STUDIA MYTHOLOGICA SLAVICA

XI 2008

ZNANSTVENORAZISKOVALNI CENTER SLOVENSKE AKADEMIJE ZNANOSTI IN UMETNOSTI INŠTITUT ZA SLOVENSKO NARODOPISJE, LJUBLJANA, SLOVENIJA

UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DI UDINE DIPARTIMENTO DI LINGUE E CIVILTÀ DELL’ EUROPA CENTROORIENTALE, UDINE, ITALIA

LJUBLJANA 2008

.............................................................. 115 Zmago Šmitek: Paralele med indijsko in slovensko mitologijo: sledovi skupne indoevropske dediščine .......................................................... Ein Rechtstext aus der Zeit König Konrads I....................................................25 Hans-Dietrich Kahl: Das Würzburger Sondersendrecht für christianisierte Slawen und sonstige Nichtfranken....................................7 MITOLOGIA SLAVA......... Luján: Procopius.................... slovenského a maďarského prostredia ...................................................................................Próba rekonstrukcji fragmentu tradycyjnego mitologicznego obrazu świata Słowian.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 273 ........................................ Einführung................... 147 Michał Łuczyński: Kognitywna definicja Marzanny ..................................... 105 RAZISKOVALNΕ METODΕ IN INTERPRETACIJE LJUDSKEGA IZROČILA . 273 RECENSIONI E SEGNALAZIONI DI LIBRI ........ Edition und deutsche Übersetzung .................................. 273 BOOK REVIEWS .................. FONTI E RICOSTRUZIONI .......... 113 RESEARCH METHODS AND INTERPRETATIONS OF FOLK TRADITION ..............................................39 Никос Чаусидис: Митологизираното гумно во словенската традиционална култура ...........7 SLAVIC MYTHOLOGY............................................................................. SOURCES AND RECONSTRUCTIONS .... VIRI IN REKONSTRUKCIJE......................................................II ............................................................................................................17-23: a description of ritual pagan Slavic slayings? ..................... 113 Emily Lyle: Time and the Indo-European Gods in the Slavic Context .................................................................................................................Vsebina Indice Contents SLOVANSKA MITOLOGIJA......................................... 127 Martin Golema: Svätý Blažej ako „vlčí pastier“ v textovej tradícii z českého.................................................9 Katja Hrobat................. 113 METODI DI RICERCA E INTERPRETAZIONI DELLA TRADIZIONE POPOLARE ........................... 197 Richard Burns: Rain and Dust ............... Uršula Lipovec Čebron: Križišča niso nikoli sama.................65 Eugenio R............... 237 Bernd Gliwa: Zur Verwendung von Bilsenkraut und Hundspetersilie im Kultus – ein linguistischer Exkurs ..................... 217 Matej Goršič: Sampo in kirjokansi ............................................... (918?).....7 Marjeta Šašel Kos: The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography ................................ De bello Gothico III 38................................................................ 173 Mirjam Mencej: Podkovana čarovnica in druge povedke o coprnicah v vzhodni Sloveniji . 257 RECENZIJE IN POROČILA O KNJIGAH ............. Mejni prostori na Krasu in v Istri ........................................................................................................

Tergeste. VENETI 2003. Strabo from Amaseia. ENGELS 1999. which came under partial Roman rule under Pompey the Great. horse-breeding and trade in horses were two important economic activities among the Veneti. These horses proved to be a superior breed. titled Historical Sketches. V 33. which Livy. may have never belonged to the 1 2 3 4 DUECK 2000. The ancient Veneti were settled in northeastern Italy and along some of the upper Adriatic regions. These books also contain very valuable data that Strabo took from earlier historians. while Aquileia was founded outside their territory. 9 - 2 4 . and philosophers. was located in the area of the sacred site at the Timavus River where it flows into the Adriatic. Ateste (present-day Este) and Patavium were two of their major centres.3 In these lands. KOLOSSOURGIA 2005.1 His historical work. 9–11. prior to the arrival of the Carni. FOGOLARI. the wolf (which may be regarded as a prototype of a figure corresponding to the Master of the Wolves) drove off a herd of unbranded horses and brought them to the stable of his benefactor. as well as by archaeological and epigraphic finds. they had been the only inhabitants. As an act of gratitude. and indeed the Venetic horses were well known in the Graeco-Roman world as excellent racing horses. X I - 2 0 0 8 . the capital of the former kingdom of Pontus in Asia Minor. most of whose works are lost. who was himself from Patavium (present-day Padova). 9 S T U D I A M Y T H O L O G I C A S L A V I C A Strabo (the Greek historian and geographer of the Augustan Age) reported that the sanctuary of the Greek hero Diomedes. is lost and only his Geography in 17 books is preserved.4 and Opitergium (present-day Oderzo) was also important. They are of great significance not only for the Greek-speaking parts of the Empire. geographers. but also for Italy and the western provinces. Strabo’s data are confirmed by other literary sources.The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography Marjeta Šašel Kos The story One of the first more detailed descriptions of the Venetic regions is preserved in Strabo’s Geography.2 Italy is described mainly in books V and VI. too. to whom the ancient Veneti used to sacrifice a white horse. which had been saved from the nets of hunters by a well-to-do man. called their “corner” (Venetorum angulus). in which the Roman Empire and even regions beyond are described in considerable detail. In this passage Strabo also narrated the (aetiological) story of a wolf. PROSDOCIMI 1988. was an important Greek historian and geographer of the Augustan Age.

