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Mastering

*

SAT Math

Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D.

Contributing Authors Dale Johnson, M.A. Joe Skinner, M.A.

the

*SAT is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

About the Author Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D., is a national authority in the field of test preparation. As executive director of Bobrow Test Preparation Services, he has been administering the test preparation programs at more than 25 California institutions for the past 30 years. Dr. Bobrow has authored more than 30 national best-selling test preparation books, and his books and programs have assisted more than two million test-takers. Each year, Dr. Bobrow personally lectures to thousands of students on preparing for graduate, college, and teacher credentialing exams. Author’s Acknowledgments I would like to thank Dr. Suzanne Snyder, of Wiley, for her assistance and careful attention to the production process. Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Susan; daughter, Jennifer; and sons, Adam and Jonathan, for their patience, moral support, and comic relief.

Mastering the SAT®: Math Published by: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 111 River Street Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774 www.wiley.com Copyright © 2007 Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D. Published by Wiley, Hoboken, NJ Published simultaneously in Canada

Publisher’s Acknowledgments Editorial Project Editor: Suzanne Snyder Acquisitions Editor: Greg Tubach Copy Editor: Tere Stouffer Production Proofreader: Henry Lazarek Wiley Publishing, Inc. Composition Services

Note: If you purchased this book without a cover, you should be aware that this book is stolen property. It was reported as “unsold and destroyed” to the publisher, and neither the author nor the publisher has received any payment for this “stripped book.”

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bobrow, Jerry. Mastering the SAT : math / by Jerry Bobrow. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-470-03660-0 (alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-470-03660-5 (alk. paper) 1. Mathematics—Examinations—Study guides. 2. Mathematics—Examinations, questions, etc. 3. SAT (Educational test)—Study guides. 4. Universities and colleges—United States—Entrance examinations—Study guides. 5. Achievement tests—Study guides. I. Title. QA43.B649 2007 510.76—dc22 2006029556 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1O/SR/RR/QW/IN No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, 317-572-3447, fax 317-572-4355, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, CliffsNotes, the CliffsNotes logo, Cliffs, CliffsAP, CliffsComplete, CliffsQuickReview, CliffsStudySolver, CliffsTestPrep, CliffsNote-a-Day, cliffsnotes.com, and all related trademarks, logos, and trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. For more information about Wiley products, please visit our web site at www.wiley.com.

Table of Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Special Notes for the New SAT I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Questions Commonly Asked about the New SAT I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Taking the New SAT I: Successful Overall Approaches for Multiple-Choice Questions . . . . . 5 I. The “Plus-Minus” System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 II. The Elimination Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 III. The “Avoiding Misreads” Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 IV. The Multiple-Multiple-Choice Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 A Summary of General Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

**PART I: ANALYSIS AND STRATEGIES
**

Introduction to the Mathematics Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Using Your Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Basic Skills and Concepts That You Should Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Number and Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Algebra and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Geometry and Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Multiple-Choice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Ability Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Basic Skills Necessary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Analysis of Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Suggested Approach with Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Grid-In Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Ability Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Basic Skills Necessary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Directions with Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Practice Grid-Ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Suggested Approaches with Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

**PART II: REVIEW WITH SAMPLE PROBLEMS
**

A Quick Review of Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Symbols, Terminology, Formulas, and General Mathematical Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Common Math Symbols and Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Math Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Important Equivalents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Math Words and Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Mathematical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

**Numbers and Operations, Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability . . . . . . 45
**

Arithmetic Diagnostic Test (Including Numbers and Operations, Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Mastering the SAT Math Test

Arithmetic Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Place Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Rounding Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Estimating Sums, Differences, Products, and Quotients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Using Percents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Signed Numbers (Positive Numbers and Negative Numbers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Absolute Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Powers and Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Squares and Square Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Parentheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Order of Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Basic Set Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Some Basic Probability and Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Data Analysis: Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Sample SAT-Type Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Numbers and Operations, Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

**Algebra and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
**

Algebra Diagnostic Test (Algebra and Functions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Algebra Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Variables and Algebraic Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Evaluating Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Monomials and Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Solving Quadratic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Operations with Algebraic Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Solving for Two Unknowns—Systems of Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Basic Coordinate Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Sample SAT-Type Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Algebra and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

**Geometry and Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
**

Geometry Diagnostic Test (Geometry and Measurement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Geometry Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Types of Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Parallel Lines Cut by Transversal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Coordinate Geometry and Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Sample SAT-Type Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Geometry and Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

iv

Table of Contents

**PART III: MATH PRACTICE TESTS
**

Practice Test I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

Practice Test IA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Practice Test IB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Practice Test IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Scoring Practice Test I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Answer Key for Practice Test I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Analyzing Your Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Mathematics Analysis Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Analysis/Tally Sheet for Problems Missed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Complete Answers and Explanations for Practice Test I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Practice Test IA Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Practice Test IB Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Practice Test IC Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

Practice Test II

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

Practice Test IIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Practice Test IIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Practice Test IIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Scoring Practice Test II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Answer Key for Practice Test II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Analyzing Your Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Mathematics Analysis Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Analysis/Tally Sheet for Problems Missed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Complete Answers and Explanations for Practice Test II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Practice Test IIA Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Practice Test IIB Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Practice Test IIC Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

**Practice Test III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
**

Practice Test IIIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Practice Test IIIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Practice Test IIIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 Scoring Practice Test III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Answer Key for Practice Test III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Analyzing Your Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Mathematics Analysis Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Analysis/Tally Sheet for Problems Missed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Complete Answers and Explanations for Practice Test III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Practice Test IIIA Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Practice Test IIIB Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Practice Test IIIC Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

**SAT I Score Range Approximator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
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How to Approximate Your Score in Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

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and thorough. but your math scores can still really be improved with proper preparation! And because of these facts. This guide combines introductory analysis sections with sample problems. diagnostic review tests. . Don’t take a chance. and score range approximators are included following the practice tests to give you a thorough understanding of the new SAT I math sections. Prepare with the best! Because better scores result from thorough preparation. you can’t afford to take a chance. The practice problems for each topic area and practice tests have complete answers and in-depth explanations. formal or informal learning throughout junior high and high school. and materials have been researched. You’ll get the best test preparation possible. Be prepared! Follow the SAT I Study Guide Checklist in this book and study regularly. average. Mastering the SAT: Math has been designed by leading experts in the field of test preparation to be the most comprehensive guide to give you that extra boost in math. It is direct. math area reviews. tested. practice problems for each topic area (easy. Analysis charts.Preface The SAT I has changed. and evaluated and are presently used in SAT I test preparation programs at many leading colleges and universities. In keeping with the fine tradition of Cliffs Notes. Mastering the SAT: Math was written to give you the edge in doing your best by giving you maximum benefit in a reasonable amount of time and is meant to augment. techniques. easy to use. this guide is written for the student. and difficult problems). and three full-length practice math tests. The testing strategies. not substitute for. your study time must be used most effectively. compact. precise.

Again. take Math Practice Test II. and difficult problems). ❏ 14. ❏ 12. ❏ 13. While referring to each item of Math Practice Test III. Read and review Geometry and Measurement as needed. average. Read the Arithmetic review as needed. ❏ 26.org. Start your math review on page 45 with the Arithmetic Diagnostic Test. section by section (take Section 1 and then check your answers. and any other basic skills or exam areas you feel are necessary. Analyze your Math Practice Test II answers by filling out the analysis charts on page 252. Review your math skills as necessary. take Math Practice Test I. Statistics. beginning on page 199. ❏ 15. selectively review Part I: Analysis and Strategies. ❏ 19. ❏ 10. page 3. Strictly observing time allotments. 9. Note there are easy. take Math Practice Test III. study all of the explanations that begin on page 253. Familiarize yourself with the answers to Questions Commonly Asked about the New SAT I. 2. Review or reread Part I: Analysis and Strategies. 6. Strictly observing time allotments. Become familiar with the test format. Analyze your Math Practice Test III answers by filling out the analysis charts on page 287. Learn the techniques of the Successful Overall Approaches. Strictly observing time allotments. ❏ 20. beginning on page 216. 3. beginning on page 272. ❏ 22. Continue your math review on page 91 with the Algebra Diagnostic Test. ❏ 21. and Probability SAT review problems at the end of the Arithmetic Review. ❏ 25. While referring to each item of Math Practice Test II. Check your answers and use the Score Range Approximator (page 303) to get a very general score range. ❏ 16. and difficult review problems. take Section 2 and then check your answers. average. Next work the Numbers and Operations and Data Analysis. and so on). beginning on page 11.SAT I Study Guide Checklist ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ 1. Take a very short break after each hour of testing. ❏ 18. page 1. Read the New SAT I information bulletin. Review the answers and explanations for each question on Math Practice Test I. Analyze your Math Practice Test I answers by filling out the analysis charts. ❏ 24. beginning on page 9. ❏ 23. to see whether you applied some of the strategies. 8. Next work the Algebra and Functions SAT review problems at the end of the Algebra Review (easy. beginning on page 236. Take a very short break after each hour of testing. Continue your math review on page 145 with the Geometry Diagnostic Test. . and difficult problems). study all of the explanations that begin on page 288. 4. Get information online at www. page 215.collegeboard. work the Geometry and Measurement SAT review problems at the end of the Geometry Review (easy. Next. average. 5. Read the Algebra Review as needed. ❏ 17. Check your answers and use the Score Range Approximator (page 303) to get a very general score range. Carefully read Part I: Analysis and Strategies. 7. ❏ 11. pages 5–7. Selectively review some basic skills as necessary. beginning on page 9.

45 Minutes Approximately 202–212 Questions 1 .Introduction General Format of the New SAT I Section 1 25 Minutes Section 2 25 Minutes Writing Skills—Essay Writing Skills—Essay Critical Reading Sentence Completions Short Reading Passages Long Reading Passages Section 3 25 Minutes Section 4 25 Minutes Mathematics Multiple Choice Writing Skills—Multiple Choice Identifying Sentence Errors Improving Sentences Improving Paragraphs Section 5 25 Minutes Critical Reading Sentence Completions Short Reading Passages Long Reading Passages Section 6 25 Minutes Mathematics Multiple Choice Grid-ins Section 7 20 Minutes Critical Reading Reading Passages (possible Sentence Completions) Mathematics Multiple Choice Mathematics/Critical Reading/ or Writing Skills Writing Skills—Multiple Choice Improving Sentences 1 Question 1 Essay Question 24–28 Questions 8–10 Questions 4–6 Questions 12–14 Questions 20 Questions 20 Questions 35 Questions 15–19 Questions 7–13 Questions 6–10 Questions 24–27 Questions 5–9 Questions 4–6 Questions 10–12 Questions 20 Questions 10 Questions 10 Questions 15–20 Questions 13–15 Questions (4–6) 14–15 Questions 15 Questions 20–35 Questions Section 8 20 Minutes Section 9 25 Minutes Section 10 10 Minutes 14–15 Questions 15 Questions Total Testing Time 225 Minutes = 3 Hours.

and geometry. and there may be many forms of the test. A Close Look at the New SAT I Question Type Critical Reading Sentence Completions Passage-Based Questions Total Critical Reading Questions Mathematics Multiple Choice Grid-Ins Total Mathematics Questions Writing Multiple Choice Improving Sentences Identifying Sentence Errors Improving Paragraphs Total Writing Multiple Choice Essay Question 25 18 6 49 One Question 44 10 54 19 48 67 Approximate Number of Questions The problems in the math sections (multiple-choice and grid-ins) and the sentence completions section of the new SAT I are slightly graduated in difficulty. to comprehend what you read. and the number of questions may vary. so getting an easy question right is worth the same as getting a difficult question right. with some grid-in questions. The pretest or experimental section can be a critical reading. You should work all of the sections as though they count toward your score. Only three of the critical reading sections (two 25-minute sections and one 20-minute section). three of the math sections (two 25-minute sections and one 20-minute section). The critical reading sections test your ability to read critically. Keep in mind that each question within a section is of equal value. Many students make simple mistakes because they rush through the easy questions to get to the difficult ones. and to improve paragraphs. The math sections test your ability to solve problems using mathematical reasoning and your skills in arithmetic. or experimental.Mastering the SAT Math Note: The order in which the sections appear. One 25-minute section is a pretest. the question types within a section. The test lasts 3 hours and 45 minutes and consists of mostly multiple-choice type questions. or writing multiple-choice section and can appear anywhere on your exam. and an essay. section that does not count toward your score. the writing essay (25 minutes). precise essay and to find grammar and usage errors. algebra I and II. It does not have to be Section 9. and the multiple-choice sections (one 25-minute section and one 10-minute section) actually count toward your new SAT I score. to correct sentence errors. math. and to understand words in context. 2 . General Description The new SAT I is used along with your high school record and other information to assess your competence for college work. The writing ability sections test your ability to write a clear.

You may cancel your score on the day of the test by telling the test center supervisor. You may do your figuring in the margins of the test booklet or in the space provided. and an approved calculator. See specific instructions for canceling your score in the Student Bulletin. formerly called Verbal Reasoning. which is administered by the College Entrance Examination Board in conjunction with Educational Testing Service of Princeton. positive identification. including some algebra II problems. mathematical reasoning. writing. it is to your advantage to guess. or you may write. Writing multiple-choice sections have been added.Introduction Special Notes for the New SAT I ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Verbal analogies are no longer on the exam. and editing abilities that you have developed over your lifetime. On the grid-in questions. multiple choice 20–80) Total possible score: 600–2. It is not uncommon for students to take the test more than once. 2 pencils. a fraction of a point is subtracted for every wrong answer. Your score report will record your cancellation. Critical reading sections now also include paragraph-length passages. The new SAT I assesses general critical reading. Q: CAN I TAKE THE NEW SAT I MORE THAN ONCE? A: Yes. a watch. Q: WHAT MATERIALS MAY I BRING TO THE NEW SAT I? A: Bring your registration form. a good eraser. The SAT II tests how well you have mastered a variety of high school subjects. three or four sharpened no. The new SAT has been designed so that a student who could score a 500 on the math section of the old SAT I could score a 500 on the math section of the New SAT I. To discourage wild guessing. there is no penalty for filling in a wrong answer. Eliminating one or more answers increases your chance of choosing the right answer. Quantitative comparison math questions are no longer on the exam. Questions Commonly Asked about the New SAT I Q: WHO ADMINISTERS THE NEW SAT I? A: The new SAT I is part of the entire Admissions Testing Program (ATP). but no points are subtracted if you leave the answer blank. 3 . Math sections have been enhanced. This is the same for the Critical Reading. On past score reports. scores up to five years old were also included on the report. New Jersey.400 Q: WILL THE NEW SAT I BE MORE DIFFICULT? A: No. Q: HOW IS THE NEW SAT I SCORED? A: The scoring will be as follows: Critical Reading: 200–800 Mathematics: 200–800 Writing: 200–800 (subscores essay 2–12. The first part of the test will always be an essay. Q: IS THERE A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE NEW SAT I AND THE SAT II? A: Yes. Q: IF NECESSARY. You may not bring scratch paper or books. The SAT II measures your proficiency in specific subject areas. along with any completed test scores. Q: SHOULD I GUESS ON THE NEW SAT I? A: If you can eliminate one or more of the multiple-choice answers to a question. fax. MAY I CANCEL MY SCORE? A: Yes. or e-mail a cancellation to College Board ATP.

(781) 890-9150. The SAT I is administered at hundreds of schools in and out of the United States. Texas 78735. (770) 908-9737. or 126 South Swan Street. Q: HOW AND WHEN SHOULD I REGISTER? A: A registration packet. (518) 472-1515. Fax (770) 934-4885.collegeboard. (850) 222-7999. Illinois 60201-4805. Suite 200. You should register about six weeks prior to the exam date. 1560 Sherman Avenue. March. and June.collegeboard. 2099 Gateway Place. 915 L Street. Austin. Subject-matter review is particularly useful for the math section. 100 Crescent Centre Parkway. Q: IS WALK-IN REGISTRATION PROVIDED? A: Yes. especially on the critical reading sections. Fax (916) 444-2868. Middle States: 3440 Market Street. Some special administrations are given in limited locations. Fax (850) 224-3077. and a review of basic grammar and usage will be helpful on the writing sections. Q: HOW OFTEN ARE THE TESTS ADMINISTERED? A: The new SAT I is usually scheduled to be administered nationwide seven times during the school year. November. Pennsylvania 19104-3338. ask for the Student Bulletin.org. Suite 900. you may attempt to register on the day of the test. complete with return envelope. (512) 891-8400. in October. Massachusetts 02451-1982. Mailing in these forms. (408) 452-1400. Tallahassee. Waltham. Fax (518) 472-1544. (847) 866-1700.Mastering the SAT Math Q: HOW SHOULD I PREPARE FOR THE NEW TEST? A: Understanding and practicing test-taking strategies helps a great deal. Florida 32301-7732. You can also write or call one of these College Board regional offices. Philadelphia. Q: CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION? A: Yes. San Jose. (An additional fee is required. December. completes the registration process. Q: WHERE IS THE SAT I ADMINISTERED? A: Your local college testing or placement office will have information about local administrations. Fax (847) 866-9280. Sacramento. Suite 340. Suite 480. Albany. January. (916) 444-6262. Georgia 30084-7039. 4330 South MoPac Expressway. Reviewing the writing process and practicing timed essay writing will also be helpful. you can check online at www. plus the appropriate fees. Fax (408) 453-7396. You can also register online at www. 470 Totten Pond Road. Fax (781) 890-0693. Suite 1001. California 95814. Suite 1200. is attached to the Student Bulletin. California 95110-1017. Fax (215) 387-5805. on a limited basis. Tucker. or Capitol Place. Suite 410. Fax (512) 891-8404. (215) 387-7600. Midwest: New England: South: Southwest: West: 4 . If you are unable to meet regular registration deadlines. New York 12210-1715. The College Board offers additional practice online.org. or HighPoint Center. May. 106 East College Avenue. Evanston. If you require information that is not available in this book.) You will be admitted only if space remains after preregistered students have been seated.

+ 2. If you finish them. The scoring machine may count extraneous marks as wrong answers. make sure to mark it out in your question booklet as follows: (A) ? (B) (C) (D) ? (E) Notice that some choices are marked with question marks. don’t waste time deciding whether a problem is a “+” or a “–. If 3x + x = 20. try your “–” problems (sometimes when you come back to a problem that seemed impossible.Introduction Taking the New SAT I: Successful Overall Approaches for Multiple-Choice Questions I. II. – 4. what is the value of x + 4? Notice that this question doesn’t ask for the value of x. signifying that they may be possible answers. Or If 8y + 3x = 14. go back and work your “+” problems. 2. The Elimination Strategy Take advantage of being allowed to mark in your testing booklet. 3.” After working all the problems you can do immediately. what is the value of y in terms of x? 5 . III. use the following system. The “Avoiding Misreads” Method Sometimes a question may have different answers depending upon what is asked. Your answer sheet should look something like this after you finish working your easy questions: 1. marking on your answer sheet: 1. The “Plus-Minus” System Many who take the New SAT I won’t get their best possible score because they spend too much time on difficult questions. Answer easy questions immediately. A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E Make sure to erase your “+” and “–” marks before your time is up. Place a “+” next to any problem that seems solvable but is too time-consuming. Place a “–” next to any problem that seems impossible. As you eliminate an answer choice from consideration. Don’t let this happen to you. 3. For example. + 5. These marks in your testing booklet do not need to be erased. Act quickly. This technique helps you avoid reconsidering those choices you have already eliminated and helps you narrow down your possible answers. Because every question within each section is worth the same amount. but rather the value of x + 4. leaving insufficient time to answer the easy questions. you suddenly realize how to solve it).

B. and so on. If x is positive. This eliminates B and C as possible correct answer choices. III. therefore. place a T for true. x cannot equal zero. T I. x>0 x=0 x<1 6 . . Notice that the words EXCEPT and NOT change these questions significantly. At first glance. or 3. Note that possible values of x could be 1. D. C. then which of the following must be true? I. it must be a counting number. IV. B. they are often easier than a comparable standard multiple-choice question. E. or 4. or 2. C. statement I. So next to I on your question booklet. these circles in your question booklet do not have to be erased. Statement II is incorrect. II. do you have to find x or x + 4? Are you looking for what is true or the exception to what is true? To help you avoid misreads. once again. C. simply circle what you must answer in the question. III. Actually. III. D. B. once you understand “multiple-multiple-choice” problem types and technique. x > 0. II. next to II. these questions appear more confusing and more difficult than normal five-choice (A. If x is a positive integer. II. Therefore. answering it incorrectly). “What is the value of x in terms of y?” Or All of the following statements are true EXCEPT .Mastering the SAT Math The question may instead have asked. x>0 x=0 x<1 Now realize that the correct final answer choice (A. you should place an F for false. mark the questions in your test booklet in this way: If 3x + x = 20. what is the value of y in terms of x? All of the following statements are true EXCEPT . is always true. what is the value of x + 4? If 8y + 3x = 14. . . For example. or E) must contain true statement I. And. For example. because they do not contain true statement I. A. Thus. You should cross out B and C on your question booklet. E) multiple-choice problems. D. x>0 x=0 x<1 I only II only III only I and II only I and III only Because x is a positive integer. T F I. The Multiple-Multiple-Choice Technique Some math and verbal questions use a “multiple-multiple-choice” format. . To avoid “misreading” a question (and.

Only A and E are left as possible correct answers. Watch out for careless mistakes. Know when to skip a question. Be sure to mark your answers in the right place.Introduction Knowing that II is false allows you to eliminate any answer choices that contain false statement II. Be careful. as x must be 1 or greater. Don’t be afraid to fill in your answer or guess on grid-ins. the “Avoiding Misreads” Method. Finally. and the Multiple-Multiple-Choice Technique. I only. A Summary of General Strategies Set a goal. Don’t get stuck on any one question. you should cross out D. So you place an F next to III. Know the directions. This technique often saves some precious time and allows you to take a better educated guess should you not be able to complete all parts (I. III) of a multiple-multiple-choice question. ❑ Remember to erase any extra marks on your answer sheet. Practice using the “Plus-Minus” System. thus eliminating Choice E and leaving A. Don’t make simple mistakes by rushing through the easy questions in math to get to the difficult ones. the Elimination Strategy. Remember that an average score is about 50 percent right. Therefore. ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ 7 . Guess only if you can eliminate one or more answers. Go into each section looking for the questions you can do and should get right. you realize that statement III is also false. II. because it contains false statement II.

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PART I ANALYS I S AN D STR ATE G I E S .

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and the last few multiple-choice questions are more difficult before you start the grid-ins. check the number that you keyed on the display to make sure that you keyed in the right number. You should ■ ■ Bring your own calculator. Before doing an operation. Check for a shortcut to any problem that seems to involve much computation. Practice using your calculator on some of the problems to see when and where it will be helpful. Bring a calculator even if you don’t think you’ll use it. If a section has two types of questions. Make sure that your calculator has new. These three sections generate a scaled math score that ranges from 200 to 800. Since one section of the test is experimental (although you don’t know which one). You may use an approved calculator on the SAT I. That is. Don’t bring a calculator that you’re unfamiliar with. Even though no question will require the use of a calculator—that is. The Mathematics sections are slightly graduated in difficulty. Don’t bring a calculator that requires an outlet or any other external power source. fresh batteries and is in good working order. Although the order of the sections and the number of questions may change. you could have an additional 25-minute Math section. Don’t bring a pocket organizer. You will be given reference information preceding each Mathematics section. using a calculator will save you valuable time. You should be familiar with this information. Using Your Calculator The new SAT I allows the use of approved calculators. a section starts with easy multiple-choice questions. the easiest questions are basically at the beginning and the more difficult ones at the end. each question can be answered without a calculator—in some instances. and the College Board (the people who sponsor the exam) recommends that each test taker take a calculator to the test. For example. handheld minicomputer. Bring a calculator with which you are familiar. You may want to check each number as you key it in. Don’t bring a calculator that makes noise. at this time. If there appears to be too much computation or the problem seems impossible without the calculator. because you can’t borrow one during the exam. Two Mathematics sections are 25 minutes in length and one math section is 20 minutes in length. the grid-ins start with easy questions and move toward the more difficult ones at the end. or calculator with a typewriter-type keypad or paper tape. laptop computer. But use your calculator if it will be time effective. the three sections total about 52 to 56 math questions that count toward your score. ■ ■ ■ ■ Be careful that you ■ ■ ■ Don’t rush out and buy a sophisticated calculator for the test. Make sure that you are familiar with the use of your calculator. you’re probably doing something wrong. usually each type starts with easier problems.Introduction to the Mathematics Section The Mathematics sections of the SAT consist of two basic types of questions: regular multiple-choice questions and student-produced responses also known as grid-ins. About 50% right should generate an average score. ■ ■ 11 .

Palm. subtraction.g. Don’t try to use a calculator on every problem. divisibility Word problems. distance. interest. and median Ratio and proportion Number properties: positive and negative integers.e.. factors and multiples. You must understand the problem first. intersection. but also remember that each problem can be solved without a calculator. TI-92 Plus. mode. PDA’s.. Voyage 200) Models with paper tapes Models that make noise or ‘talk’ Models that require an electrical outlet Cell phone calculators” Take advantage of using a calculator on the test. odd and even numbers. averages. elements) ■ ■ ■ ■ Algebra and Functions ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Operations with signed numbers Substitution for variables Absolute value Working with algebraic expressions Manipulating integer and rational exponents Solving rational equations and inequalities Working with linear functions—graphs and equations Solving radical equations 12 . Don’t become dependent on your calculator.. Following is the Calculator Policy for the New SAT I as given by the College Board: “The following are not permitted: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Powerbooks and portable/handheld computers Electronic writing pads or pen-input/stylus-driven (e. betweenness Sequences involving exponential growth Sets (union. Learn to use a calculator efficiently by practicing.Part I: Analysis and Strategies ■ ■ ■ Don’t try to share a calculator.g. Basic Skills and Concepts That You Should Know Number and Operations ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Operations with fractions Applying addition. a calculator can save you time on some problems. Remember. Also remember that a calculator will not solve a problem for you. Casio ClassPad 300) Pocket organizers Models with QWERTY (i. price per item Number line: order. fractions. multiplication. As you approach a problem. consecutive numbers. solving for: percents. and division to problem solving Arithmetic mean (average). prime numbers. first focus on how to solve that problem and then decide whether the calculator will be helpful. time. rate. typewriter) keyboards (e.

45°–45°–90° Pythagorean theorem Volume and surface area of solids Coordinate geometry: coordinates. area. geometry.Introduction to the Mathematics Section ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Basic factoring Direct and inverse variation Function notation and evaluation Concepts of range and domain Working with positive roots Solving quadratic equations Working with quadratic functions and graphs Geometry and Measurement ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Vertical angles Angles in figures Perpendicular and parallel lines Perimeter. basic statistics and probability. slope Geometric notation for length. angle measure of polygons Circumference. angle measure. isosceles. median. similarity Special triangles: 30°–60°–90°. charts. data interpretation. 13 . equilateral. lines. radius. range) Multiple-Choice Questions You should have a total of about 42 to 46 multiple-choice questions spread throughout the three Mathematics sections that count toward your score. algebra I and II. diameter Triangles: right. Ability Tested The Mathematics multiple-choice questions test your ability to solve mathematical problems involving arithmetic. and word problems by using problem-solving insight. segments. rays. logic. and congruence Properties of tangent lines Problems in which trigonometry could be used as an alternate solution method Qualitative behavior of graphs and functions Transformations and their effect on graphs and functions Data Analysis. area. mode. Statistics. and Probability ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Interpreting graphs. and the application of basic skills. and tables Scatterplots Probability Geometric probability Basic statistics (mean.

and mistakenly choose A as your answer. although other answers may be close. or 9. Suggested Approach with Samples Circle or Underline Take advantage of being allowed to mark on the test booklet by always underlining or circling what you are looking for. Calculators may be used. 14 . insights. If x + 8 = 10. Use the available space on the page for your scratch work. The most common mistake is to solve for x. and problem-solving skills. therefore. Logical insight into problem-solving situations is also necessary. A list of data that may be used for reference is included. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. D. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane. Unless otherwise stated. then substituting into 4x + 1 gives 4(2) + 1. But remember. Make sure that you are answering the right question. there is never more than one right answer.Part I: Analysis and Strategies Basic Skills Necessary The basic skills necessary to do well on this section include high school algebra I and II and intuitive or informal geometry. get used to doing this because no scratch paper is allowed into the testing area. Samples 1. not just x. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Directions Solve each problem in this section by using the information given and your own mathematical calculations. This will ensure that you are answering the right question. 2. Solving for x leaves x = 2. ■ Analysis of Directions 1. Then select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. E. You are looking for the one correct answer. No calculus is necessary. The correct answer is C. All scratch work is to be done in the test booklet. You should also notice that most of the other choices would all be possible answers if you made common or simple mistakes. Notes ■ ■ ■ All numbers used are real numbers. B. which is 2. 2 8 9 10 46 You should first circle or underline 4x + 1 because this is what you are solving for. C. then 4x + 1 = A. you are solving for 4x + 1.

20. then what is the value of x4 – y 4 ? A. Samples 1. . D. Now factor this difference of two squares. The coat costs $25 more than the hat. The multiples of 5 are 5. 4 8 12 24 32 First circle or underline x4 – y4.Introduction to the Mathematics Section 2. E. B. C. . 16 18 20 24 28 You should first circle or underline “possible number of students. then which of the following is a possible number of students in the drama class? A. B. D. C.” Now pulling out information gives you the following. If x2 – y2 = 8 and x2 + y2 = 4. you gain additional insight into the problem. . Tom purchased a hat and coat for a total of $125. Only Choice C is a multiple of 5. 15. x4 – y4 = (x2 – y2)(x2+ y2) Next substitute in 8 for x2 – y2 and 4 for x2 + y2 = (8)(4) = 32 The correct answer is E. D. Pull Out Information “Pulling” information out of the word problem structure can often give you a better look at what you are working with. then the possible total number of students in the class must be a multiple of 3 + 2 (boys plus girls). 10. $25 $50 $75 $100 $125 15 . B. If the ratio of boys to girls in a drama class is 3 to 2. 2. The correct answer is C. 25. or 5. . E. E. What is the cost of the coat? A. b:g=3:2 Since the ratio of boys to girls is 3 : 2. C. therefore.

E. Therefore. (x + 25) + x = 125 2x + 25 = 125 2x = 100 x = 50 But this is the cost of the hat.63 C. then do the work. Or you could use your calculator and quickly find the decimals. C. then x + 25 = 75. Always answer the question that is being asked. which is Choice C.625. By the way. . Since x = 50.72 E. . To solve algebraically. so circle those words. 2.625. . x<4 x<2 x>0 x>3 x<3 16 .40 and 5 is . Work forward. If 3x – 6 < 3. what are the possible values of x? A. Work Forward If you quickly see the method to solve the problem. the coat costs $75. the correct answer is A.80 You should first underline or circle between 2 and 5 ? If you know that 2 is . .65 D. Circling the key word or words will help you do that. you might have insight 8 8 5 5 into the problem and should simply work forward.52 B. D. . a quick peek at the answer choices would tip you off that you should work in decimals. B. x = hat x + $25 = coat (cost $25 more than the hat) Together they cost $125.52 is the only number between. Since .40 and .Part I: Analysis and Strategies The key words here are cost of the coat. . Which of the following numbers is between 2 and 5 ? 8 5 A. Notice that $50 is one of the answer choices. Samples 1. B.

If x + 3 = 5 . –2 B. 1 E. it will be easier to work from the answers. 0 D. x+3=5 2 4 4 1+3=5 2 4 4 Change 1 to 2 2 4 2+3=5 4 4 4 The correct answer is D. This gives Now divide by 3. 17 . you may use the work up from your choices strategy. But start with C. 0. What if x = 0? x+3=5 2 4 4 0+3!5 2 4 4 Since this answer is too small. because it will at least eliminate some of the choices and could give you the correct answer. –1 C. Working from the answers is a valuable technique. what is the value of x? 2 4 4 A. Do not disregard this method. Samples 1.Introduction to the Mathematics Section First circle or underline “possible values of x. So The correct answer is E. a larger number.” Now solve the problem as follows: 3x – 6 < 3 + 6 +6 3x < 9 3x < 9 3 3 x<3 Add 6 to each side. Work Backward In some instances. try Choice D. Plugging in 1 gives. 2 If you cannot solve this algebraically.

Part I: Analysis and Strategies

2. What is the greatest common factor of the numbers 18, 24, and 30? A. B. C. D. E. 2 3 4 6 12

The largest number which divides evenly into 18, 24, and 30 is 6. You could have worked from the answers. But here you should start with the largest answer choice, since you’re looking for the greatest common factor. The correct answer is D.

**Use Your Calculator
**

Some questions will need to be completely worked out. If you don’t see a fast method but do know that you could compute the answer, use your calculator.

1. What is the final cost of a television that sells for $478.00 if the sales tax is 8%? A. B. C. D. E. $478.08 $478.80 $512.80 $516.24 $561.00

Since the sales tax is 8% of $478.00, 8% of $478.00 = (.08)($478.00) = $38.24 The total cost of the television is therefore $478.00 + $38.24 = $516.24 The correct answer is D. Your calculator would have helped with these calculations.

**Substitute Simple Numbers
**

Substituting numbers for variables can often be an aid to understanding a problem. Remember to substitute simple numbers, since you have to do the work.

Samples

1. If x represents an even integer, then an odd integer is represented by which of the following? A. B. C. D. E. 3x 2x + 1 3x + 2 4x – 2 5x – 4

18

Introduction to the Mathematics Section

Since the question says that “x represents an even integer,” substitute 2 for x. You should remember to circle “an odd integer” because that is what you are looking for. So as you plug 2 into each choice, you can stop when you get an odd integer. 3x = 3(2) = 6 2x + 1 = 2(2) + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5 Since 5 is an odd integer, the correct answer is B. 2. If f(x) = 4x, which of the following CANNOT be a value of f(x)? A. B. C. D. E. –4 1 4 1 4 16

Notice that you are looking for “CANNOT be a value of f(x).” Try some simple numbers—0, 1, –1—and you will see that regardless of the values used for x, 4x cannot be a negative number (or zero). f ^0h = 4 0 = 1 f ^1h = 4 1 = 4 f ^ -1h = 4 - 1 = 1 4 So f(x) = 4x > 0, f(x) ≠ – 4 The correct answer is A.

Use 10 or 100

Some problems may deal with percent or percent change. If you don’t see a simple method for working the problem, try using the values of 10 or 100 and see what you get.

1. If 40% of the students in a class have blue eyes, and 20% of those students with blue eyes have brown hair, then what percent of the original total number of students have brown hair and blue eyes? A. B. C. D. E. 4% 8% 16% 20% 32%

First circle or underline “percent of the original total number . . . brown hair . . . blue eyes.” In this problem, if you don’t spot a simple method, try starting with 100 students in the class. Since 40% of them have blue eyes, then 40 students have blue eyes. Now, the problem says 20% of those students with blue eyes have brown hair. Since 20% of 40 is 8, then 8 out of 100 (you started with 100 students), 8%, have blue eyes and brown hair. The correct answer is B.

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Part I: Analysis and Strategies

2. Tom is building a square wooden framework to pour cement. His first frame is too small, so he increases each side by 20 percent. After careful measurement, he realizes this frame is too large, so he decreases each side by 10 percent. The area contained by his final wooden frame is what percent greater than the original wooden frame? A. B. C. D. E. 10% 10.8% 16.64% 20% 40.44%

First circle or underline what you are looking for, in this case—area . . . percent greater . . . than original. Next, draw the diagram.

**Now try some simple numbers. In this case 10":
**

1 0″

1 0″

100 sq. in.

**Increasing this measurement by 20 percent gives a side of 12":
**

12″

12″

144 sq. in.

**Decreasing this measurement by 10 percent gives 12 – 1.2 = 10.8. (10% × 12 = 1.2)
**

10.8″

10.8″

116.64 sq. in.

The area of the original was 100 sq. in. The area of the new figure is 116.64 sq. in. So the percent greater than the original would be 116.64 – 100 = 16.64 compared to the original 100 gives 16.64%. The correct answer is C. Your calculator could have been helpful in this problem.

20

Introduction to the Mathematics Section

Be Reasonable

Sometimes you will immediately recognize a simple method to solve a problem. If this is not the case, try a reasonable approach and then check the answers to see which one is most reasonable.

1. Will can complete a job in 30 minutes. Eli can complete the same job in 60 minutes. If they work together, approximately how many minutes will it take them to complete the job? A. B. C. D. E. 90 minutes 60 minutes 45 minutes 30 minutes 20 minutes

First circle or underline “work together, approximately how many minutes.” In a reasonable approach, you would reason that since Will can complete the job alone in 30 minutes, then if he received any help, that job should take less than 30 minutes. He’s receiving a fair amount of help, so the answer must be well below 30 minutes. The only choice less than 30 is Choice E, 20.

Sketch a Diagram

Sketching diagrams or simple pictures can also be very helpful in problem solving because the diagram may tip off either a simple solution or a method for solving the problem.

Samples

1. If all sides of a square are doubled, the area of that square A. B. C. D. E. is doubled. is tripled. is multiplied by 4. is multiplied by 8 remains the same.

One way to solve this problem is to draw a square and then double all its sides. Then compare the two areas. Your first diagram

S

S

21

Part I: Analysis and Strategies

**Doubling every side
**

2S S S S S 2S

You can see that the total area of the new square will now be four times the original square. The correct answer is C. 2. What is the maximum number of milk cartons, each 2" wide by 3" long by 4" tall, that can be fit into a cardboard box with inside dimensions of 16" wide by 9" long by 8" tall? A. B. C. D. E. 12 18 20 24 48

Drawing a diagram, as shown below, may be helpful in envisioning the process of fitting the cartons into the box. Notice that 8 cartons will fit across the box, 3 cartons deep, and two “stacks” high: 8 × 3 × 2 = 48 cartons

8″ 4″ 2″ 16″

3″

9″

The correct answer is E.

22

Introduction to the Mathematics Section

Mark in Diagrams

Marking in or labeling diagrams as you read the questions can save you valuable time. Marking can also give you insight into how to solve a problem because you will have the complete picture clearly in front of you.

Samples

B

x

A

y

C

1. In the isosceles triangle above, AB = BC and ∠x is 70°. What is the measurement of angle y in degrees? A. B. C. D. E. 50° 60° 70° 100° 130°

First, circle or underline what you are looking for. “∠y.” Next, in the isosceles triangle, immediately mark in that AB and BC are equal. Then mark in ∠x as 70°. Since AB = BC, then ∠x = ∠y (angles opposite equal sides are equal). After you marked in the information, your diagram should look like this.

B

70 A

y C

The correct answer is C. 70° . Always mark in diagrams as you read descriptions and information about them. This includes what you are looking for.

