Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.

12* 2%13

Architects Requirements of Decision Support Tools to deliver Low Impact Housing Design in the UK Insights and Recommendations
+,iola -a,a1. /amine 0ah1ou,i* !aul (lomolai2e* 3olin -ooth 3onstruction and !ro"ert2 4e"artment* 5niversit2 of the 6est England* 57 . E-mail of the corres"onding author8 a,iolao,a,;+,iola.-a, The research is funded by the Faculty of Environment and Technology, University of the West England A!stract <he construction industr2 is facing increasing "ressure to address environmental "erformance earlier in the design "rocess. =or 5nited 7ingdom 57# ,uildings* design is "erceived to ,e the :e2 in delivering the low car,on agenda. >ence* a fundamental change to designers? a""roach in designing for low im"act ,uildings is needed. + mi@ed method a""roach com"rising of Auestionnaires to sustaina,le architectural "ractices were com,ined with interviews of architects in "ractice and academia. <his is necessar2 to identif2 the ga"s in the current use of -uilding !erformance Energ2 Simulation -!ES# tools as design- decision su""ort for architects* towards recommending the reAuirements of new generation architects? friendl2 tools for the earl2 and detail stages of the design "rocess to deliver the sustaina,le housing design in the 57. <he results indicate a limited num,er of architects use -!ES tools; that is* until the later stage of the design "rocess. 0oreover* there is need to focus on tool develo"ment for architects decision-ma:ing "rocess* es"eciall2 at the conce"tual stage* where ma1or decision are ta:en. <hus* the stud2 focuses on recommending reAuirements of architects? friendl2 tools* fit for their design-decision ma:ing at various stages of the design "rocess. +s architectural design decisions var2 significantl2 in terms of accurac2* fle@i,ilit2* and the level of detail* the stud2 recommends that8 at the earl2 stages of the "rocess* where relativel2 minimal information is availa,le* fle@i,ilit2 and a""ro@imation in -!ES tools is more a""ro@imate to su""ort design decisions. Nevertheless* as the design develo"s* and more information ,ecomes availa,le* "recision and higher levels of detail in -!ES tools are reAuired. Ke"words -uilding !erformance Energ2 Simulation <ools* 4ecision 0a:ing* /ow Im"act -uildings* Bo2al Institute of -ritish +rchitects* Sustaina,ilit2. #$ Introduction -uildings account for a""ro@imatel2 fort2 "er cent of car,on emissions in the 57 and across the Euro"ean 5nion 3ar,on <rust* 2%1%#. <he2 have ,een descri,ed as com"le@ entities involving a wide range of sta:eholders drawn from a large num,er of disci"lines 4i,le2 et al. 2%12#. 4es"ite some ,uildings la,elled as having green credentials* Scofield 2%%2# o,served* the2 were found to ,e res"onsi,le for as much energ2 consum"tion and "ollution as com"ara,le to conventional ,uildings. <his is ,ecause; man2 environmental design decisions that are su""osed to ,e ta:en with the aid of decision su""ort tools* are ta:en late in the design "rocess onl2 to validate the design* after critical decisions have alread2 ,een made 4unsdon et al. 2%%6#. <his infers* architects often ma:e decisions earl2 in the design regarding ,uilding form* orientation* fenestrations and construction materials with little or no su""ort >ong et al. 2%%%#. >ong et al. 2%%%# further em"hasised how these issues have ,een o,served to have im"ortant im"lications in achieving the low im"act ,uilding agenda. <he wa2 architectural decisions are made has a great influence on the outcome of the design. =undamental design decisions ta:en earl2 in the design "rocess have far reaching environmental im"acts later on. <hus* tools have ,ecome an im"ortant deliver2 to aid design and decision ma:ing for architects for the earl2 and on-going consideration of environmental "erformance. +dditionall2* it is increasingl2 ac:nowledged that to address climate change challenges* a fundamental change to designers a""roach in designing for low im"act ,uildings /I-# is needed >ong et al. 2%%%; 0or,itCer* et al. 2%%1#. +s a conseAuence* the industr2 is challenged to deliver a Dnew generation? of decision su""ort tools for architects to aid the design of low im"act ,uildings. <hus* this stud2 a""raises -uilding !erformance Energ2 Simulation -!ES# tools as decision su""ort for architects. It e@"lores their current use ,2 57 architects* towards the aim of "roviding insights into reAuirements of -!ES tools that fit the intrinsic wa2 of architects? decision ma:ing to deliver the low im"act housing design in the 57. %$ Decision &a'ing in the Design (rocess <here is an increasing drive to achieve the sustaina,ilit2 agenda* as well as climate change challenges. =or 57


