Prince. The Knight, not long afterwards, killed a Wild _Boar_, which greatly infested the Borders[314], when Malcolm gave him a grant of lands in the Shire

"_Stant cætera Tigno_. and his person held sacred ever after. vol. . it may refer to Family transactions. by contraction. far from the truth. who had opportunities of personal intercourse with them. and settled upon them. insomuch that a Hottentot who kills one of these animals with his own hand is _deified_. in memory of his having killed "that monstrous animal[315]. These lands. is a compound word. they are represented by Kolben. I. lions and tigers. of every thing below the dignity of human nature. the Knight called _Gordon_. [312] Nisbet's Heraldry. p. perhaps. I shall mention. 327. by the name of Ordinaries. according to the custom of those times. The reference contained in the Motto of this Branch seems merely to be confined to the _Cheveron_ placed between the _Boars Heads_._ either to loyal or religious attachments. with the letter D in the place of the TH. one of which.of Berwick. as a people much wronged by our unfavourable opinions of them. ad Latinam Blazoniam. p. This is. taking a _Boar's_ Head for his Armorial Ensign. On the contrary._ GORDON. In process of time the Gordons. and for what has been said both of the Arms and Motto of the Earl of Aboyne. which is "Bydand. at Edinburgh. 1770. being particular. but we have another similar tradition in the Arms of Forbes[316]. exceedingly exposed to the incursions of the fiercest of beasts. I make no doubt. See also Nisbet's Heraldry." which last word is the acknowledged Latin word for the _Cheveron_[317]. _Byde th' End_. [316] Nisbet's Heraldry. and I take the resolution of it to be. As to its import. [315] Douglas's Peerage. 295. But to the point: their country appears to be. offensive and defensive. and of no little antiquity. 247. of George Bannatyne. published from the MSS. On this account I may be excused bringing forward a parallel honour attending a circumstance of this sort. but the Motto of the Ducal Branch of the Family is yet unaccounted for. such as those were of which we have been speaking. renders the word _Bidand. _viz. [314] In rude times. Thus much for the Arms of the _Duke of Gordon_. as we have at present. and placed them but one degree above the brute creation. 316. and was well qualified to observe and reason upon what he saw. _viz. which is accounted one of the humblest Charges known. it was accounted an action of no small valour to kill so fierce an animal as a _Wild Boar_. according to the practice in Heraldry. in these words." This may seem a trivial reason in itself. See also the Glossary. with proper differences. being attended with considerable personal danger. ad calcem. pendente Lite_. [317] Gibbon's Introd. increased the number of _Boars Heads_ to _three_. two and one. p. though I fetch it from the Hottentots. _Earl_ of _Aboyne_." This. and thus they continue to be borne at this day. for want of such weapons. for the Glossarist to some ancient Scottish Poems. the greatest compliment ever paid to the _Cheveron_. in Heraldic language. after his own name. from its situation. in two points of view. p. a people to whose very name we seem to have falsely annexed ideas. p. [313] Nisbet's Heraldry. 145.

but enough is left by tradition to found our conjecture. and treated with some indignity." or. sufficient to warrant the Motto on the interpretation here given. "_Semper Fidus_. the Family had large possessions. Nisbet. as it is borne by other Families. [322] System of Heraldry. his body was carried by the English to Berwick.. "_Trusty to the End_. has for his Motto "_Caus Causit_[321]. and peculiarly active in the cause of King Robert I. and had the above grant confirmed by King David II. in the time of our Henry VIII. as written by Mr. _Leith_. (in that long contest). [320] Nisbet's Heraldry. is more clearly established[320]. In Almon's Short Peerage of Scotland _Caus_ or _Cause_ is interpreted _Chance_. we find that Sir Adam Gordon was a strenuous asserter of the claims of the Bruces. ." and in a third. This Alexander. to whom a fatal incident happened. I incline. who accordingly rewarded him with a large grant of land. p. and the more. for in the Reign of Malcolm IV. and for the Family to rest the choice of their Motto upon. Thus. the first Peer. very like the King. together with King James IV.. however. and being. 217. in one Branch. Lord ELPHINSTON. by considerable endowments and benefactions given to the Abbey of Kelso[319]. more strongly to the military sense of the Motto. and lived to reward the Family who had thus lost their valiant Chief. 154. "_Trusty and Bydand_." in another. we have instances of acts of piety done by the early Branches of this Family. The Son and Grandson of Sir Adam were both faithful to the interest of the Bruces. [318] Crawfurd's Peerage. In these Mottoes of _Leith_. in his person and face.[318] If this is not satisfactory. [319] Ibid. was slain at the Battle of Flodden Field (1513). I think the contraction of the last word. whereby it was elevated. * * * * * ELPHINSTON. part of which they devoted to religious purposes. has for the Motto. manifestly with that reference. p. and the Crest of the first is likewise a Turtle-dove. to which his Descendants might have a retrospect when the Motto was assumed. it must be confessed there is more appearance of a religious application than in that of the Duke of _Gordon_." in this last. as the Armorial Bearings are partly compounded of Cross-Croslets. for instance. "_Cause caused it_. which leads us to search for some casual circumstance in the history of the Family. as above suggested. The controvertible part of the circumstance is.In support of the first. Alexander Elphinston was ennobled by King James IV."[322] [321] Crawfurd's Peerage. instead of that of the King. sufficient to secure his interest. Some branches of the story are controverted. and make him _byde the end_ of the contest as a feudatory under that King. that the King escaped by this means. though I cannot account for the connexion of the two Houses.

for Shakspeare makes Richard say. though by some accounts not in the Battle. relate to those casual means. a long Minority ensued. Sc. [323] Drake's Hist. 26. iv. which came originally from Germany in the time of Robert the Bruce (in the Reign of our Edward II. This King was too well read not to have known what passed in the Reign of his Great Grandfather respecting the first Lord _Elphinston_. [326] Act v." This throws the matter open to another conjecture. whose interest it was to take him off. and Nobility." [325] Holinshed's Chronicle. and this practice. and that the Lord Treasurer _Elphinston_ modestly imputed his elevation ultimately to that circumstance. Ang. These events often repeated. with the _Castle_ in her Right Hand.but strong proofs are to be found. as his body was identified by more than one of his confidential Servants. . (anno 1599) before his accession to the Crown of England. which is. give us latitude to suppose the Motto may. After the death of James IV. Power. Book xiii. the King caused several of his Nobles to be armed and apparelled like himself[325]. though we find. Castles. and High Treasurer to James VI. several of the Ancestry of the Family. Lest this surmise should not be satisfactory. arising from the _Crest_. and most deserving of favour to his posterity. [324] Buchanan's History. there be _Six_ Richmonds in the Field: _Five_ have I slain to-day instead of him[326]. and encourage his own Troops. or in that of Queen Mary. that he was killed the same day by a party of his own Subjects. "I think. which may be termed the effects of _chance_. during the Battle of Bosworth Field.) having married Heiresses[327]. on account of the insults offered to his body. that the King was actually slain. and in her Left a Branch of _Laurel_. "A Lady from the middle richly attired. or what weight they bore in the Reign of James V. I will offer another on a very different ground. may well be supposed to relate to Alliances. holding a _Castle_ in her Right Hand. and consequently a Regency. History is not minute enough to inform us. who recognized it by certain private indelible marks[323]. Scot. seems not to have been uncommon. and I am willing to suppose the Descendants of that Peer were equally informed of the fact above related. whereby they obtained Lands. on the other hand. but adds. to avoid a punishment due to themselves for cowardice in the preceding Battle[324]. p. and allusively took the Motto before us. Let this pass for truth. but what reward the Family of _Elphinston_ had. yet was Lord Elphinston's case the most remarkable. Buchanan allows that the King escaped from the Battle. Holinshed tells us. that in order to deceive the Enemy. for the Bearing of the _Lady_. at that time of day. whereby the Family rose to the honour of the Peerage. under a supposition that it was the body of the King. that the Great Grandson of the first Peer slain at Flodden-Field was of the Privy Council.

" Crest. Nisbet gives of the original Bearing and its adjuncts. and her life preserved. _viz.--The Motto of this Family is "Grip (or Gripe) Fast[328]. couched under the Cross-Croslets. charged with a Cross-Croslet fitched Argent. v._ "Argent. but how far it may gain credit I do not determine." the Countess took the advice. p. admit of a religious allusion. "Hold fast that which is good. These are the only two conjectures I have to offer. was rescued from imminent danger. or _Gripe Fast_. first to the old Motto "Firmâ Spe." and the Motto "Keep Fast. * * * * * . taken together with the new Motto. borne first on the _Fess_. had nearly lost her seat from fear. _Leslie_ of Burdsbank. i. carries the quartered Coat of the Earl of Rothes. Earl of ROTHES. is entirely lost: and at present nothing remains but a quaint allusion to the group of those chimerical Animals. 154. when the man. between two Cross-Croslets Azure." Motto. [330] Nisbet's Heraldry. and the original words of the Motto. or to the First Epistle to the Thessalonians (Chap. In support of this idea.[327] Nisbet's Heraldry. from the account Mr. with Two Heads erased Sable. as being primarily religious. * * * * * LESLIE. may likewise have regard to that strong metaphorical description of Christian Defence against the Powers of Darkness in the Sixth Chapter of the Epistle to the Ephesians. expressed allegorically by the Head of the Griffin. on being ennobled. [329] Nisbet's Heraldry." and afterwards to some parts of the additional Armorial Appendages. and I do not at present meet with any other historical matter to warrant a third. in token of Cadency or Cadetship in Scotland). the Faith and Hope in the Cross of Christ." The ancient Bearings of the Cross-Croslets are now discharged. ubi supra. The _Buckles_. may be considered as a mere canting Motto. as _holding fast_ the Faith of Christ with _firm Hope_. of "Firmâ Spe. arising from old Heraldic wit." and seems to contain a double allusion. charged with Three Buckles. that the change of the Motto might take place after the Family. but "An Eagle's Neck. chose Griffins for Supporters. and afterwards on the _Bend_ (a Change not uncommon as a Difference. not a Griffin's. with Differences. riding behind a servant through a dangerous ford. Three Buckles Or. that a Countess of Rothes (then Head of the House in her own right). 21)."[329] Herein the Cross-Croslets repeated. encouraging her by the words "_Gryp Fast_. This account of the origin of the Motto was given by one of the Family to a Friend of mine. I call it the old Motto. on a Fess. "A Buckle Or. It may therefore be conceived. "A Griphon's (or Griffin's) Head couped Proper. with the _Crest_." _viz_. nothing remaining on the Field but a _Bend_. vol." [328] The traditional Family History of this Motto is. 96. p. it appears that one subordinate Branch of the Family (_Leslie_ of Talloch) bears for a Crest. the Griffin's Head." with the Motto "Hold Fast:" and another has for its Motto "Keep Fast:"[330] so that _Grip_. thereby giving a loose and whimsical translation. instead of a _Fess_. if I may call it so. I. "Firmâ Spe. so that the meaning." by the words "Grip Fast. vol.