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24 . D. But after you redraw the figure. E. WZ = ZY s=t perimeter of ᭝WXZ = perimeter of ᭝ZXY area of ᭝WXZ = area of ᭝ZXY ∠XWZ = ∠XYZ Before doing anything else. B. 1. Which of the following must be true? A. WX = XY. The same can be noticed of s and t. Now mark the diagram as follows. you can see that WZ and ZY don’t have to be equal. unless a diagram is labeled “not drawn to scale. In this case. X \ \ W s° t° Z Y Notice that by looking at the way the figure is initially drawn. quickly redraw it another way that still conforms to the given information. since it’s evident that triangles WXZ and ZXY don’t necessarily have equal perimeters. underline or circle must be true. eliminating Choice A. C.” That label is the tipoff that the diagram could be drawn differently or is out of proportion. mark the diagram and/or quickly redraw it differently. since the figure is not drawn to scale. Marking and/or redrawing will give you insight into what information you really have about the diagram. you might think that WZ = ZY because they appear to be equal. X \ \ W s° t° Z Y Next. In ᭝WXY above. A quick look at the redrawn figure will help you eliminate Choice C as well. X W s° t° Z Y Note: Figure not drawn to scale. eliminating B. They don’t have to be equal.Part I: Analysis and Strategies Watch for Diagrams Not Drawn to Scale Diagrams are drawn as accurately as possible.

so the areas could be different. Suppose S represents Sue’s age. how old is Sue? 1. Rather. Choice E is the correct answer because in any triangle. This fact is also evident from your redrawing of the diagram. 25 . Which of the following equations can be used to find Sue’s age? A. 9 = 1 ^Sh . C. equal angles are across from equal sides. If Harold is 9 years old. B.9 = ^Sh 2 1 9 =S-3 2^ h Changing the word sentence into a number sentence (equation): Harold’s age is 3 years less than half Sue’s age.Introduction to the Mathematics Section You can also eliminate Choice D because even though the heights of triangles WXZ and ZXY are equal.1 ^Sh 2 1 3 .3 2 9 . you may be asked to set up the equation or expression without doing any solving. Samples Harold’s age is 3 years less than half Sue’s age. A quick glance at the answer choices will help you know what is expected. D. E.3 = 1 ^Sh 2 9 = 3 . Glance at the Choices Some problems may not ask you to solve for a numerical answer or even an answer including variables. their bases could be different. Your markings in the figure remind you that this is true. 9 = 1 2 S−3 The correct answer is A.

are also necessary to do well on this question type. Before you begin working grid-in questions. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Decimal point (Notice that the decimal point is located in the shaded row. logic. geometry. you should be extra careful in checking and doublechecking your answer.Part I: Analysis and Strategies Grid-In Questions The New SAT I grid-in question type is very similar to the familiar multiple-choice question except that you will now solve the problem and enter your answer by carefully marking the circles on a special grid. Let’s start explaining the rules and procedures by analyzing the directions. Ability Tested The grid-in questions test your ability to solve mathematical problems involving arithmetic. That is. Since you will not be selecting from a group of possible answers. Also.) Answer: 3. keep in mind that answers to grid-in questions are given either full credit or no credit. You will not be selecting from a group of possible answers. basic statistics and probability. so at least take a guess. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . but the filled-in circles are most important because they are the ones scored.7 . Understanding the rules and procedures for gridding in answers is important. it is important that you become familiar with the grid-in rules and procedures and learn to grid accurately. No points are deducted for incorrect answers in this section. there is no penalty for guessing or attempting a grid-in. Directions with Analysis The following questions require you to solve the problem and enter your answer by carefully marking the circles on the special grid. and word problems by using problem-solving insight. Also notice that the answer has been written in above the gridding. along with some logical insight into problem-solving situations. Skills in arithmetic and basic algebra I and II. (Comments in parentheses have been added to help you understand how to grid properly.) 26 . Your calculator can be useful in checking answers. Basic Skills Necessary The basic skills necessary to do well on this question type include high school algebra I and II and intuitive or informal geometry. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . You should always write in your answer. data interpretation. No calculus is necessary. Examples of the appropriate way to mark the grid follow. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . and application of basic skills. just above the numbers. algebra I and II. There is no partial credit.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (Either an improper fraction or a decimal is acceptable. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Obviously. Change to 1.Introduction to the Mathematics Section Answer: 1 2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (Notice that the slash mark (/) indicates a fraction bar. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .) 2 27 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Always change mixed numbers to improper fractions or decimals. a fraction bar cannot be in the first or last column. Never grid-in a mixed number because it will always be misread. This fraction bar is located in the shaded row and just above the decimal point in the two middle columns. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .) Answer: 1 1 2 Do not grid-in mixed numbers in the form of mixed numbers. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fraction bar . 1 1 will be 2 read by the computer doing the scoring as 11 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . For example. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .5 or Change to 3 2 .

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .) Note: Circles must be filled in correctly to receive credit. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .) 28 . Mark only one circle in each column. This type of answer fill-in will never receive any credit. Each grid-answer below is correct. answers may start in any column.Part I: Analysis and Strategies Answer: 123 Space permitting. Example: Answer: 258 No credit!!!! . But space permitting. No credit will be given if more than one circle in a column is marked. Be careful to avoid this mistake. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (You should try to grid your answers from right to left. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (Filling in more than one circle in a column is equivalent to selecting more than one answer in multiple choice. you may start in any column. . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . learning to be consistent as you practice. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .

89 is considered inaccurate and therefore not acceptable. Even though some problems may have more than one correct answer. either . Notice that you must be as accurate as the grid allows. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (Review “accuracy of decimals” a second time.2 is acceptable. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .889. you are required only to grid a zero in one column. it is very important to ensure accuracy. Important: If you decide to change an answer. .Introduction to the Mathematics Section Answer: 8 9 Accuracy of decimals: Always enter the most accurate decimal value that the grid will accommodate. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .8888 . For example. can be gridded as .88. For example: An answer such as . Hand write and grid-in the answers given. If your answer is zero. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . (Fractions can be reduced to lowest terms. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Although writing out the answers above the columns is not required.889 . grid only one answer. Properly filled-in grids are given following each exercise. . or . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . You are not required to grid a zero before a fraction. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .2 or 0. 29 . Grid-in questions contain no negative answers.) Practice Grid-Ins The following practice exercises will help you become familiar with the gridding process. but it is not required as long as they will fit in the grid.888 or . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .888 .8. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Gridding this value as . The acceptable grid-ins of 8 are 9 8 9 .) Be sure to write your answers in the boxes at the top of the circles before doing your gridding. be sure to erase the old gridded answer completely. .

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 2 3 Answer: 4 5 Answer: 9 2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .8 Answer: 20. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .5 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .Part I: Analysis and Strategies Exercise Answer: 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .4 Answer: . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 5 1 4 Answer: 7 1 2 Answer: 3 1 7 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 7 1 2 1 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .25 4 7 1 must be changed to 2 15 or 7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 2 3 2 .14 7 31 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .5 2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 1 must be changed 4 to 21 or 5. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 4 5 4 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .Introduction to the Mathematics Section Answers to Exercise Answer: 2. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 .8 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 3 1 7 2 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 / . / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 9 2 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / / .5 2 31 7 must be changed to 22 or 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 .4 2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer: 5 1 4 2 .

There are some specific items and strategies that should be noted for grid-in questions: ■ There is no penalty for guessing on grid-in questions. described and suggested in the multiple-choice section. Draw/sketch diagrams or simple figures. 7 1 = 29 m or 2 4 2 2 4 4 decimals c 3 1 = 3. remember that 75 cents is . or Disregard the $ sign when gridding your answer. grid in 95. In some questions. The use of your calculator on some problems in this section could enhance the speed and accuracy of your work. or 7. Grid-in . Answers that are mixed numbers such as 3 1 or 7 1 must be changed to improper fractions c 3 1 = 7 .25 m before being gridded. Writing in your answer in the space provided at the top of the grid is for your benefit only. 32 . If your answer is 68%. will also work on grid-in questions. grid-in 57. Pull information out of word problems.75 not 75. Be sure to grid accurately and properly. Mixed 2 4 numbers cannot. Grid-in only one answer.57. Disregard the % sign when gridding your answer.5. grid in 68. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Following are some sample grid-in questions. Mark in diagrams. Also consider when it would be appropriate to use a calculator to help you work out problems and to check the accuracy of your work. or 8 but not more than one of them. Consider for each how you would grid-in the answer in the proper places on the answer sheet. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Circle or underline what you are looking for. Try simple numbers to solve a problem. 2 2 Since you cannot work from answer choices that are given or eliminate given choices.75 dollar. Or if a question asks for dollars and you get an answer of 75 cents. Although it may be difficult to get an answer correct by simply writing in a wild guess. 7 1 = 7. Approximate or use your calculator to check your answers if time permits. Use your calculator when appropriate to solve a problem. the grid-in answer is the only one scored. you will have to actually work out each answer. or if it’s $95. you should not be afraid to fill in your answer—even if you think it’s wrong. Make sure to answer what is being asked. but remember. more than one answer is possible. Some questions will have a note in parentheses ( ) that says. Improper fractions or decimals can be gridded. You should also ■ ■ ■ Make sure that your answer is reasonable.Part I: Analysis and Strategies Suggested Approaches with Samples Most of the following strategies. Substitute numbers for variables to understand a problem. Jot down your scratch work or calculations in the space provided in your test booklet. The scoring system cannot distinguish between 3 1 and 31 . Follow the directions. not . If the question asks for percent and you get an answer of 57%. It’s wise to always write in your answer. grid in 6. If you work out a question and get the answer x > 5.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / / . if there was a 15-minute wait at the bank. Let m # n be defined m = .Introduction to the Mathematics Section Acceptable Answers Fraction and decimal forms are acceptable.c 1 m n = 4 .5-mile taxi trip cost? (Disregard the $ sign when gridding your answer.5. so you must change it to either 5 or 2.20 for the first 1 mile 4 $0.) 33 . Be accurate. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 2 2 Your grid-in would look like this. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The correct answer is 5 or 2.00 per hour for waiting At these rates. Sample 1. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 .5 Now you can fill in the top and grid in the answer.90 for each additional 1 mile 4 $6. (Either answer will receive full credit. Sample 1. Your written-in answer is for your benefit. how much will a 1.” Notice how it is defined. or “false operation. Acme Taxi lists the following rates on its door: $1.c 1 m ^ 3h 2 2 =4-11 2 1 =2 2 But you can’t grid in 2 1 . but not mixed numbers. What is the value of 4 # 3? 2 This problem involves a made-up operation.c 1 m n . 5 . m # n = .) 2 Grid Carefully Your gridding is what counts.

The first 1 mile will cost $1. gridded as 7. 72.” Next set up the information as follows and multiply (use your calculator if you wish. / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 . Your answer must be in the units asked for. How many hours will it take to mow all the lawns listed in the chart above? First. Sample Lawns in Hill Crest Village Street Name Pine Tamarind Randall Palmetto Number of Lawns 3 7 9 12 Mowing Time Per Lawns 25 minutes 30 minutes 35 minutes 40 minutes 2. 7.20.90) = $4. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 / .00 per hour. underline or circle “how many hours” and “all the lawns.20. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer the Question Make sure that you answer the question that is being asked.50. (You would not get credit for gridding 7.) 7 . or 720.Part I: Analysis and Strategies You should solve the problem as follows: At $6. a 15-minute ( 1 hour) wait will cost $1. The total bill will be the sum. 4 4 4 or 5 miles will cost 5(. 4 $1. The remaining 1 1 .50. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .50 = $7.20 + $4.) 3 × 25 = 75 7 × 30 = 210 9 × 35 = 315 12 × 40 = 480 34 .20 The correct answer is $7.50 + $1.00.20. even if you had written the right answer above the grid circles.

. you’ll get other possibilities for x.” so divide 1. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 . in this case. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . But the question asks for “hours. x + 6 > 10 Subtracting 6 from each side leaves x + 6 > 10 –6 –6 x>4 so. 6. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 35 . Your grid could look like this. try plugging in 6 for y. say 5. grid in only one answer. 1 . Sample 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . what is a possible value of x if y > 5? Since y > 5. . and see what you get.) Your grid-in could look like the one that follows. (Sometimes the units will be underlined in the question. x is any integer greater than 4—that is 5.080 by 60 and you get 18 hours. 5 . Don’t put in more than one possibility. and then carefully mark it in the grid. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Grid Only One Answer Even if more than one answer is possible.Introduction to the Mathematics Section Now total the minutes and you get 1.) Now simply write in one answer. (if you assign a larger number to y. 8. .080 minutes. If x and y are positive integers and x + y > 10. 7.

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PART II R EVI EW W ITH SAM PLE PR O B LE M S .

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. 3. Number not divisible by 2: 1. These topics are covered in this chapter. 2. . Formulas. Next. Geometry and Measurement. Terminology. –2. Carefully work through these problems. 2. 3.A Quick Review of Mathematics The following pages are designed to give you a quick review of some of the basic skills used on the math sections of the New SAT I. 7. Algebra and Functions. If you are weak in math. Then proceed to the Arithmetic Diagnostic Test. . 2. carefully work through the SAT-type questions that follow. . you should read through the complete review carefully. formulas. . Even if you are strong in the general topics—Numbers and Operations. . The first three problems for each topic are multiple-choice and range (in order) from easy to difficult. 0. . The counting numbers beginning with zero: 0. Positive and negative whole numbers and zero: . . and Data Analysis. . and Probability—you might wish to skim the specific topic headings in each area to refresh your memory about important concepts. and General Mathematical Information Common Math Symbols and Terms Symbol References: = ≠ > < ≥ ≤ || is equal to is not equal to is greater than is less than is greater than or equal to is less than or equal to is parallel to is perpendicular to = Terms: Natural numbers Whole numbers Integers Odd number The counting numbers: 1. carefully work through the SAT-type questions that follow. –3. . . After completing and reviewing the SAT-type questions for each topic. (continued) 39 . which you should take to spot your weak areas. 1. –1. take the Measurement and Geometry Diagnostic Test and carefully read the complete Measurement and Geometry Review. 5. Then use the Arithmetic Review that follows to strengthen those areas. Again. 1. take the Algebra Diagnostic Test and again use the review that follows to strengthen your weak areas. Symbols. Statistics. . . 3. Each review is followed by sample SAT-type questions with complete explanations for each topic area. and general mathematical information. . Again. The final problem is a sample grid-in problem. it is wise to become familiar with basic mathematics terminology. Before beginning the diagnostic review tests.

or 2b + 2h Area = bh.10 = 10% 10 1 = 2 = .1 = . 10.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Even number Prime number Composite number Number divisible by 2: 0. 12. Square Cube Math Formulas Triangle Perimeter = s1 + s2 + s3 Area = 1 bh 2 Square Perimeter = 4s Area = s ⋅ s. 9. 3. or 2l + 2w Area = bh Trapezoid Perimeter = b1 + b2 + s1 + s2 b + b2 Area = 1 h _ b 1 + b 2 i . 4. . . 11. 13. 3 × 3 × 3 = 27. Examples of squares are 1. 3 × 3 = 9. 7. . 4. Examples of cubes are 1. .1 = 1% 100 1 = . . 64 . 8. 5. The results when a number is multiplied by itself twice: 2 × 2 × 2 = 8. 6. .20 = 20% 5 10 40 . . 16. . . (0 and 1 are neither prime nor composite) The results when a number is multiplied by itself: 2 × 2 = 4. . 27. 15. 8. Number divisible by more than just 1 and itself: 4. Number divisible by only 1 and itself: 2. 36. . or lw Parallelogram Perimeter = 2(l + w). or h d 1 n 2 2 Circle Circumference = 2πr. or s2 Rectangle Perimeter = 2(b + h). 2. 25. 9. . or πd Area = π r 2 Cube Volume = s ⋅ s ⋅ s = s3 Surface area = s ⋅ s ⋅ 6 Rectangular Prism Volume = l ⋅ w ⋅ h Surface area = 2(lw) + 2(lh) + 2(wh) Pythagorean theorem (a2 + b2 = c2): The sum of the square of the legs of a right triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse. 14. .2 = . Important Equivalents 1 = 0. 6. .

83 1 = 83 1 % 3 3 6 1 = 1.62 1 = 62 1 % 8 2 2 7 = .125 = .8 = .A Quick Review of Mathematics 3 = .25 = 25% 4 100 3 = 75 = .12 1 = 12 1 % 8 2 2 3 = .40 = 40% 5 10 1 = 5 = .00 = 100% 2 = 2.66 2 = 66 2 % 3 3 3 1 = .00 = 200% 3 1 = 3.90 = 90% 10 1 = 25 = .16 2 = 16 2 % 3 3 6 5 = .5 = .80 = 80% 5 10 9 = .875 = .60 = 60% 5 10 7 = .3 = .625 = .87 1 = 87 1 % 8 2 2 1 = .70 = 70% 10 4 = 8 = .375 = .75 = 75% 4 100 1 = .9 = .30 = 30% 10 2 = 4 = .6 = .33 1 = 33 1 % 3 3 3 2 = .50 = 350% 2 Math Words and Phrases Words that signal an operation: Addition ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Sum Total Plus Increase More than Greater than 41 .37 1 = 37 1 % 8 2 2 5 = .7 = .50 = 50% 2 10 3 = 6 = .5 = 3.4 = .

Note: The associative property does not hold for subtraction. (2 + 3) + 4 = 2 + (3 + 4) (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) The grouping has changed (parentheses moved). 4 – (3 – 1) ≠ (4 – 3) – 1 a – (b – c) ≠ (a – b) – c 42 .Part II: Review with Sample Problems Multiplication ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Of Product Times At (sometimes) Total (sometimes) Subtraction ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Difference Less Decreased Reduced Fewer Have left Division ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Quotient Divisor Dividend Ratio Parts Mathematical Properties Some Properties (Axioms) of Addition Commutative means that the order does not make any difference. 2+3=3+2 a+b=b+a Note: The commutative property does not hold for subtraction. 3–1≠1–3 a–b≠b–a Associative means that the grouping does not make any difference. but the sides are still equal.

Any number multiplied by 1 gives the original number. Any number multiplied by its reciprocal equals 1. (8 ÷ 4) ÷ 2 ≠ 8 ÷ (4 ÷ 2) The identity element for multiplication is 1. Some Properties (Axioms) of Multiplication Commutative means that the order does not make any difference. a + (–a) = 0. –2 and 2 are inverses. 2 # 1 = 1. therefore. –2 + 2 = 0.A Quick Review of Mathematics The identity element for addition is 0. therefore. a and –a are inverses. a and 1 a are inverses. 3 + (–3) = 0. therefore. Note: The associative property does not hold for division. therefore. 2÷4≠4÷2 Associative means that the grouping does not make any difference. therefore. 3 and –3 are inverses. Any number plus its additive inverse equals 0 (the identity). 2 2 1 a # a = 1. (2 × 3) × 4 = 2 × (3 × 4) (a × b) × c = a × (b × c) The grouping has changed (parentheses moved). 43 . 3×1=3 a×1=a The multiplicative inverse is the reciprocal of the number. 2 and 1 are inverses. 2×3=3×2 a×b=b×a Note: The commutative property does not hold for division. but the sides are still equal. Any number added to 0 gives the original number. 3+0=3 a+0=a The additive inverse is the opposite (negative) of the number.

Part II: Review with Sample Problems A Property of Two Operations The distributive property is the process of distributing the number on the outside of a set of parentheses to each number on the inside. 2(3 + 4) = 2(3) + 2(4) a(b + c) = a(b) + a(c) Note: You cannot use the distributive property with only one operation. 3(4 × 5 × 6) ≠ 3(4) × 3(5) × 3(6) a(bcd) ≠ a(b) × a(c) × a(d) or (ab)(ac)(ad) 44 .

Change 5 3 to an improper fraction. Change . 28.5% to a fraction. The square root of 30 is approximately equal to: 37. . Change 3 to a percent. 39 out of 100 means: 24.45 – . 6 .68 = 17. 82 = 45 . Change 12. Change 4% to a decimal. Data Analysis.3 3 = 4 4 10. Is 93 prime? 30. 25.009 to a percent. 1 ' 3 = 4 2 1 13. 7.5 × . 1 of $7.35.Numbers and Operations. 2 + 3 = 5 5 6. 2 3 # 1 5 = 8 6 12.001 × 2. 2 3 7 '14 = 14. 3.5 = 9 9 8.24 – $31. Change 32 to a whole number or mixed number 6 in lowest terms. .9 = 34. 32 × 35 = 36. 1 3 + 2 5 = 8 6 7.147 = 35. 5. . and Probability Arithmetic Diagnostic Test (Including Numbers and Operations.9 or 4.3 = 19. Circle the larger number: 7. 6 = ? 4 3. $78.002 g12 = 21. What is the percent increase in a rise in temperature from 80° to 100°? 31. 46% of 58 = 26. 7 . What is the median of the numbers 4. and Probability) Questions 1.2 + . and 1? 20. 27.20 = 3 22. –7 × –9 = 33. 1 # 1 = 6 6 11.5 = 18.471 = 15. .07 + 1. Statistics. 9. 28 × 39 is approximately: 2. 8. .2 = 3 1 9. . –6 + 8 = 32.003 = 16. 5. 4 4. 11 . Statistics. 8 29. Data Analysis. 23.7 g .

37. 1.200 2. Based on the following circle graph. 4 5 24 2 7. . $2.9% or 9 % 10 125 or 1 27. 5 2 or 5 1 3 6 5.9 23. 64 35.5% or 37 1 % 2 29. 68 or 1 33 35 35 14. 5. 37 36. 26. . 25% 31.21 20.20% work How Timmy Spends His 24-Hour Day Answers 1. 2 2 or 2 1 4 2 1 10. 7.5% Misc. 4 or 4. 1000 8 28. 3 hours 46 .4023 19.04 25.25 18. 39% or 39 100 24. 18. 36 11. $46.56 17. 1. 9 34.5% 12. 5 or 1 5 6. No. 6 13. 9 8. 2 32.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 38. 10 1 3 9. Home. 30.5 2 38.741 15. 6.5 or 5 1 2 1 37.447 16. . 23 4 4. 209 or 4 17 48 48 1 12.40 22.000 21. . 63 33. 24 3.68 26. how much time does Timmy spend doing homework? School 33% Sleeping 22% Eating 12. .

Products. and so on 47 . If it is 5 or higher. leave your underlined place value as it is and change all the other numbers to its right to zeros. 2. 3 4 5 . .47 298. Underline the place value to which you’re rounding off. Arithmetic Review Place Value Each position in any number has place value.Numbers and Operations . and 5 is in the ones place. 4 is in the hundreds place. Differences.435. and Quotients Knowing how to approximate or estimate not only saves you time but can also help you check your answer to see whether it is reasonable. 8 7 6 . Identify the number (the one to the right).4678 becomes 3.083 becomes 298. For example. give an estimate for the sum 3.435.000 928. Look to the immediate right (one place) of your underlined place value.000 This works with decimals as well.741 + 5. For example: Round to the nearest thousand: 345. 8 is in the tens place. 0 9 2 . .08 Estimating Sums. in the number 485. Thus.678 becomes 346. round your underlined place value up 1. place value is as follows: 3 . 4 3 6 2 9 7 0 2 tenths hundredths thousandths ten-thousandths hundred-thousandths millionths ten-millionths hundred-millionths hundred millions ten millions millions hundred thousands ten thousands thousands and so on hundreds tens ones billions Rounding Off To round off any number: 1.499 becomes 928. If the number (the one to the right) is 4 or less. For instance. Estimating Sums Use rounded numbers to estimate sums.021 rounded to the nearest thousand. 3. Round to the nearest hundredth: 3.

900 ' 300 = 3 891 ' 288 . this approximation is closer than if you round both numbers up. 200. . 000 So Estimating Products Use rounded numbers to estimate products. 000 . 522 . 350. estimate the product of 722 × 489 by rounding to the nearest hundred. . 240. Round one number up and one down. 317. 4. 000 = 200.000 So You can also round the first number down and the second number up and get this estimate: 650 # 350 . . which is the standard rule. 741 + 5. 000 722 # 489 . 700 # 300 = 210. 3 So 48 . 741 + 5. 9. 000 317. . 753 . 753 .522 rounded to the nearest hundred thousand.115. give an estimate for the difference 317. 600 # 400 = 240. 210. Estimating Differences Use rounded numbers to estimate differences. . 021 . 000 So In either case.115.000 650 # 300 . 000 650 # 350 . 000 Note: The symbol ≈ means is approximately equal to. 522 .Part II: Review with Sample Problems So 3. 700 # 500 = 350. For example. 021 . 000 = 9. Estimating Quotients Use rounded numbers to estimate quotients. 300. For example. For example. 650 # 350 .100. 000 + 5. 891 ' 288 . estimate the quotient of 891 ÷ 288 by rounding to the nearest hundred. 722 # 489 . estimate the product of 650 × 350 by rounding to the nearest hundred. . then rounding one number up and one number down gives a better estimate of the product.753 – 115. 000 3. 000 So If both multipliers end in 50 or are halfway numbers. For example.

20 is reduced to 4 by dividing both the numerator and denominator by 5. first change all denominators to their lowest common denominator (LCD)—the lowest number that can be divided evenly by all the denominators in the problem. 3 also 5 means 3 out of 5 equal pieces from the whole pie. 25 5 Adding Fractions To add fractions. This kind of fraction is called 5 a common fraction. 1 . Common Fractions and Improper Fractions A fraction like 3 . is less than one. 12 7 is more than one. 8 16 Likewise. Sometimes a fraction represents more than one. add fractions by simply adding the numerators (the denominator remains the same). . 8. In other words. 14 is reduced by dividing both terms by 2. if the fraction is 3 of a pie. For example. 1 numerator or numerator 1 denominator 2 2 denominator The denominator indicates the number of equal parts into which something is divided. 5. The numerator indicates how many of these equal parts are contained in the fraction. then the denominator. add the numerator and put the total over the original denominator. divide the denominator into the numerator. or 25) and a fraction (such as 1 . 5 indicates that the pie has been divided into 5 equal parts. This is when the numerator is larger than the denominator. Thus. or 3 ). Thus.Numbers and Operations . For example: 18 = 3 3 5 5 3 5 g18 15 3 To change a mixed number to an improper fraction. multiply the denominator by the whole number. . Mixed Numbers When a term contains both a whole number (such as 3. For example: 41=9 2 2 2#4+1=9 Reducing Fractions A fraction must be reduced to lowest terms. of which 3 (the numerator) are in the fraction. For example: 49 . giving 7 . it is called a mixed 2 4 4 number. This is called an improper fraction. This is done by dividing both the numerator and the denominator by the largest number that divides evenly into both. Fractions Fractions consist of two numbers: a numerator (which is above the line) and a denominator (which is below the line). For example. When all the denominators are the same. 5 1 and 290 3 are both mixed numbers. 4 4 To change an improper fraction to a mixed number. where the numerator is smaller than the denominator. Sometimes it helps to think of the dividing line (in the middle of a fraction) as meaning out of.

For example: 12 6 + 3 = 9 11 11 11 Adding Mixed Numbers To add mixed numbers. For example: 4 11 37 ⁄6 − 651 129 522 41 ⁄6 − 25 ⁄6 12 ⁄6 = 11 ⁄3 you borrowed one in the form 6 ⁄6 from the ones column you borrowed 1 from the tens column 50 . Then you need to add the numerators 3 and 4 2 8 7 to get . just like you sometimes borrow from the next column when subtracting ordinary numbers. if the denominators are already the same. For example: 7= 8 -1 = 4 7 8 2 8 5 8 3= 9 4 12 -1 = 4 3 12 5 12 Subtracting Mixed Numbers When you subtract mixed numbers. just add the numerators. but always add the whole number to get your final answer. except subtract the numerators. sometimes you have to borrow from the whole number. Of course.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 3 3 = 8 8 1 4 + = 2 8 7 8 one-half is changed to four-eighths 1 3 = 4 12 1 4 + = 3 12 7 12 change both fractions to LCD of 12 In the first example. the same rule (find the LCD) applies. you have to change the 1 to 4 because 8 is the LCD. In the second example. For example: 21⁄2 + 31⁄4 = = 2 2 ⁄4 3 1⁄4 5 3⁄ 4 change one-half to two-fourths remember to add the whole numbers Subtracting Fractions To subtract fractions. and then add the numerators to 8 7 get . the same rule (find the LCD) applies. you must change both fractions to get the LCD of 12.

Then multiply as previously shown. Multiply the whole number by the denominator of the fraction. For example: 6 − 31⁄5 55 ⁄ 5 = 3 1⁄5 = borrow one in the form of 5 ⁄5 from the 6 24 ⁄5 remember to subtract the remaining whole numbers Multiplying Fractions Simply multiply the numerators. Thus: 2 # 5 = 3 12 6 Now that you’ve canceled. change the answer. The denominator remains the same. you can multiply as before. if it is in improper form. 4. For example: 1'1=1#5=5 6 5 6 1 6 1'1=1#3=1 6 3 6 1 2 51 . and then multiply the denominators. find a number that divides evenly into one numerator and one denominator. 3 1 # 2 1 = 10 # 9 = 90 = 7 6 = 7 1 3 4 3 4 12 12 2 Then. you have to borrow from the whole number. This is now your numerator. . Then. 2 # 5 = 5 3 12 6 18 You can cancel only when multiplying fractions. Dividing Fractions To divide fractions. 2. reduce if necessary. Canceling eliminates the need to reduce your answer. invert (turn upside down) the second fraction and multiply. Add this to the numerator of the fraction.Numbers and Operations . For example: 2 # 5 = 10 3 12 36 reduce 10 to 5 18 36 This answer had to be reduced because it wasn’t in lowest terms. 3. To cancel. In this case. 2 divides evenly into 2 in the numerator (it goes in one time) and 12 in the denominator (it goes in 6 times). Reduce to lowest terms if necessary. first change any mixed number to an improper fraction. 1 1 Multiplying Mixed Numbers To multiply mixed numbers. back to a mixed number and reduce if necessary. To change mixed numbers to improper fractions: 1. . To subtract a mixed number from a whole number. Canceling When Multiplying Fractions You could have canceled first.

All numbers to the right of the decimal point are fractions with denominators of only 10.002 325. these numbers must be combined into one number. All numbers to the left of the decimal point are whole numbers.37.26 . 10.000.7 = 7 10 .43 = 78.1 = 54.10 53.6 + 1.25 = 25 = 1 100 4 Adding and Subtracting Decimals To add or subtract decimals.002 = 23.352 and 54. reduce if necessary.26 .16 8 and 78.9 0 .9 . 1. and so on.75 + 300. For example: 23.000. as follows: . Then.43 41.002 325.47 1 52 .6 1. For example: 28 + 14 = 42 or 26 + 17 43 1+1 1 2 3 4 2 = 4 + 4 = 4 = 3 # 12 = 36 = 9 = 1 2 7 7 1+1 4 3 4 7 28 7 3 4 12 + 12 12 Decimals Fractions can also be written in decimal form by using a symbol called a decimal point.1.007 = .1.0007 = 7 1000 7 10000 .07 = 7 100 .750 300.352 Adding zeros can make the problem easier to work: 23. just line up the decimal points and then add or subtract in the same manner as when adding or subtracting regular numbers. 100.37.6 = 6 = 3 10 5 .Part II: Review with Sample Problems Simplifying Fractions If either numerator or denominator consists of several numbers.600 1.75 300.

Insert a percent sign. Then move the decimal point in the dividend (the number being divided into) the same number of places.57 Multiplying Decimals To multiply decimals.1 total of 4 digits above the line that are to the right of the decimal point decimal point placed so there is same number of digits to the right of the decimal point 40012 120036 124.8. Whole numbers can have decimal points to their right.05 = 5% Changing Percents to Decimals To change percents to decimals: 1. except that when the divisor (the number you’re dividing by) has a decimal.012 × 3 digits 1 digit 3. Eliminate the percent sign.75 = 75% .) 53 . 2. 1. Place the decimal point in the answer so that the number of digits to the right of the decimal is the same as it is above the line.002 g 26. move it to the right as many places as necessary until it is a whole number. Move the decimal point two places to the right. (Sometimes adding zeros is necessary.Numbers and Operations . Then. 4. For example: 40. 0. Conversions Changing Decimals to Percents To change decimals to percents: 1. Sometimes you have to add zeros to the dividend (the number inside the division sign).25 g 5. 2. Move the decimal point two places to the left. or 13000.0 0 . .0372 4 digits Dividing Decimals Dividing decimals is the same as dividing other numbers. . multiply as usual. count the total number of digits above the line that are to the right of all decimal points.43 = 17.8. = 2 g 26000.43 8. For example: 6 9 1 17 . = 125 g 500. .

2. Reduce if necessary. Insert a percent sign. 1 = 1 # 100 = 100 = 50% 2 c2m 2 2 = c 2 m # 100 = 200 = 40% 5 5 5 Changing Percents to Fractions To change percents to fractions: 1.002 Changing Fractions to Percents To change a fraction to a percent: 1. simply do what the operation says.000 = .23 . (Insert decimal points and zeros accordingly.65 20 g13.05 23% = . Multiply by 100. 3. .625 8 g 5. 2.00 = .65 = 65 = 100 . 60% = 60 = 3 100 5 13% = 13 100 Changing Fractions to Decimals To change a fraction to a decimal.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 75% = .2% = .75 = 75 = 100 Read it: .05 = 5 = 100 . Eliminate the percent sign. So. 3. In other words. Put that number over 100. Divide the percent by 100.65 5= 8 .) .625 Changing Decimals to Fractions To change a decimal to a fraction: 1.8 Write it: 8 10 Reduce it: 4 5 13 20 1 20 3 4 54 . Reduce if necessary. 13 means 13 divided by 20. 20 do just that. 2. Move the decimal point two places to the right.75 5% = .

change the percent to a fraction or decimal (whichever is easier for you) and multiply.12 # 50 = 6. For example: 1. What is 12% of 50? c 12 # 50 = 600 = 6 or .09 100 200 200 100 Other Applications of Percent Turn the question (word for word) into an equation. Change percents to decimals or fractions.Numbers and Operations . What is 20% of 80? c 20 # 80 = 1600 = 16 or . For example: 1.00 = 16 100 m 100 2. 10 is 50% of what number? 10 = . Then solve the equation. What is 15% of 60? x = c 15 m # 60 = 900 = 9 100 100 or .20 # 80 = 16. for of substitute a multiplication sign. 18 is what percent of 90? 18 = x (90) 18 = x 90 1 =x 5 20% = x 2. The word of means multiply. for is substitute an equal sign. Using Percents Finding the Percent of a Number To determine the percent of a number.15(60) = 9 55 . For what substitute the letter x. whichever you find easier.005 # 18 = .50(x) 10 = x . .50 20 = x 3. What is 1 % of 18? 2 1 2 # 18 = c 1 m # 18 = 18 = 9 or .00 = 6 100 m 100 3. .

What is the percentage increase of Jon’s salary if it goes from $150 a month to $200 a month? change # 100 = 50 # 100 = 1 # 100 = 33 1 % increase 3 3 starting point 150 Signed Numbers (Positive Numbers and Negative Numbers) On a number line. For example: +5 -8 ++ 7 +. subtract the numbers and keep the sign from the larger one. numbers to the right of 0 are positive.4 +12 +. as follows: etc.7 ++ 72 -2 + 13 Subtracting Signed Numbers To subtract positive and/or negative numbers.3 + 12 . Given any two numbers on a number line.59 +.25 + 20 ++ 3 + 23 56 . regardless of its sign (positive or negative).3 -19 +. the one on the right is always larger.6 . What is the percentage decrease of a $500 item on sale for $400? change # 100 = 100 # 100 = 1 # 100 = 20% decrease starting point 500 5 2. −3 −2 −1 0 +1 +2 +3 etc.11 When adding two numbers with different signs (one positive and one negative). just change the sign of the number being subtracted and add.4 +8 -14 ++ 4 -10 -19 -+ 6 + 20 -. For example: +12 -+ 4 -14 -. add the numbers and keep the same sign. Adding Signed Numbers When adding two numbers with the same sign (either both positive or both negative). Numbers to the left of 0 are negative. use this formula: change # 100 = percentage change starting point For example: 1.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Percentage Increase or Decrease To find the percentage change (increase or decrease). For example: +5 .

43 is read four to the third power (or four cubed).2 g = 3 2 C 9 6 = 9 6 ' 9 2 = 9 4 9] 6 . For example: 23 × 25 = 28 7 ×7 =7 2 4 6 [(2 × 2 × 2) × (2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2) = 28] [2(3 + 5) = 28] To divide two numbers with exponents. For example: 24 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 16 32 = 3 × 3 = 9 Remember that x1 = x and x0 = 1 when x is any number (other than 0). Multiplying and Dividing Signed Numbers To multiply or divide signed numbers. or the work must be done first within the absolute value signs. 4 × 4 × 4 (multiplied by itself twice).6 = -3 Note: Absolute values must be taken first. 3 is the exponent. For example: 34 ' 32 = 32 9 3] 4 . if the base numbers are the same. . It shows that 4 is to be used as a factor three times..Numbers and Operations . It expresses the power to which the quantity is to be raised or lowered. In 43. For example: (–3)(+8)(–5)(–1)(–2) = +240 Absolute Value The numerical value when direction or sign is not considered is called the absolute value. simply keep the base number and subtract the second exponent from the first.2 = 12 = 1 9 3 Operations with Powers and Exponents To multiply two numbers with exponents.6 = 3 . For example: 21 = 2 20 = 1 31 = 3 30 = 1 Negative Exponents If an exponent is negative. then the number and exponent can be dropped under the number 1 in a fraction to remove the negative sign. an even number of negative signs produces a positive answer. . treat them just like regular numbers but remember this rule: An odd number of negative signs produces a negative answer. For example: -8 = 8 3 . if the base numbers are the same.9 = -6 = 6 3 . The number can be simplified as follows: 3 . Powers and Exponents An exponent is a positive or negative number placed above and to the right of a quantity.2 g = 9 4 9 C 92 57 .4 = 4 . The absolute value of a number is always positive except when the number is 0. simply keep the base number and add the exponents. such as 3–2. The value of a number is written 3 = 3 and .

Thirty-six is called a perfect square (the square of a whole number). Two approximations to remember are: 2 . The symbol for square root is √. then. find the number that when multiplied by itself gives you 25. simply keep the original base number and multiply the exponents. simplify each number with an exponent first. is 5. If a number with an exponent is taken to another power (42)3.4 3 . Following is a list of perfect (whole number) square roots: 1=1 4=2 9=3 16 = 4 25 = 5 36 = 6 49 = 7 58 . 1. For example. to find the square root of 25.7 To find the square root of a number. . For example: (42)3 = 46 (34)2 = 38 [4(2 × 3) = 46] Squares and Square Roots To square a number. 1. In other words. Following is a list of some perfect squares: 12 = 1 22 = 4 32 = 9 42 = 16 52 = 25 62 = 36 72 = 49 82 = 64 92 = 81 102 = 100 112 = 121 122 = 144 . and then perform the indicated operation. just multiply it by itself. or 36. and then perform the operation. 6 squared (written 62) is 6 × 6. . Square roots of nonperfect squares can be approximated. whether the base is the same or different. simplify each number with an exponent first. The square root of 25. To add or subtract numbers with exponents. find some number that when multiplied by itself gives you the original number.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Three notes: ■ ■ ■ If the base numbers are different in multiplication or division.

