You are on page 1of 35

Directional Control Valves

Myounggyu Noh Dept. Mechatronics Engineering Chungnam National University

Spring Semester, 2004

PLC and Fluid Power

Check Points of this Chapter


1. Directional control valve terminology 2. Symbols for DCV 3. Functions of two-way, three-way, and four-way DCV as well as check valves and deceleration valve 4. Dierent center positions of three-position DCVs 5. Various types of actuators for DCVs 6. Pilot-operation

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

Introduction
Hydraulic systems have one or more control vales for various control functions between the power input device (pump) and the power output device (actuator). Three groups of control valves: 1. Directional control 2. Pressure control 3. Flow control The primary function of a DCV is to control direction, but can aect pressure as well as ow.

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

Directional Control Valve Terminology


Ports (ways): number of ow paths through the valve in the working position. Positions: open, closed, forward, reverse, etc. Normally open vs. normally closed - the meaning is exactly the opposite to the electrical equivalents.

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

Check Valves

light spring

Free Flow

No Flow ball spring retainer

One directional valve that allows the ow in only one direction. The directional control is achieved by using a ball, poppet, spool, or apper.

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

Functions of check valves


1. facilitate maintenance 2. bypass 3. safety bypass
Isolation

Safety Bypass

Component Bypass

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

Pilotoperated Check Valve


1. Pilottoopen 2. Pilottoclose
Free Flow

Pilot Flow Vent Reverse Flow

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

Shuttle Valve

Primary In

Emergency In

Out

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

TwoWay Directional Valves


Usually used as shuto valves Normally open vs. normally closed Symbol can fully describe of a valve (for example, twoway, twoposition, normally closed, manually actuated, springreturned, directional control valve)

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

TwoWay Normally Closed DCV

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

10

TwoWay Normally Open DCV

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

11

Three-Way Valves

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

12

Example of Three-Way Valves

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

13

FourWay Valves

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

14

Example of Four-Way Valves

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

15

Four-Way Three-Position DCV

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

16

Example of Four-Way Three-Position DCV

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

17

Center Conguration

Closed Center

Tandem Center

Open Center

Float (Motor) Center

Regenerative Center

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

18

Parallel Circuit Using Closed-Center DCV

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

19

Tandem-center DCV
Signicant energy saving Brief time delay before pressure is available to the actuator when the valve is shifted. Parallel circuit is not possible. Instead, series circuit can be used.

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

20

Circuit Using Tandem-center DCV

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

21

Tandem-center in Parallel Circuit

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

22

Tandem-center in Series Circuit

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

23

Power Loss and Heat Generation Rate (HGR)


Power is lost when there is a pressure drop across valves. The lost power results in the heating of the uid. In general, the power loss in the system is directly related to the heat generation rate. HGR = HPLOST 42.4Btu/min
In the SI system, no conversion factor is necessary.

The temperature of the uid rises as a result of the power loss. T = HGR cp W

where cp is the specic weight of the uid and W is the weight ow rate.

The weight ow rate is obtained by multiplying the volume ow rate with the specic weight of the uid. W = Q

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

24

Open-Center DCV

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

25

Float-Center DCV

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

26

Regenerative-Center DCV

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

27

Regeneration Circuits

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

28

Load Creep

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

29

Deceleration Valve
A deceleration valve is used to provide automatic speed control for a cylinder. A variety of symbols are used to represent a deceleration valve.

In Out

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

30

Deceleration Valve Example

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

31

Valve Actuator Symbols


Manual actuators Pilotoperated actuators Electrical actuators
Push Button Hand Lever Foot Pedal Mechanically Actuated Hydraulic Pilot Air Pilot Servo Solenoid Proportional Solenoid

Spring

Detent

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

32

PilotOperated Valves
Pilotoperated valves employ a pressure source to move the valve mechanism in response to either a pressure buildup in some other portion of the system or the shifting of a small valve that sends a pilot signal to a larger valve. Using a pilotoperated directional control valve, it is possible to automatically switch between the regenerative and normal modes.

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

33

Pilot-operated DCV

Pilot

Main

T B P

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves

34

Pilot-operated DCV Example

PLC and Fluid Power

Directional Control Valves