TERŽAN 2002. adding that there were sacred groves of the Argive Hera and Aetolian Artemis in the near vicinity of the sanctuary. VII 5. 1985. Veneti. in particular in the Soča/Isonzo valley. and the Bohinj region.7 The Veneti must have influenced more or less the entire northern Adriatic and eastern Alpine areas.. and consequently political and cultural roles even outside their territory in northeastern Italy. Amm. with the inscription in the Venetic script (Laivnai Vrotai).8 The story of the grateful wolf is taken from the passage in which Strabo described the worship of the Greek hero Diomedes among the Veneti. SVOLJŠAK 2001. according to Ammianus Marcellinus. GABROVEC 1987. BC). 2 C 314. southern Carinthia. Marcel. and it is not surprising that. ISTENIČ 1985. Lucija/Santa Lucia) must have been two of the significant prehistoric settlements of a population closely related to the Veneti (Fig. the Julian Alps were called Venetic before the Augustan conquest (quas Venetas appellabat antiquitas). 10 .The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography Fig. The Veneti played important economic.5 it may have been situated on the territory of the Histri earlier. a bronze tablet from grave 7/8 in Idrija at Bača (1st c. 16. TERŽAN. Much archaeological material has not yet been published to date. It was first mentioned by Strabo as a village belonging to the Carni. The sanctuary of Diomedes and the groves of both Greek goddesses are located by Strabo in the area of the sacred site at the Timavus River where it flows into the Adriatic. 178). 1). LO SCHIAVO.6 These tribes had close contacts with northeastern Italy. particularly 149–150. BC). The story 5 6 7 8 Strabo. TRAMPUŽ-OREL 1984. 31. bearing the names Luks Mel(i)nks and Gaijos (from: ZAKLADI 1999. 179). Vrota perhaps being the name of a goddess (from: ZAKLADI 1999. BANDELLI 2001. A bronze vessel from grave 14 in Idrija at Bača (1st c. 7. 1: Map showing peoples and places mentioned in the text (computer graphics: Mateja Belak). where Tolmin and somewhat later Most na Soči (Sv. as is proven most of all by the ‘Venetic’ inscriptions found in present-day Austrian Carinthia and Slovenia.

11 Two sanctuaries of Diomedes have recently been discovered along the eastern Adriatic coast: the sanctuary on the island of Vela Palagruža. 321. some mythical parallels in the reconstructed early Slavic story about Jarilo/ St George indicate that Diomedes may have originally been some early Indo-European fertility deity. they would set the wolf free from the toils. at the present time. He was worshipped on both Adriatic coasts. But. and deer herd with wolves. The translation is taken from: JONES 1949. who was known for his fondness for giving bail for people and was twitted for this. fell in with some hunters who had a wolf in their nets. 11 . and agree to settle all the damage the wolf should do. and possibly they were contemporaneous. Let us first briefly examine the presence of Diomedes and Antenor in Venetia. the key figure in explaining this aetiological story. Diomedes’ identity was double: he was the king of Argos in the epic poetry concerning the Trojan War and Thebes. It is not possible to say which of them is earlier. as I was saying. 1995. KATIČIĆ 1994–1995. Furthermore.Marjeta Šašel Kos of the wolf directly continues the reference to the sacred groves and reads in translation as follows:9 “But some mythical elements. but also called them the “wolf-breed” – mares exceptional for speed rather than beauty. since horses of that breed had become famous. and further the horse-breeding of the Veneti. And it is said that one of the prominent men. when set free. particularly in Apulia where he was kindly received by the king of the Daunians. 72–74 (=Illyricum. where he killed a dragon and helped the inhabitants of the island in the war against the Brundisians. of course. the stories of Diomedes and Antenor. and made it a custom not to sell a mare to outsiders. both are related to the Venetic horses.” The story opens some interesting and intriguing themes: such as the Greek influence in the northern Adriatic among the Veneti. 380–381). but he was also a Thracian king according to the stories related to Hercules. Then the existence of a supposedly common social institution of becoming pledge for somebody. Diomedes and Antenor among the Veneti Two Greek legends are connected with the Ventic area. drove off a considerable herd of unbranded horses and brought them to the stable of the man who was fond of giving bail. upon their saying in jest that if he would give bail for the wolf. the practice of horse-breeding has wholly disappeared. 9 C 215. and. His cult is also attested in Corcyra (present-day Corfu). that in these sacred precincts the wild animals become tame. 9 10 11 V 1. have been added: namely. in order that the genuine breed might remain in their family alone. which must have been in one way or another related to the ancient sacred site at the Timavus River. Daunus. he agreed to the proposal.10 According to Homer he was one of the most courageous heroes in the Trojan War. Diomedes had to leave Argos because of the infidelity of his wife and her plotting against him. and the wolf. and they allow the people to approach and caress them. and any that are being pursued by dogs are no longer pursued when they have taken refuge here. Interestingly. and the figure of the grateful wolf. p. KATIČIĆ 1989. and his successors kept not only the brand but also the name for the breed of the horses. and the man who received the favour not only branded all the mares with a wolf.