For example: 10 + 6 = 16 = 4 10 + 6 does not equal 7 ! A 10 + 6 93 . you should approximate.12 = 81 = 9 Approximating Square Roots To find a square root that is not a whole number. 1 = . 2 Approximate 83. 83 is a little more than 9. Factor the number to two numbers. And because 57 is just about halfway between 49 and 64. it falls somewhere between 7 and 8. . . 19 2 . 49 and 64. 57 is approximately 7 1 . Simplify 75. one (or more) of which is a perfect square.1 19 20 10 Therefore. Since 57 is between Simplifying Square Roots To simplify numbers under a radical (square root sign): 1. 9 10 81 < 83 < 100 Since 83 is slightly more than 81 (whose square root is 9). Because 83 is only two steps up from the nearest perfect square (81) and 17 steps to the next perfect square (100).Numbers and Operations . 83 is 2 of the way to 100. 2 . 64 = 8 81 = 9 100 = 10 Square Root Rules Two numbers multiplied under a radical (square root) sign equal the product of the two square roots.1. however. 75 = 25 # 3 = 25 # 3 = 5 3 59 . Leave the other factors under the . Take the square root of the perfect square(s). The numbers must be combined under the radical before any computation of square roots is done. 83 . are different. For example: ^ 4 h^ 25h = 4 # 25 = 2 # 5 = 10 or 100 = 10 Likewise with division: 64 = 4 64 8 = = 4 or 16 = 4 2 4 Addition and subtraction. For example: Approximate 57. 9. 2. 3.

parentheses 2. For example: 6 – (–3 + a – 2b + c) = 6 + (+3 – a + 2b – c) = 6 + 3 – a + 2b – c = 9 – a + 2b – c Order of Operations If addition. 3} 3 is an element of the set of 1. powers. Basic Set Theory A set is a group of objects. (exponents) 3. 3 ∈{1. and so on are all contained in one problem. Subtraction). addition 6. 2. Everything inside a set of parentheses must be done before any other operations.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Simplify 200. Exponents. 3} An element is a member of a set. subtraction whichever comes first. division. left to right 4. the order of operations is as follows: 1. parentheses. numbers. Multiplication. multiplication. 2. division 5. 900 = 100 # 9 = 100 # 9 = 10 # 3 = 30 Parentheses Parentheses are used to group numbers. or PEMDAS (Parentheses. 3. 2. 60 . {1. left to right For example: 10 – 3 × 6 + 102 + (6 + 1) × 4 = 10 – 3 × 6 + 102 + (7) × 4 = (parentheses first) 10 – 3 × 6 + 100 + (7) × 4 = (exponents next) 10 – 18 + 100 + 28 = (multiplication) –8 + 100 + 28 = (addition/subtraction. etc. Division. 200 = 100 # 2 = 100 # 2 = 10 2 Simplify 900. multiplication whichever comes first. left to right) 92 + 28 = 120 An easy way to remember the order of operations after parentheses is: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally. Addition.

3 is a subset of the set of 1. 3 and 3. . 4. 4} Infinite sets are uncountable. 3 . 3 . c - Operations with Sets The union of two or more sets is all of the members in those sets. 1} Equivalent sets are sets that have the same number of members. Describing Sets Rule is a method of naming a set by describing its elements. is a set with no members. 4. 3. {1. {4. 2. #1. 3The set of 2. A C B Types of Sets Finite sets are countable. 5 - The union of sets with members 1. 61 . 2. } {Fred. 5. 2. # 3. 4. . 3. " x x > 3. 2. b. # 2.+ # a.1 #1.Numbers and Operations . {1. 5 .} Comparing Sets Equal sets are those that have the exact same members. 2. 2. . 5. . 5 is the set with members 1. {1. 2. or null set. 2. they continue forever. . or the set of all those elements under consideration. is a whole number} {all students in the class with blue eyes} Roster is a method of naming a set by listing its members.= #1. 2. They stop. 4. 3. #1.. The empty set. . 3. . 3. Bob} Venn Diagrams (and Euler Circles) are ways of pictorially describing sets. 2. 3. 2. 0 or {}. 3} = {3. Tom. 6 . The universal set is the general category set. Special Sets A subset is a set within a set.

2. 10 62 5 6 . 3 . the probability is 2 1#1#1=1 2 2 2 8 4. 3. What is the probability of selecting at random. 3 and a set with members 3. Again.Part II: Review with Sample Problems The intersection of two or more sets is where they intersect. What is the probability of tossing heads three consecutive times with a two-sided fair coin? Because each toss is independent and the odds are 1 for each toss. 5 is a set with only member 3.+ # 3. 4. the probability is 1 out of 10 or 1 . Using the spinner shown below. what is the probability of spinning a 3 or a 5 in one spin? Since there are two favorable outcomes out of ten possible outcomes. two blue marbles. you need to multiply to find the favorable and/or possible outcomes.= " 3 . Some Basic Probability and Statistics Probability Probability is the numerical measure of the chance of an outcome or event occurring. When all outcomes are equally likely to occur. or overlap. using the spinner shown above. the probability is 2 out of 10 or 2 . 2. the probability is 3 out of 10 or 3 . Three green marbles. a green marble on the first draw? Since there are ten marbles (total possible outcomes) and three green marbles (favorable outcomes). 10 2. what is the probability of spinning a 6 in one spin? 10 1 9 2 8 3 4 7 Since there is only one 6 on the spinner out of ten numbers and all the numbers are equally spaced. 5 . 10 5 When two events are independent of each other. 4. and five yellow marbles are placed in a jar. the probability of the occurrence of a given outcome can be found by using the following formula: probability= number of favorable outcomes number of possible outcomes For example: 1. The intersection of a set with members 1. #1. or 1 .

Numbers and Operations . 35. and 27? 25 + 27 + 27 + 27 = 106 106 ÷ 4 = 26 1 2 The average is 26 1 . 9. What is the average of 0. 6. 3. For example. 3. For example. 9. 24. 18. 6. 2—the mode is 9 because it appears more often than any other number. The list has to be in numerical order (or put in numerical order) first. 27. 6. average the two middle numbers to get the median. Divide by the number of items you added. The median is easy to calculate and is not influenced by extreme measures. The three basic measures indicating the center of a distribution are: mean. 8. 56—the number 9 is the median. 9. 7. If there are two modes. 4. What is the average of 10. gives the median. 40. 21. in the following list—3. 20. 2 Median A median is simply the middle number in a list of numbers that have been written in numerical order. 9. For example: 1. Mean. 9. . 2. 20. and 45? 0 + 12 + 18 + 20 + 31 + 45 = 126 126 ÷ 6 = 21 The average is 21. For example. Mode A mode is simply the number most frequently listed in a group of numbers. and 45? 10 + 20 + 35 + 40 + 45 = 150 150 ÷ 5 = 30 The average is 30. 27. the group is called bimodal. If the list contains an even number of items. There can be more than one mode. in the following list—5. 10—the median is 7 1 . Statistics The study of numerical data and its distribution is called statistics. 7. 4. 9. 7. 63 . What is the average of 25. 31. in the following group—5. . 7 and 8. Add them up. 12. and mode. or Average To find the average of a group of numbers: 1. Because there is an even number of items. Arithmetic Mean. the 2 average of the middle two. 2. median.

Part II: Review with Sample Problems Data Analysis: Graphs Information can be displayed in many ways. and circle graphs (or pie charts). The names are listed along the left side. line graphs. people. When answering questions related to a graph: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Examine the entire graph—notice labels and headings. Consider that halfway between 100 and 200 is 150. The following bar graph indicates that City W has approximately how many more billboards than City Y? City W City X City Y City Z 0 100 200 300 400 500 Billboards The graph shows the number of billboards in each city. Some graphs list numbers along one edge and places. low points. Do not memorize the graph. So City W (500) has approximately 350 more billboards than City Y (150). Bar Graphs Bar graphs convert the information in a chart into separate bars or columns. City W has approximately 500 billboards. which is similar to a coordinate graph. Pay special attention to which part of the graph the question is referring to. trends. The bar graph for City Y stops about halfway between 100 and 200. Always try to determine the relationship between the columns in a graph or chart. Look for major changes—high points. dates. Reread the headings and labels if you don’t understand. The three basic types of graphs you should know about are bar graphs. 500 – 150 = 350 64 . For example: 1. refer to it. You should also know the scatter plot. with the numbers given along the bottom of the graph in increases of 100. Focus on the information given. or things (individual categories) along the other edge.

2.1 1992 = 3 65 .5 million = 3.5 1992 = 3.5 1991 = 2.0 Number of Books in Millions 2. Answer to Question A: Regarding the Mystery Mystery bars. .0 1.4. B.5 1990 1991 1992 1990 1991 1992 1990 1991 1992 Mystery Mystery Reference Unlimited All Sports The graph contains multiple bars representing each publisher. adding zeros does not add precision to the numbers. C. .500.5 2. Since all measurements are in millions. Writing out the numbers is unnecessary. answer these questions: A.0 . Based on the following bar graph. as it often is with graphs that use large numbers.000). Each single bar stands for the number of books sold in a single year. the number of books sold per year can be determined as follows: 1990 = 2. The number of books sold by Mystery Mystery from 1990 to 1992 exceeded the number of those sold by All Sports by approximately how many? From 1991 to 1992. the percent increase in number of books sold by All Sports exceeded the percent increase in number of books sold by Mystery Mystery by approximately how much? What caused the 1992 decline in Reference Unlimited’s number of books sold? 3. the number of books sold per year is as follows: 1990 = 1 1991 = 2.5 3.Numbers and Operations . Totaling the number of books sold for all three years gives 8. You might be tempted to write out the numbers as you do your arithmetic (3.5 1.4 Use a piece of paper as a straightedge to determine this last number. Referring to the All Sports bars.

1 So the percent increase of All Sports exceeded that of Mystery Mystery by 7%: 43% – 36% = 7% Answer to Question C.9 = 4. Notice the slopes of the lines connecting the points. and so on. the percent increase in number of books sold by Mystery Mystery can be calculated first. the greater the increase. Line Graphs Line graphs convert data into points on a grid. but don’t designate numbers beyond the nearest 10th because the graph numbers prescribe no greater accuracy than this.9 = 36% starting point 2.4 Change = .9 change = . or changes.1 Number of books sold in 1992 = 3 Change = . dates. The formula for figuring either of these is the same.5 Number of books sold in 1992 = 3. Answer to Question B.5 The percent increase in number of books sold by All Sports can be calculated as follows: Number of books sold in 1991 = 2. Number of books sold in 1991 = 2. times. In this case. the multiple factors that could cause a decline in the number of books sold are not represented by the graph.28 . in data over a period of time.9 The 1991 amount is the starting point. Line graphs can show trends. the greater the decrease. 43% starting point 2.1. So. so: change = .: Graph and chart questions might ask you to calculate percent increase or percent decrease. the number of books sold by Mystery Mystery exceeded the number of books sold by All Sports by 2. These lines show increases and decreases— the sharper the slope upward.: This question cannot be answered based on the information in the graph. Totaling the number of books sold for all three years gives 6. use a piece of paper as a straightedge.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Again.3 million. change = percent change starting point In this case. the sharper the slope downward. Never assume information that is not given. These points are then connected to show a relationship among items. 66 .

Answer to Question B.000 $700.000 to about $250. Based on the following line graph. Using a sheet of paper as a straightedge helps to see that the dot in the 1970 column lines up with $500. when the plant grew from 40 centimeters to 80 centimeters. the tomato plant grew the most between which two weeks? 100 90 80 70 Centimeters 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Weeks The numbers at the bottom of the graph give the weeks of growth of the plant.000 $400. 2.000.000 on the left. 67 .000 Total Value $600.: The information along the left side of the graph shows the property value of Moose Lake Resort in increments of $100. The numbers on the left give the height of the plant in centimeters. The bottom of the graph shows the years from 1920 to 1990.000 $500. the property value was about $500. According to the following line graph.000 $300. In 1970.: Since the slope of the line goes down from 1920 to 1930. there must have been a decrease in property value.000.000 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Years Answer to Question A. . The sharpest upward slope occurs between week 3 and week 4. answer these questions: A.000 $200. B. a total of 40 centimeters growth.000 $100. In what year was the property value of Moose Lake Resort about $500. you notice a decrease from $300. For example: 1.000? In which 10-year period was there the greatest decrease in the property value of Moose Lake Resort? $800. .Numbers and Operations . If you read the actual numbers.000.

20% 4 2. $1. advertising = 15% of 1000 = 150 = 3 set construction 20% of 1000 200 4 Notice that 15% reduces to 3 . B.: The theater spends 20% of its money on set construction.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Circle Graphs or Pie Charts A circle graph.000 Total Expenditures A. the higher the percentage. or pie chart. how much do they spend on dances in a year in which the total amount spent is $15.000 to spend this month. Answer to Question B. For example: 1.400 student store supplies $10.100 misc. so $200 is spent on set construction. items 25% staff salaries 15% advertising 10% physical plant A.200 dances $2. Based on the following circle graph: $2.900 field trips $1. how much is spent on set construction? What is the ratio of the amount of money spent on advertising to the amount of money spent on set construction? Answer to Question A.400 student awards $2. shows the relationship between the whole circle (100%) and the various slices that represent portions of that 100%—the larger the slice.000 is $200. you must use the information in the graph to make a ratio. If the Bell Canyon PTA spends the same percentage on dances every year. Based on the following circle graph: Smithville Community Theater Expenditures 20% set construction 20% costumes and props 10% misc.: To answer this question. B. Twenty percent of $1. If Smithville Community Theater has $1.000? The amount of money spent on field trips in 1995 was approximately what percent of the total amount spent? 68 .

The graph is typically placed in one part of a coordinate plane (the upper right quarter called Quadrant I). that is. then the relationship is called a positive correlation.000 is 3 × $5.100 out of every $5.200 out of $10. 000 = 30 = 30% 10. .: By carefully reading the information in the graph.300 or $3.22 .300.000. $1.000 is spent for dances.000 = 3. the PTA spent $2. usually a relationship can be seen. Answer to Question B. the approximate percentage is worked out as follows: 3.0 2.000 is spent for dances. 22% = . Since $15.Numbers and Operations .0 3. 000 100 Multiplying 22% by the new total amount spent ($15.000. then the relationship is called a negative correlation.300 You could use another common-sense method. In 1995. This can be calculated as 22% of the total spent in 1995 by the following method: 2. one quantity increases as another increases.0 1. For example: Biology test score (out of 100 possible) 100 90 80 70 60 50 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Number of hours studying If the line goes down to the right. When the data is placed on the scatter plot. a linear relationship is suggested. Because $2.100 is $3. The information describing the graph explains that the total expenditures were $10. If the points appear to form a line. If the line goes up to the right. one quantity decreases as another increases. you find that $2. and then apply this percent to a new total. 200 = 22 = 22% 10.000) gives the right answer. Answer to Question A. that is.900 is approximately $3.: To answer this question. 3 × $1.200 on dances.22 × 15.000. 000 100 Scatter Plot A scatter plot is a graph representing a set of data and showing a relationship or connection between the two quantities given. For example: Grade point average 4.0 4 8 12 16 20 Days absent from school 69 . . you must find a percent. If $2.900 was spent on field trips.

Part II: Review with Sample Problems If the data does not appear to show any line or any relationship between the quantities. the scatter plot is said to show no correlation. For example: 100 Math test score (percent right) 90 80 70 60 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 Time spent listening to music (minutes) 70 .

E. C. 4 5-1 5 1 m 12 10 . D. . 17 12 19 12 7 2 19 4 17 2 1 15 12 25 8 15 5 3 125 27 4. 2 ' c 2 m + 3 ' c 3 m + 4 ' c 4 m = 2 : 3 + 3 : 4 + 4 : 5 = 3 + 4 + 5 = 12 3 4 2 3 4 5 In the second step. 13 5 c . where appropriate. E. D.5. which is the weight of coffee in one case. To get rid of all the fractions in the second step. 1 5 11 15 47 60 3 13 30 12 3. If 2 of 2 ' 5 is divided by 3 . 31 -12 4 3 = 2. in the fraction computation. A coffee 4 company packages 12 of these packages in a case. Sample SAT-Type Problems Now you can try actual SAT-like problems in each topic area. C. . D. the denominators all cancel out.Numbers and Operations . D. after inverting and multiplying. E. E. multiply the 2. Note: Remember that multiple-choice problems range from easy to average to difficult. 5-1 6 2 A. B. after canceling. the LCD for all the fractions. C. The weight of coffee in a bag is 3 pound.m -12 31 4 3 12 39 .5. C. Multiply 3 by 12. B. If the coffee company fills an order for 4 1 cases 2 how many pounds of coffee will the company need to fill this order? Explanations 1. what is the 3 6 10 5 resulting value? A. B. 2 ' c 2 m + 3 ' 4 ' c 4 m = 3 5 A. Number and Operations Operations with Fractions 1. The correct answer is 81 or 40. 10 5 3 5 3 15 5 3 6 4. 2 c 2 ' 5 m ' 3 = 2 : 2 : 6 : 10 = 8 . 81 or 40. This product is ^ 9hc 9 m = 81 . Next. 3.20 19 4 3 = : = = . The product is 9. multiply 9 4 2 by 4 1 . 2 2 2 2 71 .6 c 6 2 6 2 top and bottom of the complex fraction by 12.

Add the following amounts: $11. Next. D. what is the test average for all 25 students? A. D.2% 87. E. C. E. 7. charging $53.28 for lettuce.54 = $4. 6. how much did she pay for the discounted sweater? A. 72 .67 $82. How much profit.67. $23. D.60.00 $88. B. Add 11 to the largest integer. C.33 $13. he will pay off the remainder in monthly payments of $75. In a set of 15 different integers. The store owner pays $270. C. 20% of $100 is just $20.00.37 + $14.80 for avocados.100 – $125 = $975. B. Subtraction.54 $17.80 for 20 DVDs.60.54 per DVD. C. and Median 9. C.60 6. does the owner make during the special sale? A. per DVD. and Division to Problem Solving 5. 76. During a sale Arianna purchases a sweater listed at $100. He sells them for $53. With 20% off and 7% sales tax. 7% tax on $80 is (.67 – $13. 33.28 + $23. $17. Subtract 7 from each integer.55 + $17. After making a down payment of $125. E. Subtract 5 from the largest integer. 8. $4. D. Arithmetic Mean (Average).55 for bread.60 $87. At $75 per month. how much change should he receive in dollars? Explanations 5. Mode.01 ÷ 3 = $17. Add 3 to the smallest integer. Triple each integer. He then sells them to his customers during a special sale. A grocery store sends an order to a local sandwich shop. $73. An electronics store owner purchases DVDs from his supplier. Franco decides to purchase a new washing machine that sells for $1. A.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Applying Addition.00 $80. The sum is $67.00 $85.60 = $85. The difference is $33. E. 7 8 9 13 15 8.100.01 for 3 DVDs. paying $270.8% 10.5% 84. B.07)$80 = $5. If 10 boys averaged 78% on a test for which 15 girls averaged 89%. C. $1. So the sale price is $100 – $20 = $80.80. The store charges the sandwich shop $11.4% 83.30 7. which is the correct answer. B. which of the following changes would NOT effect the value of the median of these 15 integers? A. and $14.6% 86.80 ÷ 20 = $13. subtract $67 from $100. D. The total price is then $80 + $5.13. If the sandwich shop owner paid with a $100 bill.13 $9. it will take $975 ÷ $75 = 13 months. His profit per DVD is therefore $17. B.37 for tomatoes. E. Multiplication. How many months will it take for Franco to pay off the new washing machine? A. D.

C. 0 0. A certain brand of paint consists of water and paint concentrate. 80 70 50 16 14 r = 2 and m = 4 . since this is the most exact number the grid field will accommodate. 9. 14 35 44 63 70 15. you have: 6.76. 12. B. peanuts.0°C.7622 °C 61 The answer must be 8. E. 10.5 = 294. . How much greater than the mode is the median? A.5 5 9. D. 8. 10. divided by 61 (the number of days in April and May combined). Ratio and Proportion 13.6% 25 25 10. The class average can be found as follows: 11. If m c 5 c 3 A. determine the number of temperature points for the month of May: 31 × 9. 12. which gives 9. 10. the average is: 240 + 294. how many ounces of peanuts are used? A. 7.5.) Explanations 10 ^ 78%h + 15 ^89%h 780% + 1335% = = 84. 11. In a snack mix of 112 ounces. Each gallon of paint contains 1 4 part water. D.5 10 12. Since the average is the sum of these temperature points. 10. B. C. A. The other option—which is not one the given choices—would be to subtract some positive integer from the smallest number in the set. 2 5 C. Since the median is the middle of the list of the set of integers. 10. Listing the shoe sizes from small to large.Numbers and Operations . 11. B.76. Next. A special snack mix uses raisins. you had to find the average of the fifth and sixth shoe sizes (9 and 10) to compute the median. 7. Notice that since you have an even number (10) of shoe sizes. the ratio of males to females is 3 : 4. How much concentrate would be needed to produce 3 gallons of this paint? 73 .5 temperature points for the month of May. 5 6 15 E. D. C. 8. 8 16. 9. The average daily temperature in a city during the month of April was 8. Begin by determining the number of temperature points for the month of April: 30 × 8 = 240 temperature points for the month of April. Which of the following could NOT be the total number of people at the party? A. E. What is the average temperature in this city for the months of April and May? (There are 30 days in April and 31 days in May. 12 The mode (most frequent shoe size) is 10. adding 11 to the largest integer will not affect the median. 9. At a party. The average temperature in May of that year was 9. 7. respectively. The median (the middle of the list) would be the average of 9 and 10. and chocolate candies in the ratio 1 : 2 : 5. 6. 3 10 B. E. 8 15 D. . what is the value of r ? 14. B.5 = 8. The shoes sizes of 10 men are 8. B. 10. and 7.5°C. 11.

If there are 3 parts paint in one gallon of 4 4 4 4 paint. you have 2 # 4 = 8 . is not a multiple of 7. C. What is the value of a + b + c – mnr? A. x+y x–y (x + 3)(y – 4) x+y–6 4(x + y) – 2 20. r # m = r . See the proportion below: 4 4 3 gallon 4 1 gallon x gallons 3 gallons The correct answer is x = 3 gallons. C. x = (3) 9 gallons or 2. Choice C. 16. The prime factorization of 360 can be written in the form ambncr. If the paint is 1 water. Odd and Even Numbers. you will have 1x + 2x + 5x = 112 8x = 112 so x = 14. E. which of the following must be even? A. E. 3 5 15 15. D. If x and y are positive integers. Prime Numbers. and are not both even. which is the ratio you are trying to find. Factors and Multiples. 4 = Solving for x by cross multiplication. Notice that m c c ratios on the left in the equation above. the number of people at the party must be a multiple of 7 parts. B. E. What is the smallest three-digit number that is divisible by this number? 74 . C. B. and 8. 9 or 2. B. C. Since the ratio of males to females is 3 parts to 4 parts. A number is divisible by 2. 4 6 10 11 24 18. Divisibility 17. 5 6 9 45 48 19. 3. Therefore the number of ounces of peanuts will be 5x = 5(14) = 70. C. D. 44. If you write your raisins to peanuts to candies ratio as 1x : 2x : 5x. How many two-digit positive integers are multiples of both 2 and 5? A. E. then there are 3 times 3 or 2 1 gallons of paint concentrate in 3 gallons of paint. D. Substituting the numerical values for the 14.25.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 13. it must be 3 parts paint concentrate.25 gallons 4 Number Properties: Positive and Negative Integers.

x – y = odd – even = odd. E. Choice E must therefore be correct.Numbers and Operations . The correct number is 24. $512. or x – y = even – odd = odd C. C. or x + y = even + odd = odd B. Look for the smallest number that is divisible by all three numbers. You are comparing this to am × bc × cr. Distance. So the sum (a + b + c) is just the sum of the bases. x + y – 6 = odd + even – even = odd or x + y – 6 = even + odd – even = odd E. Begin by finding the least common multiple (LCM) of 2. (x + 3)(y – 4) = (odd + odd)(even – even) = (even)(even) = even or (x + 3)(y – 4) = (even + odd)(odd – even) = (odd)(odd) = odd.75/gallon. how much money will be in Serena’s savings account after 3 years? A. And the product m × n × r is just the product of the exponents. D. Average. the smallest three-digit multiple of 48 is 144. D. the value of (a + b + c) – m × n × r = 10 – 6 = 4. D.50/gallon to $2. Rate. 30. you have: 4(x + y) – 2 = 4(any number) – even = even – even = even 19. E. 2 + 3 + 5 = 10. A. 3. 60. the answer is 120. B. Serena has $500 in a savings account that pays 4% simple interest per year. So our correct answer is 6 two-digit multiples of 15.84 75 . In a one-week period. 20. Finally. Since you are looking for the smallest three-digit number. 45. x + y = odd + even = odd. By default. and 90. If the positive integer is a multiple of both 3 and 5. 75. 3 × 2 × 1 = 6. 360 10 2 2 5 5 4 36 9 2 2 3 3 Therefore. and 8. If she does not deposit or withdraw from this savings account. Making a “factor tree”.00 $512. Price per Item 21.37 $560. the smallest three-digit multiple of 72 is 144. . So our two-digit multiples of 15 are: 15. it must also be a multiple of 15. C. Time. Explanations 17. 360 = 23 × 32 × 51. you find the prime factorization of 360. 120. B. 9% 10% 20% 25% 90% 22. . The smallest three-digit multiple of 24 is 120. Just to double-check. Interest. No smaller number is divisible by all three numbers. Trying each of the choices one at a time. and the smallest three-digit multiple of 96 is 192. 24 is divisible by 2. and 8. So Choice C does NOT have to be even. the price of regular unleaded gasoline went from $2. Word Problems: Solving for Percents.43 $566. 18. B.00 $562. 3. you have: A. E. What was the percent increase in the price of a gallon of regular unleaded gasoline? A.

C. the speeds will be 45 mph in the first case and 66 mph in the second case. D.25 1 = = 10% increase in price of gasoline $2. A. point A is between points C and D. What is his average rate.04) × 3 I = 60 60 + 500 560 dist 23. D. E C. B C. If c < d. you need 40 + 40 8 + 10 18 9 total 4 5 dist to use time = rate . 20 9 40 9 9 2 80 9 9 24. Multiplying both fractions by 60 to convert to miles per hour. C. Number Line: Order.6 3. he will travel 60/80 (3/4) miles in one minute.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 23. E C.25.0 A B C D E 4. B. for the entire trip? A. E. C. Ling rides his bicycle a distance of 40 miles in 5 hours and then returns the same distance in only 4 hours. B. B. E. B. It took Esteban 1 minute and 20 seconds to travel one mile. D. which of the following is a possible order of the points A. A. how much faster is he driving in miles per hour? Explanations $0. point D is between points A and E. C. D. 21. If he travels one mile in 55 seconds. On a number line.8 26. C. If M is the midpoint of AB and N is the midpoint of DE . Average rate = timetotal = 40 + 40 = 80 = 80 = 40 . B. 0. D D.0 F 25. C. c. points A. E 76 . Betweenness 3.75 3. B. E. Fractions. B. If he then drives this one-mile distance in 55 seconds. To compute the time going and returning. B. Consecutive Numbers. E. b. A. In the diagram above. $2. and E have respective coordinates a. Simple interest = principal × rate × time 21. D. C. Then I = 500 × (. If Esteban travels one mile in 1 minute and 20 seconds (80 seconds). and F are equally spaced on the number line. in miles/hour. d. C.6 0. A. and e but not necessarily in that order. The difference between 66 and 45 is 21. points A. B. he will travel 60/55 miles in one minute. 24. D. D. B. E. D.75 – $2.25 3. and E? A. C. B. D.50 = $0. E.50 10 22. what is the distance from M to N? A. B. A.

3. and z? A. four greater. and E have been labeled with their respective coordinates: 3. 5 77 . x – 4. y<z<v<x<w v<z<y<x<w z<v<x<w<y z<y<x<v<w v<w<z<y<x 28. and 112. y. as shown below: z. 108. x – 4 = z. two less.Numbers and Operations . . 28. v. w. D. Since M is the midpoint of AB . corresponding with Choice A. can be located anywhere. C. 27. A. Therefore.0 A M 3.2 B 3. A.2. you have the series below: y. y. v. and four less. The other numbers would be two greater. Since the five numbers add to 540. and z are consecutive odd integers. let the numbers be: x. the numbers are 104. x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) + (x – 2) + (x – 4) = 540 5x = 540. x From the second piece of data. Therefore. x. z. The sum of five consecutive even integers is 536. 110. y + 6 = x. you know there are two other odd integers between x and y.8 E 4. the coordinate of point M is 3. Using the given relationships between coordinates and points. you have the following order of the coordinates: c a d e Point B. and x = 540 = 108 . you get x = z + 4. with coordinate b. points B. E. B. w. and 3.8. 3.6 26.0 F In the figure above. The correct answer is 108. so z is less than x. x.6 D N 3. D. x. w. y + 6 = x. . Choice D is the only choice given a possible order. combined with the figure above. Using an equation to solve the problem. C. __. which of the following is the correct order for the integers v.1 3. which is 108.4. x. z. not necessarily in that order. Since N is the midpoint of DE . and w > v. x – 2. __. __ Then since w > v. the final order is as follows: y. 108. Therefore the distance from M to N is 3.7. 106. From the first piece of data. 27.7 3.7 – 3.1. D.4 C 3.1 = 0. the coordinate of point E is 3. and there is one other odd integer between z and x. What is the middle number of the five numbers? Explanations 25. x + 2. 3. If x – 4 = z.6. x + 4. the middle number must be 540 divided by 5 (the average).

64. t(5) = 8 32 is the correct answer. 16.85 32. What will the bacterial count 2 hours after the original culture of 207 was established? A. $118.41.03)6 = $119. C. The bacteria population decreased such that each hour the population was 1 that of the 5 preceding hour. t(0) = 25. E. 78 . After 6 years. 1024. In a laboratory experiment a culture of bacteria contained a population of 25. 20 128 512 1. B. 32. B. 512. C. and so forth. E. C. The population at the end of the first hour is 5. 32. 8. A 2-hour time period represents 120 minutes.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Sequence Involving Exponential Growth 29.000 t(1) = 5. at the end of the second hour is 1.37 $125. 4. What is the accumulated value of this deposit 6 years after the day of the initial deposit? A. This is 10 of the 12-minute time periods in which the bacteria triples. B. C. the value of the account one year is 1. The first four numbers in a patterned sequence of positive integers are 1. 2. . A culture of 207 bacteria triples every 12 minutes. the account will be worth $100 × (1.048 31. What is the tenth integer in this sequence? A.00 $119.000. C. 8. E. Yuri deposits $100 into a new savings account that pays him 3% interest compounded annually. . D. The integers double as you move from one term of the sequence to the next. 2.03 times the previous year’s value. 128.000 t(2) = 1. What is the change in population during the fifth hour? Explanations 29. .024 2. . 31. D.41 $121. Since the annual interest rate is 3%.000 t(3) = 200 t(4) = 40 The change in the fifth hour is the difference between 40 and 8. D. 30. the initial count of 207 will grow to 207 × 310. Therefore. 207 × 32 207 × 36 207 × 310 207 × 312 207 × 313 30. So after 120 minutes.000 when first measured.000. the first ten integers in the sequence are: 1. 4. 32. B. Start by making a chart showing the population for each hour.92 $141.

III. 6. 9. T ? A. II. 3. If S is the set of perfect squares less than 100. 6. 101. Intersection. 64.3 = 7 . 12. 64}. E. 11. M is the set of integers that can be written as n . C. 49. 13. 9. A. The integers common to both sets are only 1 and 64. 49. B. Remember that a prime number is only divisible exactly by one and itself. A = the set of prime numbers and B = the set of positive odd integers. because all three of the numbers are in set A. etc. 19} and T = {3. II. 18}. B. 34. 35. 8. 81} and C = {1. 15. 7. S + C is the “intersection” of the two sets. {1. 15. 36. 10 to help in finding the prime numbers. 64} {64} 35. 4.Numbers and Operations . 7. . C. 13. 19} {1. 13. C. 107. and C is the set of perfect cubes less than 100. E. . 25.3 = 4 5: 5 can be written as 64 . III. 48. 16. 64}. 3. 8. 18. and III 34. {3. 4. 4: 4 can be written as 49 . D. A . A = {1. Find a few prime numbers that are greater than 99. 13. These include 101. 6. II. 9. where n is a nonzero integer. 3. 9. you have: I. Which of the following integers is a member of set M? I. 18} {1. So the correct answer is the set {1. Elements 33. 6. what is S + C? A. the correct answer is Choice E. 5. 8. 101 is the correct answer. E. 25. S = {1. 15. 5. 4 5 7 I only II only III only I and II only I. 18. Sets: Union. 9. D. 17. 11.3.3 = 10 . 9. 36. 15} {6. What is the smallest threedigit member of the intersection of sets A and B? Explanations 33. 19}. 11.3 = 8 . Since 101 is prime and 100 is not.3 = 5 7: 7 can be written as 100 . 3. C. 25. 4. D. B. 27. Checking the answer choices one at a time. You can use the divisibility rules for 2. 7. 17. 17. 9. 15. 27.3 = 7 Therefore. 16. 36. what is A . and T is the set of positive multiples of 3 less than 21. D. 79 . If A is the set of positive odd integers less than 21. 81} {1. 81} {1} {1. T is the “union” of the two sets. 17. The integers belonging to either one of the sets are {1. 5. 9. 11. 9. 5. 3. 15. 7. E. 12. 19} {} 36. 9. 5. 64.

how much does spend each month on rent? A. C.250 80 70 TEMPERATURE (˚C) 60 50 40 30 20 10 SUN MON TUES WED THUR FRI SAT DAY OF THE WEEK 38. According to the graph above. E. Nicole spends her monthly salary as shown in the graph above. Charts. $40 $800 $1.000 $1. Sunday and Monday Monday and Tuesday Tuesday and Wednesday Wednesday and Thursday Thursday and Friday 80 . If she earns $2. B. D. C. B. 25% FOOD 25% SAVINGS RENT 37. between which pair of consecutive days did the greatest change in temperature occur? A.500 per month. D.040 $1. and Tables 10% UTIL. E.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Interpreting Graphs.

Numbers and Operations . . .

Commission from sales ($)

70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000

1997

1998

1999

2000 2001

2002 2003

39. According to the graph above, the percent increase in commission from sales from 2001 to 2002 is approximately how much greater than the percent increase in commission from sales from 1998 to 1999? A. B. C. D. E. 2 12 1 2 21 25 33 1 3

CRIME INCIDENTS FOR SELECTED LARGE CITIES 11 CRIME INCIDENTS IN THOUSANDS 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1960 1970 1980 YEAR 1990 2000

40. According to the bar graph (above), what was the percent decrease in crime between the years 1980 and 1990 in selected large cities?

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Part II: Review with Sample Problems

Explanations

37. C. % spent on rent = 100% – (25% + 10% +25%) = 40%. Then money spent on rent = 40% of $2,500 = $1,000. 38. D. Since the bar graph is a “scale” drawing, visually the biggest changes occur between Monday and Tuesday, an increase of 15°, and between Wednesday and Thursday, a decrease of 20°. So the greatest change is Choice D. 39. C. 2002 comm. = $60, 000 2001 comm. = $45, 000 inc. in comm. = $15, 000 1999 comm. = $55, 000 1998 comm. = $40, 000 inc. in comm. = $15, 000 amt. inc m : 100 %inc. = c amt . org. amt. inc. : 100 %inc. = d amt . orig. n =d =c 15, 000 : 100 = 33 1 % 3 45, 000 n 15, 000 : 100 = 12 1 % 40, 000 m 2

So the difference is 33 1 - 12 1 = 21, approximately. 3 2 2 or 22.2 First, analyze the graph for important details. Note that the number of crime incidents for 1980 is 40. 9 9,000 and for 1990 is 7,000. The vertical axis indicates that these figures are in thousands. The method to calculate percent increase or percent decrease is the difference in the two amounts divided by the original amount. In our figure, the expression for this method is: 9000 - 7000 9000 This is equal to 2 or about 22.2 percent. The correct answer is 2 or 22.2%. Note: The expression could have been 9 9 9 - 7 , and the same answer would have occurred. 9

82

Numbers and Operations . . .

Scatter Plots

90 72 70 80 HEIGHT (inches) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 14 15 16 17 18 STUDENT TEST SCORE 68 66 64 62 60 58 56

70

60

AGE (years)

41. The scatter plot above shows the score on each of three tests for seven students. Which of the following could be the median score for all seven students? A. B. C. D. E. 65 71 78 81 91

42. The scatter plot above shows the heights of three randomly selected students from each of six age groups. According to the data in this plot, which of the following statements is true? A. B. C. D. E. There are only two students having heights 68 inches. Of the students who are 72 inches tall, none is 13 or 14 years old. More 18-year-old students than 15-year-old students have heights greater than 66 inches. Half of the students have heights greater than 66 inches. There are no 17- or 18-year-old students having heights less than 66 inches.

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Part II: Review with Sample Problems

**45 TIME (hours) TO COMPLETE JOB 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
**

DAUGHTER’S HEIGHT IN INCHES

69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 MOTHER’S HEIGHT IN INCHES

NUMBER OF WORKERS

43. The scatter plot above shows the time it took one or more workers to complete a particular job. In some cases, the workers made just one attempt to complete the job; in other cases, the workers made multiple attempts to complete the job. Based on the data presented, which of the following functions best states the relationship between t, the time in hours to complete the job, and w, the number of workers? A. B. C. D. E. t ^ w h = - 4 w + 40 5 t(w) = –4w + 40 t(w) = –w + 35 t ^ w h = 3 w + 40 4 1 t ^ w h = w + 35 2

44. In the scatter plot above, mothers’ heights are compared to their daughters’ heights. This was done at a parent meeting, for 15 junior girls who were participating in the graduation ceremony. According to the graph, which height for mothers had no daughter’s height given?

84

Numbers and Operations . . .

Explanations

41. D. The median test score is the one score above and below which half of the scores lie. Note that 10 scores are below 80, which means that 11 scores are above 80. So the median score should be a little above 80, as in Choice D. 42. C. Checking the answer choices one at a time, it will be noted that C is correct. 43. B.

45 TIME (hours) TO COMPLETE JOB 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

NUMBER OF WORKERS

A line has been sketched that seems to best fit the data presented. Since the line travels downhill to the right, our function, t(w), must have a negative slope, as in A, B, and C. Next, the t-intercept appears to be closer to 40 than to 35, as in A and B. Last, you must compute the slope of the best-fit line, using the two circled points. Going from left to right down hill, the vertical decrease is 4 squares (but each square represents 5 units) or –20; the vert. change - 20 = = - 4. horizontal change is 5 squares (here, each square is just 1 unit) or +5. So the slope = horiz. change + 5 Therefore, the equation of our line of best fit is: t(w) = –4w + 40 44. 69 or 70. Looking above the values for the mothers’ heights that are expressed along the horizontal axis, the frequency of heights are 2, 2, 1, 2, 3, etc. There are no entries above a mother’s height of 69 or 70 inches. Therefore, the correct answer is 69 or 70.