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

,uildings* design is ,elieved to ,e the :e2 in the deliver2; hence* a vital change to designers? a""roach in designing for low im"act ,uildings /I-# is reAuired. <he decision ma:ing "rocesses for low im"act ,uildings are com"le@ 4i,le2 et al. 2%12; +ttia et al.2%12#. <he res"onsi,ilities for the /I- design are mostl2 shared ,etween designers and engineers. <he effects of each decision de"end on a large num,er of other decisions. =or this reason* tools have ,ecome a necessit2 for the earl2 and on-going consideration of environmental "erformance and an im"ortant deliver2 mechanism to aid design and decision ma:ing for architects to deliver the low im"act ,uildings. >ence* it is widel2 ac:nowledged that tools are reAuired in the design and decision su""ort for such design !a"amicael* et al. 1&&E; >ong et al. 2%%%; Ellis et al. 2%%'# >owever* an investigation into current design and decision tools from the <echnolog2 Strateg2 -oard 2%%&# ac:nowledged that8 decision su""ort at the conce"tual stage is "articularl2 "oor; design "rofessionals wor: in different wa2s8 through s:etches* "h2sical models* 24 and 34 com"uter re"resentations* and anal2ticall2 and* thus* have different reAuirements for re"resenting and communicating design develo"ments; and current tools onl2 address the needs of one s"ecialism or s"ecific "hase of the design "rocess. 4unsdon et al. 2%%6# also recognised how energ2 and simulation tools* are inadeAuate to su""ort and inform the design of low im"act ,uildings es"eciall2 at the earl2 stage of the design "rocess. <he2 referred to the fact that the simulation tools currentl2 availa,le are onl2 "roficient in "erforming "redictive energ2 assessment and there e@ists low-level ado"tion of these tools ,2 architects. Su,seAuentl2* rather than "la2ing a role of decision su""ort in the design* anal2sis is used "rimaril2 to verif2 and rationalise decisions alread2 made >o"fe and >ensen* 2%%&#. 3urrent studies Ellis and 0athews* 2%%1; +ugen,roe et al. 2%%4; 0ora et al* 2%%6; Nicholas and -urr2* 2%%E# show that limitations in ,oth tools and the design "rocess "ose challenges to the integration of simulation in the "rocess. <he conversion of 34 models ,etween design and anal2sis re"resentations is not well su""orted ,2 e@isting data transformation ma""ings* and t2"icall2 reAuires e@"ert translation and inter"retation +ugen,roe et al. 2%%4#. 0ost simulation tools necessitate detailed information a,out a ,uilding?s construction and services ,efore even an indicative anal2sis can ,e "erformed; information that ma2 not ,e availa,le at the conce"tual design stage Ellis and 0athews* 2%%1#. <hese incom"ati,ilities has ,een o,served to inhi,it the develo"ment of an interactive information e@change networ: where design and simulation anal2sis "rocesses are active simultaneousl2* and serve as ,arrier* rather than reinforcement to conventional "ractice Nicholas and -urr2* 2%%E#. 0ora et al. 2%%6# also laid em"hasis on how com"uter su""ort for conce"tual design of ,uilding structures is still ineffective* mainl2 ,ecause e@isting structural engineering a""lications fail to recognise that structural and architectural design are highl2 interde"endent "rocesses. >ence* to deliver low im"act ,uildings* the loo" ,etween ,uilding design* o"eration and "erformance must ,e closed <echnolog2 Strateg2 -oard* 2%%&#. %$#$ )uilding (erformance Simulation Tools +ccording to 0irani and 0ahd1ou,i 2%12#* the design for energ2 conscious ,uilding which is environmentall2 friendl2 reAuires a careful anal2sis and evaluation of all "ro"osed design alternatives throughout the different stages of the ,uilding design. <raditionall2* these were "erformed manuall2 ,2 architects* to "roduce s:etches and drawings of "lans* sections* elevations and "ers"ectives. 6ith increasing need for more accurate "erformance "rediction* detailed assessment and evaluation of design "arameters influencing the ,uilding?s energ2 "erformance* com"uter ,ased tools have ,een develo"ed and are increasingl2 used. <hus* a""lication of com"uter ,ased tools in ,uilding design can ,e ,roadl2 categorised as com"uter ,ased drafting and design tools* such as +uto3ad* and com"uter ,ased -uilding !erformance Energ2 Simulation -!ES# tools* such as +utodes: Freen -uilding Studio* 4esign -uilder* ("en Studio* 4esign +dvisor* Energ2 "lus* eG5ES<* and IES )E. -!ES tools* according to >ong et al. 2%%%#* are used to simulate8 Energ2 "erformance anal2sis for design and retrofitting; 3om"liance with ,uilding regulations* codes* and standards; !assive energ2 saving o"tions; -uilding Energ2 0anagement and 3ontrol S2stem -E03S# design; 3ost anal2sis; and 3om"utational =luid 42namics 3=4#. + ,rief summar2 of eight different simulation tools for thermal ,uilding simulation was descri,ed and develo"ed as "art of a critical software review in >o"fe et al. 2%%6#. + more e@tended re"ort on different energ2 "erformance simulation "rograms can also ,e found in 3rawle2 et al. 2%%$#. +nother overview is further accessi,le on the ,uilding energ2 software tools director2 from the 5.S. 4e"artment of Energ2 2%12#. -uilding !erformance Simulation -!S# tools* in general* should ,e used to calculate a variet2 of outcomes of the "ro"osed design* such as energ2 consum"tion* "erformance of heating and cooling s2stems* visual and acoustic comfort* d2namic control scenarios for smart ,uilding technologies* smo:e and fire safet2* distri,ution of air ,orne contaminants* and others +ugen,roe et al. 2%%4#. Nevertheless* the ,est esta,lished use of simulation ,2 architects is after finalising the design* i.e. for "erformance verification and commissioning 0or,itCer* 2%%3#. <ianChen and. JinAian 1&&E# state* ‘From the perspective of many architects, most BP tools are !udged as too comple" and cumbersome#. In fact* it is re"eatedl2 re"orted that a growing ga" e@ists ,etween architects as users of -!S <ools +ttia* 2%1%#. 4unsdon* et al. 2%%6# state* e@isting simulation tools address the needs of one