Bart. or Term of Defiance. are very dispersed. who was an Herald in the Reign of Alexander III. has for the Family Motto "Tyde what may. Nisbet. he tells us. the Bearing. some hundreds of years after this Gentleman died. * * * * * "Cave Adsum" is the Motto of JARDIN. The Ingredients (as they may be called) to which it alludes. of Bemerside." founded on a Prophecy of Sir Thomas Lermont (well known in Scotland by the name of "Thomas the Rhymer. These Prophecies were never published in a perfect state." the Supporters. Nisbet says it is very erroneous. being of a fair complexion. * * * * * Simon Fitz-Alan had a Son Robert. * * * * * I shall conclude with one Irish Motto. Haig shall be Laird of Bemerside. of Applegirth. particularly these two lines. which was not accomplished till the Reign of James VI. "A Mullet or Spur-Rowel. "his Prophecy concerning that ancient Family has hitherto been true. _A Boo_ means _the Cause_. from the Celtic or Gallic word _Boidh_.I close this attempt (for I call it nothing more) with a singular Motto of a Private Family. for he adds. "An Armed Man and a Horse. who. from which he assumed his Sur-name. is a Folio MS. 158. was called _Boyt_. and from him all the Boyds in Scotland are descended[335]. or perhaps _Haigh_. the Cri on the other side." This might allude to Justs and Tournaments[332]." and the Crest."[331] [331] Nisbet's Cadencies. 159. and consequently frays and skirmishes ensued[333].' "And." because he wrote his Prophecies in Rhyme). though Mr. concerning his (Sir Thomas Lermont's) neighbour. The original. [332] See Nisbet's Heraldry. which signifies fair or _yellow_[334]. Lord Dacre. that of FITZGERALD--"_Crom a Boo_. which Mr. . "Many things are missing in the small book which are to be met with in the original. Nisbet seems to have seen. or the _Party_. and Crest: the Arms having "Three Mullets charged on the Chief." a Cri de Guerre. and _Crom_ was the ancient Castle of the Fitz-Geralds. and particularly. in Scotland. So _Butler_ a _Boo_ meant the Ormond Party. the Union of England and Scotland. He is said to have foretold the time of his own death. or _Boyd_. by which they insulted each other. pp. for since that time till this day (1702) the Haigs have been Lairds of that place." continues Mr. Haig of Bemerside: 'Tyde what may betide. and to be collected from the Supporters. but the Epitome of them is well known in Scotland. and kind Correspondent. among other remarkable occurrences. [333] I owe this observation to my noble Friend. HAIG.

or men of great estates. even with the gout upon them. though we cannot but suppose they were such as. their improvements. steps into his own carriage. * * * * * The first Wheel-Carriages of the Coach kind were in use with us in the Reign of King Richard II. though by the modern Crest (a Thumb and two Fingers pointing to Heaven) it seems to admit of a religious interpretation. It is the business of Antiquaries to rescue subjects of this sort from oblivion. Let us hear the account given either by Master John Stowe." [335] Douglas. [336] Merchant of Venice. and the humbler orders of men into their occasional coach. as applying to the confidence the Chief had in the Vassals belonging to the Clan. Sobriquets common in England and France. and what follows will. without ever thinking with the smallest gratitude of those who introduced or improved such a convenience. from the colour of Boyd's hair. The Nobleman. _viz_. who of course must leave it to others of the same class. you shall seek all day ere you find them. Every thing has History belonging to it. and particularly of Hackney Coaches. our ancestors might as well have walked on foot. on this matter. who tells us that "Coaches were not known in this Island. but Chariots. when walking is out of the question. and were called _Whirlicotes_." But. or _Whirlicotes_. though perhaps it is seldom worth investigation. 373. I shall attempt to do it as an historical detail of that species of luxury. relative to their persons. they are not worth the search[336]. for the Motto is _Confido_. as to their origin. to the present hour. there was scarce a French King without some addition. and when you have them. So might _GoldBerry_. and they only used of Princes. such as had . and the man of fortune. p.. or some of his Editors. may be witnesses of such a revolution. "As two grains of wheat hid in two bushels of chaff. for it is not improbable that even the present gay families. I suspect. _Canmore_ is a Sobriquet. has never been drawn together. to shew their decline. or to their good or bad qualities. &c. be thought not unlike Gratiano's reasons. or their posterity. and all this because these Vehicles are now too common to attract our notice further than their immediate use suggests.[334] So _Douglas_ means White Man. DISSERTATION ON Coaches. but for the name of riding. See "Armories. as the History of Coaches in general. _Goldberry_ is a Slughorn. then so called.

as it appears in Stowe's Chronicle. [341] Chariot--v. nor difference of persons. But in the year next following. [342] Richelet. from their word _Carrosse_. or _Carrozza_. and adapted both to state and invalidity. The French word. though it had four wheels[342]. because she was sick and weak. for it properly signifies a _Cart_. Used in France at the end of the Reign of Francis I. The French. among the Ladies. and so was the riding in those _Whirlicotes_ and Chariots forsaken.. The French _Charrette_.. and call it a Carrosse Coupé. Orig. the said Richard took to wife Anne. as there is neither distinction of time. The word _Coach_ is evidently French. as soon as proper Saddles were introduced. who first brought hither the riding upon side-saddles.their footmen about them. which will lead us towards the etymon of our word _Coach_. S. since Coaches came into use. and he adds to what Mr. but formed from the Italian _Carroccio_. Menage has said. observed. and at length to us. We may. among the higher orders of mankind. it being a _red_ Carriage. or Half-Coach." [337] He cites Lib. for the world runs on wheels with many whose parents were glad to go on foot[338]. daughter to the King of Bohemia. De Caseneuve." continues he. book i. and Henry II. where the two words appear almost in the same sentence. for we have seen that they gave place even to riding on Horseback. According to Mr. But we may observe how our word is degraded. the Italian _Carrocio_ had four wheels. I read[337] that Richard II. from thence to France. But now of late. "divers great ladies . And for example to note. and was formerly often written _Carroche_. had but two wheels. Mariæ Aborum. or rather the Coach in its infancy. and with him his Mother. nevertheless. Carruca in Du Cange. from whence our _Chariot_[341]. this Vehicle passed from Italy to Germany. and that even the latter is a compound of _Carro Rozzo_. except at Coronations. though both of them have the same common parent. rode from the Tower of London to the Miles-End. being threatened by the Rebels of Kent. have been ashamed of the term. in a Whirlicote. [340] Appendix to Menage. collect enough from these accounts. and Stowe's Continuator adds a very natural consequence:--That. So says Mr. however. is taken up and made so common. and to the original nature of our _Chariot_. By the above account the _Chariot_ seems to have been the elder Vehicle. after the Royal example. Menage[339]. Fr. for they have both. and if so. whereon the Italians carried the Cross when they took the field. to satisfy ourselves that the introduction of Coaches took place in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. [338] Survey of London and Westminster. and such like spectacles. is not radically such. that they carried their Standards upon it[340]. "the use of Coaches brought out of Germany. [339] Orig.. We may hence suppose that the _Whirlicote_ was not much more than a Litter upon Wheels. Ital.

and was Lord Steward of her Household. that. laced with gold." Of these. vol. which cannot be the truth. xxiii. Mr. . and even of our Richard II. 421. drawn by eight white coursers. but that Author has left us without the date. p. 222. I. was the first Equipage of the kind ever seen in England[347]. and drawn by two white horses[345]. when he went to Warsaw to do homage for the Dutchy of Prussia. I. and that Coaches grew into more general use soon after the accession of King James. that "In the year 1564 (two years before the Earl of Arundel went abroad). for his Lordship died 1579. This Earl. to the great admiration of all the beholders. Another Writer robs his Lordship entirely of the honour of such introduction. [346] Camden's Elizabeth. 1566[346]. however. [343] Memoirs of the House of Brandenburg. 1618. he tells us. but in Germany. p. or the Denmarkers had more taste than the Germans. in the Reign of the Elector John George. p. and Queen Mary. about that period. with bits and caparisons all of silver[344]. he went abroad A. the King made his entry "in a black-velvet Chariot." [344] Memoirs. What sort of Carriages they originally were with us. 8vo. [347] Biographical History of England. but. had in his train thirty-six of these Coaches. 1588. Paul's. for we read of them in the Reign of our Henry VII. that John Sigismund. that Coaches were introduced into this Kingdom in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. for the same Author tells us. is not easily said. which. [345] Nichols's Preface to Queen Elizabeth's Progresses. 193. D. the last Earl of Arundel of that name. in point of elegance. we are told they were--"ugly Vehicles made of four boards. in the year 1580. so that we are yet to seek for that point. It is generally agreed." After this. when she went to St. 221. that the first of them was brought hither by [Henry] Fitz-Alan. for Stowe's Continuator expressly says. but he is said to have returned in his Coach. D. but they must have had an earlier appearance amongst us than Anderson. my Author adds. Either the Chariots of that time were usually more elegant. A. and an open Vehicle. when the King of Denmark passed through Berlin. each drawn by six horses. in his History of Commerce. after the Spanish Armada. by those Writers who have touched upon the subject. and rode in them up and down the countries. allows. It is to be supposed that he travelled to the sea-coast in the accustomed manner on Horseback. who affirms. they grew common among the Nobility and opulent Gentry.made them Coaches. became likewise high in the favour of Queen Elizabeth. Granger says. was in a _Chariot_ supported by four pillars. Elector of Brandenburg. finding himself supplanted by the Earl of Leicester. after having served Kings Henry VIII. Queen Elizabeth. who died 1598. p. that within twenty years Coach-making became a great trade. and Edward VI. The Chariot I take to have been a much more ancient Vehicle. which were put together in a very clumsy manner[343].

became the Queen's Coachman. the Relaters. immediately. early in the Reign of King James. a Dutchman. and in Parliament time did little more than oscillate between his Town House and the House of Commons. "But I am told.--The Duke of Devonshire at that time usually ran to or from Chatsworth in about 18 or 20 hours. October 25. 1592. HACKNEY COACH. died on Saturday morning early. and I can at best but take the standard from the present State Coaches of the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Speaker of the House of Commons[349]. ." cried he. Which of these two stories be true. It cannot be any matter of surprize. that it should be adopted by others who could support the expence. though the distance was 150 miles. among others. and was the first that brought the use of Coaches into England[348]. King George II. "that his Grace of Devonshire travels at a prodigious rate. in a man who never extended his journeys further than his Seat in Surrey. who knew that his distance from the Metropolis was not so great as that of the Duke of Devonshire. not less than _50 miles a day_!" Such was the prejudice of ideas." This very Coachman is said also to have driven the Queen's Coach. This Coachman's Wife had also the honour of introducing the Art of Starching Cambric and Lawn. who had arrived on the Monday. whose ideas of travelling did not exceed the expedition of a pair of horses tugging his own lumbering State Coach. must answer for: but Anderson is palpably wrong in his date. a few miles from London. p. when she visited Oxford. waited till luxury had made larger strides among us. Hence arose our occasional Vehicles called Hackney Coaches. that Coaches prevailed much. 1760. Idem in eod. after so luxurious a conveyance had found its way into the Royal Establishment. and the Duke of Rutland (then at Belvoir Castle) was Lord Steward. confirmed by long habitude. when Speaker of the House of Commons. There having always been an imitative luxury in mankind. when not curbed by sumptuary laws. [348] Chronicle. 867. when taken out of their routine.Guilliam Boonen. so those that could not maintain a Coach _de die in diem_ contrived a means of having the use of one _de horâ in horam_. I can form no better an idea of our first Coaches than that they were heavy and unwieldy. as they continued to be for nearly two centuries afterwards. and till private Coaches came to market at second hand. and the Duke of Devonshire arrived in Town on the Monday evening. The Duke of Devonshire (then at Chatsworth) was Lord Chamberlain. I mention the circumstance. and not King George II. Expresses were dispatched to these great Officers. Granger and Stowe. Tuesday and Wednesday came.--It was a misconception on the part of the Duke of Rutland. [349] I must here stop a moment to relate an Anecdote of the late Right Honourable Arthur Onslow. only to shew the ignorance of some parts of mankind. but without the Lord Steward. who understood that the King of Prussia was dead. which are professedly the Subject of this Memoir. whereby the inferior orders might approximate the superior. and was the first Starcher the Queen had. to the utter astonishment of the Speaker. and we have accordingly seen. but Hackney Coaches.