Probability

45. On a true-false quiz having just four questions, what is probability of guessing and getting all four questions correct? A. B. C. D. E. 1 16 1 8 1 4 1 2 2 46. A marble is to be selected at random from a jar that contains marbles of five different colors. If the probability that a red marble will be selected is 2 7, which of the following could NOT be the number of marbles in the jar? A. B. C. D. E. 14 35 42 65 70

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Part II: Review with Sample Problems

47. A jar contains three green, four red, and five blue marbles. In four successive draws, with no replacement of marbles that have been already drawn out, what is the probability of drawing a green, a red, another green, and then a blue marble in exactly that order? A. B. C. D. E. 5 (approximately 0.009) 576 1 (approximately 0.010) 99 1 (approximately 0.015) 66 7 (approximately 1.167) 6 2711 (approximately 1.369) 1980

48. Five students are chosen to attend a student nominating convention for their school election to represent their geometry class. In how many ways can the five students be arranged in the five chairs that are reserved for their seating?

Explanations

45. A. The probability of guessing a give question correct is 1 . So the probability of getting all four correct is 2 1:1:1:1= 1. 2 2 2 2 16 46. D. If the probability of selecting a red marble is 2 7 , then the total number of marbles has to be multiple of 7, the denominator. Therefore, 65 cannot be the total number of marbles, since it is not a multiple of 7. 47. B. Probability of drawing a green first = 3 , 3 green out of 12 total marbles. 12 4 Probability of drawing a red second = , 4 red out of 11 marbles left in jar 11 Probability of drawing a green third = 2 , 2 green remain out of 10 marbles 10 Probability of drawing a blue fourth = 5 , 5 blue out of 9 marbles left 9 Then the final probability is just the product of the 4 probabilities found above: 3 : 4 : 2 : 5 = 1 , when 12 11 10 9 99 completely reduced. 48. 120. Since this is an arrangement problem, the solution is the number of permutations of five students arranged five at a time. If your calculator has a permutation option, this can be calculated on the calculator using the appropriate sequence of keystrokes. In a non-calculator method, you use the following: Make five consecutive blanks in a line to represent the five seats. Next, there are 5 ways to pick the person for the first seat. Once that person is selected, there are 4 ways to pick the person for the second seat, then 3 ways to pick the third seat, then 2 ways, and then 1 way to pick the last seat. Since this is a permutation problem, the arithmetic will be: __ __ __ __ __ 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 120

86

Using the letters of the word “EXCLUSION. 4. 0. Jack.005 0.Numbers and Operations .970 51. basketball. in specifically that order? A. E. D.039) 700 9 (approximately 0. Diamonds.” that is.75. If one card is randomly drawn from the deck in each of 4 successive draws—with no replacement of cards after each draw—which of the following could NOT be a possible probability of drawing an Ace. and Spades. C. E. 5. 8. 0. 6. and 0. . 3. with 13 cards in each suit. C. but basketball does not? A. . C.180) 50 6 (approximately 0. 7. D.354) 48 3 8 52. Queen.82. cards are labeled as 2.185 0.” five letters are chosen at random to form a “word.261) 23 5 (approximately 0. 10. and then another Club. and softball teams winning their league title this year is 0. 9. and Ace. E. D.278) 18 17 (approximately 0. a King. If a point is randomly selected from the region of the large square. Hearts. B. Within each suit. respectively. A deck of playing cards has 52 cards in 4 different suits—Clubs. A small square is located in the interior of a larger square as shown in the diagram above. B. what is the probability that the point will be in the smaller square? 87 . The probability of a high school’s girl’s volleyball. B. 4 52 4 52 4 52 4 52 45 52 # 13 # 51 13 # # 51 # 12 # 51 # 12 # 51 12 # # 51 4 50 4 50 4 50 4 50 4 50 # 12 49 11 # 49 # 11 49 # 10 49 # 9 49 50. any arrangement of the five letters. a Club. King.554 1. What is the probability that the “word” chosen begins with a vowel and ends with a consonant? A. The large square is 8 units on a side and the small square is 3 units on a side.014 0. Geometric Probability 49. 27 (approximately 0. What is the approximate probability that both the volleyball and softball teams win their league titles.90.

25)(0. If the King of Clubs is chosen. there are still 13 Clubs left in the deck of 51 remaining cards. there are 11 Clubs left – so probability of drawing a Club on the fourth draw is 11/49. In D: If the Ace of Clubs is chosen. there are 12 Clubs left – so the probability of drawing a Club on the second draw is 12/51.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 49. Probability of the basketball team losing = 0. You want a five-letter “word” that begins with a vowel. this is just 1.90. 51. Choice #3—Select the remaining three letters to complete the five-letter “word”: This can be done in 7 × 6 × 5 = 210 ways (after choosing a vowel and a consonant. Probability of the softball team winning = 0. of which you have to select three). The requested probability is the product of the three probabilities above: (0. 15120 18 To do this all in one step. If the King of Clubs is chosen. In A: If the Ace of Clubs is not chosen. Note that the first and third fractions for each answer choice are the same.00 – 0. Choice #2—Select a consonant: This can be done in five ways.82. So you only need to look at the second and fourth fractions to locate which could NOT be possible.75.185 50. If the King of Clubs is not chosen.200 Choice #4—The number of five-letter “words” that can be chosen with no conditions on our choices is: 9 × 8 × 7 × 6 × 5 = 15. These just represent: For the first fraction: 4 out of 52 cards are Aces. If the King of Clubs is not chosen.278 approximately. Note: The number of five-letter “words” that can be chosen under the given conditions is the product of our three choices above: 4 × 210 × 5 = 4. Therefore. the requested probability is the ratio of 4200 = 5 = 0. there are 10 Clubs left – so the probability of drawing a Club on the fourth draw is 10/49. Probability of the volleyball team winning = 0. there are 11 Clubs left – so the probability of drawing a Club on the fourth draw is 11/49. there are 12 Clubs left – so the probability of drawing a Club on the fourth draw is 12/49. Also note that the denominators decrease by one as you move from the first to the second to the third and then to the fourth fractions since there is one card less in the deck after the preceding draw has been made.120 Last. Choice E is NOT possible. For the third fraction: 4 out of the remaining 50 cards are Kings – 50 cards because 2 have already been drawn during the first 2 draws. there are 13 clubs left – so the probability of drawing a Club on the second draw is 13/51. the probability of drawing a Club is 13/51. In C: If the Ace of Clubs is chosen. but ends with a consonant. Choice #1—Select a vowel: This can be done in four ways. The word “EXCLUSION” has a total of nine letters—four of them vowels and five of them consonants.90)(0. you have only seven letters remaining. 88 . C. D. So by default. E. you have the following (where #1 through #4 represent the choices you made above): #1 #3 #2 5 18 4×(7×6×5)×5 9×8×7×6×5 #4 = after completely reducing.25. In B: If the Ace of Clubs is not chosen.82) = 0. there are 12 Clubs left – so the probability of drawing a Club on the second draw is 12/51.

If 7 is added to each of 13 different numbers. The average (arithmetic mean) of a set of six two-digit even integers is 17. Jahwad earned grades of 85%. 11. you have: 85 + 78 + 73 + 81 + T = 80 5 371 + T = 80 5 317 + T = 5 80 5c ^ h 5 m 317 + T = 400 T = 83 54. B. which is equal to 64 square units. E. 9 or 0. What score does he need to earn on his next test in order to average 80% on all five tests? A. D. Range) 53. If the misplaced number is k. the other numbers are 14. D. 16. 21.Numbers and Operations . C. Mode. the mode. median. what is the value of k? Explanations 53. 73%. 11. 56. which of the following statements would NOT be true? A. B. 89 .14 The area of the larger square is given by 82. so the new range would be found by: (largest number + 7) – (smallest number + 7) = largest number + 7 – smallest number -7 = largest number – smallest number = original range Thus range is not affected. B. 78%. What is the largest possible even integer in this set? A. but one of the numbers was misplaced. D. The range is the difference between the largest and smallest of the numbers in the set. Median. 64 Basic Statistics (Mean. The range of the 13 numbers is increased by 7.14. C. Therefore. Then to earn an 80% average on the five tests. 52. 16. D. The area of the 64 smaller square is 32. Let T be the score on Jahwad’s next test. . The average (arithmetic mean) of the 6 largest numbers is increased by 7. 75% 79% 80% 83% 84% 55. and mean are all increased by 7. and the mean is known to be 16. 17. 26. E. Probability is defined as the numbers of ways the event (a point in the small square) can occur divided by the total ways a point can be selected (sample space) for the larger area. and 81% on his last four tests. . the probability is: P = 9 or gridded as approximately 0. The median of the 13 numbers is increased by 7. D. C. which is 9 square units. The average (arithmetic mean) of the 5 smallest numbers is increased by 7. The following numbers were obtained in a statistical experiment. If 7 is added to each member of the set. E. 20 22 32 34 40 54. The mode is increased by 7.

the sixth and largest possible even integer would be: 102 – 70 = 32. 12. 14. k = 144 – 132 and k = 12 The correct answer is 12. Therefore. The sum of these five numbers is 70. If the average of the six positive even integers is 17. 132 + k = 16 and 132 + k = 9 16 × 9 = 144.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 55. 90 . The process in finding a mean requires finding the sum of all the numbers that are being added. Therefore. and 18. 12. This value must be 16 × 9 since there are nine numbers that figure into the mean. 16. 56. C. then the total of the six integers is: 6(17) = 102. The smallest that the first five positive even two-digit integers could be: 10.

3. 15. 18. Simplify 8xy2 + 3xy + 4xy2 – 2xy. What is the slope and the y-intercept of the equation y = 6x + 2? 25. Solve for x: 2x + 3 ≤ 11. Solve for x: x . Graph x + y = 6 on the following graph: y s 8. 12. 2 3 4 3 2 1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 x 1 2 3 4 5 24. 21.–3)? 26. Solve for x: mx – n = y. Solve for x: 4x + 9 = 21. Solve for x: x + 5 = 17. 11. 5. 6. Factor x2 – 5x – 14. Solve x2 + 7x = –10. 5 20. 16. The sum of a number and 9 can be written: 2. 17. Solve for x: 2 x + 4 $ 8 . Solve for x: r x = t. 22. Simplify (4x – 7z) – (3x – 4z). x–5 = 13. Solve for x: x . 4. If x = 3. 7. Simplify (5x + 2z) + (3x – 4z). Solve this system for x and y: 8x + 2y = 7 3x – 4y = 5 23.3 < 6 . y 9. Solve for x: 3x + 4 ≥ 5x – 8.4 = 8 . then what is the value of f(x) if f(x) = x2 + 3x + 7? 91 . Solve for x: 5x + 7 = 3x – 9. 10. Simplify 6x (4x y).Algebra and Functions Algebra Diagnostic Test (Algebra and Functions) Questions 1. Factor ab + ac. Solve for y: 3 7 = 8. Evaluate: 3x2 + 5y + 7 if x = –2 and y = 3.6) and (2. 19. 14. What is the equation of the line passing through the points (3.

8x – 2z 14. y = 9x – 21 26. 15 x 13. x = 12 or –12 7. x = –8 6. y 5 4 3 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 _ y + ni m rt 8. x = 19. x = –2 or x = –5 18. x ≤ 4 x 1 2 3 4 5 24. x – 3z 15. x = 3 5. 24x5y 12. 34 3. y = . x = 1. 12xy2 + xy 11.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Answers 1. y-intercept = 2 25. 25 92 . x ≥ 2 or x ≤ –2 22. n + 9 or 9 + n 2. a(b + c) 16. (x – 7)(x + 2) 17. Slope = 6. y = 24 7 or 3 7 10. x ≤ 6 20. x = 12 4.1 2 23. –3 < x < 9 could also be written x > –3 and x < 9 21. x = s 3 9.

Variables are used to change verbal expressions into algebraic expressions. For example: Verbal Expression (a) the sum of a number and 7 (b) the number diminished by 10 (c) seven times a number (d) x divided by 4 (e) five more than the product of 2 and n Algebraic Expression n + 7 or 7 + n n – 10 7n x/4 2n + 5 or 5 + 2n These words can be helpful in making algebraic expressions. Key Words Denoting Addition sum plus more than greater than larger than gain increase enlarge rise grow Key Words Denoting Subtraction difference minus lose less than smaller than fewer than decrease drop lower diminish reduced Key Words Denoting Multiplication product multiplied by times twice of Key Words Denoting Division quotient divided by ratio half 93 .Algebra and Functions Algebra Review Variables and Algebraic Expressions A variable is a symbol used to denote any element of a given set—often a letter used to stand for a number.

add 5 to each side).-4 . or divide both sides of an equation by the same (nonzero) number.2 = 6 + 4 . or center. get x by itself on one side.x .2 = 10 .^. if you do the same thing to both sides of the equal sign (say.^. the equation is still balanced.x . If x = –4. ab + c if a = 5.4 -4 3x = 15 94 . For example: 1.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Evaluating Expressions To evaluate an expression. and the equation does not change. multiply. For example: 2. therefore. For example: Evaluate each of the following. first you must get the variable you are looking for on one side of the equal sign and everything else on the other side.6 = 4 Equations An equation is a relationship between numbers and/or symbols. 2x2 + 3y + 6 if x = 2 and y = 9 2(22) + 3(9) + 6 = 2(4) + 27 + 6 = 8 + 27 + 6 = 41 3. It helps to remember that an equation is like a balance scale.2 = 6 . with the equal sign (=) being the fulcrum. 1. then 6 .4h . Solve for x: x – 5 = 23 To solve the equation x – 5 = 23.5 = 23 + 5 +5 x = 28 In the same manner.6 = 10 . Sometimes you have to use more than one step to solve for an unknown.. Solve for x: 3x + 4 = 19 Subtract 4 from both sides to get the 3x by itself on one side: 3x + 4 = 19 . add 5 to both sides: x . insert the value for the unknowns and do the arithmetic. b = 4 and c = 3 5(4) + 3 = 20 + 3 = 23 2. subtract.4h . Thus. To solve an equation.

95 . Solve for x: 3 x .Algebra and Functions Then. for multiplication. –3 2. For example: 1. Solve for x: 6x + 3 = 4x + 5 Add –3 to each side: 6x + 3 = 4x + 5 -3 -3 6x = 4x + 2 Add –4x to each side: 6x = 4x + 2 .1 = 11 Isolate the absolute value. and so on). isolate the absolute value on one side of the equation. set its contents equal to both + and – the other side of the equation and solve both equations. Solve for x: x + 2 = 5 Isolate the absolute value x +2= 5 -2 -2 x = 3 x=3 x = –3 Set the contents of the absolute value portion equal to +3 and –3.4x 2x = 2 Divide each side by 2: 2x = 2 2 2 x=1 Remember: Solving an equation requires using opposite operations until the variable is on one side by itself (for addition. divide both sides by 3 to get x: 3x = 15 3 3 x=5 3.4x .1 . Solving Equations Containing Absolute Value To solve an equation containing absolute value. divide. x=3 x = –3 Answer: 3. Then. subtract.

For example: Solve for Q: QP – X = Y First add X to both sides: QP . Thus. Thus. and 18ab means 18 times a times b. 6 ⋅ 5 means 6 times 5. –3 x . Bring the denominators up next to the numerators on the opposite side. Solving for x. they are understood to be multiplied. 8x means 8 times x. x-1= 4 +1 +1 x =5 Answer: 5.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 3 x . Multiply. (a)b means a times b. To cross multiply: 1.1 . Parentheses also represent multiplication.X = Y +X +X QP =Y+X Then.1 = 11 +1 +1 Divide by 3 3 x-1 3 x-1 3 x-1 = 12 = 12 3 =4 Set the contents of the absolute value portion equal to +4 and –4. 2. A raised dot also means multiplication. or a number and variables. cross multiply.1 = -4 +1 +1 x = -3 Understood Multiplying When two or more variables. Cross Multiplying p Solve for x: b x=q To solve this equation quickly. ab means a times b. b= p x q bq = px 96 . divide both sides by P: QP Y + X P = P X Q= Y+ P Again opposite operations were used to isolate Q. only symbols (variables). Thus. are written next to each other. Literal Equations Literal equations have no numbers.

Algebra and Functions Then. y2 – x2. x5 y2 = x2 y x3 y 36a 4 b 6 = . 9x. and x2 + 3x + 5y2 are all polynomials. divide both sides by p to get x alone: bq px p = p bq bq p = x or x = p Cross multiplying can be used only when the format is two fractions separated by an equal sign.3x yz 2 3x + 2x = 5x Multiplying and Dividing Monomials To multiply monomials.18x 2 yz . p Solve this proportion for x: q = x y This is read “p is to q as x is to y. follow the same rules as with regular signed numbers. add the exponents of the same terms: (x3)(x4) = x7 (x ⋅ x ⋅ x)(x ⋅ x ⋅ x ⋅ x) = x7 To divide monomials. then the variable and exponent can be dropped under the number 1 in a fraction to remove the negative sign.4a 3 b 5 .3 = 13 x 97 . x + y. as follows. A polynomial consists of two or more terms. Adding and Subtracting Monomials To add or subtract monomials. x . and 3mpxz2 are all monomials. For instance.9ab Working with Negative Exponents If an exponent is negative. provided that the terms are alike: 15x 2 yz . subtract the exponents of like terms: y 15 = y 11 y4 Remember: x is the same as x1. such as x–3. 4a2. Proportions Proportions are written as two fractions equal to each other.” Cross multiply and solve: py = xq py xq q = q py py q = x or x = q Monomials and Polynomials A monomial is an algebraic expression that consists of only one term.

1 = x2 x-2 x6 = x6 : x3= x9 x-3 4 -2 6. just arrange like terms in columns. then simply bring the number or variable up and drop the negative sign. _ 3x .3 i_ a .2 : . and the number below the bar is the root For example: 3 2 = 2 31 = 3 (2 is understood in the square root) A few more examples: 5 3 = 3 51 = 3 5 6 3 = 3 6 2 = 3 36 2 2 = 2 2 3 = 8 reduces to 4 =4 4 =4 4 1 1 4 3 2 1 1 -2 2 -2 4:2=2 2 Adding and Subtracting Polynomials To add or subtract polynomials. 4.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Another example: a . _ a 2 b .2 : x 4 = 1 : x 4 = x 9 9 7.3 : b 4 = b W W T X If the negative exponent belongs to a number or variable below the fraction bar.2 = 3 .2 b = b2 a -3 2.2 : x . c 1 m = 1 2 = 1 = 9 = 9 3 1 1 1 c m 9 3 Or simply invert the fraction and drop the negative sign: 1 3 c m =c m =9 3 1 If the exponent is a fraction. then the number above the bar is the power. 5.2 i = 3 .2b 2 4a 2 + 5ab .1 b 4 i = ab R 2 -1 V Sa : a = a W S Sb.5 = 15 a A few examples including some with multiplication and division follow: 1. and then add or subtract: Add: Add: a 2 + ab + b 2 3a 2 + 4ab . a 4 = 31 4 b a b 3. a .b 2 98 .

1.6ax 6x 2 . 99 . 2.b " +.2a 2 similar to 23 # 19 207 230 427 Factoring To factor means to find two or more quantities whose product equals the original quantity.4ax . if A = 1 (that is. 2.2a # 3x + a + 2ax .a 2 + 2b 2 Multiplying Polynomials To multiply polynomials. Check to see if you can monomial factor (factor out common terms). multiply each term in one polynomial by each term in the other polynomials. 1. use double parentheses and factor the first term. Then simplify if necessary: ^ 3x + a h^ 2x .2a 2 6x 2 .) 2y3 – 6y = 2y(y2 – 3) Another example: x5 – 4x3 + x2 = x2(x3 – 4x + 1) Factoring the Difference between Two Squares Factor x2 – 144. Divide the original polynomial by this factor to obtain the second factor. a2 – b2 = (a + b)(a – b) 9x2–16y2 = (3x + 4y)(3x – 4y) Factoring Polynomials That Have Three Terms: Ax2 + Bx + C To factor polynomials that have three terms.Algebra and Functions Subtract: a2 + b2 a2 + b2 2 2 ^ .2a h = 2x .h 2a . and place the factors in the right sides of the parentheses. Find the square root of the first term and the square root of the second term. Express your answer as the product of the sum of the quantities from step 1 times the difference of those quantities. Factoring Out a Common Factor Factor 2y 3 – 6y. of the form Ax2 + Bx + C: 1. For example. (x )(x ). Factor the last term.2a 2 + b 2 . Find the largest common monomial factor of each term. (The second factor is a polynomial. 2. Place these factors in the left sides of the parentheses. Then. x2 – 144 = (x + 12)(x – 12) Another example: Another example: Note: x2 + 144 is not factorable. the first term is simply x2).

(x − 5)(x + 2) − 5x + 2x − 3x (which is the middle term) To completely check. the signs of both factors are +. Also. factor the last term (10) into 2 times 5. To check your work: (x + 3) (x + 5) + 3x + 5x + 8x (the middle term) If. Factor x2 + 8x + 15. A ≠ 1 (that is.) Add the proper signs.5x x 2 . Find two numbers whose product is the last term and whose sum is the coefficient of the middle term. 100 . which is –3. the sign of the middle term. First check to see if you can monomial factor (factor out common terms). the coefficient of the middle term.3x . and give the opposite sign to the other factor. do the following: If the sign of the last term is negative: 1. leaving: (x – 5)(x + 2) Multiply the means (inner terms) and extremes (outer terms) to check your work. Give the larger of these two numbers the sign of the middle term. the first term has a coefficient—for example. Factor x2 – 3x – 10. 2.Part II: Review with Sample Problems To decide on the signs of the numbers. (x + 3)(x + 5) Notice that 3 × 5 = 15 and 3 + 5 = 8. 2.10 2. 4x2 + 5x + 1). For example. If the sign of the last term is positive: 1. Find two numbers whose product is the last term and whose difference is the coefficient (number in front) of the middle term. Because this is not possible. multiply the factors together. however. (Using the preceding information. x-5 # x+2 + 2x . then additional trial and error is necessary. 1. Give both factors the sign of the middle term.10 x 2 . use double parentheses and factor the first terms as follows: (x )(x ). Next. 5 must take the negative sign and 2 must take the positive sign because they then total the coefficient of the middle term.

Following the steps. 2.Algebra and Functions 3. Factoring. 5. 4. Factor 5x3 + 6x2 + x. Set each factor equal to zero. Factoring out an x leaves x(5x2 + 6x + 1). (2x + 1) (2x + 1) + 2x + 2x + 4x Therefore. Checking for the middle term: (4x + 1) (x + 1) + 1x + 4x + 5x Therefore. Now. using 1’s as factors to get the last terms gives (4x + 1)(x + 1). (2x + )(2x + ) might work for the first term. Check by inserting your answer in the original equation. Solve each of these equations. For example. Put all terms on one side of the equal sign. try (4x + )(x + ). factor as usual giving x(5x + 1)(x + 1). Factor 4x2 + 5x + 1. This time. 4. Factor. To check your work: (5x + 1) (x + 1) + 1x + 5x + 6x (the middle term after x was factored out) Solving Quadratic Equations A quadratic equation is an equation that could be written in the form Ax2 + Bx + C = 0. 3. But when 1’s are used as factors to get the last term—(2x + 1)(2x + 1)— the middle term comes out as 4x instead of 5x. leaving zero on the other side. x2 – 6x = 16 becomes x2 – 6x – 16 = 0. 1. (x – 8)(x + 2) = 0 x – 8 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x =8 x = –2 101 . 4x2 + 5x + 1 = (4x + 1)(x + 1). Solve x2 – 6x = 16. To solve a quadratic equation: 1.

Solve x2 + 6x = 0. x(x + 6) = 0: x=0 x=0 To check: (0)2 + 6(0) = 0 0+0=0 0=0 or or or (–6)2 + 6(–6) = 0 36 + –36 = 0 0=0 or or x+6=0 x = –6 or or or (4)2 – 16 = 0 16 – 16 = 0 0=0 or or x–4=0 x=4 102 . Factoring. Solve y2 = –6y – 5. (x + 4)(x – 4) = 0: x+4=0 x = –4 To check: (–4)2 – 16 = 0 16 – 16 = 0 0=0 4. (y + 5)(y + 1) = 0 Setting each factor to 0: y+5=0 y = –5 To check: (–5)2 = –6(–5) – 5 25 = 30 – 5 25 = 25 or or or (–1)2 = –6(–1) – 5 1=6–5 1=1 or or y+1=0 y = –1 A quadratic equation with a term missing is called an incomplete quadratic equation. Solve x2 – 16 = 0. 2. Setting all terms equal to zero: y2 + 6y + 5 = 0 Factoring. Factoring.Part II: Review with Sample Problems To check: 82 – 6(8) = 16 64 – 48 = 16 16 = 16 or or or (–2)2 – 6(–2) = 16 4 + 12 = 16 16 = 16 Both values 8 and –2 are solutions to the original equation. 3.

Reduce x 3 x+3 x 2 + 2x + 1 = ^ x + 1h^ x + 1h = ^ x + 1h ^ x + 1h 3x + 3 3 ^ x + 1h 3 ^ x + 1h = x+1 3 x2 .1h = 3 4x .4 4 ^ x .y2 x3 .Algebra and Functions Algebraic fractions are fractions using a variable in the numerator or denominator.3 = 3 ^ x .yi_ x + yi = x+y x 2 + xy + y 2 103 . first factor the numerator and the denominator. Reduce 3x .y2 = 3 3 = x -y _ x .3 4x .1h 4 2 + 2x + 1 3.b ! 0 h so a cannot equal b ^ a ! b h 2 x-3 3 a-b 4 a2b ^ a ! 0 and b ! 0 h a cannot equal 0 and b cannot equal 0 Be aware of these types of restrictions.1h 4 ^ x . such as 3 x . Operations with Algebraic Fractions Reducing Algebraic Fractions ■ To reduce an algebraic fraction to lowest terms.y i_ x 2 + xy + y 2 i _ x . The denominator can never equal 0. Since division by 0 is impossible. Reduce _ x . Examples: 3 1.b cannot equal 0 ^ a .y3 4.1h = 3 ^ x .y i _ x + xy + y i 2 2 _ x . variables in the denominator have certain restrictions.4 3x . then cancel (or divide out) common factors. Therefore in the fractions 5 x x cannot equal 0 ^ x ! 0 h x cannot equal 3 ^ x ! 3h a . Reduce 4x 2 8x 1 4x 8x 2 3 2 1 =1x 2 2.y i_ x + y i x2 .

Remember you can cancel only after you invert.4 + 3 = x . first factor the numerator and denominators that are polynomials. 4 x+ x= x =x 2. 4x . Multiply the remaining numerators together and denominators together. 5y + 10 : 2 + x 1h^ x + 1h x + 2x + 1 5 _ y + 2 i ^ y+2 1 : = 5 _ y + 2 i ^ x + 1h ^ x + 1h 5 ^ x + 1h x+1 1 1 Dividing Algebraic Fractions ■ To divide algebraic fractions. Examples: 5 4+5 9 1. then cancel where possible. x .2h 3 : = 4 =2 -2 2 62 x 1 1 1 Adding or Subtracting Algebraic Fractions ■ To add or subtract algebraic fractions having a common denominator.2 = 4x .2 h : 3 = 3 x-2 x-2 6 6 6 4 ^ x .Part II: Review with Sample Problems Warning: Do not cancel through an addition or subtraction sign. your answer will be in reduced form.8 ' x . 2x : = 2x : = 3 5 3 5 15 2 2y x 2 2y 2x = : = 2.4 + 3 = x .8 : 3 = 4 ^ x . Examples: 2 y 3xy x 3x 2 y 3x 2 1. invert the fraction following the division sign and multiply. 3x ' 2 y = 5 : 2x = 5 : 2x = 10 5 1 2.) Examples: y y 2xy 1.1 x+1 x+1 x+1 x+1 104 . x : 3y 3x 3y 3x 9 y+2 y+2 x+1 = x+1 : = 3. simply keep the denominator and combine (add or subtract) the numerators. Reduce if necessary. (If you’ve canceled properly. For example: x+1 ! x+1 ! 1 x+2 x+2 2 or x+6 ! x+6 !x 6 6 Multiplying Algebraic Fractions ■ To multiply algebraic functions.

1 3x .3y = 2 . If there is a common variable factor with more than one exponent. Examples: 2 3 1.3 = 2x + 4 + x . change each fraction to an equivalent fraction with the common denominator. Example: x + 2x = x + 2x 3x + 3 x + 1 3 ^ x + 1h x + 1 LCD = 3 ^ x + 1h x x 6x + 2x : 3 = + = 3 ^ x + 1h x + 1 3 3 ^ x + 1h 3 ^ x + 1h x + 6x = 7x 3 ^ x + 1h 3 ^ x + 1h Inequalities An inequality is a statement in which the relationships are not equal.2x + 1 = x + 1 3. you use > (greater than) and < (less than). reverse the direction of the sign. first find a lowest common denominator (LCD). Instead of using an equal sign (=). When working with inequalities. except. it is often necessary to factor the denominators and proceed as follows.3 = 2x + 4 + x .^ 2x . then combine each numerator. use its greatest exponent. Reduce if necessary. x + y = LCD = xy 2 : y + 3 : x = 2y : 3x = 2y + 3x x y y x xy xy xy x+2 + x-3 = 3x 6x LCD = 6x x + 2 : 2 + x . as in an equation. 4 + 3 = x 3 y xy 2 LCD = x 3 y 2 2 4 : y + 3 : x 2 = 4y + 3x 2 = 4y + 3x 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 y x y xy x x y x y x y To find the lowest common denominator. 3 y . treat them exactly like equations.3 : y = 2 .3y y2 y y y2 y2 y2 4. or ≥ (greater than or equal to) and ≤ (less than or equal to).y = y y y ■ To add or subtract algebraic fractions having different denominators.1h = 3x . For example: 105 .3 = 3x + 1 3x 2 6x 6x 6x 6x 6x 2.Algebra and Functions x 2x . when you multiply or divide both sides by a negative number. 3. 2 -3= y2 y LCD = y 2 2 .

.12 -2 -2 x#6 Graphing Inequalities Examples: When graphing inequalities involving only integers. Solve for x: –7x > 14. . . . and dots are used. Solve for x: 2x + 4 > 6. . .2x # . . . {x: 1 ≤ x ≤ 4.5x . Graph the set of x such that x > 1. .10 -2 -2 3x $ 5x . 3. A hollow dot is used if the number is not included. x is an integer} . Divide by –7 and reverse the sign. -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 . . . . rays. Graph the set of x such that 1 ≤ x ≤ 4 and x is an integer. 2.2x $ .12 .4 -4 2x > 2 2x > 2 2 2 x > 1 2. {x: x > 1} . {x: x ≥ 1} . lines. . -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 . A dot is used if the number is included. . 1. When graphing inequalities involving real numbers. 3x + 2 $ 5x .5x . dots are used.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 1. Solve for x: 3x + 2 ≥ 5x – 10. Graph the set of x such that x ≥ 1. 2x + 4 > 6 .7x < 14 -7 -7 x <-2 3.12 Divide both sides by –2 and reverse the sign. -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 . 106 .

The hollow dot distinguishes an open ray from a ray. . . . For example. . . except reverse the direction of the sign when setting the absolute value opposite a negative. . . This ray is often called an open ray or half line. Solve for x: 3|x| –2 ≤ 1. Solve for x: |x – 1| > 2. -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 . follow the same steps as solving equations with absolute value. Be sure to change the direction of the sign when using –2. |x – 1| > 2 Set the contents of the absolute value portion to both 2 and –2. + 107 . Isolate the absolute value. 3 x -2# 1 + 2 +2 3 x 3 x 3 x # 3 # 3 3 # 1 Set the contents of the absolute value portion to both 1 and –1. x-1> 2 x . x ≤ 1 and x ≥ –1 Graph answer: . Solve for x. Solving Inequalities Containing Absolute Value To solve an inequality containing absolute value. . + 2. . {x: x < 4} .1 < -2 + 1 +1 or + 1 +1 x >3 x < -1 Graph answer: . Isolate the absolute value. -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 . -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 . Be sure to change the direction of the sign when using –1. .Algebra and Functions 4. Graph the set of x such that x < 4. . . 1.

39 . 3. y = 3 Of course. if the number in front of a variable is already the same in each equation.15 -3 =5 3x + 3y = 24 6x + 3y = 39 Now insert x = 5 in one of the original equations to solve for y. Solve for the other unknown. Add or subtract the two equations to eliminate one variable. Simply add or subtract.3y = . Insert the value of the first unknown in one of the original equations to solve for the second unknown.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Solving for Two Unknowns—Systems of Equations If you solve for two equations with the same two unknowns in each one. 2. Now the y is preceded by a 3 in each equation. Addition/Subtraction Method To use the addition/subtraction method: 1. eliminating the y terms. 4. you do not have to change either equation. 2 ^ 5h + y = 13 10 + y = 13 -10 -10 y=3 Answer: x = 5. Multiply one or both equations by some number to make the number in front of one of the variables (the unknowns) the same in each equation. 2.3x -3 x = -15 = .3x . you can solve for both unknowns. For example: 1. substitution and graphing. There are three common methods for solving: addition/subtraction.6x +. Solve for x and y: 3x + 3y = 24 2x + y = 13 First multiply the bottom equation by 3. 3x + 3y = 24 . Solve for x and y: x+y=7 x–y=3 2x + y = 13 108 . 3x + 3y = 24 3(2x ) + 3(y) = 3(13) Now you can subtract equations.

Solve for a and b: 3a + 4b = 2 6a + 8b = 4 The second equation is actually the first equation multiplied by 2. In this instance. 3p + 4q = 9 3(3) + 4q = 9 9 + 4q = 9 4q = 0 q=0 Answer: p = 3. inserting 5 for x in the first equation gives: 5+y= 7 -5 -5 y= 2 Answer: x = 5.4q = -12 3p + 4q = 9 -p p = -3 = 3 Now that you know p = 3. 3. y = 2 You should note that this method does not work when the two equations are. ^ . Solve for p and q: 3p + 4q = 9 2p + 2q = 6 Multiply the second equation by 2. q = 0 109 . the system is unsolvable. (2)2p + (2)2q = (2)6 4p + 4q = 12 Now subtract the equations.h 4p + . you can plug in 3 for p in either of the two original equations to find q. in fact. the same.Algebra and Functions x+y= 7 x-y= 3 2x = 10 2x = 10 2 2 x =5 Now. 4.

(y + 8) + 3y = 48 2.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Substitution Method Sometimes a system is more easily solved by the substitution method. Solve for x and y when x = y + 8 and x + 3y = 48. Now insert y = 10 in one of the original equations. (Although only two points are necessary to determine a straight line. Simplify by combining y’s. carefully review the “Basic Coordinate Geometry” section before attempting this method. 4y + 8 = 48 -8 = -8 = 40 4y 4y 4 y 3. First. Now solve for y. 1. For example. find three values for x and y that satisfy each equation. substitute (y + 8) for x in the second equation. The coordinates of the intersection are the solution to the system. finding a third point is a good way of checking. From the first equation.) x=4+y x 4 2 5 x − 3y = 4 x 1 4 7 y 0 –2 1 y –1 0 1 110 . solve the following system by graphing: x=4+y x – 3y = 4 1. For example. This method involves substituting one equation into another. x = 18 = 40 4 = 10 Graphing Method Another method of solving equations is by graphing each equation on a coordinate graph. If you are unfamiliar with coordinate graphing. x=y+8 x = 10 + 8 x = 18 Answer: y = 10.

and y-axes. and there is no solution to the system. they have the same slope.Algebra and Functions 2. The vertical line is called the y-axis or the ordinate. If the lines are parallel. The point at which the two lines intersect is called the origin and is represented by the coordinates (0. y ••• x= 4 + y 5 4 3 2 1 ••• −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 ••• 0 x 1 2 3 4 5 Each point on a coordinate graph is located by an ordered pair of numbers called coordinates. Numbers are not usually written on the x. 4. The point where the two lines cross (4. The horizontal axis is called the x-axis or the abscissa. that show their location. 0). they do not intersect. y (0. Now graph the two lines on the coordinate plane. Basic Coordinate Geometry Coordinate Graphs (x–y Graphs) A coordinate graph is formed by two perpendicular number lines. These lines are called coordinate axes. ••• 111 . Notice the placement of points on the following graph and the coordinates.0) x−3 y=4 3.0) x (4. often marked simply 0. 0) is the solution of the system. Note: If lines are parallel. or ordered pairs. as shown in the following figure.

the numbers to the right of 0 are positive and to the left of 0 are negative. don’t combine the ordered pair of numbers. In quadrant III. The second number is called the y-coordinate and shows how far up or down the point is from 0. then try 1. In quadrant IV. are shown as (x. (When giving a value for one variable. These quadrants are labeled as follows. 2) is different from the point (2. and so forth. The order of these numbers is very important.5) (−3. In quadrant II.2) • − 0 • (1. start with 0. y). The coordinates.Part II: Review with Sample Problems +y • (3. x is always negative and y is always negative. or ordered pairs. The first number in the ordered pair is called the x-coordinate and shows how far to the right or left of 0 the point is. 112 .) Then. Also. as the point (3.−4) • (1. find the solutions by giving a value to one variable and solving the resulting equation for the other variable. because they refer to different directions.3) • (−4. x is always negative and y is always positive.−3) • (−5. On the y-axis. y Quadrant II Quadrant I x Quadrant III Quadrant IV ■ ■ ■ ■ In quadrant I. graph the solutions. numbers above 0 are positive and numbers below 0 are negative. Graphing Equations on the Coordinate Plane To graph an equation on the coordinate plane.−5) − On the x-axis. The coordinate graph is divided into four quarters called quadrants. 3).−2) • • (2.1) +x (−3. x is always positive and y is always positive. x is always positive and y is always negative. Repeat this process to find other solutions.

or have variables multiplied together do not form a straight line when their solutions are graphed. ^2h + y = 6 -2 -2 y= 4 Using a simple chart is helpful. involve variables with square roots. then y is 5. show division by a variable. If x is 0. (0) + y = 6 y=6 If x is 1. ^1h + y = 6 -1 -1 y= 5 If x is 2.0) x These solutions. These are called nonlinear equations. x 0 1 2 y 6 5 4 Now. then y is 6. Graph the equation x + y = 6. y (0.Algebra and Functions For example: 1. Equations whose graphs of their solution sets form a straight line are called linear equations. form a straight line. 113 . then y is 4. plot these coordinates as shown in the following figure. when plotted. Equations that have a variable raised to a power.

plot these coordinates as shown in the following figure. One involves the slope of the line. y = (1)2 + 4 y=1+4 y=5 If x is 2. Slope and Intercept of Linear Equations Two relationships between the graph of a linear equation and the equation itself must be pointed out. Graph the equation y = x2 + 4.0) x These solutions. when plotted. x 0 1 2 y 4 5 8 Now. the terms of the equation must be in a certain order.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 2. y = (0)2 + 4 y=0+4 y=4 If x is 1. To see either of these relationships. y (0. 114 . then y is 8. then y is 4. y = (2)2 + 4 y=4+4 y=8 Use a simple chart. give a curved line (nonlinear). then y is 5. and the other involves the point where the line crosses the y-axis. The more points plotted. If x is 0. the easier it is to see the curve and describe the solution set.