14 and where the river god himself was worshipped. one of the main characteristics of the cult of Diomedes in the eastern Adriatic. 180–181. he would have founded a kingdom after he had defeated the Euganeans. knew of the Paphlagonian origin of the Veneti and their arrival in Venetia with Antenor. 63 ss. on Antenor. 118–120. 1..20 This source may have been writers other than Polybius and Posidonius. the descendants of Antenor. which allegedly would have been founded by Aeneas. 1995). as has been noted above. However. 1.15 According to a different tradition. There. MORETTI 1980 (= Epigrafia. horse-breeding in Venetia was more closely linked to Diomedes. Strabo cited as his sources the Greek historian Polybius (second century BC) and the Greek philosopher and historian Posidonius (second to first century BC). VEDALDI IASBEZ 1994. 82–86. which is known from other sources to have been Antenor’s foundation. an indigenous deity must have also influenced his cult. The position of Diomedes’ sanctuary near the sea indicates that one of his roles was the familiar Adriatic role of protecting seafarers. who used to sacrifice a white horse to him as late as the time of Strabo’s source for this passage. See.The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography the site of the first station for navigators sailing to the north past the promontory of Garganus Mons (Gargano) in the direction of Issa (present-day Vis). where another sanctuary of Diomedes was recently identified and excavated. 281–283). too. PROSDOCIMI 2001. COLONNA 1998. where the Timavus (present-day Timavo/Timava) riemerges and then empties with seven streams into the sea. Most interestingly. 8 C 214. It seems that Diomedes was related to the breeding of horses among the Veneti. CÀSSOLA 1979 (1994. the Greek geographer from the end of the second 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 KIRIGIN.. V 1. as could be inferred from Strabo. ČAČE 1998. FONTANA 1997. BILIĆ DUJMUŠIĆ 2002.12 The second stop for the sailors heading north was the Promontory of Diomedes (Promunturium Diomedis. Antenor would have led the ‘Heneti’ from Troy to Venetia. II 852). it was politically important to be of Trojan descent just like Rome. as is reported by Livy.13 One of the most famous sanctuaries of Diomedes was among the Veneti at the sacred site of the broad region of Fons/Lacus Timavi. Pyth. and even the Aquileians are referred to as the Antenoridae. Ab urbe condita. 1990). however. present-day Rt Ploča) on the Hyllian Peninsula (Hyllica peninsula) south of Šibenik. since this was. However. 1989. as well as for those who sailed from Corcyra towards Spina and Atria. CUSCITO et al. during the imperial period. Both Aeneas and Antenor were viewed positively and not as traitors and fugitives. 12 . also KATIČIĆ 1988 (=Illyricum.17 In the late Roman Republic and afterwards. BOFFO 2000. 4 C 212. Livy does not mention that Antenor was said to have founded his native town of Patavium. cf. V 1. 2003. as is indicated by his citing anonymous sources: “they say”. It has been hypothesized that these were Artemidorus of Ephesus. When describing the sacred site of the Timavus River. BRACCESI 19972. 5.18 Strabo. he noted that one of the proofs for this thesis is the horse-breeding of the Veneti. ID. 160–177.19 Homer might have alluded to this activity when he mentioned a breed of tough mules originating in the country of the Veneti (Iliad.16 Perhaps the Veneti accepted the cult of Antenor because the Greek lyric poet Pindar of the fifth century BC presented the Antenoridae as horse-driving or horse-riding heroes. Strangely. 30 ff. Indeed Strabo mentions that Diomedes’ sanctuary possessed a harbour.

Virgil referred to the custom in his description of the animal plague among the Noricans. 82–83. 15–16. GRASSL 2007. The Greek influence in the Upper Adriatic area may have been stronger than is usually assumed. no doubt this must have been her main domain in Aetolia. who was originally perhaps an Aegean great goddess. particularly from the Hellenistic period onwards. Virgilius. Characteristic of the Greek Hera. may have also introduced the worship of Hera and Artemis. and the story of the Calydonian boar indeed points to the widespread worship of Artemis in Aetolia.27 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 LASSERRE 1966. her Italian/Roman equivalent. ŠAŠEL 1980 (= Opera 1992). while the other belonged to the goddess called the Aetolian Artemis. pursued by dogs.21 The story of the wolf was ultimately taken from Timaeus. See also RADT 2003. the patroness of marriage. it seems. where even mother goddesses (Celtic goddesses worshipped in plural) were sometimes called Iunones. since they were very much influenced by local female divinities. the Greeks who brought the cult of Diomedes to this area. She was also the protector of herds. if they had ever indeed been Greek.24 Perhaps it was not due to chance that Hera was related to Diomedes’ native country of Argos. These two goddesses.25 Among the Norican Celts. was her connection with royalty on the one hand. PROSDOCIMI 2001. PRICE 1998. 13 . the Roman Juno was very much influenced by the Etruscan one (a temple on the Aventine Hill was built for her after her evocatio in 396 BC. since she was both the goddess of women and a civic deity. deer together with wolves. 133. WERNICKE 1895. whose statue used to be carried to her sanctuary on a wagon driven by cows. a goddess named Juno by the Romans was worshipped. BEARD. Goddesses of the type of Juno. and marriage on the other. However. 16–19. pótnia therôn.23 The nature of Artemis was polyvalent in the Greek world.26 which caused them to harness aurochs to the carriage because the cows had perished during the epidemics. all behaving docilely. when she deserted the inhabitants of Veii in the war with Rome). Oeneus was the mythical king of Calydon. there is hardly any doubt that she was regarded as the mistress of wild animals. goddesses documented under the name of Juno differed from each other greatly. however. and in that way was also connected with horses.22 Diomedes’ sanctuary was situated near two important cult places with sacred groves. if taking refuge in these groves was safe. V 1. GUAITOLI 1995. 1344. Her marriage to Zeus symbolized the natural world of plants and animals and her sanctuaries were often in fertile plains far from towns. Even the original role of Juno is not clear. and were only vaguely similar to the Roman Juno. where wild animals became tame. in view of sacred precincts. 14 ff. Georg. The goddess sent the wild beast because Oeneus had forgotten to sacrifice to her. the patroness of hunting. NORTH. 9 C 215. were widely worshipped throughout Italy. in which tame and wild animals were living together.Marjeta Šašel Kos century BC. who had in his turn used Timaeus of Tauromenium in Sicily (fourth to third century BC). too. were soon assimilated with the local cults of Venetic female deities with similar attributes. III 531–533. Aetolia. and any animal. Strabo noted that one of these sacred groves was dedicated to the goddess called by him the Argive Hera. while Artemis played an important role in the homeland of Diomedes’ grandfather Oeneus. in particular in northern Italy.