The term is thus accounted for. whose Portrait. [354] Mortimer's Pocket Dictionary. such as the _palfrey_ and the _great horse_. and were likewise _amblers_. made its way into metaphor. and. and in his use. at the same time." As to the Saint himself. who lived in the Seventh Century. and at length Heir. [350] See the French Lexicographers. being the more striking part. and the term had likewise. (Act iii. till about the year 1625[354]. after we had adopted the word as applied to horses of the common sort. who never lived to ride in a _Hackney Coach_. though I did not suspect I should have found the meaning in a Martyrology. applies the word _Hackney_ to a common woman of easy access[353]: and again. Thus Shakspeare. King of Scots. So stale and cheap to vulgar company. to express any thing much and promiscuously used. 2. Antoine de Paris ou l'on a premierement löué ces sortes de Carosse. in the Streets at least. it is not used in France for Coaches of a like kind. as distinguished from the horses of superior orders. the King says to the Prince of Wales. whereby the word _Hackney_ became transferred to the whole Equipage. and the Inn in Paris. took a religious habit. This term for an ambling-nag occurs in Chaucer[352]. give me leave to add a word or two on the French Coaches of a similar nature. _Fiacre_ was the name of a Saint. had the honour to adorn a Sign-Post. in his Dictionary[356]. Fiacre_. [352] The Romaunt of the Rose. refusing the Crown of Scotland some years afterwards. and from thence they took their name. whereof the Coach. while horses for draught were called _trotting-horses_[351]: so that the _Haquenée_ was in fact. distinct from all the rest. 4). Ce logis avoit pour Enseigne un _Saint Fiacre_. had the Sign of _St.The French word _Haquenée_[350] implies a common horse for all purposes of riding. whereas Hackney Coaches were not known. of Eugenius IV. Act ii. "Had I so lavish of my presence been. when he died. p. tells us. Thus we obtained our _Haquenée_ or _Hackney Horses_ long before we had any Coaches to tack to them. and inferior in rank and quality. M. for the service of drawing. in the First Part of Henry IV. and the convenience of the Inhabitants of the Metropolis. then in want of a differential name. yet. whether for private use or for hire. generally an ambler. he was no less a personage than the second Son. Sc. auquel on a donné ce nom à cause de l'Enseigne d'un logis de la Rue St. The former of these are often called _pad-nags_. Sc. from which these Coaches were first let out to hire on temporary occasions. was . Rue St. which are called _Fiacres_[355]. like those of many other famous men of their times both in Church and State. Though the term _Haquenée_ is French. that a _Fiacre_ is "Carosse de loüage." &c. on his Brother's death. Now Shakspeare died in the year 1616. obtained the name by pre-eminence. [351] Northumberland Household Book. So common-_hackneyed_ in the eyes of men. Before I return to my subject. 127. [353] Love's Labour's Lost. He went into France. it was easy to put them in harness. Richelet. Antoine.

Moreri's Dictionary. [357] English Martyrology." He then gives the same reason as we find in Richelet: but the words "_depuis quelques Années_" shew. His death is commemorated on the 30th of August[357]. as luxury makes large shoots in any branch where it puts forth. his dearest Consort the Queen.D. There is a Chapel dedicated to him at St. that those Coaches had not then been long in use. the Nobility. or in that of 1673. Letter IV. that neither Cotgrave himself. de la Langue Françoise. But. His words are. comprehended in his expression of _quelques Années_[358]. St. are said to have pillaged the Chapel of the Highland Saint. nor his Editor. in the Supplement]. that he was not only plagued by the living Scots. D. either in his Edition of 1650. who. and the pavements so broken up. this new-planted scyon had grown so much as to require the pruning-knife. were not only _a great disturbance to his_ Majesty.). Fiacre was the Patron Saint of persons afflicted with the _Piles_. _Fiacre_. Omer's. which took birth A. assisted his Countrymen in the French Service to defeat the English at Bauge. whose death is remembered there on the 8th of February. or stood ready at Inns to be called for if wanted: and at that time did not exceed _twenty_ in number[359]." published in Quarto. in his "Origines de la Langue Françoise. in revenge. and the general and promiscuous use of Coaches there. speaks of them as of a late introduction. "On appelle ainsi [Fiacre] à Paris _depuis quelques années_ un Carosse de loüage. [356] Voc. of which he died. so we find that. which in the common French Dictionaries is simply rendered a Hackney Coach. Menage.canonized. that the common passage is thereby hindered and made dangerous. [358] It is a little singular. we are led pretty nearly to it by Mr. who. Westminster. "The Troops of Henry V. 1635 in the following words: "That the great numbers of Hackney Coaches of late time seen and kept in London. in their passage through the Streets_. Collyer. but even persecuted by those who were dead. 1625 (the first year of King Charles I. Menage credit for twenty-five years. insomuch that it is probable the one gave the example to the other. in no more than ten years. [355] About the same period that our Hackney Coaches became in use. There was a Prelate of the name _Fiachre_ in Ireland. allowing Mr. I mention them to account for the term. and the prices . but the Streets themselves were so pestered. He lived about the same time." Smollett's Travels. first published in 1611. for that the Street Coaches had become in reality a national nuisance in various particulars: and accordingly a Proclamation issued A. 1650. See also Menage. a sort of Carriage arose at Paris under the name of a _Fiacre_. As to the time when the French _Fiacres_ first came into use. But to return to our Hackney Coaches. Orig. He was not a Saint. N. James Howell. [British Piety. and their Suburbs. in his Dictionary. take any notice of the word _Fiacre_ in the sense before us. This Prince complained. and afterwards afflicted Henry with the _Piles_. B. and others of place and degree. and are to be dated either a little before or a little after our own. and either began to ply in the Streets.

was founded on the Statute of Purveyance. But to proceed with the History of the _Chairs_. tending to be beneficial to the introductor. except the owner of the Coach shall constantly keep up _Four able Horses for our Service. and other provisions of stable. omitting the words of course. tom. must have put a considerable check to the use of these Carriages. The nature of this penalty. which was the introduction of the _Hackney Chairs_. then. XIX. there stepped in a Knight. by name Sir Saunders Duncombe. as well as convenient to the Publick. Westminster. and. 1617." [359] Anderson on Commerce. "Whereas the several Streets and Passages within our Cities of _London_ and _Westminster_. by King James. We are to construe this. tended in some measure towards the suppression of the Hackney-Coaches. II. runs thus: "CHARLES. &c. not then repealed. for the reasons alleged in the Proclamation. for the term of _fourteen_ years. when Sir Saunders obtained an exclusive Patent for the setting them forth for hire. so long as it was observed. after the model he had seen abroad[361]. dated the first day of October. or the Suburbs or Liberties thereof. on account of the certain expence which must follow an uncertain occupation. in about _two_ years time. but left perhaps indefinite. then. that many of our good and loving Subjects are by that means oftentimes exposed to great . thereby made exceeding dear: Wherefore we expressly command and forbid. [360] Rymer.of hay and provender. The tenor of the Grant. and a travelled man. are of late time so much encumbered and pestered with the unnecessary multitude of Coaches therein used. that no person shall go in a Coach in the said Streets. They arose from the incommodities stated in the Royal Edict. nor can I think it could operate much in the King's favour. or the Suburbs thereof. from the Feast of St. John the Baptist next coming. 721. when Government was devising measures to prevent the increase of _Coaches_ as much as possible. except they be to travel at least _three_ miles out of London or Westminster. no Hackney or Hired Coaches be used or suffered in London. 20. That. 1635-6. This Proclamation. together with fourteen other Gentlemen of the Band. as it would hardly be worth a Coach-Master's while to be at so great a contingent charge as the keeping of Four Horses to be furnished at a moment's warning for his Majesty's occasional employment. P. p. and resume their functions. till by degrees being found incompetent to answer all their seemingly intended purposes. we shall see the Coaches. But there was another co-operating cause that suspended the use of Coaches for a short time. and the Suburbs of the same. as appears from a Catalogue of Knights. which took place a very little while before the Proclamation. a Gentleman-Pensioner. At the critical time. return into the streets. 1660. This was in the year 1634. published by J. when required_[360]. as I may call it. no doubt. Dated January 19. as amounting to a prohibition. [361] He was knighted. it being impossible to say what would be necessary in a new device of this sort. And also. in Scotland. who proposed the introduction of _Chairs_. The number is not specified. Esq.

for Us. [363] Mr. by which means very few Coaches are used amongst them: and thereof he hath humbly besought us to grant unto him the sole using and putting forth to hire of certain covered Chairs. The place principally hinted at in the above Grant. or in any part of them. "Witness Ourself at _Canbury_. for carrying such of our loving Subjects as shall desire to use the same. have given and granted. the Editor of the Old Plays [2d Edit. certain knowledge. and the necessary use of Carts and Carriages for the necessary Provisions of the said Cities and Suburbs thereby also much hindered. from time to time. in . and every of their. and putting in use of the said covered Chairs. which he will procure to be made at his own proper costs and charges. and to the intent the said _Sir Sanders Duncombe_ may reap some fruit and benefit of his industry.] _Sedan_--mentioned by the name only in the Life of Dr. Privilege. these covered Chairs being most in use. Power. 475. which he shall be at in and about the directing. unto the said _Sir Sanders Duncombe_. and none other. to be carried and borne as aforesaid. and lett to hire. and Agents. and by these Presents. and Authority. and the Suburbs thereof. charges. tom. or any of them. 572." [362] Rymer.danger. seems to have been the City of _Sedan_ in Champagne. and the Suburbs thereof. the said covered Chairs. that in many parts beyond the Seas. These new Vehicles. Reed. we are at liberty to suppose. Servants. and mere motion. "Know ye. had. Administrators. 1780]. during the term of fourteen years hereafter granted. [See Note to vol. us hereunto moving. of the purpose aforesaid. our servant. doubtless. in and about our said Cities of _London_ and _Westminster_. 18mo. Factors. and to his and their. and expences. of our special grace. and may recompense himself of the costs. Knight. in that behalf. desiring to use all good and lawful ways and means that may tend to the suppressing of the excessive and unnecessary number of Coaches now of late used in and about our said Cities. put forth. V. the people there are much carried in the Streets in Chairs that are covered. p. they obtained with us the name of _Sedan Chairs_. our Heirs and Successors. Deputy and Deputies. thereby shewing. XIX. though. that we. and the Suburbs and Precincts thereof. 1661. shall or may. and for divers other good causes and considerations. must therefore certainly be in an error. full and free Licence. when he supposes that _Sedan Chairs_ were the introduction of the Duke of Buckingham. And whereas. that they only. 57. Thomas Fuller. of our princely care of the good and welfare of all our loving Subjects. like the local names of _Berlin_ and _Landau_[363]. Workmen. and to all and every such person and persons as shall have power and authority from him. _Sir Sanders Duncombe_. or any of them. do give and grant. p. procuring. them. about the year 1619. hitherto unseen in our orbit. or Patent. the First day of October[362]. use. hath lately preferred his humble Petition unto us. making. where. his Executors. patrons among the beaus and fine gentlemen of the age. p. within our said Cities of _London_ and _Westminster_. and Assigns. from the above account.