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

s"ecialism or s"ecific usuall2 the later# "hase of the design "rocess. Su,seAuentl2* onl2 a small minorit2 of architects use the e@isting simulation "ortfolio to "erform the evaluation of energ2 efficient strategies and technolog2 o"tions* at the crucial formative stages of the design "rocess and the "ro1ect at large. =urthermore* most of the -!S tools cater more for engineers. <his* according to +ttia. et al. 2%%&# and +ttia 2%1%; 2%12#* is ,ecause most tool develo"ers use engineers? feed,ac: to develo" architect friendl2 tools. <hus* most of the -!S tools are not suita,le for the architectural design. -uilding simulation design is not full2 integrated into the design "rocess; hence* the limited use of simulation tools ,2 the architects* es"eciall2 at the earl2 design stage* where it is most necessar2. <hus* 0endler et al. 2%%6# and 4e-6ilde and !ric:ett* 2%%&# argued that tools should ,e centric to the design "rocess. 6ith the growing im"ortance in ,ridging this ga" and integrating simulation tools for the whole ,uilding design "rocess for architects to achieve low im"act housing design in the 57* it should also ,e used as an integrated element +ugen,roe* 1&&2; 0ahdavi*1&&'#. >owever* some advancement has ,een re"orted towards develo"ing architect-friendl2 tools <oth et al. 2%11; Integrated Environment Solutions* 2%12; Energ2 !lus-Energ2 Simulation* 2%13 #. <his includes8 intero"era,ilit2* ,2 which data can ,e transferred from architectural model to the simulation environment such as in ("en Studio which is a free "lugin for the Foogle S:etch 5" in 34 drawing "rogram and "lug-in of IES* such as IES )E-6are or the Bevit +rchitecture "lug-in IES Integrated Environment Solutions*2%12#. <here is also +utodes: +uto3+4 "lug-in to create and edit Energ2 !lus in"ut files Energ2 !lus-Energ2 Simulation* 2%13#. <he IES )E S:etch-5" "lugin allows the user to assign im"ortant sustaina,le design information li:e location* ,uilding t2"e* room t2"e* construction t2"es and >)+3 s2stems to a S:etch-5" model and then im"ort it directl2 into an IES tool for anal2sis Integrated Environment Solutions*2%12#. 0irani and 0ahd1ou,i* 2%12# further argued that des"ite the "roliferation of energ2 simulation tools descri,ed ,2 Integrated Environment Solution 2%12# and Energ2 !lus-Energ2 Simulation 2%13#* the2 do not connect to the actual anal2sis needs of the architects* es"eciall2 at the earl2 design stage. <hose that attem"t integration* such as IES )irtual Environment t2"icall2 im"lement model e@change or model sharing strategies to achieve information transfer in a manner that is not customisa,le* and are more suited to the later stages of the design "rocess <oth et al. 2%11#. ("en Studio "lug-in for Foogle?s S:etch 5"* use validated simulation tools* ,ut are incom"lete in a colla,oration sense as the cou"ling lin: deals onl2 with the translation of geometr2 ,etween "rograms* and not material "ro"erties* ,uilding s2stems* or occu"ation <oth et al. 2%11#. +dditionall2* none of the tools im"lements "arametric modelling ca"a,ilities to e@"lore design constraint. +s for the +utodes: +uto3+4* "ro,lems had ,een re"orted in the "rocess of transferring or im"ortation of data from the architectural models to the energ2 anal2sis software Schlueter and <hesseling* 2%%&#. Im"orting and e@"orting of ,uilding geometr2 is error-"rone and tedious* es"eciall2 as geometr2 models esta,lished in 3+4software are often not suita,le as simulation models. <he simulation results and "ossi,le conclusions remain in the simulation software; a feed,ac: into the design software is not "ossi,le. 3hanges in design due to "erformance criteria have to ,e done manuall2 in the design software* the model has to ,e e@"orted and simulated again. <hese ste"s have to ,e re"eated after ever2 change in the design Schlueter and <hesseling* 2%%&#. <his is ,ecause; different methods of modelling are used in the different t2"es of software; thus* efficient e@change of geometric data is difficult and sometimes there is inconsistenc2 in the geometr2 transfer ,etween software "ac:ages. >ence* data ma2 ,e lost or overwritten in the "rocess of transfer ,etween models or has to ,e re-entered. >olistic "erformance assessment is not considered in an2 :ind of com"uter-aided architectural design 3++4# environment that architects use. <he whole ,uilding?s geometr2 must come from the architects? model* including8 the num,er of rooms; the connections ,etween rooms; their relationshi" to the e@terior; e@"osure and as"ect to the sun along with the sha"e and total area of ,uilt surfaces or o"enings. <hus* in these newer software* which is attem"ting to address the well :now failing of older software* sometimes ,2 allowing +uto3+4 to create and edit in"ut files* the design "rocess needs to ,e well advanced ,efore an2 of the -!ES tools can ,e a""lica,le* as the2 are not suited at the creativit2 stage of the "rocess. >o"fe et al. 2%%6# and >o"fe 2%%&# further stated that there is no inde"endent evaluation and classification of tool usa,ilit2 and functionalit2 in "ractice versus users? t2"e and needs. +lso* tools develo"ers had not ,een stating the ca"a,ilities and limitations of the tools <oth et al. 2%11#* therefore* "otential user is faced with difficult2 of choosing a suita,le "rogram among the growing -!S tools "ool. In essence* current -!S serve as an acce"ted tool for design confirmation ,ut not mainstream for true design-decision su""ort for architects. <here is re"lication of man2 tools with stri:ing similarities and no attem"t to develo" architect-friendl2* effective and efficient design and decision su""ort a""lications +ttia* 2%%&#. >ence* this "a"er is a contri,ution to man2 on-going efforts to ameliorate this situation. <he focus is to recommend the characteristics of -!ES tools that fit the intrinsic wa2 of architects design and decision ma:ing at the earl2 and later stages of the design "rocess. *$ &ethods <he a""roach ado"ted to fulfill the "ur"ose of this "a"er is the mi@ed method a""roach. It consists of ,oth