A wolf won the confidence of a shepherd but eventually destroyed his flock. Surprisingly. Aelian. upon seeing his shadow. everything living was regarded as all-powerful and divine. therefore. even if he had to kill them in order to survive.28 Another interesting comparison is with the fables of Aesop. and what is also interesting. Actually. and was collected from various literary sources by August Marx. General observations concerning stories of grateful animals are as follows. MARX 1889. snakes. and classical authors who are often cited are Theophrast. The oldest known originate from the Near East. no story with a wolf is mentioned among the collected stories. There is a story of a heron freeing a bone from a wolf ’s throat. which happened to be big. storks.29 Indeed. horses. In general. passing a law by which he himself did not abide. Their stories. The fact that the wolf appears in most stories as a hostile. are first alluded to by Hesiod (eighth century BC) and must represent an old form of folklore. for example. A wolf disguised himself by putting on a sheepskin and was unintentionally killed by a shepherd for his supper. Even wolf cubs. the majority of these stories have been taken from zoological literature. but then he killed them first. It seems. These stories developed from the motif of a “helpful animal”. The wolf in the Aesopic fables. Grateful animals are predominantly wild. he falsely accused a lamb of troubling the water in a stream from which he wanted to drink. and by a dog. for which the wolf showed no gratitude to the helpful bird. In three fables the wolf proved to be stupid as he was outwitted by a young goat. which may have also been in circulation in antiquity. 117. ants and bees). 28 29 30 LINDAHL 1980. and some of the smaller animals (e. elephants. nos. even in the corpus of stories about grateful animals. or instinctively behaved like wolves. These animals may have been the incarnation of good spirits whom people worshipped because they symbolized moral precepts. eagles. 14 . dogs. caused harm to the flock when they grew up. and only rarely domestic animals. that the man in the story was meant to appear as taking a great risk to guarantee for a wild animal that can show no gratitude. 111. and Pliny the Elder. illustrating some important truth or moral. Plutarch. they are about local animals. and of doing him other damage that the lamb never had done. In his world. but the lion devoured him. by an ass. which reflects one of the oldest religious beliefs of primitive man. 101. The wolf always appears as a bad character in these fables. with those in which a wolf is the protagonist.g. lions. Animals known for their gratitude were dolphins.The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography The wolf – a prototype of the Master of the Wolves? It is perhaps interesting (particularly in terms of ethnology and philology) to compare the story of the grateful wolf with other related stories. Such stories with speaking animals. “bad” animal. he became conceited and wanted to be the king of the animals. Man should behave well towards animals. reared with care and love. differ greatly from each other. proposed a brotherhood with dogs for letting him inside the pen.30 the wolf never appears as a protagonist. clearly indicates that to shepherds and stockbreeders wolves have always represented a great danger. our story has not even been cited in the book (which is no doubt an unintentional omission). wanted to harm a fox. HANDFORD 1964. 26–36. which is the protagonist of such stories even in countries where it did not live. with the exception of the lion. He further appears as a self-appointed leader of other wolves. Or. which are known all over the Indo-European world since the earliest times and were transmitted orally.

Indeed. 1. and the Venetic horses are further mentioned by Euripides. I owe the reference to this book to Dr. summer and early autumn. but also among the Finns. since it is known that during the Olympic Games in 440 BC the “Venetic mares” brought victory to Leon from Sparta. who encouraged me to use it for my study. or a forest daemon. 1. 50–51. horse-breeding was one of their conspicuous economic activities for which they were widely known. based on the Sicilian historian Timaeus). the basic need to ward off wolves from the herds is concealed. of allotting food to them. while others say that certain of the Heneti of Paphlagonia escaped hither with 31 32 33 34 35 MENCEJ 2001. St Savo and others. as has already been emphasized. 4 C 212. and of protecting livestock and/or people from wolves. 307–309. most commonly either St George or St Martin. This actually signifies two periods of the shepherds’ year: outdoor pasture over the late spring. 22. Martin’s Day). Hippol. too.33 The fame of the breed finds direct confirmation also in an earlier passage of Strabo in the same book of his Geography (this one. Euripides. Fr. inhabiting modern Morbihan along the Atlantic ocean. Monika Kropej and Dr.34 With this passage Strabo wished to illustrate the Paphlagonian origin of the Veneti and refute the hypothesis that they would have been colonists from among the Celts from Gaul with the same name.Marjeta Šašel Kos They were much feared by villagers who sought to protect themselves and their livestock as best they could against attacks by wolves. In it Strabo mentioned that Dionysius the Elder of Syracuse (late fourth century BC). on the first day of pasturing the Master of the Wolves “shuts the mouths of the wolves” (which may correspond to St George’s Day). he “opens them again”. Could it nonetheless be explained in a broader context? There is a most interesting figure in European folklore of the Master of the Wolves. 15 . very well known among the Slavic peoples. According to the beliefs that influenced the stockbreeders’ and shepherds’ calendar.32 they must have been well known and greatly appreciated. The text reads as follows:35 “Some say that the Heneti too are colonists of those Celti of like name who live on the ocean-coast. The Master of the Wolves had three main functions: that of commanding the wolves. The Venetic horses Strabo’s story of the grateful wolf is notably an aetiological story closely connected with the trade in horses among the Veneti.31 Beneath the elaborate folklore and customs related to this belief. This figure could either be a wolf himself. bought his competition horses in Venetia. the famous Sicilian tyrant. Venetic riding-horses are first mentioned in the seventh century BC by the Greek lyric poet Alcman. 277). fr. and on the last day (corresponding perhaps to St. but also St Nicholas. as well as Austrians and Germans. Andrej Pleterski. pp. and the winter period when the flocks are shut indoor. The story of a grateful wolf is unique and represents an exception within Graeco-Roman literature. CÀSSOLA 1979 (= 1994. It could be hypothesized that the grateful wolf in Strabo’s story might perhaps have been some kind of a prototype of a figure corresponding in certain ways to the Master of the Wolves: a wolf who could protect a herd of wild horses from other wolves and bring it safe to his benefactor. 231. Translation by JONES 1949. Polemon. although it is often a saint. cf. 1131. since this animal never appears as grateful figure. V 1.