0) x (0.Algebra and Functions (+)(1)y = ( )x + ( ) When the terms are written in this order. the lines cross the y-axis at –3. the equation is said to be in y-intercept form or slope intercept. x – 2y = 4 –2y = –x + 4 2y = x – 4 y= 1 x-2 2 As shown in the graphs of the three problems in the following figure. and the two relationships involve m and b. x – y = 3 –y = –x + 3 y=x–3 2. the last term in each equation.0) x (1) y (2) (0. +1 and –2. 1.0) x (3) 115 . For example: Write the equations in y-intercept form. y = –2x + l (already in y-intercept form) 3. y-intercept form is written y = mx + b. y y (0.

^2h . there is no difference in the slope. 0) and B (5. ^ .1h Looking back at the equations for examples 1.^1h . Pick two points. y = 1/2 x − 2 slope = 1/2 y-intercept = −2 Graphing Linear Equations Using Slope and Intercept Graphing an equation using its slope and y-intercept is usually quite easy. y = –2x + 1 slope = –2 y-intercept = 1 3. and use it to locate other points on the line. Locate the y-intercept on the graph (that is.3h . 1. ^ 0h .Part II: Review with Sample Problems If a linear equation is written in the form y = mx + b.y at point B y -y slope in line AB = x A .x B = = =1 A B ^ 3h . Find the slope of y = –2x – 1 using coordinates. and calculate the slope. one of the points on the line). 1. it should be evident that the slope of the line is the same as the numerical coefficient of the x term.^ 5 h .2 y -y slope = x A . 2).2 2. 116 . 1. such as A(3.4 y -y slope = x A . b is the y-intercept. pick any two points on the line.x at point B Note: Points A and B can be any two points on a line. Find the slope of x – y = 3 using coordinates. 4.x B = = = = -2 A B 1+1 2 ^1h . 1). 2. 3. such as A(1.^ . The slope of a line is defined as: the change in y the change in x The word change refers to the difference in the value of y (or x) between two points on a line.x B = A B x at point A . y=x−3 slope = 1 y-intercept = −3 2. Draw a line through the points.1 . y at point A . State the equation in y-intercept form. 2 and 3 written in y-form. Write the slope as a ratio (fraction). To find the slope of the line. and calculate the slope. –3) and B(–1.3 .

count as shown in the following figure: slope = 2 ` for every 2 up j or 2 1 ` go 1 to the rightj ` for every 2 down j or . x–y=2 –y = –x + 2 y=x–2 Locate –2 on the x-axis and. from this point. Graph the equation 2x – y = –4 using slope and y-intercept. Graph the equation x – y = 2 using slope and y-intercept. from this point.1 ` go 1 to the leftj -1 y (0.0) +1 +1 −1 −1 y = −2 x 2. count as shown in the following figure: slope = 1 ` for every 1 up j or 1 ` go 1 to the rightj 1 ` for every 1 down j or . 2x – y = –4 –y = –2x – 4 y = 2x + 4 Locate +4 on the y-axis and.Algebra and Functions For example: 1.2 ` go 1 to the leftj -1 117 .

Find the equation of the line passing through the point (6. Find the y-intercept. 1. 118 .Part II: Review with Sample Problems y +1 +2 y=4 −2 −1 (0. m = –3 (given) Find the y-intercept. m = –4 (given) Find the y-intercept. m. y = mx + b. 2. m. Find the slope. m. b. 4) with a slope of –3. 4) into the slope-intercept form to find b. Find the slope. Find the equation of the line when m = –4 and b = 3.0) x Finding the Equation of a Line To find the equation of a line when working with ordered pairs. Ax + By = C. slopes and intercepts. Find the slope. b = 3 (given) Substitute the slope and intercept into the slope-intercept form y = mx + b. use the following approach. b. 3. 4. Substitute m = –3 and the point (6. Substitute the slope and intercept into the slope-intercept form. b. Since y = –4x + 3 Adding 4x to each side gives: 4x + y = 3 2. Change the slope-intercept form to standard form. y = –4x + 3 Change the slope-intercept form to standard form Ax + By = C. For example: 1.

then f(x) is 1.4 h . Change the slope-intercept form to standard form: Ax + By = C. m. and y = –4 –4 = (–1)(5) + b –4 = –5 + b 5 + –4 = b 1=b Substitute the slope and intercept into the slope-intercept form: y = mx + b. Find the equation of the line passing through points (5. simply plug in values for the domain (if not already given) and find the range (results). plug in values for x (the domain) and work out the result (f(x)). and x = 6 4 = (–3)(6) + b 4 = –18 + b 18 + 4 = b 22 = b Substitute the slope and intercept into the slope-intercept form: y = mx + b. If x is 0.4 + 2 . Graph the function f(x) = x + 1. Find the slope. Since m = –1 and b = 1. 3. change in y ^ . y = mx + b where m = –1. x = 5. Then.2 m= = = = = -1 2 2 change in x ^ 5 h .^ . Substitute the slope and either point into slope-intercept form.^ 3h Find the y-intercept.Algebra and Functions y = mx + b where y = 4. The elements from the first set are the ones that are being plugged in (the domain).2 h . y = –1x + 1 or y = –x + 1. (You could think of this as y = x + 1. –2). adding 3x to each side gives 3x + y = 22. all of the elements of the domain are unique or different. –4) and (3. Functions Definition of a Function A function is a formula or rule that shows the association between elements in one set to the elements in another set. f(x) = (0) + 1 f(x) = 1 119 .) Now. place these “ordered pairs” in the coordinate graph. Since y = –3x + 22. Since y = –x + 1. In a function. Since m = –3 and b = 22. adding x to each side gives x + y = 1. Graphs of a Function To graph a function. Change the slope-intercept form to standard form: Ax + By = C. y = –3x + 22. b. m = –3. For example: 1. and the elements from the second set are the outcome or result (the range).

x 0 1 2 3 –1 –2 f(x) 1 2 3 4 0 –1 Next. f(x) = (2) + 1 f(x) = 3 and so on.0) Since this is a linear equation or linear function. then f(x) is 2. plug in values for x (the domain) and work out the result (f(x)). plot the points as follows: y x (0. Graph the function f(x) = 3x – 2.Part II: Review with Sample Problems If x is 1. you could have plotted only three points. then f(x) is 3. 2. Using a simple chart is helpful. Now. f(x) = (1) + 1 f(x) = 2 If x is 2. 120 .

f(x) = 3(1) – 2 f(x) = 3 – 2 f(x) = 1 If x is 2. f(x) = 3(2) – 2 f(x) = 6 – 2 f(x) = 4 and so on. Graph the quadratic function y = x2 + 2. f(x) = 3(0) – 2 f(x) = 0 – 2 f(x) = –2 If x is 1. then f(x) is –2.. Notice that when x is 0. the graph would cross the x-axis at that point. If y were 0. Plug in simple values for x and you get. plot the points as follows: y x (0. you need to plot only three points. x 0 1 2 f(x) –2 1 4 Next. then f(x) is 4.. then f(x) is 1. the graph crosses the y-axis at that point. Using a simple chart is helpful. 121 . Take a look at a few quadratic functions.0) Since this is a linear equation or linear function. for example: 1.Algebra and Functions If x is 0.

x 0 1 2 –1 –2 y 2 3 6 3 6 122 . then y is 3. then y is 6. then y is 2. y = (2)2 + 2 y=4+2 y=6 If x is –1.Part II: Review with Sample Problems If x is 0. then y is 3. y = (0)2 + 2 y=2 If x is 1. Using a simple chart is helpful. y = (1)2 + 2 y=1+2 y=3 If x is 2. then y is 6. y = (–1)2 + 2 y=1+2 y=3 If x is –2. y = (–2)2 + 2 y=4+2 y=6 and so on.

the easier it is to see the curve and describe the solution set (or range). give a curved line (nonlinear). then f(x) is 1.0) These quadratic functions. then f(x) is 4. Graph the quadratic function f(x) = x2 – 2x + 1 Now plug in values for x (the domain) and work out the result (f(x)). then f(x) is 1. f(x) = (3)2 – 2(3) + 1 f(x) = 9 – 6 + 1 f(x) = 4 If x is –1. f(x) = (0)2 – 2(0) + 1 f(x) = 0 + 1 f(x) = 1 If x is 1. They do. If x is 0. then f(x) is 0. plot the points as follows: y x (0. you will not actually be graphing or plotting points on the SAT since the questions are multiple choice or grid-in. Fortunately. ask for a possible solution or solution set. however. f(x) = (1)2 – 2(1) + 1 f(x) = 1 – 2 + 1 f(x) = 0 If x is 2. The more points plotted. f(x) = (–1)2 – 2(–1) + 1 f(x) = 1 + 2 + 1 f(x) = 4 123 . 2. then f(x) is 4. f(x) = (2)2 – 2(2) + 1 f(x) = 4 – 4 + 1 f(x) = 1 If x is 3. when plotted.Algebra and Functions Next.

For example: What is the value of f(x) = 5x – 7 if x = 4? 124 . x 0 1 2 3 –1 –2 f(x) 1 0 1 4 4 9 Next. then f(x) is 9. Using a simple chart is helpful.Part II: Review with Sample Problems If x is –2. f(x) = (–2)2 – 2(–2) + 1 f(x) = 4 + 4 + 1 f(x) = 9 and so on. plot the points as follows: y x (0.0) Finding the Value of Functions The value of a function is really the value of the range.

so x = 2 or –2. @. 125 . leaving 4 = x2. Don’t be alarmed. *) will be defined in terms of operations with which you are familiar. what is the value of 2 # 3? Take a careful look at the given function: x # y = 3x + y2 Notice the positions of x and y and simply plug in 2 for x and 3 for y in the definition: = 3x + y2 = 3(2) + (3)2 =6+9 = 15 So 2 # 3 = 15. The key to solving special symbol problems is focusing on the definition (watch for the “=” if the words “defined as” are not used). the special symbol (something like #. solve the equation by factoring the difference of two squares: 0 = (x + 2)(x – 2) 0 = (x + 2) or 0 = (x – 2) So x could equal 2 or –2. (You could have also solved the original equation [function] by adding 4 to each side. For example: If x # y = 3x + y2. For example: What are the possible values of x in the function f(x) = x2 – 4 if f(x) = 0? Plugging in 0 for f(x) gives 0 = x2 – 4 Next. You could be asked to solve for x.Algebra and Functions Plugging in 4 for x gives f(x) = 5(4) – 7 f(x) = 20 – 7 f(x) = 13 So f(4) = 13 in this function.) Function Involving New “Symbols” and Definitions You could be given a special symbol in a function and asked to solve the function.

(c – b)3 = (positive)3 = positive (a – c)2 = (negative)2 = positive (c – a) b = (positive)(unknown) = ?. D. Note: Remember that problems range from easy to average to difficult. C. B.6h 3.7h^ .7h^ . If a < b < c. D. C. A.8 + 4 h ^ .1 = .2 h^ . –33 –28.^. The correct answer is 5.32 . which of the following must be less than 0? A.8 + 4 h ? 2 . E.^. ^ 5 . Begin by substituting –3 into the expression.4 h 8 = = =1 8 8 2 .8h^ 4 h + 9 . B. If x = –3.^.5 7.6h ^ 5 .6h ^ 5 .Part II: Review with Sample Problems Sample SAT-Type Problems Now you can try actual SAT-like problems in each topic area. B.8 + 4 h = ^ . 126 .7h^ .5 = . –8 –1 2 3 1 8 ^ 5 .^.6h 3.c = negative = positive b . D. E.7h^ . C.8 + 4 h is 2 . D. then –(–(–x + 2)) = Explanations 1. 5. Algebra and Functions Operations with Signed Numbers 1.33 -4 -4 2 .5 4.32 + 4 = . The value of the expression A. (c – b)3 (a – c)2 (c – a) b a-c b-c (a – b) (c – b) 2. 2. you try each answer choice: A. What is the value of A. C.25 23. B. E. The result is –(–(3 + 2)) = –(–5).75 20. E.c negative (a – b) (c – b) = (negative) (positive) = negative 4. Using the given information a < b < c. D. E. cannot tell whether answer is positive or negative a .

25 for b. B. then x must be A. what is the value of N when x = –2? x-5 12 A.5 2 6. C. B. b1 = 11.5 . D. B. –2 –1 0 2 4 10. 3 D. B.2 ? A. C. If A = h _ b 1 + b 2 i . a5b= a+b-b = a'b 4+5-5 3-5 = = ^. E.2h : 5 = . b1 = 11. 4b + 3b = 7b.2h . E. E. D. -5 2 -4 5 2 5 5 4 5 2 a+b-b . D. then 3(a + b) = Explanations 5. 2 3 . Substituting the quantity 4 4b for the quantity 3a gives the expression of 4b + 3b.3 +. D.25) = 8. what is the value of 4 @ 5? a'b 6. and b = 1. If 3a = 4b. and b2 = 9? A. E. what is the value of A when 2 h = 7. By substitution of 1. A.4 -1 1 N= 3-x = = -7 = -7 = 7 x . 4 Absolute Value 9. If a 5 b = A. you have 7(1. -7 B. 28 32 45 58 70 8. C.^ .x . C.5 ^.2 h 3 . 1 7 1 C. If N = 3 .75 or 35 . Substitute h = 7. and b2 = 9 A = h _ b 1 + b 2 i = 7 ^11 + 9h = 7 ^ 20 h = 70 2 2 2 7. Substitute –2 for x. B. positive nonnegative negative nonpositive zero 127 . If | x | = –x. What is the value of 2 . E. Substitute 4 for a and 5 for b.75 or 35 . 6 5 E. 8.Algebra and Functions Substitution for Variables 2 5.5 4 4 2 4'5 5 8. 12 7 7. Applying the distributive property to the expression 3(a + b) gives 3a + 3b.25.

Part II: Review with Sample Problems

11. If 3 - 2x = 7 , then x = A. B. C. D. E. –5 only –2 only 2 only 2 and –5 only 5 and –2 only

12. If - 3x - 1 = 8 , what is one possible value of x?

Explanations

9. D. 2 - 5 - 3 +- 2 = - 3 - 1 = 3 - 1 = 2 10. D. x = - x . Since the absolute of a number cannot be negative, the absolute value must be nonnegative. If –x is nonnegative, then x must be nonpositive. 11. E. 3 - 2x = 7 . This breaks down into two separate equations: 3 – 2x = –7 3 – 2x –3 = –7 – 3 –2x = –10 - 2x = -10 -2 -2 x=5 or 3 – 2x = 7 3 – 2x – 3 = 7 – 3 –2x = 4 - 2x = 4 -2 -2 x = –2

or 7 12. or 2.33 For an equation of this type, let the expression inside the absolute value symbol equal either 8 or – 8. 3 Solving the two equations below, implies that –3x = 9, and x = –3 or –3x – 1 = –8 implies that –3x = –7, and x = 7 3 7 The correct answer would be either –3 or or 2.33. So you would grid either 7 or 2.33. 3 3 –3x – 1 = 8

**Working with Algebraic Expressions
**

13. How much greater than 5 – 7x is 3x + 2? A. B. C. D. E. 3 – 10x 7 – 10x –3 – 4x 10x + 3 10x – 3

2

15. (x + 3)(x – 4) – (x + 2)(x + 5) = A. B. C. D. E. –8x –22 –8x – 8 –6x – 22 –22x – 8 6x – 22

_ 2xy 2 i_ 5x 2 y i 14. = 15xy 3

A. B. C. D. E. 2x 2 3y 2x 4 3y 2x 5 3y 10x 4 3y 35x 4 y

= x - 2 , then what is one of the values 16. If 5 - 2 3 x 3 5 of x?

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Algebra and Functions

Explanations

13. E. 3x + 2 – (5 – 7x) = 3x + 2 – 5 + 7x = 10x – 3.

**_ 2xy 2 i_ 5x 2 y i 2xy 2 : 25x 4 y 2 50x 5 y 4 10x 4 = = = 14. D. 3y 15xy 3 15xy 5 15xy 5
**

2

15. A. (x + 3)(x – 4) – (x + 2)(x + 5) = x2 – x – 12 – (x2 + 7x + 10) = x2 – x – 12 – x2 – 7x – 10 = –8x – 22 6 16. 1.2 or . Since the two sides of this equation are of the same format, and the left side has a 5 in the numerator of 5 one of the fractions, try 5 for x in the right member of the equation. Also, since the bottom of one of the fractions in the right member has a 5 in the denominator, try 5 for x in the left member of the equation. The statement will look like: 5-2=5-2 3 5 3 5 This is always true because of the reflexive property of equality. 5 is one of the solutions. Solving this equation is a more difficult approach. Arriving at the quadratic equation of 3(5x – 6) (x – 5) = 0, it follows that (5x – 6) = 0 and x = 6 . Therefore, 6 (or 1.2) is a correct answer also. 5 5

**Manipulating Integer and Rational Expressions
**

= 17. a + x b y A. a + x b+y B. C. D. E. ay + bx 2by ab + xy by ay + bx by ay + bx 1 = z+ 1 y 19. If 8x + 15y x x + y = 10 , what is the value of y ? 2 5 10 23 23 10 5 2 It cannot be determined from the given information.

A. B. C. D. E.

18. If x > 0, y > 0, and z > 0, then x + A. B. C. D. E. xz + yx + 1 z xy + zy + 1 xzy + x + y zy + 1 xzy + 1 y xzy + x + y y

20. If 2 3/2 : 2 1/3 = 2 x , what is the value of x?

129

Part II: Review with Sample Problems

Explanations

y ay bx ay + bx =a: + x :b= + = 17. D. a + x b y b y y b by by by x+ 18. C. 1 = x + 1 = x + y = x : zy + 1 + y zy + 1 zy + 1 zy + 1 zy + 1 z+ 1 y y xzy + x y xzy + x + y = + = zy + 1 zy + 1 zy + 1

19. D.

8x + 15y 8x + 15y 10 x + y = 10 Rewrite this as: x + y = 1 8x + 15y = 10x + 10y 8x + 15y – 8x = 10x + 10y – 8x 15y = 2x + 10y 15y – 10y = 2x + 10y – 10y 5y = 2x 5y 2x = 2y 2y 5=x 2 y

Then, cross multiplying yields: 1(8x + 15y) = 10(x + y)

20. 11 . Since this is a product of two numbers with the same base, the rule is to add the exponents. 6 3 + 1 = 9 + 2 = 11 The correct answer is 11 . 2 3 6 6 6 6

**Solving Rational Equations and Inequalities
**

21. If x + x = 7 , what is the value of x? 3 4 12 A. 1 12 B. 1 7 C. 1 D. 49 24 E. 7 2 22. Which of the following is a possible solution to x+3 $ 3-x ? 4 3 A. –5 5 B. 7 C. 0 D. 2 9 E. 7 8

2 23. If x + 7x + 12 = 3 - x , what is the value of x? 5x + 15

A. B. C. D. E.

–6 6 11 11 10 11 6 2

5 24. If a = 3 and 3 x + a = 7 , what would be the value of x?

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Algebra and Functions

Explanations

21. C. x + x = 7 Get rid of the denominators by multiplying all terms by 12 to get: 3 4 12 12 : x + 12 : x = 12 : 7 3 4 12 4x + 3x = 7 7x = 7 x=1 22. E. x + 3 $ 3 - x Get rid of the denominators by multiplying both sides by12. 4 3 12 : x + 3 $ 12 : 3 - x 4 3 3(x + 3) ≥ 4(3 – x) 3x + 9 ≥ 12 – 4x 3x + 9 + 4x ≥ 12 – 4x + 4x 7x + 9 ≥ 12 7x + 9 – 9 ≥ 12– 9 7x ≥ 3 7x $ 3 7 7 3 7 x$ 3 7 The only answer choice $ 7 is E, 8 .

2 23. D. x + 7x + 12 = 3 - x Factoring numerator and denominator of fraction on left: 5x + 15

^ x + 3h^ x + 4 h =3-x 5 ^ x + 3h x+4 = 3-x 1 5

cross multiplying yields x + 4 = 15 – 5x x + 4 + 5x = 15 – 5x + 5x 6x + 4 = 15 6x + 4 – 4 = 15 – 4 6x = 11 6x = 11 6 6 11 x= 6 24.

1(x + 4) = 5 (3 – x)

9 . Begin by substituting 3 for a. Next, subtract 5 from each member of the equation. You should have the 3 16 16 . Next, multiply both members by 3x. 3x is the least common denominator for the = following equation: 3 x 3 equation. You should now have 9 = 16x. Solving for x, you get x = 9 . 16

131

Part II: Review with Sample Problems

**Working with Linear Functions—Graphs and Equations
**

25. The graph of y = - 3 x + 7 is perpendicular to the 4 graph of which of the following equations? A. B. C. D. E. y= y= y= y= y= -3 x - 7 4 -4 x + 5 3 3x + 8 4 -4 x - 7 3 4 x + 12 3 27. What is the y-coordinate of the point at which the graph of 2x – 3y = 12 crosses the y-axis? A. B. C. D. E. –12 –4 –3 3 12

y

4 3 2 1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4

26. If the point (6,y) is on the graph of the equation y = 2 x - 5 , what is the value of y? 3 A. B. C. D. E. –9 –4 –1 1 33 2

1

2

3

x

28. If the line shown in the graph above is reflected about the y-axis and then translated upward 4 units, the resulting equation is y = ax + k. What would be the value of k?

Explanations

25. E. The graph of an equation of the form y = mx + b has a slope of m. So the slope of the graph of the equation y = - 3 x + 7 has a slope of - 3 . 4 4 Two lines are perpendicular if their slopes are opposite reciprocals. Therefore the slope of the line perpendicular to the graph of the given equation is 4 . The only equation among the answer choices having the correct slope is 3 Choice E. 26. C. If the point (6,y) is on the graph of the equation y = 2 x - 5 , substituting 3 2 6 for x gives y = : 6 - 5 = 4 - 5 = -1. 3 27. B. The point at which the graph crosses the y-axis will have an x-coordinate of 0. Substitute 0 for x. 2(0) – 3y = 12 –3y = 12 - 3y 12 = -3 -3 y = –4 2x – 3y = 12

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Algebra and Functions

28. 2. The y-intercept of the line in the graph is at –2 or (0, –2). The reflection of (0, –2) about the y-axis remains (0, –2). When this point is translated upward by 4 units, the y-intercept will then be at 2. Since k in the equation represents the y-intercept, k = 2.

**Solving Radical Equations
**

29. If A. B. C. D. E. x - 3 = 6 , what is the value of x? 9 16 25 49 81 31. If A. B. C. D. E. 32. If x + 4 = x - 2 , what is the value of x? –3 only 0 and –3 0 only 0 and 5 5 only x + 2 - x = - 4 , what is the value of x?

30. For which of the ordered pairs (x, y) is x - y = 3? A. B. C. D. E. (1, 16) (3, 0) (25, 64) (64, 25) (100, 64)

Explanations

29. E. x -3=6 x -3+3=6+3 x =9

` x j = 92

2

x = 81 30. D. Using the given equation A. B. C. D. 31. E. x - y = 3, you try each answer choice. (1, 16) 1 - 16 = 1 - 4 ! 3 (3, 0) 3 - 1 = 3 - 1 ! 3 (25, 64) 25 - 64 = 5 - 8 = - 3 ! 3 (64, 25) 64 - 25 = 8 - 5 = 3 , so Choice D is correct. x + 4 = x - 2 . Squaring both sides, you get:

` x + 4 j = ^ x - 2h

2 2

x + 4 = (x – 2)(x – 2) x + 4 = x2 – 4x + 4 x + 4 – x – 4 = x2 – 4x + 4 – x – 4 0 = x2 – 5x 0 = x(x – 5), so it appears that x = 0 or x = 5 If you were to substitute each of these values of x in the original equation, only x = 5 actually works. The answer of x = 0 is known as an extraneous root.

133

Therefore. Since x + 2 is a factor of x2 + kx + 8. Setting each binomial equal to zero. Solving this equation by factoring the trinomial you get (x – 2)(x – 7) = 0. you have: (x + y)(x – y) = 12. The correct answer is 7. B. 36.5 8 5 35. 5. you get x = 2 or x = 7. E. what is the value of c? Explanations 3 ^ x . The correct answer is 5. Basic Factoring 33. First isolate the radical term by adding x to each side of the equation.4 5x . cx = 2x + 3x = 5x. You can also use –2x = –10.10 5 5 ^ x . Therefore. x2 – y2 = 12. B. If x2 – y2 = 12 and x – y = 3. Therefore. the statement is false. Next square both sides of the equation. D. B. If (x + c)(x – 2) = x2 + 3x – 10. The sum of cx and –2x is equal to 3x. the original equation is true. what is the value of x + y? A. Substituting 7 for x. so 2 isn’t a solution for the original equation. C. so ? = 4. what is the value of k? A. The new equation is x + 2 = x2 – 18x + 16. 3x . E. where k is a constant. 36. (x + 2) (x + ?) = x2 + kx + 8 You know the product of 2 and ? has to equal 8. c must equal 5. 25x – 50 3 5 1 3x . C.2 h 5 5 5 34. So 2 + 4 = 6. D. The equation will be 0 = x2 – 9x + 14. D. C.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 32. Substituting 2 for x in the original equation. Factoring the left side. which implies x = 5. If x + 2 is a factor of x2 + kx + 8. set the equation equal to zero. _ x + y i : 3 = 12 134 . 3x . 7. Next. E. Substitute 3 for x – y. D.6 + 2 = 5x . k = 6. –3 0 4 9 It cannot be determined from the given information. You also know that the sum of 2 and ? has to equal k.6 + 2 = 5x .10 5 A. C. C. –2 2 4 6 8 34. _ x + y i : 3 12 = 3 3 x+y=4 35.2h 2 3 2 + = + =1 33.

and h = 9 when x = 1 and 8 2 1 y = . 7 E. 8 B. where c is some constant. 18 5 38. but inversely proportional to y. what is the value of m when r = 3 ? 2 2 2 A. what is the value of w when x = 3 ? 4 3 A. B. During the next mile. If w is inversely proportional to x. and w = 1 9 when x = 6. the driver holds the speed at a constant 72 miles per hour. 3 39. 9 4 15 D. Since w is inversely proportional to x. what is the value of h when x = 1 3 3 and y = 1 ? 2 2 A. 8 9 C. 3 11 C. w = c x . 1=c Substituting w = 1 and x = 6: 9 6 9 1 6: =6: c 9 6 2 =c 3 2 c m 3 w= x So our equation is now: 2 c m 3 3 =2:4=8 Substituting x = : w = 4 3 3 9 3 c m 4 135 . 1 3 E. 3 2 40. should the passenger calculate for the car to travel the second mile? Explanations 37.Algebra and Functions Direct and Inverse Variation 37. in minutes. How much time. 3 B. and holding the car at a constant speed of 60 miles per hour according to the speedometer. 9 8 12 D. the passenger finds it takes 60 seconds to travel one mile. Using the speed check signs along the road that are one mile apart. 4 15 D. 2 35 E. and m = 1 12 when r = 1 . 15 B. If h is directly proportional to x2. If m is directly proportional to r3. Speed varies inversely with elapsed time. 4 9 C.

then 72 t = 3600. 2 h = cx y for some constant c. C. t = 3600 . h = 9 when x = 1 and y = 1 : 9 = 8 2 3 8 1 3 9 =c: 1 : 3 8 4 1 9 =c: 3 8 4 4 : 9 =c: 3 : 4 3 8 4 3 3 =c 2 So our equation is now: 3 x2 h = 2y 3 1 2c3m h= 1 2 2 Substitute x = 1 and y = 1 : 3 2 h= 3 : 1 : 2 = 1 2 9 1 3 40. If the speed is 72 miles per hour. 50. m = cr3. The correct answer is 50. D. the model for calculation is speed × time is constant (st = k) The constant k is (60) (60) or 3600. Since the speed varies inversely with time. Substituting m = 1 and r = 1 : 12 2 1 = c: c1m 12 2 3 1 =c: 1 12 8 1 8: =c: 1 :8 12 8 2 =c 3 So our equation is now: Substitute r = 3 : 2 m = 2 r3 3 3 m = 2 c 3 m = 2 : 27 = 9 3 2 3 8 4 39. but inversely proportional to y. Since m is directly proportional to r3. 72 136 .Part II: Review with Sample Problems 38. where c is some constant. Since h is directly proportional to x2. 2 cc1m 2 Then.

Concepts of Range and Domain 45.Algebra and Functions Function Notation and Evaluation 41. D. Substitute –2 for x: f(–2) = (–2)2 + 5(–2) = 4 + –10 = –6 42. In the graph above. D. If f ^xh = 5 x + 2 . If f ^xh = x 2 + 3 x + 1 . Subtract: –1 – (–3). For which of the following functions will f(–2) = f(2)? A. C. 9x + 1 y 3 2 1 -3 -2 -1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 f g 1 2 3 4 x 42. x . B. B. E. Mapping the values for g(2) and f(2) you get –1 and –3 respectively. B.3 3 3 44. 2. f ` g ^ x hj = f c x + 2 m = 3 c x + 2 m . f(x) = x2 + 5x. E. which of the following is 2 in the range of function f ? A. C. –14 –6 6 14 16 43. E. If f(x) = 3x – 9 and g^xh = x + 2 . f(x) = 4x3 f ^xh = x 5 f(x) = 3x – 1 f ^xh = 5 + x f(x) = x3 – 4 44. C. x < –2 x ≥ –2 x≥0 x≥2 all real numbers 46. E. the functions f and g are lines. B. f(–2) and f(2) will be equal only if all powers of x in the function are even or in the case of any absolute values of the variable.7 9 E. x – 7 B. D. 43.9 = x + 6 . what are values of x for which f(x) is real number? A. If f(x) = x2 + 5x. what is the value of f(–2)? A. The correct answer is 2. D. then f(g(x)) = 3 A. -2 1 5 -3 4 0 1 8 5 17 137 . B. B. this applies to the function f(x) = 5 + | x | in Choice D. x – 3 C.9 = x . C. What is the value of g(2) – f(2)? Explanations 41. x – 1 D. D.

C. II. you have x ≥ –2. B. The range of the function y = f(x) is defined by –2 ≤ y ≤ 6. II. B. Working with Positive Roots. C. 87 7 3 7 6 21 29 3 138 . III. If this function is reflected about the y-axis and then translated downward two units. C. f ^xh = x + 5 48. 49. B. When substituting negative numbers for x in f ^ x h = x 2 + 3 x + 1 you always get positive values for f(x). 6 = 3 A. The correct answer is 4. g^ x h = x + 3 domain: x ≥ –3 2 f ^ x h = x + 5 domain: all real numbers range: f(x) ≥ 0 range: h(x) ≥ 0 range: g(x) ≥ 0 h(x) = (x – 2) domain: all real numbers Therefore the functions in I and III have the same domains as well as the same ranges. The 2 smallest value of f(x) will occur when x = 0. E. D. The range will not change as a result of reflection about the y-axis. f ^ x h = 5 x + 2 only has meaning when the term x + 2 ≥ 0. Which of the following functions have the same domain as well as identical ranges? I. When this function is moved downward two units. E. and III None have the same domains and identical ranges. A. E. since you cannot find the square root of a negative number in the real number system. Since x + 2 ≥ 0. 47. Determining the domain and range for each function yields: I. 12 + 75 = A. 48. C. 46. what will be the largest value in the range? Explanations 45. Therefore all values of f(x) will 2 be greater than or equal to 0. III. 4. the greatest value of the range is 4. in this case. II. Therefore. D. g^xh = x + 3 h(x) = (x – 2)2 I and II II and III I and III I. E.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 47. the range values will all decrease by two units and be defined by –4 ≤ y ≤ 4. 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 6 3 50. B. D. The problem is really just asking for the domain of the function f. Only Choice E fits this condition. the value of f ^ 0 h = 1 .

B. –4 only 4 only –4 and 4 21 only 16 only 55.2 : 3 2 =9 . D. D. This value is 6 units.6 2 52. 216. or 216.3 j = ` 6 . where k is a constant. C. the edge length will be the cube root of 64 which is 4 units. 6 = 6 : 3 3 50. A function is defined by y = x2 – 5x + 6. The volume of a cube with an edge of 6 units is 6 cubed.2 18 =9 . B. The volume of a cube is 64.3 j = 6 . what is the value of x? A. –15 –5 –3 3 5 56. C.2 18 + 3 = 9 . C. C. If x2+ 3x = 10. If the volume of a cube is 64.2 9 : 2 =9 . If the edge length of this cube is increased by 2 units. what is the value of x? A.Algebra and Functions 51. B. E. –2 only –2 and 5 2 only 10 3 2 and –5 54. If x2+ 3 = 19. Increase this edge length by 2 units to obtain the edge length of the new cube. The correct answer is 216. D.3 j = 2 A. 3 9 9-3 2 9-5 2 9-6 2 52. ` 6 . B. D. E. B. ` 6 . E. 3 6 3 = =2 3 3 3 12 + 75 = 4 : 3 + 25 : 3 = 2 3 + 5 3 = 7 3 2 51. what is the other root of the equation? A. what will be the volume of the resulting cube? Explanations 49. Solving Quadratic Equations 53. What is the smallest value of x where this function crosses the x-axis? 139 . C. If 3 is one of the roots of the equation x2 – kx – 15 = 0. E.3 j` 6 . E.

D. A graph crosses the x-axis where y is equal to zero. x2+ 3x = 10 x2+ 3x – 10 = 10 – 10 x2+ 3x – 10 = 0 (x – 2)( x + 5) = 0. Setting y equal to 0. B. Since 3 is a root (or solution) of the equation x2 – kx – 15 = 0. B. For what value of x will f(x) ≥ 0? A. Working with Quadratic Functions and Graphs y y = f (x) a b c d 57. so the equation can be written (x – 3)( x – 2) = 0. C. 2. or x = –5 55. x – 3 must be a factor of x2 – kx – 15: (x – 3)( x + ?) = x2 – kx – 15. c ≤ x ≤ d b≤x≤c a < x < b.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 53. A portion of a quadratic function f(x) is shown in the figure above. c < x < d 140 . so x = 2 and x = –5 56. is 2. the other solution comes from x + 5 = 0. E. since the question asked for the smallest. x> c a ≤ x ≤ b. x2+ 3 = 19 x2+ 3 – 3 = 19 – 3 x2 = 16 x = ±4 54. E. b<x<c x < b. obtains the equation x2 – 5x + 6 = 0. Since one or both factors must equal 0. so ? must equal 5 so you know (x – 3)( x + 5) = x2 – kx – 15 = 0 Therefore. The left member if the equation is factorable. C. The correct answer. x is equal to 3 or 2.

If f(x) = –x2 – 4x – k and contains the point (–4. For which of the following values of x will their y-coordinates be equal? A. If f(x) = x2 – 2x – 3. 3). B. which of the following could be the graph of f? (A) y (B) y (C) y x -3 1 -1 3 x -3 1 x (D) y (E) y x -1 3 -1 3 x y y = ax2+bx+c x 0 6 60. D. C.Algebra and Functions 58. what is the y coordinate of the function at the point on the axis of symmetry of the graph? 59. In the figure above. a portion of the graph of y = ax2 + bx + c is shown. –1 and 1 1 and 4 2 and 5 –2 and 7 –3 and 9 141 . E.

Begin by substituting the point into the function for x and f(x). as in Choice D. the two points on the x-axis that are on the graph of the function are equidistant from the axis. C. f(x) ≥ 0 in the dark shaded regions—above or on the x-axis. Since the graph of the parabola y = ax2 + bx + c crosses the x-axis at 0 and 6. 1. x2 – 2x – 3 = 0 (x + 1)( x – 3) = 0. E. y x a b c d In the figure above. y Line of symmetry 3 -3 0 Vertex 6 units 6 units 6 9 x 60. so the graph of f crosses the x-axis at –1 and 3.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 57. note that –3 is 6 units left of the line of symmetry at x = 3. when folded along this axis line. These regions can be described by: a ≤ x ≤ b and c ≤ x ≤ d. 59. points with x-coordinates equal distances left and right of this line of symmetry must have the same y-coordinate. The axis of symmetry is the line through the vertex of the graph that divides the graph into two pieces that. the x-coordinate of its vertex must be 3. Because of the symmetry of the parabola around the vertical line x = 3. For this reason. The only answer choice that has two values of x meeting this condition is E. its x-intercepts can be found by setting f(x) = 0 and then solving for x. 142 . the graph of f must open upwards. The equation will be 3 = –16 + 16 – k. Since the coefficient of the x2 term is positive. while 9 is 6 units right of the line of symmetry. exactly match each other. For the graph of f(x) = x2 – 2x – 3. D. 58.

The values for x where the graph intersects the x-axis is the values where the factors (x + 1) and (x + 3) are equal to 0. evaluate f(–2). The function is f(x) = –x2 – 4x – 3. To find the value of the function where x = –2. The y coordinate of the vertex point is another method to solve the problem. and the factored form is f(x) = –1(x + 1)(x + 3).Algebra and Functions From this equation the value of k is –3. Since the axis line must pass through the midpoint of these numbers. 143 . Now substitute –3 into the function for k and factor the resulting polynomial. Therefore this graph passes through –1 and 3. This value is –(–2)2 – 4(–2) – 3 or –4 + 8 – 3. The correct answer is 1. the axis of symmetry is all points where x = –2.

.

A B. C A B 5. Name each of the following polygons: A. 2. A B D C E. A C A 3. What is the length of BC in the preceding figure? D C 145 . What is the length of AC in the preceding figure? A 10″ B 26″ D. AC must be smaller than _______ inches. A 8″ D C C. Lines that stay the same distance apart and never meet are called _______ lines. A B D B 15″ C C 4. In the preceding triangle. B 18″ B 22″ C B 6.Geometry and Measurement Geometry Diagnostic Test (Geometry and Measurement) Questions 1. Lines that meet to form 90° angles are called _______ lines.

area = perimeter = A B x 13. circumference = 16″ 15″ 12″ 30″ 13″ 4″ 4″ 4″ 12. CD is called a _______. Find the area and perimeter of the preceding figure: A. C. B. 22 7 ): A.14 for π): 8. 10. surface area = volume = y C 9. What is the surface area and volume of the preceding cube? A. B. What is the area of ᭝ABC in the preceding figure? 146 . (Use 3. Find the area and circumference for the circle in the preceding figure ( π . area = B. B. Find the volume of the preceding figure if V = (πr2)h.Part II: Review with Sample Problems D B S A 4″ D 3″ 6″ B R C C A 7. RS is called the _______. Fill in the blanks for circle R in the preceding figure: A. Find the area and perimeter of the preceding figure (ABCD is a parallelogram): A. AB is called the _______. B. area = perimeter = 10″ 12″ 7″ 11.