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

Auantitative and Aualitative methods of research to generate and anal2se data in the same stud2 -lai:ie* 2%1%#. It is ado"ted in the form of a Auantitative online Auestionnaire surve2 and Aualitative in-de"th* semi structured interviews. <his is similar to "revious researchers +de2e2e et al. 2%%E# and (smani and (?Beill2 2%%&#* who em"hasised the usefulness in com,ination of the two methods in a wa2 that the strengths of one method offset the wea:ness in the other. =rom the des: stud2 literature review* Auestions were develo"ed to determine the content of the Auestionnaire surve2. <he Auantitative online surve2 was administered to sustaina,le architectural "ractices identified from the BI-+ directories of architects. <he use of Auestionnaire surve2 corres"onds with researchers such as +de2e2e et al. 2%%&# and <homas-+lvareC and 0ahd1ou,i 2%12#. (ther researchers that influenced the use of surve2s and es"eciall2 the online method of administration includes /ovell 2%%$#* who used Dsurvey# to confirm the increase in the interest of sustaina,le homes in the 57. Isiadinso et al. 2%11# also e@"lored the com"le@it2 of the conte@ts* "hiloso"hies and demonstrations involved in ,est "ractice for low car,on ,uildings* using a mi@ed research a""roach that also included online surve2 and administration. <he draft Auestionnaire was rigorousl2 tested for validate* significance* easiness* fle@i,ilit2 and conformit2 with the ethnical confidentialit2 reAuired and five online surve2s also conducted as a "ilot. + total of 42$ sustaina,le "ractices were selected randoml2 from the BI-+ director2 of architects to cover the entire geogra"hical 57. <hus* each architectural "ractice within the targeted "o"ulation had an eAual "ro,a,ilit2 of ,eing selected. <his is ,ecause* with randomisation* a re"resentative sam"le from a "o"ulation "rovides the a,ilit2 to generaliCe -a,,ie*1&&%#. <he method used for selecting the sam"les is from 3reative Besearch S2stems 2%12#* similar to Soetanto et al. 2%%1#; Hiao 2%%2# and +n:rah 2%%E#* to determine a suita,le siCe for the sam"le. +rchitects were targeted in the Auestionnaire as the main res"ondent ,ecause the2 are the :e2 "la2ers in the construction industr2* whose services are needed from the conce"tion stage of a "ro1ect* to its final handing over (2edele and <ham* 2%%E#. <he2 also have the ma1or res"onsi,ilit2 to get the message across in the "artici"ator2 decision ma:ing "rocesses and there,2 educate other sta:eholders into more genuinel2 colla,orative roles 3hen etal. 2%%'#. <he2 were thus* most li:el2 to offer more relia,le and informed res"onses to the theme of the Guestions "osed in the stud2. <his "resum"tion converges with the contention of -orman 1&E'#+ who states that "eo"le who are suita,l2 e@"erienced in what the2 do should ,e in a ,etter "osition to "rovide relativel2 accurate res"onses. <he use of a Auestionnaire surve2 in this research corres"onds with researchers +de2e2e et al.,2%%E; (smani and (?Beill2* 2%%&; <homas-+lvareC and 0ahd1ou,i* 2%12# who used it to ena,le large amounts of information to ,e gathered and then com"ared Iudelson* 2%%'# chea"l2* effectivel2 and in a structured and managea,le form +de2e2e et al.* 2%%E#. (ther researchers who influenced the use of surve2* es"eciall2 the online method of administration used in this stud2* include /ovell 2%%$#. She conducted an internet-,ased surve2 of low energ2 housing to reveal over 1$% low energ2 housing develo"ments that have ,een ,uilt or "lanned in the 57* from 1&&% to 2%%4* com"rising over 24 %%% dwellings. Isiadinso et al.* 2%11# also e@"lored the com"le@it2 of the conte@ts* "hiloso"hies* and demonstrations involved in ,est "ractice for low car,on ,uildings. <he2 used a mi@ed research a""roach that also included surve2 and interviews. <he themes of the Auestions include8 Section A (ersonal Information8 <his focuses on 2ear of e@"erience and geogra"hical location of res"ondents. Section )8 4esign and decision su""ort tools8 <his focuses on the use and im"lementation of design and decision su""ort tools ,2 architects at various stages of the design "rocess. Section ,8 Statutor2 and Non Statutor2 regulations and standards. Section D8 (ther Su""ort8 <his focuses on the stage s# of the design "rocess* that architects ta:e decision. +fter the data collection* anal2ses were made using S!SS 1& to e@"lore the characteristics* summarised in sections 4.1.1 and 4.1.2. <he Auestionnaire surve2 anal2sis was com,ined with the e@tant stud2 of the literature review to form the ,asis for "ilot interviews and* conseAuentl2* the in-de"th* semi structured interviews. <he "ilot interview was used to assess whether Auestions were clear* understanda,le and whether the structure and flow were acce"ta,le. + sam"le of ten architects was finall2 interviewed. <he interviewees were with diverse Aualifications* 2ears of e@"eriences* and "ast sustaina,le housing "ro1ects in 57. 4etails of their "rofiles and 2ears of e@"erience are shown in <a,le 1.