although formerly it was prized among them. in the sanctuary of Zeus. whence the breed of the wild mules.36 Nonetheless. but it is not known how much older. older than the fourth century BC. Such a situation occurred. HROBAT 2007. his tent was attacked by the spectators. the export of horses from Italy. neither as a composer of tragedies (his verses were also recited in the course of the games). led by his brother Thearides. Strabo mentioned that the Veneti sacrificed a white horse to Diomedes. Diodorus. which were by far superior to all others in swiftness”.” At Olympia. as testimony to this. quite possibly the Venetic horses. who publicly exposed his policy as hostile to Greek freedom. too. has wholly disappeared. however. see supra. although this is only a terminus ante quem. particularly not in Athens. 14. 1. passim. TURK 2005. on the instigation of the orator Lysias (next in fame to Demosthenes). 6. Hal. After having told the story of the grateful wolf.40 and the question may be asked whether the Veneti exported their horses to their neighbours.39 The breeding of the Venetic horses most probably flourished in the time of the so-called “Situla Art” in Dolenjska (Lower Carniola). However.. not the actual drivers or riders. By the time when the Roman rule extended over Venetia. Burials of horses in the Iron Age Altino cemetery of “Le Brustolade”. This is important information from his own lifetime. was limited. 91. Obviously it was older than the rule of Dionysius the Elder of Syracuse. for example. Depictions on the decorated bronze buckets and buckles also show horses. in 170 BC. adduce their devotion to the breeding of horses – a devotion which now. GAMBACURTA 2003. therefore he sent to Olympia a festive embassy. received the glory in these contests. Dionysius competed with four-horse chariots during the Olympic games in 388 BC. Lys. 109.41 Perhaps some horses – no doubt prestigious ones – found in the graves of the Iron Age inhabitants of Dolenjska originated from Venetia. and it is not possible to conclude when exactly the breeding ceased. Homer. 16 . for example. collected his stud of prizehorses from here.’ Again. his winning horses became well known and appreciated in Greece for a long time as excellent race-horses. He distinguished himself by owning such good horses. Diodorus of Sicily reported that “Dionysus sent to the contest several four-horse teams. Dionysius. Strabo added that by his time horsebreeding among the Veneti had already become extinct. indeed. are dated from the end of the sixth century BC onwards. and consequently not only did the fame of the Henetian foal-breeding reach the Greeks but the breed itself was held in high esteem by them for a long time. The Olympic games were for him an occasion of enhancing his reputation and winning more recognition in Greece. since the owners of the horses. that is. except on special occasions. cf. recalls this fact: ‘From the land of the Heneti. 29 f. and.37 The period of origin for the breeding of white (?)38 horses among the Veneti cannot be established with certainty.The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography Antenor from the Trojan war. The tyrant did not enjoy a good reputation in Greece. A year earlier the consular army under 36 37 38 39 40 41 Dionys. from the fact of their ancient rivalry in the matter of producing mares for mule-breeding. the tyrant of Sicily. The Romans did not allow the export of these horses. The “Venetic” horseman appearing on the Slovenian passports and identity cards is erroneously regarded as a Venetic (and proto-Slovenian) horseman. nor – even worse – as an ally of Sparta and possibly of the Persians. which means that the breeding of good horses was still very prestigious.