including the _three_ prescribed. by which I conceive that the greatest distance was extended to _nine_ miles.their general utility. 159. was enlarged to _two hundred_[365]. The following special commission was therefore granted by the King. but the opulent Merchant. D. 1654. Also to prescribe _Rules_ and _Orders_ concerning the daily _Prices_ of the said licensed Hackney Coachmen. or rather enjoined. and in their employment for our Subjects. the Power and Authority to license _Fifty_ Hackney Coachmen. Whether the Master of the Horse received any emolument from granting the above Licences. Mr. by the mention of the Nobility and Gentry. and confined to a sign-manual. D. either in London or elsewhere. It runs essentially in the following words: "That we. a circumstance which would depress the _Chairs_. limiting them not to keep above Twelve Horses a-piece. with power to restrain and prohibit all others from keeping any Hackney Coach to let to hire. under our Royal Hand. by the advice of our Privy Council. that there should be a competent number of Hackney Coaches allowed for such uses. they manifestly could not be so commodious as Coaches. We may observe that the article of Purveyance is here very gently touched upon. This also might be a tacit mode of preserving a supply of horses to be purveyed for the King when necessary. They might prevail with persons of a certain rank and description. but under the Commonwealth we find that the Coaches became subject to a tax towards the expence of their regulation. The outlying distance was also augmented to _six_ miles _round the late lines of communication_. still were in want of a conveyance of greater capacity. Strangers. fol. and others in a similar line of family life. were it for no other reason than that they could carry but one person. A. and which. but it seems rather to imply that no Coach-Master should engross more than six Coaches to himself. but we are now to look for them at a time when the Monarchical Government was suspended. took place accordingly in little more than two years. wherein the number of the Coaches seems rather to have enlarged. thought fit to allow _Fifty Hackney Coachmen_ in and about London and Westminster. or any of their. have."[364] [364] Rymer. 1637. to be by them. as the Statute expresses it. taken for _our own_ particular service. for by an Act of Oliver's Parliament. within London and Westminster. during the Protectorate. or its immediate Officers. by the . tom. and others. A. One may collect from hence that private Coaches were sparingly kept. as well as for Foreign Ambassadors. and the management of them was placed in the department of the Master of the Horse. provided such orders be first allowed by us. for their. Coach and Coaches respectively. Hitherto we have found the Hackney Coaches under the regulation of the Crown. as has been observed. and gradually hasten the re-introduction of the _Coaches_. who shall keep no more than Twelve good Horses each. You also hereby have Power to license so many in other Cities and Towns of England as in your wisdom shall be thought necessary. Anderson supposes that there must have been many more than _fifty_ Coaches introduced by the above allowance of _twelve_ horses. the number of such Coaches. or any of them. is not apparent. We therefore grant to you [the Marquis] during your Life. finding it very requisite for our Nobility and Gentry. XX.

Within a few years after the Revolution (anno 5 Gul.--who may be entitled to such Licences. each of which paid to the Crown annually four pounds. quam. [366] See the Act in the Statute Book. The finances. Commentaries. ch. _rates_. 4to. for every Owner.800 annually:--and what did the licences at fifty pounds each Coach. for in the year after the Restoration. This. By the increase of the number of Coaches from four hundred at five pounds _per annum_. yield to the State?--£. of Government. [365] Anderson says _three hundred_. By this Act of Oliver's Parliament. was constrained to pay down fifty pounds for his first Licence for twenty-one years. Blackstone. [367] Anderson. which seeming indulgence was. a very rational appropriation of such fund. to supervise it. but it did not long remain in the hands of the Corporation. and other officers. one would suppose was a relief to the Coach-Masters. the Coach-Master would rather have continued at the former five pounds. but that was not the case. the government of the Hackney Coaches. II. Here we have brought the Coaches under a Police similar to that of our own time.regulating proclamation of King Charles I. probably. or forego his employment. the establishment was new-modelled by an Act of the 13th and 14th of King Charles II. 115. and that the reduction in the impost accrued from the number." This must apply to the number of Carriages. the Coach-Masters were made subject to the payment of _twenty shillings_ yearly for every such Coach. this new business would require Clerks. for the Docquet of the Act in Scobel says. Journals of the House of Commons. in the gross. with respect to their _stands_. and so Sir William Blackstone understood it. paying five pounds _per annum_ for that term. to raise so small a sum as would arise from these Licences.500! Whereas.3. for who ought so much to contribute to the amendment of the streets. and have run all risks. but that must be an error. wherein it is specified that no Coaches were to be used without a Licence. of course. for the term of twenty-one years. xxii.) the number of Coaches arose to seven hundred.--that the number shall not exceed 400. and as. Each of these four hundred Coaches so licensed was obliged to pay annually five pounds for the privilege. to be applied towards the keeping in repair certain parts of the streets of London and Westminster[367]. as those who lived by their demolition? "Nex Lex æquior ulla. 1661. must have been very low at this moment. than have purchased an exclusive privilege. or Ministry could never have stooped to so paltry and oppressive an expedient. that "the number of persons keeping Hackney Coaches shall not at one time exceed _two hundred_. the gain to the Treasury was £. whereas. it had produced in that period .--with penalties for exacting more[366]. was placed in the Court of Aldermen of London. in fact. and even the resources. I. at so high a price." &c. in the year 1635. &c. for each Coach.--what shall be the rates. et Mar. vol. to seven hundred at four pounds _per annum_. primâ facie. had such lease of the privilege of driving a Coach been kept at the rack rent of five pounds _per annum_.

700." [368] By Monthly Payments. according to the standard. that from the 24th of June. 1711.£. and further. which should be allowed to be driven in the Cities of London and Westminster. [371] Some Lawsuits having arisen from this Clause. or to be made. whereby seven hundred Coaches were allowed. from the time the late Statute of the fifth of William and Mary should expire. whereby many new persons would come forward. in the most convenient place to be taken notice of. on whom Government shewed some tenderness. _viz. all _horses_ to be used with an Hackney Coach shall be fourteen hands high. as any acting Chairman. and "the said _mark_ shall be placed on each side of every such Coach and Chair respectively. whose terms had not then expired. and for which privilege the Owners had paid fifty pounds each. D. &c. perhaps to the ousting of the old Coach-Masters and Chair-Masters. for thereby the Crown was impowered to appoint five Commissioners for regulating and licensing both Hackney Coaches and Chairs. it was explained by a short Act of the 12th year of the Queen (1713). which brought the business to its present standard. to the end that they may be known if any complaints shall be made of them[369]. or any where within the Bills of Mortality. [369] The Figures of the Chairs are too small and inconspicuous. which will be observed in the order of time. and the Suburbs thereof. This was all that could then be done respecting the _Coaches_. for the said term of thirty-two years. 1710. Penalties. By this Act every circumstance was new modelled. no doubt. however. And thus it continues to this day. There was. granted in the fifth year of William and Mary. room sufficient for the exercise of the powers given to the Commissioners. was subsisting. which were thereby limited to the number of _two hundred_. authorizing such Commissioners to grant licences to eight hundred Hackney Coaches from that time for the term of thirty-two years._ the _Chairs_.14. Thus the Power of the Commissioners over the Chairs arose before that over the Coaches. whether the right remained in themselves or their widows. [370] By Quarterly Payments. which were not comprehended in the same agreement and contract with the Coaches. Therefore under the same commissions was placed the management and licensing of the Hackney Chairs. _viz. when a Statute was made. "by _figure_ or otherwise. subjecting such _Widows_ to the same Rules. another object involved in this Statute. to regulation. there should be one both on the outside and inside of each. made. there was. likewise. till the ninth year of Queen Anne. to commence from the 24th of June in the following year. As the number of both Coaches and Chairs was enlarged. for the . with a few variations. however the matter rested._ at Midsummer A. It was at the same time enacted. each Coach paying for such privilege the sum of five shillings _per_ week[368]. 1711. &c. as I may call them. if they applied within a given time[371]. forasmuch as the old term of twenty-one years." as the Commissioners shall think fit. but were open immediately to new laws. With regard. it is required by this Act that the Commissioners shall give a preference to such of the Lessees. that every _Coach_ and _Chair_ shall have a mark of distinction. Thus. each paying for such licence the annual sum of ten shillings[370]. 1715. 1694.

and to award reasonable satisfaction to the party aggrieved.owner of a _Figure_. any Justice of the Peace is impowered. for every such offence.] The Coachmen and Chairmen are thereby likewise liable to be deprived of their Licences for misbehaviour. and _one_-third to the Plaintiff. that in the 10th year of the Queen. and then states.[373] [372] Turned afterwards into a mulct. which is but a reasonable privilege. the Coachman is entitled to a larger fare. By this statute likewise the rates were limited to time and distance. On the other hand. yet it follows. [373] Restrained by a subsequent Act. it gives full power both to stand and to ply as on other days. upon complaint. 1711. The doctrine is the same respecting Chairs. or otherwise to bind him over to the next Quarter-Session.--One shilling and six pence for the first Hour. but there is another circumstance." These penalties were. so it was requisite. that the Coachmen and Chairmen might have a remedy in case of refusal to pay them their just fare. Though the time of waiting is not specified in the Act with regard to the Chairs. to be intended the same as the Coaches. that whereas by a Statute of the 29th of Charles II. to make the contract obligatory. and one shilling for every succeeding Hour. it became necessary to add a severe penal clause. at ten shillings by the Day.--One shilling and six pence for any distance more than a mile and a half. The Act proceeds to other matters touching the Commissioners themselves. is answerable for certain faults of his or her assignee. the several rates hereby limited. not generally known. _viz_. and four yards in the case of a Chair. and that each of them should be compellable to perform their parts. in the proportion of six pence for every succeeding half mile. and at the same time to prevent extortion. or by giving abusive language[372]. [Since made half to the Crown and half to the Complainant.. to have gone in the proportion of _two_-thirds to the Queen. the use of all Hackney Coaches and Chairs had been prohibited on Sundays. that is. by this Act. whether they will be paid by the distance or the time. _viz. to do this. These have been altered by a very late Statute. by implication. It is well known that it is left in the option of either Coachmen or Chairmen. he shall. _one hundred . &c. This is the substance of the Act before us. so that they were allowed to take one shilling for a mile. and not exceeding two miles. as it is called. to issue a warrant to bring before him the Recusant. or shall exact more for his hire than. but it may here be observed.--One shilling for the distance of a mile and a half. The Chairs are likewise at the same time rated at two-thirds of the distance prescribed to the Coaches. and so on. As the Statute gives all competent allowances to the Coachmen and Chairmen. where the Bench is empowered to levy the said satisfaction by distress. forfeit the sum of _forty shillings_. that if the room which a Coach will occupy in turning about should exceed the distance allowed. as much as if he had gone another half mile. and therefore. of which the passengers are not perhaps aware. and six pence for every succeeding half mile._ "that if any Hackney-Coachman or Chairman shall refuse to go at. and the room allowed is eight yards in the case of a Coach. 1785. on the other hand.