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

Interviewee +


Ta!le # The Interviewee (rofile (ractitioners + "racticing architect in the 57. >e has 2% 2ears of e@"erience and a wide :nowledge of different areas of sustaina,ilit2 issues es"eciall2 as related to low car,on housing design in the 57.



+n architect in academia with 1' 2ears of e@"erience +n architect in academia with 1% 2ears of e@"erience and vast :nowledge of sustaina,le "ractices. + "racticing architect ,ut is now in academia. >e has 16 2ears of e@"erience and "artici"ated in design of a nota,le low car,on energ2 village. +n international architect in "ractice. >e has thirt2 3%# 2ears of e@"erience and a world record of sustaina,le "ast "ro1ects using sustaina,le materials. + "ractising architect with 2$ 2ears of e@"erience in design of sustaina,le housing. + 2oung* d2namic* and enthusiastic architect with strong ideas and innovation on sustaina,ilit2. >e has three 3# 2ears of e@"erience. +n international architect with a d2namic record of "ast sustaina,le "ro1ects and "u,lications. >e has thirt2- 3%# 2ears of e@"erience. + "racticing architects of 1% 2ears? e@"erience. + "racticing architect of 1$ 2ears? e@"erience. >e is also wor:ing on the same "ro1ect with interviewee DI?


= F

> I J

<he a""roach was informed ,2 three ma1or "u,lications 0ac:inder and 0arvin* 1&'2; Imrie 2%%E; Isiadinso et al. 2%11#. 0ac:inder and 0arvin 1&'2# used interviews with architects to understand the role of information* e@"erience and other influences on the design "rocess. ("en-ended Auestions were used at intervals in the interview "rocess and architects were encouraged to lead the discussion. Imrie 2%%E# involved a sam"le of "racticing architects from the Bo2al Institute of -ritish +rchitects BI-+# data,ase and com,ined the anal2sis from the interview with other we,-,ased information of a sam"le of architectural "ractices "rimaril2 ,ased in /ondon. =inall2* Isiadinso et al. 2%11# conducted an online surve2 and interviewed e@"erts who were construction "rofessionals with su,stantial records of accom"lishment or lin:ing e@"ertise in sustaina,le design in ,oth industr2 and academia. -$ Results and Discussion 4.1. Questionnaire Survey Results and Analysis Bes"onses were received from si@t2-two architectural "ractices* re"resenting a 1E.4J res"onse rate. <he res"onse rate is low ,ut similar to +n:rah 2%%E#* who states that the 57 construction industr2 is notorious for "oor res"onse to Auestionnaire surve2s. <a:im et al. 2%%4# also alleged* a res"onse rate of 2%-3%J is normal* es"eciall2 within the construction industr2. -$#$#$ ,urrent use of )(.S Tools as Design/ Decision Support for UK Architects /imited architectural "ractices 32.' "er cent# use simulation tools such as +utodes: Freen -uilding Studio +F-S# and 0assachusetts Institute of <echnolog2 0I<-4+# 4esign +dvisor at the technical design stage; 31.3 "er cent use such tools at the design develo"ment stage 4 of the BI-+ (utline "lan of wor:; 13.1 "er cent use them at the conce"t stage 3 and '.2 "er cent at the "re"aration stages + and -. >owever* 11.E "er cent s"ecified that the2 use such tools at all stages of their design* while 3.3 "er cent res"onded that* the2 have not used such tools at all in their design =igure 1#.


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

J of Bes"ondents 4% 3% 2% 1% % Stages + and Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage E +ll Stages N+

Simulation Tools

0igure # Use of )(.S Tools in the Design (rocess (n energ2 simulation tools such as IES* eG5ES<* Energ2 "lus software#* more than half 64.& "er cent# of the architectural "ractices ac:nowledged the2 have not used such tools in their design. >owever* 1$.' "er cent of the "ractices used the tools at the technical design stage* while E.% "er cent res"onded that the2 had used energ2 simulation tools at all stages of the design "rocess =igure 2#.

1 of Bes"ondents
E% 6% $% 4% 3% 2% 1% % Stages + Stage 3 and Stage 4 Stage E +ll Stages N+