8. perpendicular 3. A. Therefore. or 43 = 64 cubic inches. All six surfaces have an area of 4 × 4.768 cubic inches 12. AC = 17 inches 5. C. 11. 2 y C 6 B x B. 40 inches (Since AB + BC = 40 inches. 12 The area of a triangle is 1 × base × height. so the area of triangle = 1 × 4 × 6 2 = 1 × 24 2 = 12 9. 13. AC < AB + BC and AC < 40 inches. A. A. area = bh = 6(3) = 18 square inches perimeter = 6 + 4 + 6 + 4 = 20 inches = (π ⋅ 102)(12) = 3. A. area = πr2 = π(72) = 22 7 (7)(7) = 154 square inches circumference = πd = π(14) (d = 14". A. B. Since ᭝ABC is a right triangle. because r = 7") = 22 7 (14) = 22(2) = 44 inches area = 1 ^ a + b h h 2 = 1 ^16 + 30 h 12 2 = 1 ^ 46 h 12 2 = 23(12) = 276 square inches perimeter = 16 + 13 + 30 + 15 = 74 inches A 4 10. 147 . B. Base AB of the triangle is 4 units. 16(6) = 96 square inches is the surface area. 7. Volume = side × side × side.) 4. volume = (πr2)h triangle square parallelogram rectangle trapezoid radius diameter chord B. D. B.Geometry and Measurement Answers 1. or 16 square inches because each surface is a square. C. use the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + b2 = c2 102 + b2 = 262 100 + b2 = 676 b2 = 576 b = 24" 6. parallel 2. E. B. The height of the triangle is 6 units.14(100)(12) = 314(12) = 3. A.

∠4 is an obtuse angle. ∠b is acute. ∠1 and ∠2 are adjacent angles.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Geometry Review Types of Angles Adjacent angles are any angles that share a common side and a common vertex (point) A 1 2 D B C In the diagram. 148 . 180° B A C In the diagram. in the interior of an angle designates the fact that a right angle is A 90° B C In the diagram. ∠BAC is a straight angle (also called a line). A right angle has a measure of 90°. Any angle the measure of which is less than 90° is called an acute angle. A straight angle has a measure of 180°. 4 In the diagram. The symbol formed. b In the diagram. Any angle whose measure is larger than 90° but smaller than 180° is called an obtuse angle. ∠ABC is a right angle.

∠3. ∠1 and ∠2 are complementary angles. and ∠4 are formed. A ray from the vertex of an angle that divides the angle into two equal pieces is called an angle bisector. Therefore. ∠1 = ∠2. ∠2. A 1 2 B C In the diagram. Therefore. Therefore. ∠3 and ∠4 are supplementary angles. Two angles whose sum is 180° are called supplementary angles. 149 . its supplement. would be 90° – 55° = 35°. because ∠ABC is a right angle.Geometry and Measurement Two angles whose sum is 90° are called complementary angles. since ∠ABC is a straight angle. again. Vertical angles are always equal. If two straight lines intersect. Those angles opposite each other are called vertical angles. If ∠1 = 55°. ∠2. ∠4. Four angles are formed. If ∠3 = 122°. ∠1. A 3 4 B C In the diagram. Two adjacent angles that form a straight line are supplementary. C B 1 A 2 D In the diagram. ∠3 + ∠4 = 180°. line l and line m intersect at point Q. its complement. l 4 Q 2 3 m 1 In the diagram. AB is the angle bisector of ∠CAD. Those angles sharing a common side and a common vertex are. would be: 180° – 122° = 58°. ∠1 + ∠2 = 90°. they do so at a point. adjacent angles.

■ Two or more lines that remain the same distance apart at all times are called parallel lines. l m In the diagram. l m In the diagram. ■ Two lines that meet to form right angles (90° angles) are called perpendicular lines. l = m . Eight angles are formed.Part II: Review with Sample Problems ∠1 and ∠3 ∠2 and ∠4 ∠1 and ∠2 ∠2 and ∠3 ∠3 and ∠4 ∠1 and ∠4 are vertical angles are adjacent angles Therefore. it is termed parallel lines. l Q m In the diagram. lines l and m intersect at Q. n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 l m 150 . The symbol = is used to denote perpendicular lines. Parallel lines never meet. ∠1 = ∠3 ∠2 = ∠4 Types of Lines ■ Two or more lines that cross each other at a point are called intersecting lines. line n is the transversal. In the diagram below. Parallel Lines Cut by Transversal ■ When two parallel lines are both intersected by the third line. and lines m and l are parallel. That point is on each of those lines. The symbol is used to denote parallel lines. l m . cut by a transversal. There are many facts and relationships about these angles.

they are equal. Therefore: ∠3 and ∠5 are consecutive interior angles. ∠1 = ∠4. ∠3 = ∠6 ∠4 and ∠5 are alternate interior angles. Alternate angles are on the opposite side of the transversal. Likewise: ∠2 + ∠4 = 180° ∠7 + ∠8 = 180° ∠3 + ∠4 = 180° ∠5 + ∠7 = 180° ∠1 + ∠3 = 180° ∠6 + ∠8 = 180° ∠5 + ∠6 = 180° 2. even if you cannot remember the rules. ∠3 = ∠5 = 180° ∠4 and ∠6 are consecutive interior angles. Angles 1 and 4 are vertical angles. For example: 83˚ a b c d e f g l l m m Note that since the lines are parallel. Exterior angles are those on the outsides of the parallel lines. you can see which angles are equal. the angles that would coincide with each other would be equal in measure. If we could physically pick up line l and place it on line m. ∠1 + ∠2 = 180°. therefore. the other angle measures can all be determined. Vertical angles. therefore. ∠2 = ∠7 ∠1 and ∠8 are alternate exterior angles. Interior angles are those contained within the parallel lines. They are called corresponding angles. if we are given the measure of one of the eight angles. Corresponding angles. Consecutive interior angles. Using all of these facts. Adjacent angles. they are supplementary. Therefore: ∠1 = ∠5 ∠3 = ∠7 ∠2 = ∠6 ∠4 = ∠8 4. Alternate interior and exterior angles. ∠4 = ∠6 = 180° The sum of the measures of each pair of consecutive angles = 180°. Therefore: ∠3 and ∠6 are alternate interior angles. Angles 1 and 2 are adjacent and they form a straight line. Consecutive interior angles are on the same side of the transversal.Geometry and Measurement 1. Likewise: ∠2 = ∠3 ∠5 = ∠8 ∠7 = ∠6 3. ∠1 = ∠8 5. 151 . ∠4 = ∠5 ∠2 and ∠7 are alternate exterior angles.

BC is the base. ■ ■ ■ Facts about triangles: ■ Every triangle has a base (bottom side) and a height (or altitude). The following figure shows ᭝ABC: B A C There are various types of triangles: ■ A triangle having all three sides equal (meaning all three sides having the same length) is called an equilateral triangle. (Poly means many. A triangle having a right (90°) angle in its interior is called a right triangle. A triangle having two sides equal is called an isosceles triangle. A triangle is a three-sided polygon. gon means sides. A triangle having none of its sides equal is called a scalene triangle. It has three angles in its interior. The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle must be larger than the length of the third side.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Polygons Closed shapes or figures with three or more sides are called polygons. polygon means many sides. The symbol for triangle is ᭝.) Triangles This section deals with those polygons having the fewest number of sides. A triangle is named by all three letters of its vertices. thus. and AE is the height. A B E C ■ In this diagram of ᭝ABC. The sum of these angles is always 180°. Every height is the perpendicular (forming a right angle) distance from a vertex to its opposite side (the base). In the diagram of ᭝ABC: A AB + BC > AC AB + AC > BC AC + BC > AB B C 152 . AE = BC .

The three lengths a. A knowledge of the use of algebraic equations can also be used to determine the lengths of the sides. 3–4–5 is called a Pythagorean triple. b.) The other two sides are called the legs (sides a and b). and c that always work. 5–12–13. x = 5 5 2 x 15 10 Quadrilaterals A polygon having four sides is called a quadrilateral. and c are always numbered such that: a2 + b2 = c2 For example: If a = 3. and 8–15–17. The sum of these interior angles is always 360°. b = 4. A quadrilateral is named using the four letters of its vertices. ■ The side opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (side c). Some are 1–1– 2. the lengths of these sides can be determined easily. a2 + b2 = c2 x + 102 = 152 x2 + 100 = 225 x2 = 125 x = 125 125 = 25 × 5 = 5 5 So. (The hypotenuse is always the longest side. If perfect squares are known. 153 . For example: Find the length of x in the triangle. Any multiple of one of these triples also works. There are other values for a. There are four angles in its interior. multiplying the 3–4–5 solution set shows that 6–8–10. and 15–20–25 are also Pythagorean triples. 9–12–15. and c = 5: a2 + b2 = c2 32 + 42 = 52 9 + 16 = 25 25 = 25 4 5 3 ■ ■ Therefore.Geometry and Measurement Pythagorean theorem: ■ In any right triangle. For example. the relationship between the lengths of the sides is stated by the Pythagorean theorem. b. A b c C a B The parts of a right triangle are: ∠C is the right angle.

AB CD . AB DC .Part II: Review with Sample Problems The following figure shows quadrilateral ABCD. and consecutive angles supplementary. AE is the height. B a a C a a A ■ E D A trapezoid has only one pair of parallel sides. A a B a a D ■ a C A rectangle has opposite sides that are equal and four right angles. A B D C Types of quadrilaterals ■ A square has four equal sides and four right angles. Every parallelogram has a height. A rhombus is a parallelogram with four equal sides. A trapezoid has a height. A a B b b D ■ a C A parallelogram has opposite sides equal and parallel. A rhombus has a height. BE is the height. and AD BC . opposite angles equal. A B D E C 154 . A b a B b D E a C ■ AE is the height of the parallelogram.

An octagon is an 8-sided polygon.Geometry and Measurement Other Polygons ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ A pentagon is a 5-sided polygon. in. The formulas for each area are as follows: Triangle: A = 1 bh 2 h b or h b For example: A = 1 bh 2 18" 24" A = 1 ^ 24 h^18h = 216 sq. Area Area (A) means the amount of space inside the polygon. No special formulas are really necessary. The perimeter of any polygon can be determined by adding the lengths of all the sides. A decagon is a 10-sided polygon. 2 Square or rectangle: A = lw w l w l or l w l w 155 . The total distance around is the sum of all sides of the polygon. A nonagon is a 9-sided polygon. Perimeter Perimeter means the total distance all the way around the outside of any shape. A hexagon is a 6-sided polygon.

Trapezoid: A = 1 _ b 1 + b 2 i h 2 b1 h b2 For example: 8" A = 1 (b1 + b2)h 2 A = 1 (8 + 12)(7) 2 = 1 (20)(7) = 70 sq. in.Part II: Review with Sample Problems For example: 4" 4" A = l (w) = 4(4) = 16 sq. Parallelogram: A = bh h b For example: A = b(h) 10" 6" 5" 6" A = 10(5) = 50 sq. in. in. in. 12" 5" A = l (w) = 12(5) = 60 sq. 2 7" 12" 156 .

is called a circle. In any circle. Arcs are measured in degrees. all points on which are equidistant from the center point. D A AB is a diameter. It is written on top of the two endpoints that form the arc. UV is a chord. MA is a radius. R M V S ■ The diameter is the longest chord in any circle. There are 360° around a circle. Circles are named by the letter of their center point. Each diameter is two radii. all radii (plural) are the same length. MB is a radius. all diameters are the same length. In any circle. E F 157 . $ This is EF $ Minor EF is the shorter distance between E and F. through the center. Parts of a Circle ■ Radius is the distance from a center to any point on a circle. The symbol " is used to denote an arc.Geometry and Measurement Circles A closed shape whose side is formed by one curved line. An arc is the distance between any two points on the circle itself. U RS is a chord. An arc is a piece of the circle. A ■ M B Diameter is the distance across a circle. $ Major EF is the longer distance between E and F. $ When EF is written. CD is a diameter. M This is circle M. the minor arc is assumed. B ■ M C The chord is a line segment whose end points lie on the circle itself. M is the center point because it is the same distance away from all points on the circle.

They are said to be similar if they have the same shape.14(8) = 25.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Circumference and Area ■ Circumference is the distance around a circle. For example: In circle M. Corresponding sides are those sides that are across from the equal angles. π (pi) is a Greek letter that represents a specific number. The formula for circumference is: C = πd or C = 2πr. For example: In circle M.14 or π ≈ 22 7 . a formula is needed.12 inches M 4" ■ The area of a circle can be determined by: A = πr2. 158 .14(25) = 78. the commonly used approximations are: π ≈ 3. Since there are no sides to add up. d = 8 because r = 4. M 10" Congruence and Similarity Two plane (flat) geometric figures are said to be congruent if they are identical in size and shape. in. r = 5 because d = 10. The following triangles are congruent.5 sq. In fractional or decimal form. but are not identical in size. C = πd = π(8) = 3. A more precise working definition of similar figures follows: ■ Similar figures have corresponding angles equal and corresponding sides that are in proportion. For example: All squares are similar. A = π(r2) = π(52) = 3.

Since OQ to NM is in the ratio 5 to 8. Therefore. and AE and AB. they are parallel to each other. AD = DE or AD = 2 AC CB AC 3 6 = 2. and AD = 6. since MN and OQ are both perpendicular to PM. the corresponding sides are in proportion. the 3 6 same ratio holds for all corresponding sides. and ∠AED and ∠ABC.Geometry and Measurement For example: Triangles ADE and ACB are similar C D Side DE = 4 and corresponding side CB = 6. A few more examples: N 8 O 5 12 M Q P 1. 18 = 2 ^ AC h 2 2 9 = AC or AC = 9 Please note that this question could have been introduced as follows: In the triangle shown. Because the proportion of side DE to side CB is 4 to 6 or 4 . which reduces to 2 . then side AC = A E B Since the triangles are similar. The corresponding sides in the case are AD and AC. In the figure above. If side AD = 6. AC 3 Cross multiplying gives: 6(3) = 2(AC) 18 = 2(AC) Divide each side by 2. If AD = 4. The corresponding angles are ∠DAE and ∠CAB. you can set up the following proportion to find PM. Therefore. Therefore. DE and CB. 159 . ∠ADE and ∠ACB. DE CB . what is the length of PM? N 8 O 5 12 M Q P In the figure above. triangles OPQ and NPM are similar. triangles ADE and ACB are similar and the problem can be solved as above. CB = 6. what is the length of AC? A line parallel to one side within a triangle produces similar triangles. and since AD = 6.

5 ^ PM h 96 = 5 5 PM = 19 1 or 19.Part II: Review with Sample Problems OQ PQ 5 12 NM = PM or 8 = PM Cross multiplying gives 5(PM) = 8(12) 5(PM) = 96 Divide each side by 5. (Note that BD is used twice.25 4 4 Three-Dimensional Shapes Volume In three-dimensional shapes. Since ∠BAD = ∠CBD. Because BD to AD is in the ratio 3 to 4. volume refers to the capacity to hold. they are corresponding and sides across from them. The volume of any prism (a three-dimensional shape having many sides. AD and BD are corresponding. BD and DC. are corresponding. ∠DAB = ∠DBC. triangles ADB and BDC are similar. The formula for volume of each shape is different. the only real difficulty is matching the corresponding parts. and ∠ABD = ∠BCD. but two bases) can be determined by: Volume (V) = (area of base)(height of prism) 160 . Since ∠DCB = ∠DBA. What is the length of DC? B 3 A 4 D C In the figure above. since triangles ADB and BDC are similar. as it is part of both triangles). In the figure above. BD = DC or 3 = DC AD BD 4 3 3 ^ 3h = 4 ^ DC h 9 = 4 ^ DC h 9 = 4 ^ DC h 4 4 1 2 = DC or DC = 2 1 or 2.2 5 B A D C 2. you can set up the following proportion and solve accordingly.

in. yd.Geometry and Measurement Specifically. Rectangular Solid V = lwh = (10)(5)(4) = 200 cu. in. 10" 5" 4" 2. 1 7 1 1 r = 2" h = 14" 161 . for a rectangular solid: V = (lw)(h) = lwh h l w S S The formula for the volume of the cube is often written V = s × s × s = s3 Specifically. 1. Cube V = s3 = 8 × 8 × 8 = 512 cu. Some examples: Find the volumes of the solid figures below whose dimensions are indicated. for a cylinder (circular bases): r S h V = (πr2)h = πr2h Volume is labeled in cubic units. S S S = 8 yards 2 3. Cylinder 14 22 2 2 2 # # # V = πr h = = 22(8) = 176 cu.

The area of the circle = π(r2) = π(52) = 25π. For example: The surface area of this prism is: top: 18 × 6 = 108 bottom: 18 × 6 = 108 left side: 6 × 4 = 24 right side: 6 × 4 = 24 front: 18 × 4 = 72 back: 18 × 4 = 72 408 sq. The area of each circle equals πr2. The surface area of a rectangular solid can be found by adding the areas of all six surfaces. Adding the three parts gives the surface area of the cylinder: For example: 5' Find the surface area of a cylinder with radius 5' and height 12'. Therefore the area of the rectangle equals its height times 10π = 12 × 10π = 120π. Coordinate graphs can be used in measurement problems. The rectangle’s area equals circumference times height. Coordinate Geometry and Measurement Refer to “Basic Coordinate Geometry” in the “Algebra Review” section if you need to review coordinate graphs.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Surface Area The surface area of a three-dimensional solid is the area of all the surfaces that form the solid. or 2πr = 2π(5) = 10π. Note that the length of the rectangle equals the circumference of the circle. For example: 162 . and then add those areas. r h r circumference r height Now find the area of each individual piece. it is best envisioned “rolled out” onto a fat surface as below. Find the area of each surface. The area of the bottom circle is the same. in. Totaling all the piece gives 25π + 25π + 120π = 170π. 4" 18" 6" To determine the surface area of a right circular cylinder. 10∼ 5' 12' The length of the rectangle is the circumference of the circle. 25π.

2 163 . the height is 3. (–2 is 2 in the negative direction. y C(2. or x-coordinate is the clue to the distance of each point from the y-axis. 5). 0) and point B is at (5. What is the area of ᭝ABC in the preceding figure? The area of a triangle is 1 × base × height.−3) A(−2. and the distance to point A from the y-axis is 2.Geometry and Measurement y A (−2. the base is 5.) So 3 + 2 gives a length of 5.−3) 3. the first.3) 0 x B(2.5) B (3.3) C (5. 3). 5) and (3. What is the length of AB in the preceding graph? Since the coordinates of the points are (–2. 0). What is the area of rectangle ABCD in the preceding graph? The formula for the area of a rectangle is base × height. Since point D is at (0. Since point A is at (0. y D (0.0) A 0 B x 2. The distance to point B from the y-axis is 3.5) x 0 1. so the area is 5 × 3 = 15.

−3) 4 Base AB of the triangle is 4 units (because from A to the y-axis is 2 units and from the y-axis to B is another 2 units). you need the lengths of the three sides.0) x 164 . y A 3 3 C O 3 B(3.3) O 6 B(2. Note that ∠B is a right angle. In the preceding figure.Part II: Review with Sample Problems y C(2. You know that radius OB is 3 units long. what is the perimeter of ᭝ABC inscribed within the semicircle with center O? To find the perimeter of the triangle.−3) x A(−2. Height BC of the triangle is 6 units (3 units from B to the x-axis and another 3 units to C).0) C x 4. The OA and OC are each 3 units because they are also radii. So area of triangle = 1 × 4 × 6 2 = 1 × 24 2 = 12 y A 0 B(3. Therefore. side AC of the triangle is 6 units.

) By symmetry. you know that AB = CB. you wouldn’t have needed to use the Pythagorean theorem. From the Pythagorean theorem. So CB = 3 2 and perimeter = CA + AB + CB = 6+3 2 +3 2 = 6+6 2 165 . you know that OA is 3 and OB is 3. a2 + b2 = c2 (OA)2 + (OB)2 = (AB)2 32 + 32 = (AB)2 9 + 9 = (AB)2 18 = AB 18 = AB 9 # 2 = AB 3 2 = AB (If you spotted that triangle AOB is an isosceles right triangle with sides in the ratio 1 : 1 : 2 .Geometry and Measurement In triangle AOB.

What is the value of x° + y° in the figure above? 166 . 20 30 40 90 120 D 55° F G x° H E 50° I 3. E. B. E. What is the value of x? A. 50 75 100 110 130 x° 40° z° 30° y° m 4. In the figure above. C. D. D. B. B. In the figure above. 45 55 60 65 70 l x° y° 2.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Sample SAT-Type Problems Now you can try actual SAT-like problems in each topic area. CA = CB . Note: Remember that problems range from easy to average to difficult. E. what is the value of x? A. what is the value of x + y? A. and GH = GI . In the figure above. FD = FE . Geometry and Measurement Vertical Angles A 120° 3x° C 65° B 1. D. C. C.

in ᭝GHI: r + 2x = 180 60 + 2x = 180 2x = 120 x = 60 substitute 60 for r to get 167 . E. so y = 70 In ᭝FCG: m + y + r = 180. C. ∠A = ∠B = 65. and ∠H = ∠I = x. so m = 50 In ᭝DEF: 55 + 55 + y = 180. then substitute 50 for m and 70 for y to get 50 + 70 + r = 180. Since vertical angles have equal measure: 3x = 120. FD = FE . the interior angles of the triangle have measures 50. x. so x = 40. C. Then x+ y + 50 = 180. and GH = GI . so r = 60. so x + y = 130. 2. and y. 3.Geometry and Measurement Explanations 1. Finally. In ᭝ABC: 65 + 65 + m = 180. 50° 50° x° x° y° y° Since vertical angles have equal measure. A 65° 65° m° C m° y° y° F 55° E r° G r° x° I B D 55° x° H Since CA = CB . ∠D = ∠E = 55.

the measure of angle z is also 40 degrees. D. x° is the complement of 40°. 14 28 70 150 230 l m H C x° A x 75° N G 65° y n 6. C. 15 30 40 45 60 8. What is the difference between x and y in the figure above? 168 . In the figure above. Therefore. C. B. E. the angle across (vertical angle) is also 40 degrees. D. z° + 30° + y° = 90°. D. Angles in Figures B 132° D x° 40° A C E A 21° B C 5. % What is the degree measure of BC ? A. In circle C above. 70. 40 50 60 80 90 E X 7. E. It follows that 50° + 20° = 70°. C. Since there is an indicated right angle. the ratio of the degree $ % measures of DC to AB is 5 to 2. The correct answer is 70°. y = 20°. B. Since lines l and m form an angle of 40 degrees. E. x = 50°.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 4. It follows that 40° + 30° + y° = 90° and therefore. B. what is the value of x? A. Also. In the regular hexagon above with center at point C. what is the value of x? A.

2x h An angle formed by 2 secant lines intersecting outside of the circle is one-half of the difference 2 of the 2 arcs intercepted by the secants. B. ∠ENG is 90°. 21 = 1 ^ 3x h 2 2 : 21 = 2 : 1 ^ 3x h 2 42 = 3x 42 = 3x 3 3 14 = x $ % % 132 + AB + DC + BC = 360 % 132 + 2x + 5x + BC = 360 Then. Since ∆NCG is equilateral. The 65° angle and y form a straight angle (or linear pair). the value for y is 115°. 2 6. Solving for x.Geometry and Measurement Explanations $ $ $ 5. 169 . % 132 + 7x + BC = 360 % 132 + 7 ^14 h + BC = 360 % 132 + 98 + BC = 360 % 230 + BC = 360 % BC = 130 Substitute 14 for x. Therefore. Solving for y. Now subtract these two values and the correct answer is 75°. Then ∠CGN + x = 90°. 132° D A 21° 2x° B 5x° C 21 = 1 ^ 5x . Using vertical angles. the value of x is 40°. BE = 80 . D. so these angles are supplementary and their sum is 180°. BE = EC = 80 . 7. Since ∠C is a central angle. all angles of this triangle are 60°. the angle opposite the 65° angle is 65°. Therefore x = 30. 8. so ∠XGN is 90° also. ∠A is an inscribed angle. so 40 = 1 BE . therefore. D. In particular ∠CGN is 60°. 65° + x + 75° = 180°. 75.

D. What is the measure of angle 4? 170 . D. In the figure above. In the figure above. B. D. What is the value of x? A. m || r. 35 55 65 115 125 k 2 4 5 6 3 s Note: Figure not drawn to scale. E. what is the value of x? A. C. B. k = m . 12. AD = DC . C. and ∠3 = 60°. C.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Perpendicular and Parallel Lines A 50° l 20° x° m E x° B 9. E. AE = EB . ∠1 = 120°. 40 50 60 130 150 D C 11. 20 50 60 70 125 C B 35° D A 60° x° E m l l r 1 10. and BD = BC. B. In the figure above with l || m. E. What is the value of x in the figure above? A.

Substitute 65 for y: 65 + 60 + x = 180. By substitution. Angle 2 and angle 3 form an angle that is an alternate exterior angle with angle 1. Because 6 is a consecutive angle with the intersection of k and m. y + 60 + x = 180. 171 . the corresponding angles have to be equal. 10. ∠ADC = 90. thus x = ∠BDC = 70. so BE DC . y° 50° l x° m y + 50 = 180. so ∠1 = ∠2 + ∠3. D. Therefore. 5. ∠A + ∠ADC + ∠C = 180 20 + 90 + ∠C = 180. 11. 12. ∠AEC is also a right angle. C B 35° y° A 60° x° E D l Since CE = AD . Then. ∠5 = 60° because of vertical angles. C. so y = 130. and 6 is a 30 – 60 – 90 right triangle. A 20° E x° B D C Since AD = DC . y + 35 = 90. Therefore. Since l || m.Geometry and Measurement Explanations 9. The correct answer is 30°. In ᭝ADC: Substitute 20 for ∠A and 90 for: ∠ADC Since BD = BC. so y = 65. Since m || r and k = m . ∠2 + ∠3 = 120°. D. Therefore. ∠6 = 90°. y = x = 130. so x = 65. 30°. ∠BDC = ∠C = 70. and the measure of angle 4 is 30°. The triangle consisting of angles 4. it follows that angle 6 must be a right angle. Since ∠3 = 60° and ∠2 = 60°. 115 + x = 180. so ∠C = 70 BE and DC are both perpendicular to AD .

Area. E. B. so r = 8. The ratio of the areas of two circles is 9π to 4π. 2 7 3 15 4 16. 2 2 4 4 2 6 8 2 C 14. C. Circumference of a circle is found using the formula c = 2πr. D. E.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Circumference. If r is the radius of the larger circle. 14. C. What is the circumference of a circle whose area is 8π? A. D. C. then: Areashaded = Areabig circle – Areasmall circle 11π = πr2 – π(2)2 11π = π2 – 4π 11π + 4π = πr2 – 4π + 4 π 15π = πr2 15π = πr 2 π π 15 = r 2 15 = r 172 . 15. B. Substitute 16π for c: 16π = 2πr. B. D. Diameter 13. with center at C. the shaded region has an area of 11π. 2 2 4 4 2 2π 2 8π 15. What is the radius of the larger circle? A. What is the ratio of the circumferences of these two circles? Explanations 13. E. What is the radius of a circle whose circumference is 16π? A. E. E. D. Area of circle is found by using the formula A = r2. Radius. Substitute 8π for A: 8π = πr 2 8π = πr 2 π π 8 = r2 8=r 2 2=r The circumference = 2πr = 2π : 2 2 = 4π 2 . For the concentric circles above.

19.47) 216 3 (approximately 374. Quadrilateral ABCD is a square with sides of 4 units as shown above. C. In the figure above. C. 36 45 60 72 It cannot be determined from given information. Therefore. E. D. the radius of the larger circle must be 3 and the 4π 2 radius of the smaller circle must be 2.Geometry and Measurement 16. 4π 2 Perimeter. the ratio is 3 . the ratio of the circumference must be 6π . B.5 135 20. Since the ratio of the areas is 9π . B. 108 108 3 (approximately 187. E. In the regular octagon above. what is the value of x? A. E is the midpoint of FD and G is the midpoint of FC . with center at P. E. and area is πr2 for a circle. what is the value of x? A. In the regular pentagon above. Triangle FDC is isosceles such that DF = CF. 3 . D. with center at C. B.06) 216 216 2 (approximately 305. the regular hexagon has a perimeter of 72. D.5 45 60 67. Circumference of a circle is equal to 2πr. Area. In reduced form. C.12) A F B P 4 E G x° D 4 C 18. 22. What is the area of the shaded region? 173 . What is the area of the hexagon? A. Angle Measure of Polygon C x° 17.

D. so 2x = 135. EG is half the length of DC and is 2 units also. Then ᭝CDB is a 30°–60°–90° triangle. x = 360 = 72 5 18. An alternate solution would be to find the area of isosceles trapezoid DEGC using the area formula A = 1 _ b 1 + b 2 i h where b1 = 4. P x° A x° B 45 + x + x = 180. The altitude is perpendicular to DC .5 19. Since the polygon is a square. So ᭝ACB has area: 4 4 The hexagon will then have area 6 times this: 6 : 36 3 = 216 3 . b2 = 2. D. the answer is 6. and h = 2. and therefore x = 67. 8 – 2 = 6 2 2 Using the area formula for both triangles and subtracting. 6. 4 12 2 3 144 3 = = 36 3 . 2 174 . So ᭝CAB has area 1 : 12 : 6 3 = 36 3 . EP = 360 = 45 . The altitude of the smaller triangle is half of the altitude of the larger triangle. The altitude is 4 units. 6 s2 3 Method I: The area of an equilateral triangle with side length s is found by using the formula . With DB = 6. By constructing an altitude from F to the midpoint of DC . CD would be 6 3. this altitude is the same length as the sides of the square. The area of ᭝ FDC = 1 ^ 4 h^ 4 h = 8 and the area of ᭝ FEG = 1 ^ 2 h^ 2 h = 2 . E. C 30° 12 12 60° A 6 D 6 B 12 Side of regular hexagon = 72 = 12 . Since PA = PB. 8 In ᭝APB: 45 + ∠PAB + ∠PBA = 180. With hexagon center at C. Method II: In ᭝ACB.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 17. you have the altitude of triangle DFC. Then the hexagon will have an area 2 6 times this: 6 : 36 3 = 216 3 . ᭝ACB is equilateral. the altitude to base AB bisects the base at point D. ∠PAB = ∠PBA = x. The altitude of the large triangle also serves as the altitude of the smaller triangle. 20.

D. In the figure above. 2x + 5 = 15. 5 30 45 60 It cannot be determined from the given information. 175 . and DF = 2. what is the measure of AC ? x y° 5 x 22. C. B. C. B. Angle Measure. If BC = 7. E. D. What is the measure of the largest angle of this triangle? A. C. In the diagram above. Isosceles. E. 4 15 15 4 17 53 48 5 24. Similarity 6 20° 8 x 23.Geometry and Measurement Triangles—Right. 20° 40° 60° 80° 100° B E D A F C 70° 5 21. what is the value of x? A. What is the value of y? A. D. E. B. In the figure shown above. BC EF and DF AC . EF = 3. The measures of the interior angles of a triangle are in the ratio 2:3:4 respectively. Equilateral.

Therefore. 3 ∠ABC = ∠AEF and ∠BAC = ∠BDF. C. the missing angle in the second triangle is 70°. the statement should be: 7 = AC . ᭝ABC ≈ ᭝DEF. 8=6 5 x 8x = 30 8x = 30 8 8 15 x= 4 2x + 5 = 15 Cross multiply: 22. there are corresponding angles that are congruent. The missing angle in the first triangle is 20°. by the AA postulate for similarity.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 21.66. 23. By substitution and solving this proportion by the product of the means is equal to the product of the extremes (cross multiplying). 24. 3x. y = 60. we have: 2x + 3x + 4x = 180 9x = 180 x = 20 Then the largest angle has measure 4x = 4(20) = 80. their corresponding sides are proportional so that BC EF = DF .66 Since there are two pair of parallel segments. Therefore. 3x° 2x° 4x° Labeling the angles in the triangle above as 2x. and 4x. D. the triangle is equilateral. 3 2 3 14 The correct answer is 3 or 4. Therefore 3AC = 14 and AC = 14 . D. 176 . The two right triangles are therefore similar. so the lengths of their sides are proportional. Solving for x: 2x + 5 – 5 = 15 – 5 2x = 10 x=5 Since the lengths of all 3 sides of the triangle are 5. Since these AC triangles are similar. 14 or 4.

C. In the figure above. E. D. 45°–45°–90° A 60° 10 A 8 B 45° B C D C E 25. E. square ABCD is inscribed within a circle of radius 3 2 . In the figure above. What is the perimeter of the figure above? A. D. B. 51 5 37 + 7 37 + 7 37 + 14 51 + 7 5 2 +7 3 2 2 +7 3 A B C O D C 26. C. D.Geometry and Measurement Special Triangles 30°–60°–90°. what is the length of BC ? A. In the figure above. ABCD is a rectangle having a perimeter of 30. Circle O contains diameter CB as is shown in the diagram above. what is the length of AC ? 177 . E. What is the perimeter of ABCD? A. If OB = 6 and AB = 6 3 . B. 12 12 2 24 24 2 36 28. C. B. 5 5 5 10 10 2 3 2 3 30° F A B 27.

CE = BC = 7 and BE = 2 ^ BC h = 7 2 . Using the 30°–60°–90° pattern. Since ∠CAB is inscribed in a semi-circle. 6. In a circle. If the Pythagorean theorem is used. then AC = 6.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 25. C. A B 6√2 3√2 45° D C Since the radius of the circle is 3 2 . If the OB = 6. and that (AC)2 = 36. an inscribed angle is equal to one half the measure of the intercepted arc. Finally. (AC)2 = (12)2 – (6 3)2. This makes ᭝CAB a 30°–60°–90°. C. each side of the square is 6. Using the 45°–45°–90° pattern. its diameter is 6 2 . that is the length of the shortest side multiplied by 3 for a 30°–60°–90°. 2 2 Then BC = 3^ BC h = 5 3 . AC = 6. (AC)2 = (BC)2 – (AB)2. 26. 28. the perimeter of the figure is 8 + 7 + 8 + 7 3 + 14 + 7 2 = 37 + 7 3 + 7 2 . and CF = 3^CE h = 7 3 . if AB = 6 3. ∠CAB = 90° and the triangle is a right triangle. the diameter CB is 12. C. BF = 2(CE) = 2(7) = 14. which is also the diagonal of square ABCD. 27. AB = 1 AC = 1 ^10 h = 5 . A 8 B 7√2 45° D 8 C 7 7 7 E 7√3 30° 14 F To find the length of AD : 30 = 2(AD) + 2(AB) 30 = 2(AD) + 2(8) 30 = 2(AD) + 16 14 = 2(AD) 7 = AD In the 45°–45°–90° triangle. It follows that (AC)2 = 144 – 108. 178 . Therefore the perimeter of the square is 4(6) = 24. and the measure of a semi-circle is 180 degrees. Therefore. Now. In the 30°–60°–90° triangle. If (AC)2 = 36.

Miguel starts at point A.Geometry and Measurement Pythagorean Theorem 6 2 x 31.83) 3 (approximately 3. C. B. x √3 y √21 1 179 .47) 6 3 7 (approximately 7. How many extra miles will the runner have to run once the new route is put into service? Explanations 29. C. D. D. riding his bicycle. In the figure above. followed by a 5-mile easterly ride.80) 5 35 (approximately 5.46) 2 (approximately 5. D. E. then north for 7 miles. E. B. Using the Pythagorean theorem: 22 + x 2 = 62 4 + x 2 = 36 x 2 = 32 x = 32 = 16 : 2 = 4 2 30. In the figure above.46) 2 5 (approximately 4. 2 3 (approximately 3. what is the value of x? A. D. E. A jogging trail is being constructed to re-route runners around the exterior of an endangered plant reserve. C. What is the distance from point A to point B directly? A. what is the value of x? A. 2 17 (approximately 4.94) 26 29.32) x √3 √21 1 New Route 8 miles 30. B. C. finishing up with an 11-mile southerly ride ending up at point B.66) 10 (approximately 6. 2 2 4 2 32 2 (approximately 2.12) 23 (approximately 4. The plan showing the old trail and the new trail is shown above. traveling west for 3 miles.92) Old Route 17 miles 32.

x2 = 289 – 64. AC = 5 – 3 = 2. and x = 15. y 2 + ` 21j = x 2 2 2 2 + ` 21j = x 2 2 4 + 21 = x 2 25 = x 2 5=x 31.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Using the Pythagorean theorem for the triangle on the left: ` 3 j + 12 = y 2 2 3 + 1 = y2 4 = y2 2=y Then for the triangle on the right: Substitute 2 for y. and CB = 11 – 7 = 4. Using the Pythagorean theorem: 2 2 + 4 2 = ^ ABh 4 + 16 = ^ ABh 20 = ^ ABh 20 = AB 4 : 5 = AB 2 5 = AB 32. Therefore. 82 + x2 = 172 . B. 8 miles New Route 2 2 2 17 miles Old Route The new route and the old route form a right triangle as shown. x2 = 225. 6 miles. 5 7 11 A 2 3 x 4 C B Creating right ᭝ACB. The length of the new route is 23 miles and the length of the old route is 17 miles. 15. and 17 miles. This is also a special right triangle (Pythagorean triple) of 8. The difference is 6 miles. 180 . Solving for x. The Pythagorean theorem states that the sum of the squares of the shorter sides is equal to the square of the longest side in a right triangle.

8π 10π 14π 16π 20π r=2 8 8 3 4 34. D. AC = PT. 3 3 2 (approximately 4. C. E.20) 6 181 . C. What is the difference between the surface area of a right rectangular prism with dimensions of 3 × 4 × 8 and a right circular cylinder having dimensions of r = 2 and h = 8 as is shown in the figure above? Find the difference to the nearest whole number. with circle center at point P. C.24) 26 (approximately 5. In the right circular cylinder in the figure above. E. What is the total surface area of a right circular cylinder having radius 2 and height 3? A. D. 3 9 36 54 63 36. B. E. If the volume of a cube is 27. B. A P C T 35. what is the total surface area of the cube? A. what is the radius of the cylinder? A. B. If the volume of the cylinder is 54π.Geometry and Measurement Volume and Surface Area of Solids 33. D.10) 3 3 (approximately 5.

r P r A C 2r T Since AC = PT. Volcube = e3 Substitute 27 for volume. Substitute 54π for volume and 2r for h. the height of the cylinder is twice the radius of the cylinder.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 33. Volcylinder = πr2h 54π = πr 2 : 2r 54π = 2πr 3 54π = 2πr 3 2π 2π 27 = r 3 3=r 182 . 27 = e3 3=e Then total surface area = 6e2 = 6 ⋅ 32 = 54 35. e e e With edge length e. E. Total area of cylinder = 2πr2 + 2πrh = 2π ⋅ 22 + 2π ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 = 8π + 12π = 20π 34. D. A. Therefore h = 2r.