made hollow to hold them. p. and thence took the name of the Hammer-Cloth. chap. the number of Chairs was raised to 400. could take place.--as in the Rolls of Parliament. D. This is my idea of the etymon of these two common terms. II. for which purpose he carried a hammer with a few pins. Before all the provisions in the Act of the year 1710. being found not only convenient but necessary. and placed them under his seat. Articles of Dress. with him. and which from thence was called the Coach Box.--"having travelled into Italy. 22. 1267. &c. and. though necessary conveniences. [Mabillon de Re Diplom. were of course become a nullity. Earl of Oxford. And here again it can but be observed that this little appendage is now become the most striking and conspicuous ornament of the equipage. chap. THE HAMMER CLOTH. GLOVES. It was requisite that the Coachman should have a few implements in case of accidents. or a sudden and little repair was wanting to the Coach. according to Mr. To shew how trifling. Walpole's account. A. 12. I. Grose. subject to the same regulations as the rest. see Acts 3 Geo. in order to conceal this unsightly appearance. 1714. when the old term of twenty-one years should have expired. in a little time. for making their _Gloves_ and Girdles of the Skins of the Deer they killed.] Anciently richly adorned and decorated with precious Stones. and presenting the Queen [Elizabeth] with a . 20 Geo. Grose. a demise of the Crown intervened. 182. p. A. Charlemagne granted an unlimited right of hunting to the Abbot and Monks of Sithin. 33 Geo. referred to the future period of 1715. About the year 790. anno 53 Hen. and Covers for their Books. 611. 10. of which a hammer was the chief. on the authority of Stowe. consistently with Public Faith. D. note. as the number of Coaches.[374] * * * * * [374] The MS here ends abruptly. III. chap. II.--On the subject of Chairs. 25. 26. II. I. is recorded to have been the first that brought into England _embroidered_ GLOVES and Perfumes. 16 Geo. nails. 30 Geo. "Et de 2 Paribus _Chirothecarum_ cum lapidibus.more Chairs_ were added by Statute. however. arise to great and expensive luxuries. vol. 7. a cloth was thrown over the box and its contents. chap. By Act 12 George I. could not be enlarged till the year 1715. chap. which extended to a future time. on account of the increase of Buildings Westward.] Edward Vere. chap. let us remark the original insignificant appendage of what we call the Hammer Cloth. II." [Warton's History of Poetry. by which all such clauses.

When Sir Thomas Pope. and cost 6_s. sc. ii. she presented it to him as a mark of her esteem. An article charged in the Bursar's books of Trinity College. she was so pleased with them. received a _Glove_ from Queen Elizabeth. 1556.Pair of the former. in eod. Earl of Cumberland._ 8_d. Old Plays. edit. p.] "Give _Gloves_ to the Reapers. p. on which occasion the College presented her. 1778. as a sign of good Husbandry. So Shakspeare. [Grose. when he taking it up to return to her. in Laneham's (or Langham's) Account of the Entertainment of Queen Elizabeth at Kenelworth Castle. "Pro Chirothecis Magistri Pope." [Royal and Noble Authors._ Hist. 132. xxxii s. 159. embossed on the backs and tops with gold embroidery. p. but this fell into disuse soon after the Reign of Charles I. edit. [Hist. 2. p. a Largesse to cry. Idem. [375] See Walpole's Royal and Noble Authors. He adorned it with Jewels. 185. "The Bursars offered him a present of embroidered _Gloves_. The Queen had dropped it. act v. B. the University complimented him with a Letter of Thanks. ubi sæpe. The . of Hawsted. in eod. It is expressed in a print of him by Robert White. N. Oxford. Id. Oxford. 1575. Richard II. Dr. from whence we derive the term for Ribbons given on Weddings. and p. and wore it in the front of his Hat on days of Tournaments. _v. vol. 190._ [Id. and fringed round with gold plate. as to be drawn with them in one of her Portraits. Such Tokens as these were called _Favours_[375]. See also p. 4. i. 119.] These were often given to College-Tenants. second edition: King Lear.] The Gloves were sent both to himself and Lady. Glisson. received from her a Pair of rich Spanish leather _Gloves_. I presume they are supposed to be given by the hand of the Bride. Powlett et Domine Fundatrici. 191. note.] The Monastery of Bury allowed its Servants two pence apiece for _Glove-Silver_ in Autumn." [Warton's Life of Sir Thomas Pope. [Warton's Life. the Founder of Trinity College. his Widow married Sir Hugh Powlett. p. of Hawsted. 411.] The rural Bridegroom. [Bray's Tour.] See for Gloves worn in Hats." [Warton. Dom." [Tusser. visited it. p. 190. 1778 by Johnson and Steevens. in his last visit to Queen Elizabeth.] When Sir Thomas Pope had founded the College. 1556. act iii.] After the death of Sir Thomas Pope. sc. Johnson and Steevens. 319. p. the charge for which runs--Pro _Pari Chirothecarum_ dat. vol. had--a Payr of _Harvest Gloves_ on his Hands. as the Wife of the Founder. 388. 131.] George Clifford. 132. Idem. with a Pair of very rich Gloves. which was accompanied with a Present of _rich Gloves_. p. Note to Winter's Tale. vol. i. xvi s. and Guests of Distinction. is "pro fumigatis _Chirothecis_.

edit. I have had such a variety of interruptions (agreeable ones). &c. as from his Wife. v. 2. The present Queen (Charlotte) has her Gloves kept in a _perfumed_ box. by Mr. in gratitude for his civility to her in . Old Plays. act v. 1. PEGGE. occurs in the Old Establishments. Johnson and Steevens. "Aye." Life of Corinna (or Mrs. sc. Edwards. "Here. 179. Fairings. Blood. Gifts that admitted of it (especially to Women from Men) were usually worn on the Sleeve. Swearing by Gloves. Gilpin. were worn as tokens of Gallantry. vol. as well as Gloves. 4. as he tells us. p. to S. to pin on your _Sleeve_. GROSE. saying. 1. A _new nothing_. and such Tokens. very common. Hence also to _pin_ one's _Faith_ upon another's _Sleeve_. [376] Mistress of the _Sweet_-Coffers. and Cress. September 4. that I have made no hand of your _Gloves:_ all that has occurred on that subject. sc. wear them for my sake. with _four_ Pair of White Gloves. * * * * * F. A Glove hung up in a Church. Hence the Question and Answer. "These Gloves the Count sent me. Vide Troil. What have you brought me? (from the Fair. 1784. v. Perfumed Gloves[376]. v. as a public Challenge. p. F. "Wear my Heart upon my Sleeve. 1778. Ladies' Sleeves. Glisson. Q. Gilpin's Life of Bernard Gilpin. Esq. "I knew her by this Jewel on her _Sleeve_.Queen. 8. Gloves given at Weddings. Eliz." Much Ado about Nothing. xxxi. in jocular conversation. act. Keeper of the Jewel Office. Dear Sir. by these Gloves!" is an expression I have somewhere seen. act i. presented Mr. p." Othello. supra. pulled them from her own Royal Hands. who attempted to steal the Crown. sc. S. I here send you. sc. they are an excellent _Perfume_.) A. Thomas)." Love's Labour Lost. A. were of this sort. act ii.

unless she be a . _Minever_. See Shakspeare. Bailey's Dict. properly speaking. a Glove is handed about by the Crier or Clerk of the Court. In a Play. [v. none shall wear an Ermine. at the Coronation. 12s. Item. for three dozen Leder Gloves. I think called the Twin Rivals. filled with Broad Pieces. in voce. My best wishes attend you and yours. ERMINE GENTLEWOMEN'S APPAREL. The whole transaction is in Maitland's History of London. in their language. where I propose staying a month. _Powderings on her Bonnet. _Erminois_. in Remembrancer's Office. as one animal can afford but one tuft. the tip of whose Tail is Black. and the Plural. and the tip of the Tail of another. GROSE. or Lettice-Bonnet. or six weeks at farthest. the latter. First. who delivers the invitation. an Alderman presents his Glove. whereas it is the Black only that is properly Ermine. What we call _Ermine_ is an erroneous conception. V.a pretended qualm or sickness. It is still considered in that light by the Highlanders. &c. for it is formed of the Fur of one animal. and this is one. is a compound. is a kind of challenge. The White Ground is. importing Black powdered with White: and they go into still more minute modifications. of which I once saw an instance in Flanders.] Every one of these tufts is termed a _Powdering_. into this Glove every one invited puts a shilling.] The Ermine is the Armenian Mouse. which being placed as a falling tuft upon the Minever. Philips's Dictionary. The Heralds make a distinction between the singular _Ermine_. When the Judge invites the Justices to dine with him at a County Assize. as a Bribe to procure a Commission for his Son. What we call Ermine. which will bear a little analysis._--This may require an explanation to those who are unacquainted with the language of that age. A Bribe is called a Pair of Gloves. forms what we collectively call Ermine. for we give the name to White Fur tufted with Black. APPAREL FOR THE HEADS OF GENTLEWOMEN. Adieu! F. To give one's Glove was considered as a challenge. _Ermines_. in Hen. Vide Account of Henry VII. I set off next week for Christchurch. of which numberless instances may be produced. [v. Dropping the Gauntlet. the value of which is enhanced the more. in voce. to a Nobleman. so called from a Russian animal of that name.