.nerg" Simulation Tools

0igure % Use of )(.S Tools in the Design (rocess -$#$%$ Stages of the Design (rocess that need 0ocus <o identif2 the stage s# of the design "rocess that need the most focus on -!ES tools to su""ort architects in deliver2 of low im"act housing design in the 57* "ercentage distri,ution of the cross ta,ulation in S!SS 1& was used. <he BI-+ (utline "lan of wor: design stages as s"ecified in the Guestionnaire# are8 "re"aration Stages + and -; the conce"tual Stage 3; the design develo"ment Stage 4 and technical design Stage E. <a,le 2 shows the "ercentage of the res"ondents anal2sed from the cross ta,ulation. =or tools such as +F-S and 0I<-4+* the conce"t stage of the design "rocess 3E.3 "er cent res"onse rate# is the stage reAuiring the greatest focus. <his is followed ,2 "re"aration stages + and - 3$.6 "er cent#. Ta!le % (ercentage distri!ution of .Ts and Stages of Design (rocess that needs focus Distri!ution of Stages of Design RI)A Stages of Design 1 Distri!ution of 1 (rocess respondents in the stages of respondents in the stages design that needs focus on of design that needs Tools such as A2)S and focus on .nerg" &IT/DA Simulation tools !re"arator2 Stage + and 3$.6 4%.% 3once"t Stage 3 3E.3 36.% 4esign 4evelo"ment 4 11.& 12.% <echnical 4esign E 3.4 4.% <otal ''.2J &2.%J 34otes Differences in total value of percentage is due to removal of 5All Stages” and ‘Not applicable’+ hence figures do not round up to #6617. (n energ2 simulation tools* "re"aration stages + and - 4% "er cent# have a higher "ercentage over 36 "er cent# the conce"t stage of the design "rocess <a,le 2#. <hese two stages* as defined in this stud2* ma:e u" the earl2 "hase of the design "rocess and indicate that these two stages need greater focus* in com"arison to the later "hase stages 4 and E# of the design "rocess <a,le 2#. -$% Interview Results -$%$#$ Architects8 perceptions of e9isting )(.S tools


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

<he interviews show the diverse nature and e@"erience of the architects who "artici"ated in the "rocess <a,le 1#. +ll su,1ects ac:nowledged the im"ortance of design and decision su""ort tools in the deliver2 of low im"act housing design in the 57. Interviewee E s"ecified S+!* !assive >ouse !lanning !ac:age !>!!# and Integrated Environmental Solutions IES# tools?. +lthough* he does not ,elieve the tool will necessaril2 deliver the design. >owever* in his o"inion* DThese are the best at the moment#. <o :now architects "erce"tion a,out e@isting tools and the im"ortance of using them during design "hases* calculation* simulation* energ2 calculator* car,on em,odiment* code com"liance* and chec:ing tools software were all confirmed ,2 more than half of the interviewees as ,eing necessar2 to the design and deliver2 of low im"act ,uildings in the 57. Interviewee - stated* DThe tools, at various stages of the design process, should lin$ %ith ventilation strategy, air tightness, energy calculator, carbon embodiment, code compliance and chec$ing of results#. Interviewee 4 further stated* DTools for decision support should be easily accessible and less comple"#. Interviewee E s"ecificall2 said* D&t %ill be good to have a tool that starts from %hen the client %rites a brief to the management level, and it should include health and safety issues.# +nother interviewee stated* D'rchitects understand U()alue *alculator, since it is the basic thing, it is therefore definite. +o%ever, carbon embodiment is useful but there is not enough data to produce reliable prediction#. >e further said* ‘*ode compliance and chec$ing tools are o$ay, but it %ill be good if confidence can be tested against post occupancy evaluation. >ence* a degree of "rediction against realit2 of the design and confidence in the use of tools for decision su""ort were added to the list of reAuirements for recommending tools that fit into the wa2 architects wor:. Nevertheless* Interviewee + categoricall2 made this statement in res"onse to his own general view on low im"act design and deliver2 of housing in the 57. >e stated* DWe are the clients, servants- %e can only do %hat %e are as$ed. )ery fe% clients %ant to have lo% carbon homes. Those that do, .o%ner(occupiers, by and large, and ho% many ,self(builders, are there in the U/01 fre2uently stop %anting them as soon as the additional costs become apparent. 3evelopers and & include many social housing providers here, unfortunately, only %ant to do an elegant sufficiency to comply %ith statutory re2uirements. +o% many ,tools, can you be using %hen the total fee for designing a d%elling is fre2uently only a couple or three hundred pounds0 -$%$%$ ,haracteristics of )(.S tools that fit Architects Design/Decision &a'ing Interviewee > stated* D&t seems P+PP is more li$e the tool to achieve lo% carbon housing because it has recipe of ho% to attac$ the problems#. <o Aualitativel2 evaluate decision su""ort tools in the 57* calculation* simulation* energ2 calculator* car,on em,odiment* code com"liance* and chec:ing tools software were all confirmed ,2 more than half of the interviewees as ,eing necessar2 to the design and deliver2 of low car,on housing in the 57. >owever* in relation to -!ES tools reAuirements of architects? friendl2 tools to deliver low im"act housing design in the 57* the following were ac:nowledged from the interview anal2sis* for the earl2 and detail stages of the design "rocess. • Degree of appro9imation :accurac" as related to design stages; .arl" Design Stages 0inimal details are availa,le; +""ro@imation and fle@i,ilit2 are "aramount; +ccurac2 is less im"ortant; /ow in"ut to avoid ham"ering creativit2 and design thin:ing; Guic: out"ut in a language understood ,2 architects. Detail Design Stages 0uch details are availa,le; !recision and s"ecification are "aramount; >igher level of +ccurac2 is reAuired; >igher level of detail in"ut reAuired; <o "roduce DBealistic? or Das ,uilt? out"ut. -$*$ Discussion of Results <he Auestionnaire surve2 identified the ga"s in the current use of -uilding !erformance Energ2 Simulation tools ,2 57 architects. It revealed that the small num,ers of architects who use -!ES tools do so at the later stage of the design "rocess. <he tools that are used at the later stage ,2 most architects are even those recognised and advertised for the earl2 design stages* ,ecause; the2 are less com"le@. <hus* the more com"le@ the tools* the less the2 are used ,2 the architects. =indings from the interviews further confirmed that most of these tools are com"le@; reAuires calculation understanda,le onl2 to e@"erts* such as the engineers and thus* are not com"ati,le with architects? wa2 of decision ma:ing. BeAuired characteristics of architects friendl2 tools from the interview findings include8 !roviding Auic: anal2sis that su""orts decision ma:ing at various design stages; ver2 Auic: in time of out"ut and the need for less detail in"ut reAuirements at the earl2 "re"aration and conce"tual# stage of the design "rocess