which occurs in several Venetic inscriptions. as thick as the tail of a colt. 34. some of them became locally extinct. Its outward appearance closely resembled that of a stag. Interestingly. as well as two horses with horse equipment. 43. with costly gifts including two golden necklaces. This kingdom may have been the Norican kingdom. where other literature is cited. who had been informed about this by the Aquileians.44 This privilege was regarded as a great advantage and the horses in question were most probably Venetic horses. but most of all the right to import horses since their export was otherwise forbidden. wild horses as well as aurochs (the wild progenitor of modern cattle) are known to have been living in the Alps. indicates a ‘master of the horse’.43 In this delicate situation the Senate sent an embassy of two most distinguished senators to Cincibilus and his brother. 43. 5. such as here mentioned wild horses. Livy called Cincibilus the king of the Celts (rex Gallorum). 1 ff.48 The great importance of horses in Venetia seems to be well confirmed also by epigraphy since the Venetic word ekupetaris.g.47 The Alps at that time were partly populated by animals different from the present-day ones. In the prehistoric and Roman periods. Borut Toškan. 17 . and Carni. through 14C dating. it is now known. Altinum (Altino). The Senate. This happened after the consul had been recalled by the Senate from his march to Macedonia and had to return. it is well known from archaeological contexts what a great role horses played among the Veneti. 333. Livy.46 and its existence in the third century BC and also in a later period has been archaeologically confirmed. aurochs. ŠAŠEL KOS 1997. This function may be interpreted either in social or socio-economic terms. it has therefore been assumed that commerce in horses must have been highly developed among the Veneti. in the first case corresponding to the Roman 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Livy. KRIVIC 1985. 7–9. See URBAN 2000. and elks. and the brother of the Celtic king Cincibilus came to protest on behalf of the Alpine peoples. by devastating their lands and hunting for slaves.42 Longinus had been allotted the province of Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy) but wanted to win glory and booty in Macedonia in the war against Philip V.Marjeta Šašel Kos Gaius Cassius Longinus caused great damage to the Iapodes. who added that along with them an animal of unusual form also inhabited these mountains. five silver vessels. Miscalculating the great distance between Aquileia and Pella. ŠAŠEL KOS 1998. I owe this reference to Dr. IV 6. Alpini populi (probably the Taurisci inhabiting present-day Slovenia). the capital of the Macedonian kingdom..45 This description corresponds well to an elk. since even horse cemeteries and relatively frequent horse burials have been discovered to date in the area of Patavium (Padua). 293. e. which were similar to that of a boar. DOBESCH 1980. RIEDEL 1982. he took provisions for 30 days and guides to show him the way across the Balkans. whom I also thank for a discussion about the (wild) horses.10. GAMBACURTA 2003. Below the chin the animal had a hard protuberance about a span long. Polyb. Unfortunately it was not possible to prevent the harm done to the peoples through whose territory Longinus and his soldiers were returning. BOLOGNESI 1998–1999. and Atria (Adria). The representatives of those peoples complained in the Senate about the devastation. reared in the immediate neighbourhood of the Celtic kingdom(s) in the Alps. although it is not noted in the sources under this name.10 C 207–208. who were his brother’s allies. Strabo took these data too from Polybius. See. except its neck and coat. 5. made the consul stop his march immediately. Histri. 8 = Strabo. with hairs growing at the end. that elks lived there around AD 400: JAMNIK 2004.

where the Iron Age population was related to the Veneti. to a breeder of horses. BöKöNYI 1993. LEVINE 2006: citation on p. Borut Toškan.52 However. 18 . As yet unpublished. the latest genetic studies of horses seem to indicate that the taming and breeding of horses was much older and much more complex than has hitherto been believed. and it has been postulated that two groups (types) could be distinguished: the taller and more prestigious eastern group. ordo equester. from: TURK 2005.50 but also elsewhere. Novo Mesto). Thus they are found at Most na Soči. in the second case. a member of the upper class. whom I thank very much for his comments on the horse in archaeology. Indeed. DULAR 2007. which has often been noted. at least theoretically plausible. 25 ff. as for example at Bled.49 In general it can be observed that Iron Age horse burials are also not rare in the area bordering the regions inhabited by the Veneti. p.e. and. Pristava. on decorated “Situla Art” objects from the early Iron Age horses are depicted in different ways. preserved by Strabo.The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography Fig. possessing a horse.51 Much has been written about the origin of the horses in the northern Adriatic and sub-Alpine regions. as well as in other parts of Slovenia. personal communication of Dr. Andrej Pleterski. i. As Marsha Levine concluded: “The genetic data appears to suggest that as the knowledge of horse breeding spread. Libna. used as working horses. 199. 2: Bronze belt buckle from Vače (end of 6th to 5th century BC. thus forming the regional mtDNA clusters”. additional horses from wild populations were incorporated into the domestic herds. of western origin. Magdalenska Gora. 58). 39 fig. particularly in the cemeteries belonging to the Dolenjska Iron Age hillforts (Stična. owned by warriors and members of the ruling class as a status symbol. Particularly instructive in this respect is the scene on the decorated bronze belt buckle from Vače (end of sixth to fifth century BC) representing two warriors in different attire on different horses 49 50 51 52 53 MARINETTI 2003.53 That would make the historical kernel of the story. as well as a smaller group. I owe this reference to Dr.