to Lady-day 1684 (a MS. Item. Brander at the sale of the Library of Geo. p. 1776. one before another. "A Sad-coloured Silk Coat. which maketh seven. "A Grey Coat lined with Murrey and White flowered Silk. 1498. a _Countess_ to wear _twenty-four_. 590. 31. Harl. [Bancks's Hist. _two_ before. a _Knight_'s Wife to wear on her Bonnet. and if she be of great Blood. a _Gentleman_'s Wife. vol. Dan. and a Purple Crape Hatband.] In a Wardrobe account for half a year. The French Queens. she being a Gentlewoman born. and four Crape Hat-bands. [Bancks's Hist. of Austria. And if she be of honourable stock. at their pleasures. iv. Item. a _Banneret_'s Wife to wear _ten_ Powderings. of Woolston-Hall. Esq. [See P. having Arms. a _Viscount_'s [Wife] to wear _eighteen_. "A Purple Coat. i. fol. Item. Item. letter 22. in the Top. p. with Gold Loops. a _Baron_'s Wife _thirteen_.Gentlewoman born. are the following entries for the King's Mourning. [Polnitz. wore _White_ upon the death of the King." The Emperor Leopold. of Austria." It was changed to _Black_ on the death of Charles VIII. never shaved his Beard during the time of Mourning. shall wear an Ermine or Lettice Bonnet. because of higher Blood. Item.] The Bavarian Family never give a Black Livery. before the Reign of Charles VIII. And above that Estate the number convenient. Item. Ex Bibl. He says this from Baron Polnitz's Memoirs. Hist. p. 1781). or line their Coaches. an _Esquire_'s Wife _for the Body_ to wear _five_ Powderings. purchased by Mr. MOURNING. iv. in the deepest Mourning. lined with Gold-striped Lutestring. which often lasted for a long time. with Silver-and-Silk Buttons." Again.] The Empress-Dowagers never lay aside their Mourning. to have _two_ Powderings. or _eight_ at the most. having _one_ Powdering in the Top. _seven_ Powderings.] . and even their Apartments are hung with Black till their deaths. 277. as before. 46. b. who died 1705. Scot." Again. Item. and were called "_Reines Blanches_. Item. No. 400. an _Esquire_'s Wife to have _two_ Powderings.

one day. and try his skill on his Bowling-green. free from the cares of a Crown. yet the King would. and was so pleased with the place. [Stafford's Letters. as the King expressed it." or Mrs. he would dine with him some day. gave over. Shute often won. 299. and though Mr. a factious Ministry. and. and rebellious Subjects!" They generally played high. [377] See "The Life of Corinna. [Secret History of England. with a mixture of Purple in some part of her Dress. Shute_. The precedent was taken from that worn by Mary Queen of Scots for the Earl of Darnley. and much favoured by King Charles I. once told Mr. The King. "Without doubt. _One thousand pounds rubber more. by way of distinction from another Branch of the same Name and Family. Thomas's Great Grand-Father was Mr. Richard _Shute_. a Turkey Merchant. it being very retired. i. Shute_.[377]--WILLIAM I. Jun. one of the Members for the City of London. on the death of Prince George of Denmark. ii. "_Thou hast won the day. laying his hand gently on his shoulder. and punctually paid their losings. and with three or four select Gentlemen. Mrs. with a deep sigh. "he was very nice in the mode of that Age. as the Romans reckon it so great a happiness for a Family to have a Pope in it. Shute's skill in Bowling (he being accounted one of the best Bowlers of his time)." He lived in Leaden-Hall Street. The King gave Mr. when Mr. Here he had a very fine Bowling-green. set higher than usual. he had a mind to _drop State. xxi. Shute. ii.] King Charles I. [Polnitz's Memoirs. in Essex. CHARLES I. without any Guards. put the Court into Mourning for one Day on the death of the Earl of Portland (Richard Weston). Lord High Treasurer. This place was afterwards dismantled by Mr. "during that time a Gentleman. in this blessed retirement. Elizabeth Thomas. Shute several . having lost several games. his attendants. but. when. Shute said. who was fond of the diversion. and likewise with Mr. that he frequently visited afterwards Berking-Hall. as he delighted much in that exercise. not even for their nearest Relations. letter 33." P. and much good may it do thee. and from his usually wearing a _Sattin_ Doublet cut upon White Taffata. and enjoy himself as a private man_:--"_Ah. that nothing ought to afflict his Holiness's kindred." says Mrs." continues she. The King went. 389.] BEARD. and in a few years became a ploughed field. always read to him on some useful subject." said he one day.--"An please your Majesty.] Queen Anne. and _curling_ his _Whiskers_. &c. his Valet being some hours every morning in _starching_ his _Beard_. Printed in 1731. perhaps Luck may turn_:"--"_No. but I must remember I have a Wife and Children_. who gave him the Name of _Sattin_-Shute. Shute's heir. whom he maintained as a Companion. wore Black and White.The Pope's Nieces never wear Mourning. and had a Country-seat at Berking. which was exactly in point." replied the King. the site on which stands the India House. Thomas (for she was her own Biographer). "how much happier than I art thou.

upon the perswasion of Ethelbert. and environed with water) the Saxons called 'Thornez." says he. "Henceforth thou shalt no more be called _Fitzbourne_. says. that Walter Fitzbourne. clapping him on the shoulder. "Sir. For in Stowe's Survey of London (edit. Peter. or River. tradition says."' Hence it is supposed came the name of _Osborne_. by at least 700 years. Lord Coke. in respect of _East_minster. I fear was but a bad Antiquary. So far of Westminster. xxv. and retired to Hamburgh. (cap. P. 603. playing at Chess on a Summer's evening. won all he played for. Clerke. WESTMINSTER. the first King of the East Saxons that was christened. in his 3d Inst." It is added in a note in the margin. xxvii.' which _Minster_ signifieth. to the amount of four thousand pounds _per annum_. "here is land. and the King. the first great Pestilence in his time began.' or 'Thorney. and partly from the Monasterie or _Minster_. with the King. it began to take the name of _Westminster_:" and then he goes on with the history of that Church. "In the year 1348.' . p.) speaking of the City of Westminster. Bishop of London. King of the East Saxons. p. immediately (to shew himself a Christian indede) built a Church to the honor of God and St. he gives the following account of the Foundation of the Church of Westminster:--"This Monasterie was founded and builded in the year 605. These he gave up when the Civil War broke out. founded." replied the King. by which it will appear that the foundation of Eastminster was subsequent to that of Westminster. Of Eastminster Stowe gives the following account. Sebert. saying he had nothing more to play for. P. for the reverse rather seems to be the case. who. 51. but _Ousebourne_. whereupon. Life of Corinna. partly from the situation to the _West_. "It hath its name of 'the Monastery. and it is called _West_minster. 1633). D. where he died a few years after the death of the King. which (because it was overgrown with thornes." said Sir Walter. said. thine be all the Land on this side the Bourne. The King threw down the Board. in a place. Cross's Hospital. for. which thou canst see as thou sittest. Prior of the Holy Trinity within Ealdgate. one toft of ground neere unto . and being baptized by Melitus. Lord Coke. xxviii. not far from the Tower of London. This Westminster. and increased so sore. and the Mastership of St. and great Favourite of the King. on the West side of the City of London. one John Corey. 497. "the 23d of Edward the Third. among which were the Deputy Lieutenancy of the Ordnance. having embraced Christianity.places. as it will appear that _East_minster was so called in respect of _West_minster. Segbert began his Reign A. William the Conqueror played _deep_. "and if thou beatest me this Game also. by Sebert. a Norman Knight." "There is so." He had the good fortune to _win_. King of Kent. procured of Nicholas... that for want of roome in Church-yards to bury the dead of the City and of the Suburbs. however excellent a Lawyer. on the banks of the _Ouse_.

in a tempest on the sea. _Commons." and then as "Mary de Grace. The Barristers..East Smithfield. and the Members obliged to attend. for the Regulation of them. first as the "Abbey of White Monks." P. for the buriall of them that dyed. 117. p. and for neglecting to appear in such habit. with condition. till within these eighty years. . The _Discipline_ of these Societies was formerly. In Stowe. the Commons were continued in the Vacation as well as in the Terms. in their proper habits. and in all places. causing it to be named _Eastminster_. were not admitted to practise. a reproach was thereby reflected on the Society. very strict. till three years after their call._--Till there was a relaxation of discipline. but by special leave from the Judges. that it might be called the Church-yard of the Holy Trinity: which ground he caused. where innumerable bodies of the dead. and orders have been sent down from him so lately as Charles the Second's time. upon all occasions. builded there a Monasterie." in which this Foundation seems to be twice mentioned. upon severe penalties for neglect of it. which were brought in great form by the Lord Chancellor and twelve Judges.. because the Templars having been guilty of riots in some parts of the town. and _our Lady of Grace_. and signed by them. _Written in or about the Year 1760. though they were called to their degree. LONDON._ The Societies of the Temple have no Charter. an Abbey of Monkes. to the which King Edward setting his eye (having before. by the ayd of divers devout Citizens. Bishop of London. made a vow to build a Monastery to the honour of God. . placing an Abbot and Monks of the Cistercian or White order. for want of discipline. but the Fee was granted by a Patent to the Professors and Students of the Law. was not to be compounded for. The King is Visitor of the Temples. is a list of all the "Patrones of all the Benefices in London. were afterwards buried. by the Towre of London. to them and their Successors for ever." MEMORANDA RELATIVE TO THE Society of the Temple. The Students appeared. and a Chapel built in the same place to the honour of God. both in Term and Vacation. they were punished by being put two years backward in their standing. being known by their habits to be such. to be inclosed with a wall of stone. 751. or for want of decency in it. if God would give him _grace_ to come safe to land). during which their attendance to Commons. and the same was dedicated by Ralfe Stratford. and peril of drowning. or dispensed with. This habit was discontinued.

and which. The Societies of each Temple are very zealous in contending for the Antiquity of their Society. This was accordingly done. were not to exceed eight in number. though there is no fixed number. was sold to . He was three years Treasurer successively. whether the Person of our Saviour was God. amounts to a considerable sum. employed one _Smith_ and one _Harris_ to make each of them an Organ. being resolved to have a good Organ. The _Benchers_ are generally in number about twenty. The _Readings_. and the Arms of the Reader are put up in a Pannel in the Hall. and there is an Order of the House. they having no real estate. when he was Reader at New Inn. They have now been discontinued upwards of seventy years (the last Reader being Sir William Whitlocke. put up a question tending to Blasphemy. when there were Treats and Balls at the Reader's expence._--Built by Plowden. of Queen Elizabeth. it is now in the Butler. soon after pulled down. he was denied the privilege of coming into the Hall. who at first was a Barrister. made by Harris. under one general regulation and establishment. he still continued the direction of the Building. and at the same time obliged to pay for full Commons. which if they answer not. in some measure. he left a Set of Chambers. The other. of the Benchers of the other Houses do._--Left by Will to the Society. having nothing allowed but their Commons. but. as it were. I have been assured. and promised that they would give seven hundred pounds for that which proved the best. and some small Treat. into Colonies. for the maintenance of a Librarian. that is. a Bencher of it. exclusive of repairs. _The Temple Organ_ was made by _Smith_. that the certain yearly expences of it. (I think it was. Bohun. at the expence of the Society. by which the Reader was restrained from having above Eight Servants. They may be called to the Bench at eighteen or twenty years standing. till they branched out. Besides this. who was seven years in perfecting it. which generally were upon some Statute. and Chambers built in its stead. was converted into Sets of Chambers. Mr. The Benchers eat at their own expence in this Society.The Law Societies were. not being thought worth their acceptance. I believe none. and after he quitted the Treasurership. by Astley. upon a new one. having. at first. It contains about Nine Thousand Volumes. _Present Hall. continued about eight days. _Library.) was _excommoned_ by the Society. of no very old date. They judged expulsion too mild a punishment. value three hundred pounds. of Venison. The _Old building by Order This was Hall_ stood on the South side of Pump Court. &c. but there is a Reader still appointed every year. _The Society of the Middle Temple_ must now be very rich. and Smith's was preferred and purchased. 1684). and it consists in money. they pay a Fine of Fifty Pounds. which shews. the Writer of several excellent Books in different branches of the Law. The Societies. and divided. which. the luxury and expence attending them. The Bench have power to call whom they think proper of such standing to the Bench.. value five hundred pounds. which few.