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

when the design is not 2et advanced. <hus* the findings in this stud2 are "arallel to "ast research findings in section 2.1 <ianChen and. JinAian 1&&E#; +ttia* 2%1%#; +ttia et al. 2%%&# and +ttia 2%1%; 2%12#. >ence* from the interview results in this stud2* a""ro@imation is reAuired for tools at the earl2 design stage in com"arison to the degree of accurac2 and detailed in"ut reAuired for tools at the later stage of the design "rocess. ;$ ,onclusions and Recommendations ;$#$ ,onclusions <his "a"er is a contri,ution to man2 on-going efforts to ameliorate the current situation in the use of -!ES tools ,2 architects. E@isting -!ES tools a""l2 roughl2 the same theoretical algorithms and calculation aids* thus limiting re"resentation of certain "h2sical "henomena. +lthough some models can ,e used for element design* the2 are not fit enough for architects? wa2 of design and decision ma:ing or for e@"loring design constraint. Ela,orate ,uilding com"onents reAuire se"arate anal2sis through com"le@ simulation aids. =ew tools su""ort the earl2 architectural design "rocess. In"ut Aualit2 affects accurac2* while out"ut needs careful e@"ert inter"retation. <hus* the "a"er has led to some statistical Auestionnaire# and "ractical from interview# results to ma:e recommendations for software develo"ers towards develo"ing architect-friendl2 tools that fit the intrinsic wa2 of architects? decision ma:ing. <he recommendations Section $.2# emerge from s2nthesis of the findings from various stages of the research methods ado"ted in the stud2. +t the earl2 design stage of the BI-+ (utline "lan of wor:s* as minimal details are availa,le* a""ro@imation and fle@i,ilit2 are "aramount; accurac2 is less im"ortant; low in"ut of information to avoid ham"ering creativit2 and design thin:ing and Auic: out"ut in a language understood ,2 architects are reAuired. +t the detail design stage* as much details ,ecome availa,le* "recision and s"ecifications are "aramount; higher level of accurac2 is reAuired; higher level of detail in"ut are reAuired to "roduce Drealistic? or Das ,uilt? out"ut. ;$%$ Recommendations <he "a"er "ro"oses a num,er of recommendations for software develo"ers* "articularl2 those targeting architect -friendl2 tools for various stages of the design "rocess. =or future develo"ment of Dnew generation? -!ES tools* that fit into architectural wa2s of "ractice to achieve low im"act ,uilding in the 57* this stud2 lists the reAuirements recommended for each famil2 of -uilding !erformance Energ2 Simulation tools at the earl2 and detail stages of the design "rocess. ;$%$#$ .arl" (hase of the Design (rocess <he most im"ortant decisions concerning ,uilding energ2 usage are carried out at the ver2 ,eginning of the ,uilding design "rocess. +""ro"riate ,uilding simulation tools should ,e used when ma:ing the design decisions* such as ,uilding la2-out alternatives and different ,asic ,uilding energ2 usage and services s2stems. >ence* tools for this stage* should allow the descri"tion and simulation of ,uilding in fewer minutes without e@tensive training on the "art of architects. <he results from such out"ut should ,e in a form that can ,e understood even ,2 non-e@"erts and ,e a,le to give architects a Auic: and accurate out"ut with minimum in"ut. <his is ,ecause* at this stage of the "reliminar2 studies* the focus is mainl2 on the differences ,etween different design alternatives* hence* calculations and all simulations should ,e "erformed Auic:l2 and effectivel2. 3haracteristics* such as degree in the fle@i,ilit2* accurac2* data in"ut* among others* should ,e ta:en into consideration when develo"ing software tools for this stage. >ence* enough fle@i,ilit2 and low in"ut information schema* amongst other reAuirements* are identified as ,eing necessar2 in -!ES tools for the earl2 "hase of the design "rocess <a,le 3#. ;$%$%$ Late (hase of the Design (rocess 6hen the ,uilding design "rocess continues* simulation tools are needed again es"eciall2* for thermal function* and when selecting and siCing the s2stems and eAui"ment for the ,uilding. +t this "hase* the in"ut values should ,e much more accurate than in the "revious design "hase* and the results of the calculations should ,e rather accurate as the eAui"ment and s2stems selections are ,ased on these values. <he user should ,e a,le to tailor the la2out of the results according to the s"ecial needs of the "ro1ect* such as energ2 and ventilation needs. -2 the end of the ,uilding design "rocess* the designer calculates target values for the ,uilding energ2 consum"tion* and calculations are ,ased on the actual ,uilding data. Besults should ,e accurate as the real energ2 consum"tion values are com"ared to simulation results at this ver2 later stage of the design "rocess. >ence* tools for this "hase* from the interview anal2sis are categorised as detail simulation tools. +t this stage* the design develo"ment stage D4? and technical stage DE? of the BI-+ (utline "lan of wor:* the architect had reached a "oint in the design "rocess where all "arameters considered in the "revious stages must flow together or interact at higher level. <hese include8 architecture; "lans; the visual im"act; functionalit2; aesthetics; the s"ace design; wor:ing environment; "rinci"les of construction; energ2 solutions and targets* and indoor environment technolog2 to form a s2nthesis of the design. In general* data e@change at this stage needs to ,ecome more so"histicated* relia,le and less error "rone* so that "ractitioners can integrate these tools more smoothl2 into "ractice. BeAuirements of -!ES tools targeted for this


Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

stage need to ,e more user-friendl2* more ca"a,le* more ro,ust* ,etter documented* with minimal time for result out"ut. <he s"ecific reAuirements include8 detailed and accurate input accurate results from detailed and accurate information in"ut#; detailed results fast or give detailed results to meet detailed needs of the architects in accordance with high standard of design in"ut#; a high level of detail "roduce high level and degree of details for the design#; photorealistic to "roduce D+s ,uilt? out"ut or close to realit2 as much as it can ,e; the out"ut should ,e accurate and detailed re"resentation of the out"ut design* without attem"t to conceal an2 feature whether attractive or not and training ma2 or ma2 not ,e reAuired <a,le 3#

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.12* 2%13

thesis."df.L +ccessed Novem,er 2nd*2%1%M Nicholas* !. and -urr2* 0. 2%%E# Inter"retation and "recision tools* <8th *''34&' *onference* Nan1ing* 24&2$E. (smani* 0. and (?reill2* I. 2%%&# =easi,ilit2 of Oero 3ar,on >omes in England ,2 2%168 + house ,uilder?s "ers"ective. Building and Environment 44 &#*1&1E-1&24. (2edele* /. and <ham* 7. 2%%E# 3lients? assessment of architects? "erformance in ,uilding deliver2 "rocess8 Evidence from Nigeria. Building and Environment 42 $#* 2%&%-2%&& !a"amicael* 7.* !orta* J. and 3hauvet* >. 1&&E# -uilding 4esign +dvisor8 automated integration of multi"le simulation tools* 'utomation in *onstruction 6 4=* "". 341-3$2. Scofield* J. >. 2%%2# Earl2 "erformance of a green academic ,uilding* ' +4'E Transactions )olume 1%' 2#* "". 1214 -1232. Schlueter* +. and <hesseling* =. 2%%&# -uilding information model ,ased energ2Ke@erg2 "erformance assessment in earl2 design stages. +utomation in 3onstruction* )olume 1'* "". 1$3Q163. Soetanto* B.* !rover,s* 4. F. and >olt* F. 4. 2%%1# +chieving Gualit2 3onstruction !ro1ects -ased on >armonious 6or:ing Belationshi"s8 3lientsR and +rchitectsR!erce"tions of 3ontractor !erformance. &nternational 7ournal of @uality and 4eliability 5anagement 1' <-:;= $2'-$4' <a:im* B.* +:into2e* +. and 7ell2* J. 2%%4# +nal2sis of measures of construction "ro1ect success in 0ala2sia* &n- 7hosrowshahi* =. ed.# 89th 'nnual 'rcom *onference. >eriot 6att 5niversit28 +ssociation of Besearchers in 3onstruction 0anagement. <echnolog2 Strateg2 -oard 2%%&# 3esign and 3ecision Tools for 6o% &mpact Buildings.+vaila,le8htt"8KKwww.innovateu:.orgKPassetsK"dfKts,Pddtoolforlowim"act,uildcom"fl2er."df L+ccessed +"ril 24th* 2%12M. <homas-+lvareC* N. and 0ahd1ou,i* /. 2%12# <esting the effectiveness of a we, -,ased "ortal s2stem for the ,uilding control sector. 'utomation in *onstruction. 4oi8 1%.1%16K1.autcon.2%12.%2.%1'E. <ianChen* >.* JinAian*O. and Ii* J. 1&&E# && 'B4E- +n Integrated -uilding Simulation Environment, Building and Environment *% 3#8 ". 21&-224 <oth* -.* Salim* =.* 4rogemuller* B.* =raCer* J. >.* and -urr2* J. 2%11#. 3losing the loo" of design and anal2sis 8 !arametric modelling tools for earl2 decision su""ort. In >err* 3hristiane* Fu* N.* Boudavs:i* S.* and Schna,el* 0. +.* Eds.# 3ircuit -ending* -rea:ing and 0ending 8 !roceedings of the 16th International 3onference on 3om"uter-+ided +rchitectural 4esign Besearch in +sia* <he +ssociation for 3om"uter-+ided +rchitectural 4esign Besearch in +sia 3++4BI+#* Newcastle* "".$2$-$34. +vaila,le8 htt"8KKe",."df. L+ccessed 2Eth =e,ruar2* 2%11M 5S 4e"artment of Energ2 2%12#. Building Energy oft%are Tool 3irectory Energ2 Efficienc2 and Benewa,le Energ2. +vaila,le8 htt"8KKa""s1.eere.energ2.govK,uildingsKtoolsPdirector2Ksu,1ects.cfmK"agenameSsu,1ectsK"agenamePmenuSwhole P,uildingPanal2sisK"agenamePsu,menuSenerg2Psimulation L+ccessed (cto,er 2$th*2%12M. Hiao* >. +. 2%%2# 3om"arative Stud2 of 3ontractor !erformance ,ased on Ja"anese* 57 and 5S 3onstruction !ractice* !h4 <hesis* School of Engineering and the -uilt Environment* 5niversit2 of 6olverham"ton.


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