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This question paper consists of 4 printed pages, each of which is identified by the Code Number PEME108001

UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering January 2010 Examinations

PEME108001 PROCESS AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING


Time allowed: 3 hours Answer five questions, one question from each Section PLEASE SHOW ALL WORKINGS IN ANSWERS TO NUMERICAL QUESTIONS. SECTION A Resources 1 With the aid of diagrams and/or flowsheets, discuss TWO of the following: (a) (b) (c) primary ore comminution techniques froth flotation processes for recovering minerals electro-winning of metals from leach liquors.

[10 marks each]

Review the global production, commercial extraction and industrial utilisation of TWO of the following commodities: (a) salt (b) copper (c) lead [10 marks each]

SECTION B Materials Processing 3 Answer TWO of the following: (a) What are the general features of the casting technique for the production of shaped components? How can this technique be used for the production of hollow components? What factors limit the ability of a casting liquid to fill the mould? Discuss how suitable casting liquids may be obtained in metals, liquids and polymers, using sketch graphs, where appropriate, to illustrate your answer. [10 marks] Continued over

PEME108001

(b)

What are the general features of the forming technique for the production of shaped components? What is the most important material property requirement for this processing technique? List the classes of materials which generally possess this. The flow stress, and its variation with strain, strain rate and temperature, is important in forming why is this? Sketch graphs to illustrate this for a typical metal or alloy and explain this behaviour in terms of the processes occurring at a microstructural level within the material. [10 marks] Draw a flow sheet showing the stages in the production of a shaped component from powder. Describe briefly, and with the aid of diagrams, the press and sinter route, giving an example of one metal and one ceramic product typically processed by this route. Why might a powder route be preferred to a casting or forming route for the production of a metallic component? [10 marks] Why might a fabrication route be chosen over near-net-shape forming in the production of a component? Give examples of two products which illustrate this. What distinguishes between soldering, brazing and welding as joining techniques? Rank these in terms of the joint strength which results and explain this on the basis of the microstructures which result. [10 marks]

(c)

(d)

For EACH of FOUR of the articles listed below, draw a flowsheet to represent ONE possible route for the production of the article from the indicated material in its primary form. Take care to include all necessary stages and justify your choice of processing route. [Note that you should not use the same principal processing route more than once.] On your flowsheet, indicate the major energy inputs to the process and the major sources of waste. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) A steel crankshaft for an internal combustion engine; The nylon case of a notebook computer; A porcelain statuette; The stainless steel case of a watch; A gold dental crown; A bronze self-lubricating bearing. SECTION C Chemical Processes

[5 marks each part]

Many chemical products are manufactured using batch processing methods. (a) Highlight the main factors that influence the choice between using batch when compared to continuous processing methods and give two examples of common chemical products manufactured using batch processes. [4 marks] Continued over 2

PEME108001

(b)

A stirred tank reactor is commonly used in the batch synthesis and manufacture of a wide range of industrial materials. Outline and discuss the main issues that a process engineer needs to consider when developing a chemical process from small-scale laboratory work through to practical manufacture at a scale-size of (say) 5,000 litres. [4 marks] Explain, using an example such as the well-known Haber process used in the manufacture of ammonia, how processing conditions, drawing upon a consideration of process kinetics and equilibrium, can be optimised to design a viable commercial process. Where appropriate, state all relevant equations. [4 marks] Overview the three main potential processing routes for the commercial manufacture of aspirin and describe the rationale behind the selection of the actual process that is used for the practical manufacture of this product. [8 marks]

(c)

(d)

Biochemical processes are important in the manufacture of many everyday chemical products as well as in consideration of factors related to product safety. (a) (b) Give two examples of everyday materials prepared or processed using biochemical processing techniques. [2 marks] Review the biochemical manufacture of citric acid from the aspergillus niger fungus, highlighting an example of a typical processing set-up, the culture conditions typically adopted and the criteria that need to be followed to prevent the formation of oxalic acid as a by-product. [8 marks] Explain why biochemical reactors usually have to be sterilised prior to their use (say) for a fermentation reaction. [2 marks] An outbreak of botulism that took place in Lancashire in 1976 was found to be associated with the manufacture of a walnut flavoured yogurt. Highlight what happened, why it happened and what we have learned from this incident. [8 marks] SECTION D Energy and Fuels

(c) (d)

(a)

(i) (ii)

Outline the properties of gaseous fuels that are significant in combustion. [5 marks] Methane (CH4) has a gross calorific value of 890 MJ/kmol. Calculate the net calorific value (MJ/kmol) given that the latent heat of H2O = 2442 kJ/kg. [5 marks]

(b)

Explain the significance of the proximate analysis and ultimate analysis of a solid fuel. Show clearly, with examples, how the important physical and chemical properties which characterise a coal vary from low to high rank coals. [10 marks] Turn over 3

PEME108001

Answer TWO of the following. Illustrate your answers with diagrams or graphs as appropriate. (a) (b) (c) Discuss the significance and pattern of carbon dioxide pollutant emissions from energy sources. [10 marks] Outline the pattern of energy consumption in the UK industrial and domestic sectors. [10 marks] Explain why atomisation is a fundamental requirement in the combustion of a heavy fuel oil and outline the techniques that are used to achieve atomisation in industrial oil burners. Why is it often necessary to heat the oil prior to atomisation? [10 marks] (i) (ii) Explain the basic principles of nuclear power generation. [5 marks]

(d)

Estimate the area of solar photo-cells required to generate 2.0 kWh per day of electricity if the incident solar flux is 140W/m2, the electrical conversion efficiency of the photo-cells is 11% and the solar flux is available for 10 hours per day. [5 marks] SECTION E Fire and Safety

(a)

By reference to the combustion (fire) triangle, list and elaborate on the requirements for a fire or an explosion to occur. Look around you are the components of the triangle present in the examination room? Explain why you may or may not be concerned about the possibility of an imminent fire or explosion in the room. [7marks] What are polymers? Explain the physical/structural differences between thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers (giving examples of each type) and describe their respective behaviour in fire. [7 marks] Explain the techniques of venting and suppression for mitigating the effects of explosions in process equipment. [6 marks[ On a diagram showing the mass-burning rate against time for a typical compartment fire, mark clearly the phases of fire development. Briefly describe the characteristics of each phase and discuss some of the influencing parameters (and their effects) by comparison to an open fire. [9 marks] Explain the difference between fuel controlled and ventilation controlled burning regimes. With the aid of a diagram, explain how the temperature in a compartment may change with the ventilation. [4 marks] Calculate the maximum mass-burning rate in a compartment with a door (1x2 m2) and a window (1x1 m2). State any assumptions that you make. [7 marks] END 4

(b)

(c)

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(a)

(b)

(c)