Christ-Church in Dublin. Præcentor loci recipiet de fisco ipsâ die dimidiam marcam. as in the Annals of the Church of Winchester. "Rex Edwardus instituit. Cotton MS. see Stowe's Survey. et Simulas super mensam. and at the expiration of a long lease. 51 Henry III. Edit. . Glaston. indeed.) says. Stat. intituled Assisa Panis et Cervisiæ.. made Anno 51 Hen. See also Blount's Glossary. being afterwards exchanged for another made by Byfield for four hundred pounds difference. it was sold by Byfield to the Church at Woolwich[378]. especially in Lent. MS. see Shakespear's Winter's Tale. p. "Then I must have Saffron to colour the Warden Pyes. Panis similageneus. Among the Customs of the Abbey of Glastonbury: "In diebus solemnibus. _Inns of Chancery_. "Panem Regiæ Mensæ aptam. III. I. et conventus centum Sumnellos et unun modium vini. et tria generalia. For the Ordinance for the Assise and Weight of Bread in the City of London." Chartular._--A Manchet. Panis verò de siminello ponderabit minus de Wastello de duobus solidis. under the year 1042. the true reading is _Siminel_. Simnel Bread. 10. It is mentioned in 'Assisa Panis.--Siminellus_ from the Latin _Simila_. "_Simnel. 2. like the Halls at Oxford. _Simula.' and is still in use. and Anno Dom. Snetzler. Simnel. in voce. Bread made into a Simnel shall weigh two shillings less than Wastell Bread. quia bis coctus est. . D. It was sometime called _Simnellus_. The English Simnel was the purest White Bread. fol." But. Medonem habuerunt in Justis. now used for colouring the Crust of the Simnel. et cartâ confirmavit. Claudius. the Fee Simple will be vested in us. et vinum ad caritatem. ut quoties ipse vel aliquis Successorum suorum Regum Angliæ diadema portaret Wintoniæ vel Wigorniæ vel Westmonasterii.." Stat. 1633. but. as in the Book of Battle Abbey. For the use of Saffron. 740." [379] Cowell's Interpreter. _New-Inn_ belongs to the Middle Temple. Abbat. which signifies the Finest Part of the Flour. a White Loaf. [378] Mr. The Statute. where the Clown (Act iv." Origin of Thirteen Pence Halfpenny. qui _Simenel_ vulgò vocatur[379].. cum Fratres fuerunt in cappis. 1266.

and into the Rank of the Officer. or cause to be punished. Reed. 1785. We find that anciently this Office was. [380] The Executions. and were performed in the street of the Old Bailey. These will be found to be supportable matters. if the News-papers said true. yet the Sheriffs are much obliged to those who will undertake it. as otherwise the unpleasant and painful duty must fall upon themselves. were removed from this memorable place. I was told by Mr. that. III. at the door of Newgate. though there is always. it carries with it a Stigma. on ordinary occasions. the Sheriff of one of the Inland Counties was very near being obliged to perform the unwelcome Office himself. See the printed account. at present. Every of these Executions. though it may not be very obvious. by inquiring into the nature and dignity of the Office in some particulars. None were anciently chosen to this Office. ii. though it will not appear to be a vulgar error. Sheriffs have sometimes had much difficulty to procure an Executioner. of Twenty Shillings _per annum_[381]. _In a Letter to_ EDWARD KING. is attended with an expence of upwards of nine pounds. as well as the Fee of Office. in the eyes of the lower people. unless he has previously had the Title adventitiously. But. who was re-imbursed from the Exchequer.AS HANGMAN'S WAGES. before I bring you to the point in question. it will not be amiss to lead you gradually to it. apart from any shock that it must give to Humanity and Compassion. is. and certainly there is a reason for its having obtained so odious an appellation. p. for which he had an allowance from the Sheriff. [381] Madox's History of the Exchequer. that Thirteen Pence Halfpenny is the fee of the Executioner in the common line of business at Tyburn[380]. This was first practised on the 9th of December 1783. and Hen. I remember a very few years ago. which raises him to that Rank. but such Gentlemen whose fortunes and . in some parts of the Kingdom. for we have all heard of _Squire Ketch_. The business is of such an invidious nature. President of the Society of Antiquaries_. They are the persons to whom the Law looks for its completion. _Esq. an Under-Sheriff for civil purposes. according to their respective Sentences. Twenty persons were hanged at once in February 1785. which is our ground-work. by being so styled in the King's Patent under the Great Seal. and therefore is called Hangman's Wages. as they give a Receipt to the Gaoler for the Bodies of condemned Criminals whom they are to punish. annexed to other Posts. in the Country. The vulgar notion. The sum is singular. for the Porter of the City of Canterbury was the Executioner for the County of Kent. as. II. 373. So that in fact the Hangman is the Sheriff's immediate Deputy in criminal matters. an Esquire. temporibus Hen. Though this is an Office in great and general disesteem. The Sheriff is.

and the Arms of Brabant in a Canton. Brandon's popularity. Brooke carries it to Thomas Earl of Arundel. though not of the most desirable kind. After a Negotiant has become a Gentleman. in order to vilify Garter. but is more fully and satisfactorily related in the Life of Mr. This being done. as the Bastard says in King John. from the Earl Marshal. which was to carry this confirmation into Spain. which remains to this day. so. the mobility soon improved his rank. but then residing in Spain. Ralph Brooke afterwards confessed all these circumstances to the Commissioners who represented the Earl Marshal. was the most turbulent and malicious man that ever wore the King's Coat. a Gentleman who had formerly lived in London. and to desire Garter to set his hand to it. This was true enough. on proper qualifications. ii. with a jocular complaisance. according to their Provinces. was just ready to sail[383]. the consequence of which was. when it had received the Seal of the Office and Garter's Hand. It seems too as if this Office had once. assures his Lordship that those were the Arms of Arragon. committed to Prison for negligence. p. by a grant of Arms. This remarkable case happened in the year 1616. Ralph Brooke employed a person to carry a Coat of Arms ready drawn to Garter. and so it has happened with the worthy _Gentleman_ before us. that afterwards it became transferred from the Family to the Officer for the time being. courtesy will very soon advance that rank. like . gave him the title of _Esquire_. and to represent him as a rapacious negligent Officer. The story is touched upon in Mr. notwithstanding it was surreptitiously obtained by the Herald. and. was perhaps ignorant. _viz_. and for which the performance of this painful duty to fellow-prisoners was thought a sufficient infliction. not to the present purpose. of which _Gregory Brandon. for I know that at York the Hangman has usually been a pardoned Criminal. respectively. yet did it operate so much on his successors in office. when he heard the case. by order of the King." [382] Vol. Merchants. and the Kings of Arms. the messenger was instructed to pretend that the vessel. Anstis's Register of the Order of the Garter[382]. on the other hand. Camden. and from Mr. which had very nearly cost both of them their places. and to pretend it belonged to one Gregory Brandon. whose case was deemed venial. whose real name was Brokesmouth. at that time York Herald. he put a trick upon Sir William Segar. 399. with a Canton for Brabant. annexed to the name of _Brandon_. and. Be this as we find it. and." to this effect.stations would warrant it. for he was the common Hangman for London and Middlesex. To prevent deliberation. and give the party the title of Esquire. were admitted first into the rank of Gentlemen. to the rank of a Gentleman. Garter King of Arms. yet was Gregory Brandon the Hangman become a _Gentleman_. and though it was a personal honour to himself. Ralph Brooke. and the Herald for treachery. I have said that Mr. [383] These Arms actually appear in Edmondson's Body of Heraldry. After various malversations in Office. Gentleman_. Thus was this Gregory Brandon advanced. and that Gregory Brandon was a mean and inconsiderable person. then one of the Commissioners for executing the Office of Earl Marshal. and the Fees paid. "could make any Joan a Gentlewoman. for such I shall prove him once with ceremony to have been created. and other liberal branches of the lower order. Brandon was perhaps a Convict. and was as follows. the Arms of Arragon with a difference. perhaps from the state of a Convict. that Garter was. not content with being mischievous. prefixed to his "Britannia.

waiting. . bore for a considerable time his Christian name of Gregory. is worth all your Predecessors. some of the best of them were Hereditary Hangmen. ii. E. who entailed the present official name on all who have hitherto followed him[386]. with regard to time. 1. yet Shakspeare has this passage in Coriolanus[384]: "_Menenius. more. as we learn from the Mercurius Aulicus. as we have seen. and assign a reason why Thirteen Pence Halfpenny should be esteemed the standard Fee for this definitive stroke of the law. brought within the pale of Gentility. at least by the Galleries. and we must now look to the Emoluments which appertain to it. says that _Jack Kitch_. _viz. that from this Gentleman. was the real name of a Hangman. Brandon himself. though. the Hangmen. often applied among the lower people to a man who quits his friends too early. Hogarth has given a fine Picture of the _sang-froid_ of an Executioner in his Print of the London Apprentice. in a cheap estimation. Before we proceed to matters of a pecuniary nature. He was a Saddler at Bawtry. with the utmost indifference. for that learned and laborious Compiler. that this person was." [384] Act ii. When this great man lived. [386] The Hangman was known by the name of _Gregory_ in the year 1642. which has become that of all his successors. Brandon had it by descent I cannot say. Jack Ketch_. and will not stay to finish his bottle. permit me to step out of the way for a moment. point at the ancestors of Mr. though not his Arms. "That he will be hanged for leaving his liquor. 163. for such we must suppose him to have been. Gent. This looks as if the Office of Executioner had run in some Family for a generation or two. Nay. but whether Mr. and would be well relished. This might indeed. sc. It was for the most unsuspected crime imaginable. which will explain a Yorkshire saying. p. we are told by Dr. they being a personal honour. for the arrival of the Cart and the Mob that close the melancholy Procession. at the time when Shakspeare wrote. Grey. and occasioned this saying. for it was in the Reign of King James I. been hereditary. though I have printed authority to confront me. So much for this important Office itself. like the Saddler of Bawtry._--Marcius. Ketch for the time being is lolling upon the Gallows. till a greater man arose. in his Notes on Shakspeare[385]. B. his Successors. and add a word or two on the _Executioné_. having said so much upon the _Executioner_. that the truly unfortunate man who gave rise to the adage suffered the Sentence of the Law at York. and that it was a circumstance well understood. the Editor of the Canting Dictionary. p. and indeed it has not long been suppressed. Whether the name of _Ketch_ be not the provincial pronunciation of _Catch_ among the Cockneys.many other important Offices of State. [385] Vol. I have my doubts. where the Mr. and renowned for his popularity or dexterity. 553. an Ale-house. But Use becomes Nature in things at which even Nature herself revolts." The case was this: There was formerly. for so he spells it. since Deucalion. Biographical History is silent. peradventure. and smoaking his Pipe.