the army. eds. Napolitan.Marjeta Šašel Kos (Fig. in: Iulium Carnicum: centro alpino tra Italia e Norico dalla protostoria all'età imperiale. F. Both breeds of horses are attested archaeologically at the Iron Age Dolenjska sites.58 Indeed. and quite different from the other. NORTH. Roma 2001. The Archaeological Excavations on Cape Ploča. He still holds one spear in his left hand. and notably also in northern Italy among the Veneti. bearing the sun symbol of the swastika (indicating the colour white?). Fontana (Studi e Ricerche sulla Gallia Cisalpina 13).55 although he seems to be in a losing position. Religions of Rome. G. are well documented in the Dolenjska graves. Vol. Literature BANDELLI. For a short discussion see TURK 2005. Arta Terme . he is now holding an axe. BEARD. It is most interesting to note that in the second half of the sixteenth century.54 The warrior on the left is riding a taller horse with better equipment.. DOLENC 1980. Indeed this could be confirmed by the data in Strabo’s Geography. ibid. 46–47 and fig. Cambridge. 11.. BöKöNYI 1993. Andrej Pleterski. where such breeding is attested. S. Could it be assumed that one of them.Cividale.. PRICE. M.56 The attire and weapons of both horsemen. 13–38. I would like to thank for this opinion Prof. G. and his story about the grateful wolf. S. I: A History. Melbourne 1998. and the Spanish riding school. Rather than to assume this represents a duel between “a Thracian and a local Illyrian warrior”. was in possession of a Venetic horse? The way in which the political incident concerning the misconduct of the army of Gaius Cassius Longinus was handled is most instructive. Atti del Convegno. 146. New York. the scene may be interpreted as a contest between the “princes” within the same region. and the smaller horse is currently regarded as a more or less local type. along these lines the riders should better be explained as a Scythian and a ‘Lower Carniolan’. perhaps the warrior on the left.e. too. J. it does not seem to be entirely clear which of them is the winner.59 I would very much like to thank Andrej Pleterski for his valuable comments on my paper. The horse on the right is slightly smaller and “wilder” looking. while the warrior on the right has already discarded both of his and wounded his opponent’s horse.57 or – much more plausible – between a warrior from Etruria or Venetia and a “Lower Carniolan”. 40. in: Grčki utjecaj na istočnoj obali Jadrana / Greek Influence Along the East Adriatic Coast (Proceedings 54 55 56 57 58 59 For another drawing of the same buckle see ZAKLADI 1999. Summarized by BöKöNYI 1993.. BILIĆ DUJMUŠIĆ. or a duel between two heroes from local legends. 2). Powell. and Arab horses to produce a breed of fast (mostly white) horses – the Lipica horses or Lipizzaners – intended for the court of Vienna. Neither ‘Thracian’ nor ‘Illyrian’ is plausible. G. Bandelli. citing the explanation of T. originating from the same broad area as the white Venetic horse known from Strabo) was cross-bred with Spanish. the autochthonous Karst horse (i. 19 . It shows – among other things – how the breeding of horses must have been important at that time in Italy. 29–30 settembre 1995. Veneti e Carni dalle origini alla romanizzazione. E.

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Človek si je živali želel napraviti sebi naklonjene. če bi bil porok tudi volku. z izjemo leva.. ko lirski pesnik Alkman prvič omeni venetske konje. volk pa mu je v njegovo stajo iz hvaležnosti prignal čredo divjih konj. Njihov sloves je ščasoma naraščal. ki ga je nek premožni mož rešil iz zank lovcev. kamor se je vrnil po padcu Troje. Tudi pri Venetih je imel svetišče v neposredni bližini Jadranske obale ter. sv. pri katerih je oboje igralo pomembno ekonomsko vlogo. Strabonova zgodba je etiološke narave in želi razložiti nastanek vzreje konj in trgovine s konji pri Venetih. kjer sicer ne živi. Človek je bil namreč znan po tem. ne eksotične. stoletja pr. Kr.Marjeta Šašel Kos Pripovedka o hvaležnem volku in venetskih konjih v Strabonovi Geografiji Marjeta Šašel Kos Grški zgodovinar in geograf iz avgustejskega časa. da so že na olimpijskih igrah leta 440 pr. veljal je za zaščitnika pomorcev. posebej pogosto npr. da je lahko preživel. da volk nikdar ne nastopa kot hvaležna žival. motiv hvaležne živali pa je sicer v folklori pogost po vsem indoevropskem svetu in poznan od orientalnih tekstov in antike dalje. Diomed je bil kralj Argosa. Te živali si je verjetno predstavljal kot utelešenje dobrih duhov in jih častil. ki je v živem svetu okoli sebe povsod občutil navzočnost božanskega. da je bil pripravljen vsakomur iti za poroka. pač pa kult grškega heroja Diomeda. vendar je bilo zaradi ženine nezvestobe in spletk njegovo življenje ogroženo in zateči se je moral na italsko stran Jadrana h kralju Davnije Davnu. njemu posvečeno svetišče so odkrili na Veli Palagruži in na Rtu Ploča (Promunturium Diomedis) južno od Šibenika. ki pomaga'. Martin. Strabon Timava sicer ne omenja. Strabonov volk bi morda utegnil biti nekakšen prototip 'Gospodarja volkov'. blizu svetih gajev argivske Here in etolske Artemide. ki je imel v bližini izlivov Timave v Jadransko morje svoje svetišče in ki so mu imeli navado žrtvovati belega konja. jim določal hrano in ščitil živino na paši in ljudi pred volkovi. ki je dobro znan v evropski folklori. čeprav jih je moral tudi ubijati. kot pravi Strabon. Gospodar volkov je lahko volk. ki nastopa tudi tam. kar odraža eno najstarejših oblik verovanja primitivnega človeka. nam je v svojem opisu Italije ohranil zanimivo zgodbo o hvaležnem volku. ki so se izkazali za odlično raso. na zadnji dan paše »pa jih spet odpre« (kar je bilo povezano s praznikom na sv. pa so ga lovci v šali povprašali. Savo in drugi. ne domače. tako v pripovedih slovanskih kot germanskih narodov. Zgodba o hvaležnem volku je izjemna v grško-rimski književnosti in tudi sicer nima vzporednic. Nikolaj. Strabon. da na prvi dan paše na prostem Gospodar volkov »zapre gobce volkov« (kar je povezano z Jurjevim). Gospodar volkov je imel tri glavne naloge: volkovom je zapovedoval. 1). Kr. ker so simbolizirale moralne nauke. Postavljena je v kontekst svetih krajev v območju izvira in izliva reke Timave pri Venetih (sl. Jurij ali sv. lahko pa je tudi gozdni duh ali svetnik. Zanimivo je. Te zgodbe so se razvile iz motiva 'živali. sv. Hvaležne živali so predvsem divje. kjer so v antiki častili boga Timava. Po reji konj so bili v grškem svetu znani najmanj od 7. omenja jih tudi Evripid in znano je. Martina). novi lastnik jim je vtisnil žig s podobo volka. pa tudi med Finci. v tej vlogi pa nastopajo tudi sv. Živinorejci in pastirji so verjeli. se ponuja zanimiva primerjava z motivom 'Gospodarja volkov'. in predvsem lokalne. Diomeda so častili tako vzdolž zahodne kot vzhodne obale Jadrana in njenega neposrednega zaledja. Mož je pristal. 'venetske kobile' prinesle zmago 23 . Žrtvovanje belega konja je bilo Strabonu iztočnica za zgodbo o hvaležnem volku. Če jo želimo umestiti v širši kontekst.