8 units × 4π units = 32π square units. D. –6)? 38. 11) 40. The area of an end is 12. (–1. the answer is 10. so both ends have an area of 24.4 square units. Next find the surface area of the cylinder.15) M (4. 5 (approximately 2. Distance Formula. This area is made up of three parts (two ends and the area around the prism). C. Coordinate Geometry—Coordinates. so the tube-like area is 4π units. N(0. 10.6 or 10. D.24) 2 2 (approximately 2. Slope. there are two ends and the tube-like side. 2 3 3 5 1 5 3 8 3 183 . 5). 6) or the distance between (2. the area for both ends is 8π. and C(5. ᭝MNP has its vertices at M(–3. Doubled. The circumference is 2πr. 5) (2.60 square units. Midpoint Formula y B (x. In the figure above. 8). 17) (10. To the nearest whole number.83) 173 (approximately 13. In a similar manner. ᭝ABC has its vertices at A(–1. 10). 7) A (−2.5) (6. B. so this value will be 4π. 7). The area of the base is πr2. y) 39. What are the coordinates of point B? A. The difference is 136 – 125. This is the circumference multiplied by the height. B(2. –1) and (7.Geometry and Measurement 36. E. 1. What is the length of the longest side of ᭝MNP? A. 32π + 8π = 40π. B. 40π is approximately 125. B. First find the surface area of the prism. E. –1) and (–8. C. 3) x 37. What is the slope of AC ? A. D. C. 5). Together the area is 112 + 24 = 136 square units. 3.5) (1. E. point M is the midpoint of AB . –3). Now find the area of the tube-like side. This is 14 × 8 which is 112 square units. What is the length (to the nearest tenth of a unit) of the shorter distance—the distance between (–2. The area of the sides is calculated by the perimeter of the base multiplied by the height.82) 5 34 (approximately 5. and P(1.

B. 11. The shortest distance is between the points (2. Since the coordinates of the midpoint are found by averaging the coordinates of the midpoints: x +. AC ? A. Segments. Rays and Congruence 41.^ .^ . MN = 34 is the longest side. Geometric Notation for Length. Points A. D. Lines.x 1 = 2 1 5 .^ . D. –6).–1) and (–8. 5) Compute the lengths of the 3 sides of ᭝MNP.1 Using the distance formula. 38. The correct answer is about 11. –3) and C(5. BC = AC B is the midpoint of AC 184 .3hj + ^8 . {} {A. or by setting the distances up as hypotenuses of triangles. The distance is found by finding the length of the hypotenuse.2 = 8 x = 10 y+3 =7 2 y+3 2d =2:7 2 n y + 3 = 14 y = 11 and 7 . N (0. B. so this distance is 81 + 49 = 130 . 7) slope of AC = x 2 . BC . 10) So point B has coordinates (10. B is between A and C AB + BC = AC AB = BC AB .^ -1h 6 3 39. D. 11). MP = `1 . C. E.5h = 3 2 + 5 2 = 9 + 25 = 34 2 2 NP = ^ 0 .C} ∠BAC ᭝ABC AC 42. 8) M (−3.3h 10 5 y -y = = . This is approximately 11.3hj + ^10 .4 units. If AB = BC.1h + ^10 . the horizontal distance is 10 and the vertical distance is 5.5h = 4 2 + 3 2 = 16 + 9 = 25 = 5 2 2 MN = ` 0 .Part II: Review with Sample Problems Explanations 37. What is AB . and C are noncollinear. Here the distance between the two points is 100 + 25 . This distance is 11. 40. which of the following statements must be true? A. For points A(–1. D.1 or 125. P (1. For the other triangle. E. the lengths can be found as follows: One triangle will have dimensions of 9 in the horizontal direction and 7 in the vertical direction. C. B.1 units.2 = 4 2 x +2 =2:4 2c 2 m x +. E.8h = 12 + 2 2 = 1 + 4 = 5 2 2 Therefore. B.

The correct answer is 45 . all 3 points must be collinear. D. Now. This distance must be divided into 4 parts. AB AB CA AC BC A −9 B C −4 E 1 Note: Figure not drawn to scale. The union of points A and B and all point C. This eliminates all answer choices but C.4 = . there is no guarantee that points A and B are even collinear. and E lie on a line as shown above. 44. 42. D is a point that lies three times further from B than from E. three of which are between C and D and the fourth 2 between D and E. such that C is between A and B.9 +.1 = . B A C The union of all 3 segments in the figure above is just ᭝ABC. 8 8 8 8 185 . C.Geometry and Measurement 43.13 .13 . If AB = BC. 45 .13 . The coordinate of B is found by using the midpoint formula. D. Therefore the correct answer is B. The union of points A and B and all the points between A and B is just a segment with its endpoints at A and B. C. B. C is the midpoint of AE and B is the midpoint of AC . then the segments must be congruent. For C to be between points A and B.15 Since distances are not negative. . Points A. D. What is the distance BD? Explanations 41. the distance between B and E is . The midpoint of AC is 8 . 1 of 15 is 15 so the distance between D and E is 15 and the distance between B and D is 3 4 2 8 8 times 15 or 45 . 44. It follows that BD = 45 . B. The midpoint of AE is –4. 43. results in which of the following geometric figures? A. C. If the distances are equal. B.1. 2 2 2 2 2 15 this distance is . E.

what is the radius of circle C? A. 47. If the ratio of the intercepted arcs between the tangent and the secant is 11:3. AB is tangent of circle C at point B.20) 2 13 (approximately 7. lines l and m intersect at point P and are tangent to circle C at points B and A respectively. C. B. A secant line and a tangent line of a circle intersect in the exterior of a circle to form an angle of 64°.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Properties of Tangent Lines A y P (3. what is the length of AP ? 45.24) 3 3 (approximately 5. B. If the diameter of circle C is 6 and PC = 5. B 4 3 2 (approximately 4. E. In the figure above. 4 6 8 10 12 48.21) 8 C D A In the figure above. A. what is the measure of the third arc formed? 186 . What is the slope of line l? A. C. D. C. D. l is tangent to the graph of x2 + y2 = 25 at point P. In the figure above. If AB = 6 and AD = 2. -4 3 -3 4 3 4 4 3 It cannot be determined from the given information. B. 4) C P x l B m l 46. E. E. D.

x 1 = 3 2 1 -0 3 4 46. Then CP = l .0 = 4 . A 3 l C P 3 B m Since the circle’s diameter is 6. Thus the slope of line l is . B. 0). ∠CAP is a right angle – a radius drawn to a point of tangency creates a right angle. 4) x C (0.Geometry and Measurement Explanations 45. 0) l The center of the given circle is (0. Then using the Pythagorean theorem: 32 + (AP) 2 = 52 9 + (AP) 2 = 25 (AP) 2 = 16 AP = 4 You could also have just used a 3–4–5 right triangle. label this point C. The slope of line l is the opposite reciprocal of the slope of CP . 187 . Slope of CP = x 2 . y -y 4 . its radius is 3.3 . y P (3. A.

B r 6 C A 2 r+2 D r Labeling r as the circle’s radius and noting that ∠ABC is right angle. Therefore. A square has a perimeter of 32.68) 2 25 3 (approximately 21.31) 8 13 (approximately 13. E. 5 3 (approximately 8. B. What is the length of the square’s diameter? A. C.30) approximately 51.3x = 64 and x = 16. 11x . D. Problems in Which Trigonometry Could Be Used as an Alternate Solution Method 49. What is the area of the figure above? A.66) 25 2 (approximately 17.73 188 . the remainder of the circle must measure 136. 4 2 (approximately 5. C. B. It follows that 11x = 176 and 3x = 48. The measure of an angle formed by a secant and a tangent is 1⁄2 the difference of the intercepted arcs.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 47. E.86) 16 5 30° 50. and all 2 three arcs measure 360. C. D. the Pythagorean theorem gives: r2 + 62 = (r + 2) 2 r2 + 36 = r2 + 4r + 4 r2 + 36 – r2 = r2 + 4r + 4 – r2 36 = 4r + 4 36 – 4 = 4r + 4 – 4 32 = 4r 8=r 48.65) 2 25 3 (approximately 43. 136. The correct answer is 136. Since the measure of two arcs is 224.66) 8 8 2 (approximately 11.

i sin 45c 5 30° x 189 . D. E. RT = 3 TX . The diagonal of the square forms two 45°–45°–90° triangles so we could find the length of the diagonal as just 8 2 . 54 54 2 (approximately 76. 45° d 8 45° With a perimeter of 32. What is the area of a regular hexagon having a perimeter of 36? A.Geometry and Measurement 51.53) 108 108 3 (approximately 187.31 _ approx. ∠S = 90° and ∠1 = 60°. sin 45c = sin 90c 8 d d(sin45°) = 8(sin90°) d = 8 sin 90c = 11.31 approximately sin 45c Note that 8 2 = 11.37) 54 3 (approximately 93. C. Using right triangle trigonometry (soh-cah-toa): sin i = opposite hypotenuse Therefore sin 45c = 8 d d ^ sin 45ch = d c 8 m d d ^ sin 45ch = 8 d ^ sin 45ch = 8 sin 45c sin 45c d = 8 = 11.31 approximately.06) T 1 R X S 52. In the figure above. side Cross multiplying yields: d ^ sin 45ch 8 ^ sin 90ch = sin 45c sin 45c 50. each side of the square is 8. What is the measure of ∠R? Explanations 49. We could have used the Law of Sines instead of soh-cah-toa: sin of angle sin of angle = opp. side opp. C. B. B.

Since ᭝TSX is a right triangle with ∠1 = 60°. So ∠C = 60° and the length of each side is 36 = 6 . the side labeled x is just 5 3. 2 Then the area of the hexagon is just 6 times the area of the triangle ᭝ACB. 30°. Using this formula for ᭝ACB: Area of ᭝ACB = 1 : 6 : 6 : sin 60c = 18 ^ sin 60ch . ᭝ACB is equilateral. C 6 60° 6 A 6 B a Θ b 1 absin Θ Area ∆ = — 2 In the regular hexagon above. and the remaining fraction will reduce to 1 . E. then sin R = RT 3 TX TX will cancel in both numerator and denominator. TS = 2 3 TS . tan 30c = 5 x x^ tan 30ch = x c 5 xm x^ tan 30ch = 5 x^ tan 30ch = 5 tan 30c tan 30c x= 5 tan 30c This is the base of the triangle. 25 The area of the triangle = 1 bh = 1 c 5 m 5 = = 21. If 52. Therefore. We could instead have drawn an altitude from C to AB . RT = 3 TX . Area of ᭝ACB = 9 3. 2 2 tan 30c 2 ^ tan 30ch 51. 3 TX .53 approximately. The correct answer is 30°. it follows that angle R must be a 30° angle.Part II: Review with Sample Problems Using a 30°–60°–90° triangle. 190 . 25 3 Then the area of the triangle = 1 bh = 1 : 5 3 : 5 = = 21. It follows that sin R = 2 TX . 2 2 2 Using right triangle trigonometry (soh-cah-toa): tan i = opposite adjacent Therefore. 6 The figure on the right above shows how to find the area of a triangle given the lengths of 2 sides and their included angle. then using our 30°–60°–90° pattern. Area of hexagon = 6 ` Areatrianglej = 6 : 9 3 = 54 3 . Area of hexagon = 6 (Areatriangle) = 6 ⋅ 18 (sin 60°) = 93. If the ratio of 2 the opposite to the hypotenuse is 1:2.65 . approximately. it is a 30°–60°–90° triangle.65 approximately. height of ᭝ACB would be 3 3.

f(–x) = f(x). in which case substituting –x for x will just change the sign of the answer. What is value of m? A. B. f(g(–2)) = f(1) = 0. In this case. C.Geometry and Measurement Qualitative Behavior of Graphs and Functions 53. f(x) = 4x3 f ^xh = -12 x2 f(x) = 5x – 7x3 I only II only III only I and III only I. f ^ x h = -12 . A. Using graphs of the function f and g: 55. In how many cases are f(x) and g(x) equal? 54. B. so f(–x) = –f(x). E. In the graph above. D. Answer Choice II. 54. What is the value of f(g(–2))? A. the functions f(x) and g(x) are shown. has an even power of the variable x. III. the functions have only odd powers of the variable. For answer x2 choices I and III. C. D. B. C. D. II. and III 55. For f(x) = x2 – 5x + 7. E. The given function is: We are told that: 2 f(x) = x – 5x + 7 2 f(m) = f(m + 2) m – 5m + 7 = (m + 2) 2 – 5(m + 2) + 7 m2 – 5m + 7 = m2 + 4m + 4 – 5m – 10 + 7 m2 – 5m + 7 = m2 – m + 1 m2 – 5m + 7 – m2 = m2 –m + 1 – m2 –5m + 7 + 5m = –m + 1 + 5m 7 = 4m + 1 6 = 4m 6 = m so m = 3 4 2 191 . II. B. C. E. f(m) = f(m + 2) for some constant m. For which of the following functions will f(–x) = – f(x)? I. –6 2 3 3 2 2 3 y y = f (x) y 3 x 1 2 3 −1 −3 −2 −1 −2 −3 2 1 x 1 2 3 y = g (x) y = g (x) x y = f (x) −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 y 3 2 1 56. D. –1 0 1 2 3 Explanations 53.

the correct answer is 2. y 3 x −3 −3 3 The graph of y = f(x) is shown above. Which of the following could be the graph of y = f(x – 1)? (A) 3 x −3 −3 3 −3 −2 3 y (B) y 3 x (C) 3 y (D) 3 x y x −3 −3 3 −3 −3 3 (E) 3 −3 y x 3 −3 192 . 2. Transformations and Their Effect on Graphs and Functions 57. Since f(x) and g(x) intersect in two points.Part II: Review with Sample Problems 56. Functions are equal where they intersect.

C. 1) A (4. The function g(x) = f(x + 3) + 4 is just a transformation of the graph of f(x) for which each point on the graph of f is moved 3 units left and 4 units up. 11). When the point is translated upward 4 units. 7). 2). 2) (4. –3 + 5) = (4. Therefore. –8) (0. The transformation y = f(x – 2) + 5 moves every point on the graph of y = f (x). D. So the point (2. E. –3) gets moved to the point (2 + 2. The transformation y = f(x – 2) + 5 moves point P to which of the following new locations? A. as in Choice D. (0. 59. 58. 6. 2 units to the right and 5 units up. C. –8) (5. 11) is on the graph of g. 3 6 10 11 12 60. The correct answer is 6. 2) B x 1 2 3 4 59. D. The point P(2. f(2) = 7. 7) is moved to the point (2 – 3. In the figure above. C. For the function f. B. Since f(2) = 7. one of the points on the graph of f is (2. Since the point (–1. what is the value of g(–1)? A. 2). What will be the y-coordinate of point B after this procedure? Explanations 57. If g(x) = f(x + 3) + 4.Geometry and Measurement 58. E. D. 7 + 4) = (–1. g(–1) = 11. 193 . 2) (4. –5) y 4 3 2 1 (1. –3) is on the graph of the function y = f(x). 60. The graph is first reflected about the y-axis and then translated upward 4 units. D. The reflection of point B about the y-axis will change the coordinates to (–4. The graph of y = f(x – 1) will be the same shape as that of y = f(x) but will move 1 unit to the right. B. the point (2. the graph of y= f(x) is shown. the y value will be increased by 4 and will then be 2 + 4 or 6.

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PART III MATH PR A CTI C E TE STS T hre e Simulate d Full-Length Practice Mathematics Tests This section contains three simulated full-length practice new SAT I math tests. question structure. . The sections in these practice exams are labeled by subject for your convenience in reviewing. The format. Since the test is new. and these questions are not taken directly from the actual tests or released sample problems. and number of questions are similar to those on the new SAT I. levels of difficulty. The practice tests are followed by complete answers. They are not labeled on the actual SAT I. and analysis techniques. the number and order of question types may vary. explanations. try to simulate the test conditions by following the time allotments carefully. When you take these exams. The SAT I is copyrighted and may not be duplicated.

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .... / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 16. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14.. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10... / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 15. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ...... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .......... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 197 .. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ...... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .. / ....... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ..CUT HERE ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13........ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 17.. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ......... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ...... / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ....... / ... / .................... / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ...... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .- Test IA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E Test IB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E 9. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ....... / ........ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .... / ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 18... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .

........................................................................CUT HERE ..................- A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E Test IC 198 ...........................................

18 Questions (8 Multiple.Choice Questions 199 .Choice and 10 Grid-in) Practice Test I C: 20 Minutes.Practice Test I Practice Test IA: 25 Minutes.Choice Questions Practice Test I B: 25 Minutes. 16 Multiple. 20 Multiple.

Notes 1. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° 200 . Calculators may be used. 3. All numbers used are real numbers. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IA Time: 25 minutes 20 multiple-choice questions Directions: Select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Unless otherwise stated. 2. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section.

If 18% of n is 60. y 3. D. E. 0 x y 0 x E. y Practice Test I 1. E. D. w. B. E. How many two-digit positive integers are multiples of both 3 and 5? A. 6 19 33 48 52 0 x C. B. D. lw – 2πr 2l + 2w – πr2 2l + 2w – πr lw – πr2 lw – r2 0 x B. Which of the following could be the graph of f? A. B. y 2. a circle of radius r is inside a rectangle with dimensions as shown. C. In the figure above. where m is a positive constant and b is a negative constant.6 10.33 D. and r. C. 3. what is 6% of n? A. In terms of l. The linear function f is given by f(x) = mx + b. y 0 x GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 201 . what is the area of the shaded region? A.Practice Test I l r w 4.11 333.8 20 111. C.

E. B. C. D. E. which of the following could be equal to x + y + z? A. B. what is the x-coordinate of the point of intersection of the lines whose equations are y = 2 x . C. D. In a class of 35 students. 25 girls averaged 92% on the last test. y. For what values of x is f(x) positive? A. If x. C.66 5 11 5 6 12 18 13. In the xy-plane. 6 30 45 60 90 7. D. B. E.3 x + 12 ? 3 2 A. 270 300 540 600 800 202 . If the rectangle has width 8 and length 12. D.000? A. C. what is the area of the square? A. Shown above is the graph of f(x) for –5 ≤ x ≤ 6. 0 < x < 60 –2 < x < 3 and 4 < x < 6 –5 < x < 2 and 3 < x < 4 0≤x≤6 –2 ≤ x ≤ 3 and 4 ≤ x ≤ 6 x y° 6 x 11. If 2x . What is the average for the entire class on this test? A.Part III: Math Practice Tests 5.3 < 9 . C. B. which of the following is a possible value of x? A. 3z + 3 3z – 6 3y – 3 3x + 6 3y −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 x 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. If the perimeter of the triangle above is 18. B.1 and y = . 87% 88. and z are consecutive integers with x < y < z. D. B. B. E. while the 10 boys averaged 85% on the same test. what is the value of 5x + 4? A. E. A rectangle and a square have equal perimeters. –10 –5 0 5 10 10. C. How many positive four-digit integers are multiples of 5 and less than 4. C. C. C.5% 90% 92% 12. B. B. D. If 3x – 2 = 7. . E. D. D.5% 89. E. 10 40 48 96 100 8. E. D. what is the value of y? A. 3 13 37 3 19 21 y y = f(x) 9. E.

basketball and soccer will win league titles but wrestling will NOT? A. and finally 9 miles north. and then used 1 of his remaining 2 money to purchase a coat. The table above gives values of the quadratic function f for some values of x. D. Starting from point A.00 on a belt. C. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. C. for these three boys’ teams. 1 6 1 3 1 2 2 3 5 6 x . At Smallville High School. E. and soccer teams win their league titles this year are 80%. D. followed by a ride of 13 miles east. what is the number? A. After spending $10. 20% 25% 40% 45% 80% IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED.00 $60. –8 2 3 3 2 8 3 3 19. C. E. the probability that its boys’ basketball.00 $50. 75%. After resting for a while. respectively. ending up at point B. B. B. D. he then had $12. B.2 -1 0 1 f^ xh 5 2 1 2 15. On a shopping trip. 3 25 3 20 9 50 9 25 2 5 PROFIT (thousands of $) 50 40 30 20 10 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 20. E. CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. E.Practice Test I 14. How far does he ride on his return trip? A. wrestling. E. 30 13 10 9 5 E H A B G Practice Test I F 18. Which of the following represents f? A. what was the percent increase in profits from 1996 to 1997? A. In parallelogram EFGH. B. B. D. How much money did Amal start out with before he went shopping? A. B. What is the probability that.00 left. D. E. D. Amal spent 1 of his money 5 to buy a hat. C. If 5 less than some number is 3 more than twice the number. B. f(x) = 3x2 – 7 f(x) = 2x2 + 1 f(x) = x2 – 1 f(x) = x2 + x + 1 f(x) = x2 + 1 16. D. points A and B trisect HG . Milo rides directly from point B back to point A.00 $100.00 $55.00 17. $110. Milo rides his bicycle 5 miles east. E. then 3 miles south. What is the ratio of the area of ABFE to the area of EFGH? A. C. STOP 203 . Using the data from the graph above. C. C. and 60%.

select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. Unless otherwise stated. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° 204 . Notes 1. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane. 3. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section. For Questions 1–8. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. Use the 25 minutes allotted to answer both question types. All numbers used are real numbers. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. Calculators may be used. 2.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IB Time: 25 minutes 18 questions: (8 multiple choice and 10 grid-in) Directions: This section is composed of two types of questions.

D. m – 2 = A. what is the value of x + z? A. –2) and point M has coordinates (–1. 930 miles D. A taxicab charges $. then in terms of x. C.60 for each additional 1 mile. the scale is 2 inches equals 120 miles. 5 which of the following functions describes the cost. 0) (–5. E. If a 5 customer rides in this cab for m miles c m > 1 m . If 4x + 3 > 27. of this taxi ride in dollars? A. What is the length of arc AMB? A. The midpoint of AB is point M. –6) 2. E.90 + .75 miles B. On a map. 4. 2 π 2π 12 12π GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 205 . How many miles apart are two towns if the distance between them on the map is 7 3 inches? 4 A. 3 7 11 12 17 5. then the value of m – r = x A. what are the coordinates of point B? Practice Test I A.60(5m – 1 ) 5 B z° C m° D E F m 7. If m = 100 and x = 20. C.Practice Test I 1. –2) (1.860 miles E. C. B. E. c(m) = .60(m – 1) c(m) = .60m – 1 c(m) = . D. 4 C. D. 20 3. B. For circle C above. 3 B. D.60(5m – 1) c(m) = . B. C. which of the following CANNOT be the value of x? A. the area of the shaded sector CAB is 6π.90 + . 6) (2. –x2 + 2x + 5 x2 – 2x – 5 –x2 + 2x – 5 –x2 + 2x + 1 –x2 – 2x – 1 8. E. B.90 + . If x 5 = x 7 and (xr)3 = x12. D.90 + . 420. 8 D. C. 2) (5. 12 E. (1. E.90 + .650 miles A x° 6. 20 80 100 120 160 A M 60° C B 4. BC and DF are parallel. C. If m + 3 = x(2 – x). B. c(m). D.60[5(m – 1)] c(m) = . 465 miles C. In the figure above.90 for the first 1 mile 5 and $. 1. B. 2). If point A has coordinates (3. E.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Examples of the appropriate way to mark the grid follow. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fraction bar . Answer 3. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Decimal point . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer 2 1 2 Do not grid-in mixed numbers in the form of mixed numbers.Part III: Math Practice Tests Directions for Student-Produced Response Questions (Grid-ins): Questions 9–18 require you to solve the problem and enter your answer by carefully marking the circles on the special grid.7 Answer 1 2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Always change mixed numbers to improper fractions or decimals. / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 or 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 206 .

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 207 . Example: Answer 258 (no credit) . Practice Test I . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Mark only one circle in each column. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Note: Circles must be filled in correctly to receive credit. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Each grid-in answer below is correct. answers may start in any column. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . No credit will be given if more than one circle in a column is marked. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .Practice Test I Answer 123 Space permitting.

in how many different ways can the three prizes be given away in this contest? 11. For example: An answer such as . second. grid only one answer. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . can be gridded as . If a given student can win only one prize. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Gridding this value as . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Be sure to write your answers in the boxes at the top of the circles before doing your gridding. The acceptable grid-ins of 8/9 are: . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . .8888.89 is considered inaccurate and therefore not acceptable.Part III: Math Practice Tests Answer 8/9 Accuracy of decimals: Always enter the most accurate decimal value that the grid will accommodate. or . The polygon above is a regular hexagon. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Although writing out the answers above the columns is not required. what is the average (arithmetic mean) of the number of phone calls per day for the week Monday through Sunday? 208 .889. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .888 or . Number of Phone Calls Per Day 6 5 4 3 2 1 MON WED SAT TUES THUR SUN FRI x° 9. .88. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Even though some problems may have more than one correct answer. According to the data in the graph above. Five students are entered in a contest that will award prizes of first. . and third place.8. What is the value of x? 10. Grid-in questions contain no negative answers. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . it is very important to ensure accuracy.

The sum of four consecutive odd integers is 456. A sack contains three red. four blue. In the figure above with AC and BD . In a school having 300 students. what is the probability that he/she would draw a red. What is the sum of the smallest and largest of these integers? 16. The marbles are all the same size and the same weight. If a 5 b = ab . If 2x + 3y is equal to 80% of 5y. what is the value of x y? 15.) 18. CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY.a . What percent of the students in this school took Spanish but not French? (Do not include the % symbol in your answer. what is the value of a + c + w + y? 14. 180 take Spanish and 150 take French. y° B C 17. and then a red marble in exactly that order? IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. If m2 – n2 = 24 and m – n = 6. then what is the value of 12 5 3? b 125° A Note: Figure not drawn to scale. a blue. and five green marbles. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. STOP 209 . If a blindfolded person were to reach in the sack and draw one marble on each of three successive tries (with no replacement).Practice Test I 12. what is the value of m + n? D c° Practice Test I w° a° 13.

Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IC Time: 20 minutes 16 multiple-choice questions Directions: Select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. Calculators may be used. All numbers used are real numbers. 3. 2. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section. Unless otherwise stated. Notes 1. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° 210 . These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale.

E. –4 4 8 28 It cannot be determined from the given information. C. The average (arithmetic mean) of the ages of 12 girls is g and the average of the ages of 17 boys is b. E. C. B. then x + 5 = A. The length of another side of the same triangle is 10. D. C. B. If 2a + 6b = 16 and a + 3b + c = 12. D. B. E. How many months will it take for Xena to pay off her new refrigerator? A. then f(2x) = A. 4. C. B. 24 27 31 39 43 8. 6. g+b 29 12g + 17b 29 12g + 17b 12g + 17b 2 Practice Test I 2. D. D. 0 4 9 16 25 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 211 . what is the value of x? A. D. g+b B. D. C. E. D. 4 5 6 7 9 M A 2 B x C D E 2 1 2 C. She paid $100 as a down payment and will pay the remainder $75 per month. D. The length of one side of triangle is 35. B. If 3x + 15 = 36. Xena bought a new refrigerator costing $625. Points B.Practice Test I 1. B. Which of the following could NOT be the value of the third side of this triangle? A. If M is the midpoint of BC . C. The equation 2 x . 2 1 16 2 3 32 2 3 16 21 4 3 2 8 7. 4 12 15 22 23 5. E. B. what is the value of c? A. E. and D are equally spaced between A and E on AE . C. C. What is the total of all the girls’ and boys’ ages combined? 12g + 17b A. If f(x) = x2 – 3x + 5.3 = 5 is true for which value of x? A. 4x2 – 6x + 5 2x2 – 6x + 10 2x2 – 6x + 5 x2 – 6x + 5 4x2 – 6x + 5 3. E. E.

If 2x . The graphs of g and f are shown above. 212 . D. what is x in terms of y and m? 5m + 3 + y A. B. 2 15 m+y B.Part III: Math Practice Tests y 5 y = g(x) y 5 y = f(x) −4 4 x −4 4 x −5 −5 9. A. III. C. B. which of the following must be an even integer? I. 2 5m + 3 + y 2 12m + y 2 15m + y 2 12. the endpoints of a diameter of a given circle are (–2. 4 11.y c = 5m . 7). II. D. 1 C. B. xy (x + 2)(y – 5) yx I only II only III only I and II only I and III only C. 3) and (4. If x is an odd integer and y is an even integer. 13 15 2 13 2 26 13 13. E. What is the radius of a circle for which its area and circumference are numerically equivalent? A. What is the value of f(g(3))? A. C. E. E. C. In the xy-plane. 1 2 B. D. What is the radius of the circle? A. D. 3 E. E. 0 1 3 4 5 10. 2 D.

What is her average rate for the entire hike? A. If f(x) = 3x2 – 5. E. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. E. D.25 3. 3. Maria hiked a distance of 15 miles at a rate of 5 mph.Practice Test I 14.50 3. B. and then returned the same distance at a rate of 3 mph. B. E.50 16. In the diagram above. C. what is an integral value of r for which f(2r) = 7r? A. 4 6 8 10 12 IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. what is the radius of circle C? A. PT is tangent to circle C at point T. C. If PT = 8 and PM = 4. D. –3 –1 1 2 4 T Practice Test I 8 r P 4 M C 15.25 4. D.75 4. B. C. STOP 213 .

1 or . D 4. C 9. 228 16. 60 11. C 5. A 7. B 2. E 14. C 15. B 17. 125 18. B 7. C 8. E 10. E 12. E 16. E 18. B 9. 4 13. 60 10. D 10. A 13. 50 15. D Practice Test IB 1. 1 or . C 16. 32 14. B 214 . C 4. B 3. C 9. D 5. A 2. A 3. D 12.5 2 Practice Test IC 1. E 13. C 11.Part III: Math Practice Tests Scoring Practice Test I Answer Key for Practice Test I Practice Test IA 1. D 7. D 6. C 4. C 15. A 8.018 55 17. D 14. D 2. D 6. D 3. D 5. B 6. D 8. D 19. 4 12. A 20. E 11.

This reexamination and analysis is of tremendous importance to you in assuring maximum test preparation benefit. Practice Test I Mathematics Analysis Sheet Section A Multiple Choice Subtotal Section B Multiple Choice Grid-Ins Subtotal Section C Multiple Choice Subtotal Overall Math Totals Possible 20 20 Possible 8 10 18 Possible 16 16 54 Completed Right Wrong Completed Right Wrong Completed Right Wrong Analysis/Tally Sheet for Problems Missed One of the most important parts of test preparation is analyzing why you missed a problem so that you can reduce the number of mistakes. 215 . Now that you’ve pinpointed the type of error. The complete process of analyzing each subject area and each individual problem should be completed for each practice test. carefully tally your mistakes by marking them in the proper column. Now that you have taken the practice test and checked your answers. These results should then be reexamined for trends in types of errors (repeated errors) or poor results in specific subject areas. Reason for Mistakes Total Missed Section A : Math Section B : Math Section C : Math Total Math Simple Mistake Misread Problem Lack of Knowledge Lack of Time Reviewing the preceding data should help you determine why you are missing certain problems.Practice Test I Analyzing Your Test Results The charts on the following pages should be used to carefully analyze your results and spot your strengths and weaknesses. compare it to other practice tests to spot other common mistakes.

D. or C. 6% should be 1/3 of 60. 75. 5x + 4 = 5(3) + 4 = 19 6. If the integer is a multiple of both 3 and 5. 30. 45. The two-digit multiples of 15 are: 15. y m>0 x b 5. This is where f(x) is positive. dark portions of the graph of y = f(x) are above the x-axis. Area shaded = Arearect. 60. These regions correspond to x values in the intervals –2 < x < 3 and 4 < x < 6.πr 2 2. Divide both sides by 3. Another way to look at it is: 18% of n = 60 18% of n = 60 3 3 = 20 Divide both sides by 3. B. which is known as the slope-intercept form of a linear equation. D. D. 216 . Only Choice D fits both conditions. Noting that 6% is just 1/3 of 18%. So there are 6 such integers. so the graph of the line will rise uphill from left to right. The equation f(x) = mx + b can also be written as just y = mx + b. so the graph of the line should cross the y-axis below the x-axis (where y-intercept will be negative). 3.Areacircle = lw . you still need to find the value of 5x + 4.Part III: Math Practice Tests Complete Answers and Explanations for Practice Test I Practice Test IA Explanations 1. as in choices A. To solve this equation: 3x – 2 = 7 3x – 2 + 2 = 7 +2 3x = 9 3x = 9 3 3 x=3 Add 2 to each side to isolate the variable. it must also be a multiple of 15. . y f(x) > 0 −5 −2 x 3 4 6 In the figure above. the heavy. You are told that m is positive. You are not done yet. D. 4. or just 20. C. 90. with m being the slope of the line and b the y-intercept. A. But you are also told that b is negative.

you will have: x = the first integer then x + 1 = the second integer and x + 2 = the third integer The sum of the 3 consecutive integers would then be: x + (x + 1) + (x + 2) = 3x + 3 This is not one of your answer choices.1m = 6 c . 10. Add 6 to both sides to isolate the variable. you need to set the equations equal to each other and then solve for x. 24.3 x + 12 m 3 2 4x – 6 = –9x + 72 4x – 6 + 9x = –9x + 72 + 9x 13x – 6 = 72 13x – 6 + 6 = 72 + 6 13x = 78 13x = 78 13 13 x=6 Divide both sides by 13. To solve an absolute value inequality of the form "stuff" < N .6 < 2x < 12 2 2 2 –3 < x < 6 Divide all parts of the inequality by 2. again that would have been x = 5. Add 3 to all parts of the inequality. If you use x for the smallest integer.3 < 9 breaks up into the multiple inequality: –9 < 2x – 3 < 9 –9 + 3 < 2x – 3 + 3 < 9 + 3 –6 < 2x < 12 . Multiply both sides by 6 to get rid of fractions.3 x + 12 3 2 2 6 c x . Add 9x to get the variable on just one side. Notice that you could also have solved this by just trying the choices A through E until you found a number that made the inequality true. To find the x-coordinate of the point of intersection of the graphs of the two lines. in Choice D. Consecutive integers are one apart from each other—as with 7. You have three possibilities with which to work: i. you must break it up into the multiple inequality: –N < “stuff” < N So the given absolute inequality 2x . C. and 25. Choice D. class average = total of girls’ scores + total of boys’ scores total number of students 25 ^ 92 h + 10 ^85h = 25 + 10 2300 + 850 = .1 = . 35 = 3150 35 = 90 Practice Test I 8. 2 x . D. D. E. The only answer that fits is 5. So your answer must be between –3 and 6. Distribute the 6 through the parentheses.Practice Test I 7. and 9 or as with 23. 217 . 9. 8.

the triangle is equilateral. therefore. With all sides of a square being equal. you have the following equation: 2x + 6 = 18 2x + 6 – 6 = 18 – 6 2x = 12 2x = 12 2 2 x=6 Divide both sides by 2. x=6 60° 60° 60° 6 6=x y 12. E. if you had used z for the largest integer. iii. you would have had: z – 2 = the first integer then z – 1 = the second integer and z = the third integer The sum of the 3 consecutive integers would then be: (z – 2) + (z – 1) + z = 3z – 3 This was not one of your answer choices.Part III: Math Practice Tests ii. one side of the square is just 40 = 10 . since you are told that the perimeter is 18. 12 8 12 8 In the figure above. So your 4 square looks like the one in the next figure. In particular. If you use y for the middle integer. D. Just for the record. as in the figure below. y = 60°. you can find the perimeter of the rectangle by adding the lengths of its sides to get 8 + 12 + 8 + 12 = 40. each angle is 60°. Subtract 6 from both sides to isolate the variable Since each side of the triangle is 6. The perimeter of the triangle is found by adding the lengths of its three sides. Choice E. 11. you will have: y – 1 = the first integer then y = the second integer and y + 1 = the third integer The sum of the 3 consecutive integers would then be: (y – 1) + y + (y + 1) = 3y This IS one of your answer choices. 218 . so the perimeter of the square is also 40. You are told that the perimeters of the rectangle and the square are equal.

where 2 represents the number of ways to choose the last digit (0 or 5) Next. 2. 3) The remaining digits can be any one of 10 digits. 5): Does 5 = 3(–2)2 + 7? 5 = 12 + 7 false 219 . They must be less than 4. So you can create 600 different four-digit integers that satisfy conditions I and II above. the other side is 8. Your series of blanks now looks like: 3 __ __ 2. So you can choose your first digit in only 3 ways. So here goes! A. each representing one digit of your 4 digit number: __ __ __ __ Using condition #1. your number must begin with the digit 1. C. 15. E. where 3 now represents the number of ways to choose the first digit (1. 0 through 9. Thus AB = 10. (3)(10)(10)(2) = 600. f(x)= 3x2 – 7 Use (–2. B 6 9 d A C 8 5 3 13 A right triangle is chosen having AB as its hypotenuse. or 3 if the number is to be less than 4. D. You set up four blanks. using condition #2. II.000. f(x)) into each answer choice is probably the most efficient way to arrive at the correct answer choice. The legs of this right triangle are found by subtracting the east and west distances (13 – 5 = 8) and by subtracting the south and north distances (9 – 3 = 6).Practice Test I 10 10 10 10 Practice Test I The area of the square above is just 10(10) = 100. 2. the figure looks like the one below.000. Substituting a few of the given ordered pairs (x. So your completed series of blanks becomes: 3 10 10 2 Your answer is just the product of these four numbers. You must form four-digit integers that satisfy two conditions: I. After “sketching” Milo’s bike ride with its many right angle turns. You then have a multiple of a 3-4-5 right triangle: one side is 6. your number must end in a 0 or 5 if it is to be a multiple of 5. 13. Your series of blanks now looks like: __ __ __ 2. so the hypotenuse must be 10. So you can choose the last digit in only 2 ways. They must be multiples of 5. 14.

80 25 5 220 .80 × 100 = 80% You can reduce 20 to 4 . From the table. f(x) = x2 + x + 1 Use (–2. and then proceed as follows: profits in 1997 45. 5): Does 5 = 2(–2)2 + 1? 5=9 false C. Add n to both sides to get the variable on just one side. f(x) = 2x2 + 1 Use (–2. E.25. By default. 5): Does 5 = (–2)2 + (–2) + 1? 5=3 false E. B. which equals . Just for the record: If one of choices A through D had worked for the point (–2. Choice E must be the correct function.000 . 17. you can translate the given problem into the following equation: 5 – n = 2n + 3 5 – n + n = 2n + 3+ n 5 = 3n + 3 5 – 3 = 3n + 3 – 3 2 = 3n 2 = 3n 3 3 2 =n 3 Divide both sides by 3. f(x) = x2 – 1 Use (–2.Part III: Math Practice Tests B. 16.profits in 1996 .000 = # 100 25.000 = 20. 5): Does 5 = (–2)2 – 1? 5=3 false D. Using n for the number mentioned in the problem. you would then have had to try it for the other 3 points to be sure the function worked for all 4 points in the table.000 = 20 # 100 25 20 = # 100 25 = .000 increase in profits amount of increase # 100 % increase= amount original 20. you find the profits for the years 1997 and 1996. Subtract 3 from both sides to isolate the variable. 5).

Its area is: A = 1 h _ b 1 + b 2 i . AREA Thus the ratio of their areas is: AREA ABFE = 2hb = 2 3bh 3 EFGH 19. or 4 . you have: Amal spent 1 of his money: He spent 1 M .10 = 12 . b1 = 3b. So with height h. Probability of basketball winning is 80%. 2 2 5 5 5 2 After spending $10. Its area is: A = bh. Letting M be the amount of money that Amal had before he spent any money on his shopping trip. and BG have length b. 2 5 2 2 5 M = 55 So Amal had $55 before he started his shopping trip. + 10 + 10 2 M = 22 5 5 c 2 M m = 5 ^ 22 h Multiply both sides by 5 . AreaEFGH = (3b) = 3bh. D. (Note: 100% – 75% = 25%) 4 3 Probability of soccer winning is 60%. you can make each of the segments HA . you just multiply the probabilities of the individual events: Basketball wins 4 5 # Wrestling loses 1 4 # Soccer wins 3 5 = 3 25 20. so he had 4 M left. Suppose the base of parallelogram EFGH is 3b and its height is h. the reciprocal of 2 .Practice Test I 18. or . 221 . AB .10 = 12 5 Add 10 to each side to isolate the variable term. and b2 = b. he has $12 left: M . Since points A and B trisect HG . or . and base 3b. so he now has 2 M left. 2 So with height h. you then solve this equation 5 2 M . 5 5 5 1 1 4 2 He spent of his remaining money: c M m = M . So your figure appears like the one below: b H A b B b G Practice Test I h E 3b F You now find the area of each requested figure and then determine their ratio. AREAABFE = 1 h ^ 3b + b h = 1 h ^ 4b h = 2hb . 5 To find the requested combined probability. D. 5 1 Probability of wrestling losing is 25%. A. ABFE is a trapezoid. 2 2 EFGH is a parallelogram.