I. [388] Rapin. "take these remaining Guineas. 220." but. as was usual. and give them to him if he does his work well. to distinguish it from St. "it was under such distraction of mind. for we are told by Stowe[387]. refused this little regale. insomuch that." this day called "_The Gallows House_." _Monmouth. as if to upbraid him for making his death painful. the Note taken from the Review of the Reigns of Charles and James. and looked him in the face. as their last refreshing in this life. He then prostrated himself again. Giles's. Giles's Field being reserved for persons of higher rank. on being brought to himself by the threats of the Sheriffs. having been hanged up over the fire by a chain which went round his waist[388]. Here" (to his Servant)._--"If you strike me twice. The Duke said to the Executioner. "_he could not finish his work_. called "_St. and hastened on to the Place of Execution--when. the time consumed there would have been the means of saving his life. wounding him so slightly. Pr'ythee let me feel the Axe. I cannot promise you not to stir. "Here are Six Guineas for you: pray do your business well." He felt the edge. p. on their passage to Tyburne. pp. Lord Cobham. a Reprieve arrived. as truly as unhappily. 74. See also Bale's Life and Trial of Sir John Oldcastle." _Executioner. had he stopped. Giles's was then an independent Village." The Executioner proceeded to do his office. 885. Sir John Oldcastle. St._--"I hope I shall. that he fell into the very error which the Duke had so earnestly cautioned him to avoid. upon which the Executioner threw down his Axe in a fit of horror. Giles's Bowl_. that they were there presented with a Bowl of Ale. and is still called St. Giles's Hospital. The same compliment was anciently paid to Convicts. and for crimes of uncommon magnitude. at which House the Cart used always to stop. crying out. Smithfield and St.] . under Sentence. so that he was hanged. and said." [Lord Somers's Tracts. and received two other ineffectual blows. at St." "thereof to drink at their pleasure. II. at the Gallows House. such as treason and heresy: in the last of these. alive. 219. but the rash and precipitate Saddler. [387] History of London. took up the fatal weapon again." situate between the City of York and their Tyburne. but said nothing. but the Note says. and at two other strokes made a shift to separate the Head from the Body. for leaving his liquor. Giles's in the Fields. or rather roasted. vol. was burnt._--"It is sharp enough. very soon after he was turned-off. The Execution of the Duke of Monmouth (in July 1685) was peculiarly unsuccessful in the operation. p. and on his road to the fatal Tree. being both in the same Diocese. vol. that he lifted up his head." This place (Tyburne) was the established scene of Executions in common cases so long ago as the first year of King Henry IV. do not serve me as you did my Lord Russell: I have heard you struck him three or four times. and there the Convict and the other parties were refreshed with liquors. and heavy enough. "I fear it is not sharp enough. Cripplegate.

or Two-Thirds of a Penny. like our Mark) was a Silver Coin." This. being entitled to his Cloaths. where the Mark-Piece is valued exactly at Thirteen Pence Halfpenny. in his Itinerary. There is. at the value of Thirteen Pence Halfpeny[390]. as our Mark does to our Pound. whose Fee before was perhaps no more than a Shilling. put on his best Gown. one naturally inquires for Perquisites and other Emoluments. sent him as a present. in many cases. and buy much less quantities of any article than we can[389]. Ray." [391] Coriolanus. though not used for the like purpose. by Proclamation. while he was in the Tower. which is Twenty Pence. that "the Coin of Silver. for. their Mark. The Executioner's perquisite is at least as old as Henry VIII. 8. Act i. when one Shilling _per diem_ was a standing annual stipend to many respectable Officers of various kinds. I presume. 384. and that we have it by transplantation. [389] Mr. in value Thirteen Pence Halfpenny and Two Placks. p. on the other hand. called the Mark Piece. for it is well known that Jack Ketch has a _Post-obit_ interest in the Convict. This Scottish Mark was. as Shakspeare says. which has occasioned me to give you so much trouble. Sc. upon the Union of the two Crowns in the person of King James I. By these divisions and sub-divisions of their Penny (for they have a still smaller piece. made current in England at the value of Thirteen Pence Half-penny (without regarding the fraction). for Sir Thomas More. they must very frequently be such Garments that. often exceed the established pay itself. was a revolution in the current money in favour of the Officer of whom we have been speaking. Though it was contingent. or soon after. from the value of money there. but the Lieutenant of the Tower was of opinion that a worse Gown would be good enough for the person . however. "a Hangman would bury with those who wore them[391]. a man might formerly be hanged at a much cheaper rate. IV.As to the Fee itself. applicable to the sum of _Thirteen Pence Halfpenny_. though. which will be mentioned presently. shall be from henceforth currant within the said Kingdom of England. called a Bodel or Half a Plack) they can reckon with the greatest minuteness. or Twenty Shillings.. which was of Silk Camlet. bears the same proportion to their Pound. I incline to think this seeming singular sum must have been of Scottish extraction. or to a composition for them. This. gives the Fractional Parts of the Scottish Penny. [390] The Proclamation may be seen in Strype's Annals. very good reason to conclude. being Two-Thirds of it. yet at that time it was very considerable pay. carry some. as well as this. The Scottish Mark (not ideal or nominal money. on the morning of his Execution. by a Citizen of Lucca with whom he had been in correspondence. and has an affinity to other Droits on very dissimilar occasions. from the High Chancellor to the Hangman. and which. which Plack is likewise a Coin. from the singularity of the sum. where it is said. probably. After having discovered the pay of an Office. that the odious title of _Hangman's Wages_ became at this time. vol. This emolument is of no modern date. Nothing can well vary more than the Perquisites of this Office. for all posts. in the first year of that King.

Sir. 271. The fee in the latter case was always compounded for. . on the like occasion. but never could procure a satisfactory answer. Upon the whole. Your faithful humble Servant. given by the Sufferer to the Executioner. Besides this perquisite. is the meaning of the ignominious term affixed to the sum of Thirteen Pence Halfpenny. Bishops. than to be stripped[393]. as to its nature. though with much enlargement. 13 Edward I. as the words are. for Sir Thomas More tells us that St. gave his Executioner thirty pieces of gold. and his fee extends much farther than either of them. and again. I do not reprobate the idea of this relique of ancient dignity. Thus the antiquity of this obitual emolument. their upper garment was the perquisite even of the Lord Chamberlain of the Household. being almost the last penny he had left. At the bottom of these Armorial Pictures (as I may call them) is a full display of all the Titles of the Party. p.who was to have it. CUSTOM OBSERVED BY THE LORD LIEUTENANTS OF IRELAND. and cannot but commiserate those for whom it is to be paid. [392] More's Life of Sir Thomas More. and. an angel of gold. "it is more convenient that religious men should fine for their upper garment. inasmuch as the Statute which gives this fee to the Lord Chamberlain. though Garter's was often formerly received in kind. These outward gifts may likewise be understood as tokens of inward forgiveness. when Archbishops. where it could possibly be afforded. at the principal Inns. and prevailed upon Sir Thomas to change it. his Great Grandson). which seems to be of still greater antiquity. because. I conceive that what I have offered above. Sir. and formerly received by Officers of very great respectability: for anciently Garter King of Arms had specifically the Gown of the Party on the creation of a Peer. On the great road from London to West Chester. there has always been a pecuniary compliment. has a strong resemblance to a fee of a much longer standing. having first rendered them useless to the party. the Coats of Arms of several Lord Lieutenants of Ireland. did homage to the King. together with the date of the year when each Viceroyship commenced. Bishop of Carthage. I have often inquired the reason of this custom. meaning the Executioner. directs the composition. Abbots. which he did for one made of frize[392]. Cyprian. I am. [393] Stat. and Sir Thomas himself gave (according to his Historian. seems well established. to induce him to be speedy and dexterous in the operation. he being entitled to _all_ the sufferer's garments. we find. and Priors. SAMUEL PEGGE." The same delicate necessity does not operate in the Hangman's case. and hung up in the best rooms. so well known in Shakspeare's time. framed.

though it now only survives with those who go in the greater and more elevated line of Royal representation to Ireland.). accident furnished me with the ground of this custom. They now seem only to be preserved for the gratification of the vanity of the capital Inn-keepers. and is sufficient. and even in the seventeenth century. but that for half-a-crown handsomely offered to his Excellency's Gentleman. common to every Ambassador._ . in these times of levity. _With a copious Index. they might likewise become part of the furniture of every alehouse in Dunstable. we find everywhere that Dr. OR. and. that will not find something appropriate and gratifying. at the same time. It would be impossible to withhold. in the Preface (signed A. we have little hesitation in preferring the _Anonymiana_ to the greater part of the Works of this description. SAMUEL PEGGE. to shew that the custom was anciently. in not making public their Negotiations. speaking of the reserve of the English Ambassadors." published in 1654. H. and historical Critick. either at home or abroad. who. which have been lately published.----8vo. THE END. a classical. but original. After fruitless inquiry. (Compiled by the late very Learned and Reverend DR. Pegge's remarks are not only striking and useful. Price 12s. by shewing to Humble Travellers that such and such Lord-Lieutenants did them the honour to stop at their houses. just praise from a Work that so ably combines 'light reading' with 'serious thinking. 1809. Having occasion to look into Sir Dudley Digge's "Complete Ambassador. PEGGE). or Enquirer into the Beauties and Niceties of Grammar and Languages. and yet I will not say. I was obliged to the Editor for a solution. a Biographer. poetical. _Of the Publishers of this Work may be had_ ANONYMIANA. which are hung up in _Inns_ where they passed. TEN CENTURIES OF OBSERVATIONS ON VARIOUS AUTHORS AND these Heraldic Monuments were doubtless intended to operate as public evidences of the passage of each Lord-Deputy to his delegated Government._ "Whether as an Antiquary. has this observation:--"We have hardly any notion of them but by their _Arms_. Mag." This paragraph at once accounts for the point before us. in this last respect. which now only serves to excite a little transitory curiosity. There is scarcely a taste among the various divisions of human liking.'" _Gent.

by Samuel Pegge *** END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CURIALIA MISCELLANEA *** ***** This file should be named 44335-0.ANECDOTES OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. and its Vicinities. Esq. Printed at the VOTES Printing Office. _By Nichols. whence it will appear. Irregularities and inconsistencies in the text have been retained as printed.txt or 44335-0. Westminster. have not corrupted the Language of their Ancestors.S. To which is added. The cover for the eBook version of this book was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain. Regal. and Bentley_. F. boards. that the Natives of the Metropolis. chiefly regarding the Local Dialect of London and it's Environs. Second Edition. A SUPPLEMENT to the PROVINCIAL GLOSSARY of FRANCIS Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions will be renamed. Son. so the Foundation . Price 3s. Mismatched quotes are not fixed if it's not sufficiently clear where the missing quote should be Produced by StevenGibbs. King ***** This and all associated files of various formats will be found in: http://www. Gentilitial. Julia Neufeld and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www. * * * * * Transcriber's note: Minor typographical errors have been corrected without note. enlarged and corrected.pgdp. By SAMUEL PEGGE. Price 12s. The illustrations have been moved so that they do not break up paragraphs. Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no one owns a United States copyright in these works.gutenberg. Noble. 8vo. Esq. End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of Curialia Miscellanea. or Anecdotes of Old Times. *** The Provincial Glossary may be had separate.

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