v Stični.The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography svojemu lastniku Leonu iz Šparte. ki mu je pripeljalo poleg drugih dragocenih daril tudi dva konja s popolno konjsko opremo. Kr. zanimivo pa je. Raziskave kažejo. Na bronasti pasni sponi s konca 6. V tistem času je bila Venetija že pod rimsko oblastjo in podarjena konja sta bila verjetno venetska. zlasti v območju Patavija (Padove). Upodobitev bi si morda lahko razložili kot dvoboj dveh jezdecev v religioznem kontekstu nagrobnih ali kakšnih drugih kultnih iger. da so v drugi polovici 16. 24 . konzul pa je na povratku pustošil ozemlje rimskih zaveznikov. Belega konja so Veneti žrtvovali Diomedu in ni povsem izključeno. Znano je tudi. sta upodobljena bojevnika na različnih konjih. Kr. kjer bi moral tudi ostati. tako npr. 2). pa je s svojimi venetskimi konji v tekmi štirivpreg zmagal mogočni sirakuški tiran Dionizij Starejši. Senatski odposlanci so ga dohiteli in odpoklicali. kot so doslej mislili. ki so predstavljali statusni simbol. da je bila vzreja konj starejša in veliko bolj zapletena. čeprav je dobil v upravljanje severno Italijo (imenovala se je Cisalpinska Galija). Na olimpijskih igrah leta 388 pr. so imeli člani vladajoče elite in bojevniki. Magdalenski Gori. Kr. Altina in Atrije (Adrije). ki so po hitrosti daleč prekašale vse druge«. oz. da so Rimljani nadzorovali izvoz konj. Kako to funkcijo ustrezno razložiti. temveč tudi na Pristavi pri Bledu in na Dolenjskem. ki je pogost na venetskih napisih in pomeni 'gospodarja konjev'. jih načeloma niso dovolili izvažati. ni povsem jasno. Tudi na območju današnje Slovenije so bili odkriti posamezni pokopi konj v železni dobi. stoletju pr. Na pomembno vlogo konj med Veneti kažejo številni konjski pokopi. da gre za belega konja. Tedaj je namreč rimski konzul Gaj Kasij Longin z območja Akvileje prodiral z vojsko proti Makedoniji. napolitanskim in arabskim konjem ter vzgojili slovitega hitrega lipicanca. Kam so Veneti še izvažali svoje konje poleg Grčije in Sicilije? Zelo verjetno tudi k veljakom železnodobnih gradišč na Dolenjskem in drugod po Sloveniji. napravili v primeru večjega političnega incidenta leta 171 pr. kar po vsej verjetnosti pomeni. da bi si pridobil slavo v vojni proti makedonskemu kralju. Strabon omenja. da je levi jezdec jahal belega venetskega konja. da so občasno v domače črede konj vključevali lokalne divje konje. Libni in Novem mestu. konje višje in bolj prestižne vzhodne rase. kar je veljalo za zelo prestižno darilo. izjemo so npr. Kr. še v 2. ker sta možni tako družbena kot družbeno-ekonomska razlaga. Zgolj kot zanimivost naj še omenim. kar bi potrjevalo zgodovinsko jedro Strabonove zgodbe o volku. stoletja pr. kjer je živelo sosednjim Venetom sorodno prebivalstvo. desni nižji in bolj divjega videza (sl. da so bili konji venetski. da je na levem konju upodobljen sončni simbol v obliki svastike. Da bi se oddolžil za zločinsko ravnanje Longinove vojske. da gre za dve vrsti konj. je rimski senat poslal k oškodovanemu keltskemu kralju odposlanstvo. Vse kaže. iz 5. levi je nekoliko višji in elegantnejši. ne le v Mostu na Soči. stoletja domačega kraškega konja (ki je torej izviral iz istega širšega območja kot beli venetski konji iz okolice reke Timave) oplemenitili s španskim. po prvi bi oseba s tem nazivom pripadala višjemu družbenemu razredu. Diodor s Sicilije pa pravi: »Dionizij je poslal na tekmo nekaj četverovpreg. po drugi pa bi šlo za rejca konj. Vendar pa zadnje genetske študije kažejo. medtem ko so za delo uporabljali manjšo raso konj zahodnega porekla. ter naziv ekupetaris. ki bi ustrezal rimskemu viteškemu stanu.