A x 20° B z 80° 100° 80° C m 80° 100° D E F To finish the problem. Since BC and DF are parallel. –2 m – 2 = x + 2x – 5 222 . so z = 100. 4x > 24 4x > 24 4 4 x>6 Since x can be any number greater than 6. since m = 100. the measure of ∠ACB is also 80. If you note that on the left. 4 3 So. Subtract 2 since you want to get m – 2. In ᭝ABC. Choice A CANNOT be one of the values of x. A. You will solve the given equation for m.75h = 465 miles. the 120 on top is just 60 times the 2 on the bottom. m + 3 = x(2 – x) m + 3 = 2x – x2 –3 –3 Distribute the x on the right side of the equation. D. Referring to the figure in the problem. then on the left side. 4 3. M on top should be 60 # 7 3 on the bottom. C. 120 miles 2 inches = M miles 7 3 inches 4 Divide both sides by 4. with x = 20.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IB Explanations 1. the measure of ∠CED is 80. and measure of ∠ACB being 80. Finally. B. Subtract 3 from both sides to isolate the m. you note that: x + z = 20 + 100 = 120 4. You can set up and solve a proportion to answer this question. 2. 60 c 7 m = 60 ^ 7. m = 2x – x2 – 3 m = – x2 + 2x – 3 –2 2 Write the terms in descending order. z is just the supplement of ∠ABC. To solve this inequality: 4x + 3 > 27 –3 –3 Subtract 3 from each side to isolate the variable term. and then find m – 2. the measure of ∠ABC must be 80.

m – r = 12 – 4 = 8.90 + . x = –5 and y +. D. Using the given data and drawing a rough sketch in the xy-plane. xm = x7 x5 m x 5 c x 5 m = x 5_ x 7 i x xm = x12 So m = 12 (xr)3 = x12 x =x 3r 12 Multiply both sides by x5. 3r = 12 r=4 Set the exponents equal and then solve for r.90 5 Number of 1 miles in m miles: 5m 5 Number of 1 miles beyond the first 1 mile: (5m – 1) 5 5 1 **Cost of the additional miles beyond first 1 mile : . You will solve the first equation for m. Add the exponents on the right.60(5m – 1) 5 5 Cost of total trip: c(m) = . 223 .2 =2 2 y + –2 = 4 y=6 Therefore.Practice Test I 5. and then find the value of m – r. y) of the endpoint B. the coordinates of point B are (–5. 2) x A (3. C. your figure looks like the one below: B (x. *Cost for first 1 mile: .60(5m – 1) ( just the sum of * and ** above) 7.1 and 2 Then x + 3 = –2 So. Therefore. B. 6). −2) To find the coordinates (x. solve the second equation for r. y) y Practice Test I M (−1. Multiply the exponents on the left. you use the midpoint formula to solve for x and y as follows: x + 3 =. 6.

where x is the measure of the central angle and r is the radius. the measure of an exterior angle = 360 n . Divided both sides by π. 6 10. you will find the radius of the circle and use that to determine the length of the requested arc. 360 So you have 6π = 60 _ πr 2 i 360 6π = 1 _ πr 2 i Reduced 60 to 1 6 360 6 6 ^ 6π h = 6 . for your hexagon. find the length of arc AMB. with n = 6. arc length M A 60° C r B You are given the area of the shaded sector in the diagram above. For any regular polygon (all sides are equal and all interior angles are equal). 60. So. where x is the central angle and r is the radius. therefore. 224 . AREAsec tor = x _ πr 2 i . 60. AREAlength = x ^ 2πr h . To help you determine the number of ways to give away the three prizes among the five people. any one of these five could win first place. you set up three blanks. 360 Then you have: AREAlength = 60 ^ 2πr h 360 = 1 ^12π h 6 = 2π 9. one for each prize: 1st 2 nd 3rd Since you have five people. 1 _ πr 2 i E 6 36π = πr2 36 = πr 2 π π 36 = r 6=r So the radius of the circle is 6. your blanks look like: 5 1st 2 nd 3rd 2 Multiplied both sides by 6. Next. you have: measure of ext. where n is the number of sides. From the area.Part III: Math Practice Tests 8. E = 360 = 60 . C.

11.a b 12 5 3 = ^12 h^ 3h . 32. you end up with 330 students. You are given that m2 – n2 = 24 and m – n = 6. there must be 30 students taking BOTH languages (330 – 300 = 30). you let a = 12 and b = 3 in the given equation. Using the data from the graph. 13.Practice Test I After one person has been chosen to win first place. you have: 5 st 4 1 2 nd 3rd Since you selected one person for first and one more for second place.30 taking both 150 taking JUST Spanish Therefore. You can then sort out the rest of the data as follows: 180 taking Spanish . Now. “ 5 . Notice that you can factor the expression m2 – n2 m2 – n2 m2 – n2 = (m – n)( m + n) 24 = 6(m + n) 24 = 6 ^ m + n h 6 6 4=m+n a 5 b = ab . 4. 300 You could also have used the Venn Diagram. Spanish 180 −30 150 Both 30 French 150 −30 120 225 . 150 = 50% of the students are taking Spanish but not French. Divide both sides by 6. shown below. you only have three people left from which to win third place—your blanks are now filled out as follows: 5 st Practice Test I 4 nd 3 3rd 1 2 Your answer is just the product of these numbers—so (5)(4)(3) = 60.” is defined by the given equation: To find 12 5 3 . Since there are only 300 students in the school. to sort out the necessary data.12 3 = 36 – 4 = 32 14. If you add the 180 students taking Spanish to the 150 students taking French. there are only four people left. 50. 4. The operation. the average can be computed as follows: 3 + 4 + 6 + 3 = 28 = 4 average = 5 + 2 + 5 + 7 7 12.

i. 115. 1 or .Part III: Math Practice Tests 15. but you merely list the two odd integers before this. 113. Your final answer is just the product of these individual probabilities: Thus. find the average. Then sum of smallest and largest is 111 + 117 = 228. consecutive even integer. In this problem you will use the following property three times: The measure of an exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the measures of the two nonadjacent interior angles of the triangle. and n + 4 = the third odd integer. and 117. while n + 6 = the fourth odd integer. 3 # 4 # 2 = 24 = 1 or . since only 2 of the remaining 10 marbles are red. 16. as well as the two odd integers after this. 125. The sum of the smallest and largest is. 55 The probability of the first marble being a red is: 3 . 12 11 10 1320 55 17. 4n = 444 4n = 444 4 4 n = 111 Divide both sides by 4. since 4 of the remaining 11 marbles are blue. 456 ÷ 4 = 114. 111 + 117 = 228 Another method that works with any type of consecutive integer problem (consecutive integer.018 You have 3 + 4 + 5 = 12 marbles in the sack.e. This is obviously not an odd integer. D c° w° r° a° 125° A m° B y° C 226 . 228.. namely 111 and 113. For our problem. 12 The probability of the second marble being blue is: 4 . your equation becomes: n + (n + 2) + (n + 4) + (n + 6) = 456 4n + 12 = 456 –12 –12 Combine like terms of the left side of equation. Subtract 12 from each side. So our 4 consecutive odd integers are 111. 11 2 The probability of the third marble being red is: . since 3 of the 12 marbles are red. Let n = the first odd integer. therefore. remember 10 you already drew one red marble on your first draw. Since their sum is 456. or consecutive odd integer) is to divide the sum of the integers by the number of integers. then n + 2 = the second odd integer. namely 115 and 117.018.

This means point B will be at 2 1 .down payment . and then make substitutions using the second and third equations.$100 left to pay off $525 At $75 per month it will take Xena 525 = 7 months to pay off her new refrigerator. To find the 8 8 8 coordinate x of point M. you get: 2 2x + 3y = . which you will write as 4 since you have to 2 8 divide into 4 equal parts. C. 75 3. 1 or . B. and D are equally spaced between A and E on AE . and point D at 2 3 . you need to find the number halfway between 2 1 and 2 2 . To get from the expression 3x + 15 to the expression x + 5. Divide both sides by y since you are trying to get x y. you have 2 2 and 2 4 . you divide the distance from point A to point E into 4 equal parts. 227 . D. you have: 125 = (w + c) + (a + r) 125 = a + c + w + y re-order the terms 18. C. Therefore. 16 16 16 Divide both sides by 3. Practice Test IC Explanations 1. So: 3x + 15 = 36 3x + 15 = 36 3 3 x + 5 = 12 2. 125 = r + m. Between A and E is a distance of 1 . x would be 2 3 . point C will be at 2 2 . Since points B. 2 Subtract 3y from both sides of the equation. refrigerator cost $625 . If you change each of these 8 8 fractions into sixteenths. you can just divide the first expression by 3.5 Translating the given sentence into an algebraic equation.80(5y) 2x + 3y = 4y –3y –3y 2x = y 2x = y y y 2x = 1 y 1 2x = 1 1 2c y m 2^ h x=1 y 2 Multiply both sides by 1 to get x y by itself.Practice Test I First: Second: Third: 125 = r + m by the property on the preceding page r = w + c by the same property m = a + r by the same property Practice Test I If you take the first equation.

D. A. Square both sides to get rid of square root on left. you substitute 2x for each x in the given function. To solve this equation: 2 x -3=5 +3 +3 2 x =8 2 x 8 = 2 2 x =4 ` xj = 42 2 Add 3 to each side of the equation. x = 16 5. For the triangle in this problem with its given side lengths. you then have f(2x) = (2x)2 – 3(2x) + 5 = 4x2 – 6x + 5 7. To find f(2x). Divide both sides by 2. then their total is 17b. The triangle inequality theorem in geometry relates the lengths of the sides of any triangle in the following way: The difference of other two sides < one side of triangle < sum of other two sides. With f(x) = x2 – 3x + 5. then their total is 12g. 6. The only number choice not in this interval is 24. So the total ages for both groups is: 12g + 17b.Part III: Math Practice Tests M A 2 2 2 1 8 2 16 B x C D E 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 x= 2 2 8 4 16 3 16 2 3 8 2 4. if the boys’ average is b. you find that the third side of this triangle is between 25 and 45. A. Likewise. Choice A. 10 35 35 − 10 < x < 35 + 10 or 25 < x < 45 228 . If the girls’ average is g. D.

r2 = 2r r 2 = 2r r r r=2 Divide both sides of equation by r. In the second given equation. B. You are given that the area and circumference are equal—so you write and solve the following equation: area = circumference πr2 = 2πr πr = 2πr π π 2 Substitute appropriate formulas for area and circumference. you notice that the first two terms. Divide both sides by 2. You then substitute this into the second equation: (a + 3b) + c = 12 8 + c = 12 Then c = 4 9. E. To find f(g(3)). a + 3b. the y-coordinate is –1. a + 3b + c = 12. Replaced the (a + 3b) with 8. C. Divide both sides by π. you are trying to get a + 3b. 10. y 5 y = g(x) y 5 y = f(x) Parentheses added for emphasis. −4 4 x −4 4 x −5 −5 From the left graph: g(3) = –1 Using the right graph: f(–1) = 5 For an x-coordinate of 3. You proceed as follows: Practice Test I 2a + 6b = 12 2a + 6b = 16 2 2 a + 3b = 8 This is the first given equation. you first find g(3) and then find f of this value. is exactly 1 of the left 2 side of the first equation: 2a + 6b = 16. For an x-coordinate of –1.Practice Test I 8. the y-coordinate is 5. 229 .

yx = (even)odd = even.y = 5m 3 2x . I. With the function f(x) = 3x2 – 5. C. Substituted 2r for x in the original function formula. Add y to both sides.y 3d = 3 ^ 5m h Multiply both sides by 3.3h = 62 + 42 = 36 + 16 d = 52 = 4 : 13 = 2 13 Remember this is the diameter. just 13 is the radius. (x + 2)(y – 5) = (odd + 2)(even – 5) = odd ⋅ odd = odd. Set each factor equal to 0. To solve this equation. so our answer must include III. you isolate the x: 2x . 14. you will set it equal to 0 and then factor.2 h + ^ 7 .Part III: Math Practice Tests 11. xy = odd ⋅ even = even. 7) d A (−2. 3 n 2x – y = 15m +y +y 2x = 15m + y 2x = 15m + y 2 2 15m + y x= 2 Divide both sides by 2. A. E. Choice E. Factored the left hand side. E. You are looking for an integral value of r. you can solve the following equation: f(2r) = 7r 3(2r) 2 – 5 = 7r 3 ⋅ 4r2 – 5 = 7r 12r2 – 5 = 7r –7r –7r 12r2 –7r – 5 = 0 (12r + 5)(r – 1) = 0 12r + 5 = 0 or r – 1 = 0 r=1 Subtract 7r from both sides. 13. so you can exclude answer choices B and D since they both involve II. the correct answer is I and III. 3) You first find the distance between points A and B. the radius will just be 1 2 of this distance. Therefore. 230 . 12. The data given is shown in the figure below: B (4. which gives you the circle’s diameter. 2 2 Using the distance formula: d = ^ 4 -. III. so Choice II is NOT an answer. II. so half of this. since you have a quadratic equation. and the left factor will give you a fractional value. Examining each of the choices I. so our answer must include I. you are solving for x. and III you have: II.

231 . B. so that t = d r 15 miles 15 miles timegoing = = 3 hours and timereturning = = 5 hours 3 mph 5 mph Now that you have all the necessary data. 2 2 You can now solve this equation. –16 Subtracted 16 from both sides of the equation.” Subtracted r2 from each side. Expanded (r + 4) 2 as (r + 4)(r + 4) and used “FOIL. In right ᭝PTC. T r 8 C 4 P r+4 r You have added in the radius from point C to point T. you find the average rate: average rate = 15 + 15 = 30 = 3.Practice Test I 15.75 8 3+5 16. PT = TC . you use the Pythagorean theorem to create the following equation: 82 + r2 = (r + 4) 2 64 + r = r + 8r + 16 –r2 –r2 64 = 8r + 16 –16 48 = 8r 48 = 8r 8 8 6=r Divided both sides by 8. To find the average rate for the entire trip you use the formula: average rate = total distance for trip total time for trip Practice Test I You first find the time for each part of the trip. C. Since PT is tangent to the circle at point T. remember d = rt.

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. / .. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ..... / .CUT HERE ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . / .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 18.- Test IIA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E 9... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ....... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 16.. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ... / ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .... / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ...... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ....... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11... / . / .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 15... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ...... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ..... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ...................... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . / .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10.............. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14.. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . / ...... / ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 233 ....... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .....

.........................................- Test IIB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E Test IIC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E 234 ..........................CUT HERE ..................................................................

Choice Questions 235 .Choice Questions Practice Test I I C: 20 Minutes.Practice Test II Practice Test I IA: 25 Minutes. 18 Questions (8 Multiple.Choice and 10 Grid-in) Practice Test I I B: 25 Minutes. 20 Multiple. 16 Multiple.

All numbers used are real numbers. Notes 1. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IIA Time: 25 minutes 18 questions (8 multiple-choice and 10 grid-in) Directions: This section is composed of two types of questions. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. For Questions 1–8. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° 236 . select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. 2. Calculators may be used. 3. Use the 25 minutes allotted to answer both question types. Unless otherwise stated.

E. B. and if the area of ABCD is 16. –12 –4 0 3 4 A 4. C. D. followed by another discount of 25%. In the xy-plane. where n is a positive integer. A discount of 20%. 8. –6 –4 1 4 5 5. B. 2 2 2 4 4 2 8 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 237 . E. The average (arithmetic mean) of 5x and 3y is equal to 4 less than the product of x and y. E. where k is some positive constant. is equivalent to a single discount of what percent? n° x° Note: Figure not drawn to scale. 33% 40% 45% 55% 60% 2. If 7x – 5 = 4x – 17. C. What is the x-coordinate of this point? A. B.3y = 4 . In the figure above. The equation 2x . what is the value of k? A. 5x + 3y = 4 . B. C. C. The figure above shows the graph of y = k – x2. A. D. B. D. 50 65 75 110 130 7.4 2 5x . what is the value of x? A. C. E. E. if x = 50. 2 only 5 only 2 and 5 –2 and 5 2 and –5 y V B C y=k−x2 Practice Test II 3. D. 1 3 5 7 9 m° 6. B.3 = 7 is true for which value(s) of x? A. B. D. the line with equation y = 3x – 12 crosses the x-axis at one point.xy 2 5x + 3y xy = 2 4 5x . E.xy 2 O D x Note: Figure not drawn to scale.3y = xy .Practice Test II 1. The number that results from 3n. what is the value of m + n? A. C. B. D. Which of the following equations states the relationship given in the previous sentence? A. E. C. D. E. CANNOT end in which of the following digits? A. D. If V is the midpoint of side BC of rectangle ABCD. C.4 2 5x + 3y = xy .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . / .7 Answer 1/2 . Always change mixed numbers to improper fractions or decimals.Part III: Math Practice Tests Directions for Student-Produced Response Questions (Grid-ins): Questions 9–18 require you to solve the problem and enter your answer by carefully marking the circles on the special grid. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Examples of the appropriate way to mark the grid follow. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Answer 3. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer 2 1/2 Do not grid-in mixed numbers in the form of mixed numbers. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Decimal point . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 or 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 238 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fraction bar .

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Example: Answer 258 (no credit) Practice Test II . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 239 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Mark only one circle in each column. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Note: Circles must be filled in correctly to receive credit. No credit will be given if more than one circle in a column is marked. Each grid-in answer below is correct. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . answers may start in any column. .Practice Test II Answer 123 Space permitting. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .

The acceptable grid-ins of 8/9 are: . what is the value of x y? 2x 3y -1 3 = 2 and if y 2 = 2 .8. 9. . it is very important to ensure accuracy. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Grid-in questions contain no negative answers. what is the value of xy? 1 240 . . Although writing out the answers above the columns is not required.889. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .88. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . If x 10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Even though some problems may have more than one correct answer.Part III: Math Practice Tests Answer 8/9 Accuracy of decimals: Always enter the most accurate decimal value that the grid will accommodate. Dividing a number by 2 and then multiplying the 5 result by 4 gives the same result as just dividing 3 the original number by what fraction? 11. can be gridded as .8888 . grid only one answer. If m2 + n2 = 29 and if mn = 7. or . For example: An answer such as . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . If 5 = 2 . . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Gridding this value as .888 or . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Be sure to write your answers in the boxes at the top of the circles before doing your gridding.89 is considered inaccurate and therefore not acceptable. then the value of (m + n)2 = 12.

what is the value of m + n + r? 15.Practice Test II 13. CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. ᭝ABC in the xy-plane has vertices at A (5. b. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. What is the largest of 5 consecutive even integers whose sum is 170? 16. If m2 + 2mn = 3n – 4w. If 720 = ambncr. The figure above consists of three circles having the same center. and 4. What is the area of ᭝ABC? IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. AB is tangent to the circle at point B. where a.−8) 14. In the figure above. 2). Their radii are 2. The shaded area is what fraction of the area of the largest circle? Practice Test II 18. 3. B (11. What is the slope of AB ? 17. and c are different positive prime integers. STOP 241 . 6). and C (11. 2). the circle with center C and radius 5 is tangent to both the x and y axes. what is the value of n when m = 3 and w = –5? y x A C B (9.

Notes 1. Unless otherwise stated. 3. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane. All numbers used are real numbers. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. 2.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IIB Time: 25 minutes 20 multiple-choice questions Directions: Select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. Calculators may be used. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° 242 . Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section.

5h ! f ^ 5h ? A. 8. what is the value of x? A. Charles. 3. C. 1 #y# 1 3 8 1 #y# 1 3 5 4 ≤ y ≤ 24 3<y<5 3≤y≤5 4. and h represent the heights of Mark. The first term in the sequence above is 2 and the second term is 3. When x = 2. E. If 2 ≤ x ≤ 6 and 6 ≤ xy ≤ 30. The radius of one circle is 1 the radius of a 3 second circle. B. what are all the possible values of x? A. For each term after the second term. Which of the following is the slope of line l? A. and Charles is shorter than Rebecca but taller than Harriet. the line l is perpendicular to the graph of the equation 3x + 4y = 12. If 3(2x + 4)(5 – x) = 0.Practice Test II 2. E. r. C. D. D. and Harriet respectively. E. . D. The quantity m varies inversely as the square of the quantity r. If 5(x + 3) = 17. In the xy-plane. C. B. C. and 5 0. E. 5 E. What is the ratio of the area of the smaller circle to the area of the larger circle? A. which of the following gives the range of all possible values of y? A. Rebecca. c<h<r<m r<c<h<m h<r<c<m c<h<r<m h<c<r<m 2. B. E. E. If m = 9 when r = 4. D. f ^ xh = x f ^ xh = 7 f ^ xh = x 3 + 5 f ^ xh = x 2 .3 f ^ xh = 6 + x 4 10. C. Mark is taller than Rebecca. which of the following correctly represent the order of their heights? A. C. 0 only –2 and 5 only 2 and –5 only 0. –2. . 34 55 89 144 233 6. 1 5 6 D. 1 2 5 C. 5. c. 11 7. what is the value of 1 +1+ 1 ? x+1 x x-1 A. E. What is the tenth term of this sequence? A. B. its value represents the sum of the two terms preceding it. B. 4 6 36 64 144 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 243 . If m. D. 1 6 B. what is the value of m when r = 6? A. 2 5 5 2 14 5 22 5 9 8. D. 1:9 1:3 3:1 6:1 9:1 9. C. E. 2. –4 –3 -3 4 4 3 12 Practice Test II 3. . 13. B. B. For which of the following functions does f ^ . E. D. B. B. 1. D. and –5 5. C. C. D.

47) 17. D. D. In the figure above. what is the length of AD ? A. 8 E. F feet. If x᭝y = y . C. 2 2 4 3 2 2 (approximately 2. with y ≠ 0. E. 1 C. If the length of AB = 2 and the length of BC = 2 .82) 3 (approximately 3. Franklin took their three children to a theatre to watch a movie. in how many different ways can the Franklin family be seated in the five seats? A. D. The perimeter of an equilateral triangle is 18. –3) is its vertex. 3Y + F + 12I 36Y + F + 12I 3Y + 12F + I 36Y + 12F + I 3Y + 12F + 12I y A O x x° D (5. They select a row on the side having only five seats. 2 D. and if 4᭝m = 16᭝2. E. 13. in which the degree measure of its angles have a ratio of 5:6:7? A. What is the measure of the largest angle of a triangle. C. E. and Mrs.Part III: Math Practice Tests x 11. 10 35 50 70 75 14. D. B. E. 9 2 9 2 B. C. B. and I inches? A. 2 C.46) 2 (approximately 4. −3) B x° C Note: Figure not drawn to scale. What is the area of the triangle? A. 16 12. B. AB = BC and AC = CD . 4 and 7 2 and 9 0 and 8 –1 and 11 1 and 10 16. E. (5. what is the value of m? 1 A. B. C.24) 5 (approximately 4. B. If each of the parents must sit at either end of the row. How many inches are there in a distance of Y yards. 3 6 12 24 120 15. E. D. 9 2 9 3 18 244 . 2 B. For the parabola above. Mr. C. D. Which of the following are the x-coordinates of two points on the graph of the parabola for which their y-coordinates are equal? A.

For which values of m will f(2m) = 15? A. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. Let the function f be defined by f(x) = x2 – 2x. 20. D.Practice Test II B C 19.3 and 5 2 2 3 and –5 –3 and 5 3 only Practice Test II IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. –2 only . where c and w are constants. If m and r are constants and if (x + m)(x + r) = x2 + cx + w. 45° D B. In the figure above. CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. E. what c in terms of m and r? is w A. STOP 245 . E. D. 30° A F E Note: Figure not drawn to scale. C. D. C. C. 18. 3: 2 2: 1 3:2 3: 1 2:1 E. m r m+r m m+r mr mr m+r It cannot be determined from the given information. B. What is the ratio of the area of ᭝ABF to the area of ᭝CED? A. BC AD . B.

Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° 246 . 3. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Notes 1. Calculators may be used. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IIC Time: 20 minutes 16 multiple-choice questions Directions: Select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. All numbers used are real numbers. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section. 2. Unless otherwise stated. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams.

Practice Test II 1. B. C. D. If the volume of a cube is 8. B. X 50 7 1 2 3 4 6 5 Practice Test II CAND. The denominator of a fraction is 3 more than its numerator. B. what is 35 the numerator of the fraction? A. 1 6 1 4 1 3 1 2 2 5 6.12 5 -4 B. 7 4 D. E. 6 and 9 10 and 5 8 and 15 12 and 4 9 and 12 2. Y 40 CAND. what is the degree measure of the angle between the hour and minute hands on the traditional clock above? A. 5 12 11 10 9 8 CAND. B 20 5.3x 2 . The graph above shows the number of votes received by each of four candidates in an election. E. C. then the value of f(–2) = 4. Two positive integers are called “relatively prime” if their only common factor is 1. 75° 115° 120° 150° 165° 3. 3 12 E. A 10 CAND. D. 6 8 16 18 24 . E. At 5:00pm. C. C. 2 3 5 6 7 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 247 . D. If f ^ x h = 7 -x A. E. If the fraction is equal to 14 . D. B. Which of the following pair of numbers is “relatively prime?” A. What fraction of the votes did candidate Y receive? A. E. . what is its total surface area? A. D. B. C. 3 6 C.

5 2 6m – 10 – x 6m – 5 – x 6m . is m° 3x° Note: Figure not drawn to scale. the graphs of y = 2x + 7 and y = –3x + r intersect at the point (–2. C. E. In the xy-plane. C. What is the value of r? A. B. –3 –1 2 3 4 8. D. I only II only III only I and II only II and III only 248 . what is the value of m? A. If one of the numbers is 3m – 5. The average of two numbers is x. E. D. x3 – x2 > 0 A. 1 x >x II. E. D. x2 < x III. in terms of x and m. In the figure above. B. B.10 x 6m – 10 + x 10. 15 30 45 60 75 x + 3m . C.Part III: Math Practice Tests 45° x° 9. D. which of the following statements must be true? I. E. m). B. then the other number. 7. If 0 < x < 1. C. A.

Practice Test II y y = f (x) x −3 −1 4 6 Note: Figure not drawn to scale. The graph above is that of the equation y = f(x). 11. Which of the following could be the graph of y = f ^ x h ? y (A) y (B) x −3 −1 4 6 x −3 −1 4 6 Practice Test II y (C) (D) y x −3 −1 4 6 −3 −1 4 6 x y (E) x −3 −1 4 6 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 249 .

CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. A. y the middle. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. In the figure above. B. What is the ratio of the volume of the original cylinder to the volume of the new larger cylinder? A. 1 12 1 6 1 3 1 2 6 15. D. and z the greatest of these even integers. B. E. C. D. E. 64 – 16π 32 – 8π 16 – 4π 8 – 2π 4–π 14. E. In the xy-plane. The sum of three consecutive even integers is 72. What is the area of the shaded region? A. 250 STOP . 4 5 8 12 13 IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. how many different integer pairs (x. B. C. III. E. B. and III y-3 is an integer. a circle is inscribed within a square having a perimeter of 32. If x + 4 is an integer. C. and its height is tripled. y) are in the solution set of x + y # 2 ? A. an even integer a negative integer an odd integer a multiple of 12 a positive integer 13. If x represents the smallest. D. II. The radius of a right circular cylinder is doubled. and if 2 then xy must be A. B. D. C. 2 16. II. C.Part III: Math Practice Tests 12. D. which of the following equations could be used to represent the first sentence of this problem? I. E. 3x + 6 = 72 3y = 72 3z – 6 = 72 I only II only I and II only I and III only I.

B 5. A 11.33 3 15. B 12. D 16. D 13. C 6.67 3 17. D 6. D 14. C 14. C 6. B 17. E 4. C 9.07 14 11. E 3. D 9. D 3. B 5. C 20. E 15. E 10. D 2. A 7. B 12. A 251 . 38 14. B Practice Test II Practice Test IIC 1. A 11. 5 or . 12 16. B 7. E 8. 1 or . D 18. A 9. D 8.5 2 13. C 7. 43 12. 11 or 3. D 5. A 13. E 8.Practice Test II Scoring Practice Test II Answer Key for Practice Test II Practice Test IIA 1. B 2. A 4.313 16 18. B 10. E 16. 3 10 10. 7 Practice Test IIB 1. 4 or 1.66 or 3. C 15. C 2. D 19. 15 or 1. C 4. E 3.312 or .

These results should then be reexamined for trends in types of errors (repeated errors) or poor results in specific subject areas. 252 .Part III: Math Practice Tests Analyzing Your Test Results The charts on the following pages should be used to carefully analyze your results and spot your strengths and weaknesses. Mathematics Analysis Sheet Section A Multiple Choice Grid-Ins Subtotal Section B Multiple Choice Subtotal Section C Multiple Choice Subtotal Overall Math Totals Possible 8 10 18 Possible 20 20 Possible 16 16 54 Completed Right Wrong Completed Right Wrong Completed Right Wrong Analysis/Tally Sheet for Problems Missed One of the most important parts of test preparation is analyzing why you missed a problem so that you can reduce the number of mistakes. Reason for Mistakes Total Missed Section A : Math Section B : Math Section C : Math Total Math Simple Mistake Misread Problem Lack of Knowledge Lack of Time Reviewing the preceding data should help you determine why you are missing certain problems. compare it to other practice tests to spot other common mistakes. carefully tally your mistakes by marking them in the proper column. Now that you’ve pinpointed the type of error. The complete process of analyzing each subject area and each individual problem should be completed for each practice test. Now that you have taken the practice test and checked your answers. This reexamination and analysis is of tremendous importance to you in ensuring maximum test preparation benefit.

” Translating this into an algebraic equation.Practice Test II Complete Answers and Explanations for Practice Test II Practice Test IIA Explanations 1. To solve the equation: 7x – 5 = 4x – 17 7x – 5 – 4x = 4x – 17 – 4x 3x – 5 = –17 3x – 5 + 5 = –17 + 5 3x = –12 3x = . So you then have: 0 = 3x – 12 0 + 12 = 3x – 12 + 12 12 = 3x 12 = 3x 3 3 4=x 4. 253 . its y-coordinate will be 0. The sum of the angles in the triangle must be 180°. so you have: 50 + m + n = 180 50 + m + n – 50 = 180 – 50 m + n = 130 3. then 4 less than this. so they are the same measure. Add 5 to each side to isolate variable term. Divide both sides by 3. E. Practice Test II 50° 50° x n° In the figure.12 3 3 x = –4 2. the two angles marked 50° are vertical angles. Our given relationship reads something like the following: “average of 5x and 3y is equal to product of x and y. When the graph of the equation y = 3x – 12 crosses the x-axis. D. m° Subtract 4x from each side to get variable on just one side. Subtract 50 from each side. you get: 5x + 3y = xy . B.4 2 Add 12 to both sides of the equation. E.

Part III: Math Practice Tests

5. C. Just try different values of n and see what you get for the last digit of the answer. For n = 1: 31 = 3; number ends in a digit of 3 For n = 2: 32 = 9; number ends in a digit of 9 For n = 3: 33 = 27; number ends in a digit of 7 For n = 4: 34 = 81; number ends in a digit of 1 So the number cannot end in a digit of 5, Choice C. 6. B. 20% off means that 4 of the price remains. 5 3 25% off means that of that price remains. 4 So a discount of 20% followed by a discount of 25% would leave 4 : 3 = 3 of the original price, meaning 2 , or 5 4 5 5 40% has been discounted. 7. D. To solve an equation of the form "stuff " = N , break it into two parts: “stuff” = –N or “stuff” = N So the given equation 2x - 3 = 7 turns into the 2 parts: 2x – 3 = –7 2x – 3 + 3 = –7 + 3 2x = –4 2x = - 4 2 2 x = –2 or x = 5 8. C. By setting x = 0 in the given equation y = k – x2, you get that y = k is the y-intercept of the graph of this equation. So the parabola crosses the y-axis at k. Thus the height of the rectangle ABCD is also just k, as shown in the figure below.

y B V C

or or

2x – 3 = 7 2x – 3 = 7 + 3 2x = 10 2x = 10 2 2 Divide both sides by 2. Add 3 to both sides.

k

A −√k 2√k +√k

D

x

By setting y = 0 in the given equation, you can find where the graph of the parabola crosses the x-axis. y = k – x2 0 = k – x2 0 + x2 = k – x2 + x2 x2 = k therefore x = ! k Add x2 to both sides of the equation.

254

Practice Test II

So you know that the parabola crosses the x-axis at - k on the left and + k on the right. Thus the base of the rectangle is 2 k . The area of the rectangle ABCD is given as 16, so you have: Arearect. = base × height 16 = 2 k : k 16 = 2 k : k 2 2 8= k :k 82 = ` k : k j 64 = k × k2 64 = k3 4=k 9. 3 10 Letting N be the given number, you have: N : 4 = N : 5 : 4 = N : 10 2 3 2 3 3 5 So after dividing your number N by 2 and then multiplying by 4 , you end with just the number N multiplied by 10 . 3 3 5 The question asks what you should divide the original number N by to get N : 10 . 3 If you divide N by 3 , you will get N = N : 10 . So divide by 3 . 10 3 3 10 10 10. 15 or 1.07 14 Starting with the original proportion: 5 2 7x = 3y 5 ⋅ 3y = 7x ⋅ 2 15y = 14x 15y 14x y = y x 15 = 14 y 1 : 15 = 1 : 14x 14 14 y 15 = x 14 y Multiply both sides by 1 . 14 Divide by y, since you want to get x y. Take the diagonal products (cross-multiply).

2

Substitute the base and height. Divide both sides by 2.

Square both sides to get rid of the radical.

Practice Test II

You could also write the answer as a decimal: x y = 1.07 11. 43 First, expand the term (m + n)2: (m + n) = (m + n) (m + n) = m2 + 2mn + n2 = m2 + n2 + 2(mn) = 29 + 2(7) = 29 + 14 = 43 Reordered terms for purpose of next step. It is given that m2 + n2 = 29 and mn = 7.

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Part III: Math Practice Tests

12. 1 or .5 2 First, solve the given equations for x and y; then you can find the value of xy. x

-1 -1 3 -3

=2 You have taken the –3 power of both sides so that the exponent of x on the left will then be just 1.

a x 3 k = 2 - 3.

x1 = 2–3 x = 13 . 2 1 x= 8 Next, solve for y. y2=2

1

Remember that, in general, ^ number h

negative

=

1 positive . ^ number h

a y 2 k = 22.

1 2

Take the second power of both sides; you want just y1 on the left.

y=4 Finally, xy = xy = 1 : 4 = 1 8 2 You could also write the decimal .5 13. 38 Let n = first even integer. Then n + 2 = second even integer, so n + 4 = third even integer, and n + 6 = fourth even integer, with n + 8 = fifth even integer. Since their sum is 170, you have the equation: n + (n + 2) + (n + 4) + (n + 6) + (n + 8) = 170 5n + 20 = 170 5n + 20 – 20 = 170 – 20 5n = 150 5n = 150 5 5 n = 30 So your five consecutive even integers are 30, 32, 34, 36, and the largest one 38. Another shorter approach works as follows: Divide the sum of the integers by the number of integers . . . so 170 ÷ 5 = 34, which gives the middle of our list of numbers. So the two above this are 36, and the largest 38. Combine like terms on the left side. Subtract 20 from both sides.

256

Practice Test II

14. 4 or 1.33 3

y x A

C (5, −5)

B (9, −8)

Since the circle is tangent to both axes, located in the fourth quadrant, and it has a radius of 5, you know that its center has coordinates (5, –5) as in the figure above. Since AB is tangent to the circle at point B, you also know that AB = CB . Remembering that the slopes of perpendicular lines have opposite reciprocal slopes (for example, 2 and - 3 ); you have to find only the slope of CB and take its opposite reciprocal. 3 2 slope BC = - 8 -- 5 = - 3 So the slope of AB is just 4 or 1.33 4 3 9-5 15. 12 Below is a rough sketch of the points in the xy-plane.

y C (11, 6) h=4 A (5, 2) b=6

Practice Test II

B (11, 2) x

Since points A and B have the same y-coordinate, they lie on a horizontal line segment, and since points B and C have the same x-coordinate, they lie on a vertical line segment as shown in the figure above. You can easily see that the base of the triangle is just 6 and height is just 4. Therefore, its area = 1 bh = 1 : 6 : 4 = 12 . 2 2 11 16. or 3.66 or 3.67 3 m2 + 2mn = 3n – 4w 32 + (2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ n) = 3n – (4 ⋅ –5) 9 + 6n = 3n + 20 9 + 6n – 3n = 3n + 20 – 3n 9 + 3n = 20 9 + 3n – 9 = 20 – 9 3n = 11 3n = 11 Divide both sides by 3. 3 3 n = 11 or 3.66 or 3.67 3 Subtract 9 from each side of the equation. Subtract 3n to get the variable on just one side. Substituted given values of m = 3 and w = –5.

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Part III: Math Practice Tests

17.

5 or .312 or .313 16

2 3 4

Using the figure above, you see that the shaded area is just the difference between the areas of the medium and small circles: Areashaded = Areamed. circle – Areasmall circle = π(3)2 – π(2)2 = 9π – 4π = 5π Also, Areabig circle = π(4)2 = 16π AREAbig.circle 5π The requested ratio is: AREA = = 5 or .312 or .313 16π 16 shaded 18. 7 Using a “factor tree,” you find the prime factorization of 720 in the form of am × bn × cr.

720 10 2 5 4 2 5 2 2 8 2 2 72 9 3 3 3 3

Since 720 = 24 × 32 × 51, the desired numbers m, n, and r are just the exponents 4, 2, and 1. If you wrote the factored form as 720 = 32 × 24 × 51 instead, the desired m, n, and r would still be the exponents 2, 4, and 1. Since you are finding the sum of m, n, and r, the order of the exponents makes no difference. So, in any order, m + n + r = 4 + 2 + 1 = 7 always.

**Practice Test IIB Explanations
**

1. D. The first few terms of the sequence are 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, . . . The third term, 5, is the sum of 2 and 3, the two terms preceding it. The fourth term, 8, is the sum of 3 and 5, the two terms preceding it. The fifth term, 13, is the sum of 5 and 8. Continuing in this manner, you get: The sixth term = 8 + 13 = 21. The sequence is now 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21.

258

Practice Test II

The seventh term = 13 + 21 = 34. The sequence is now 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34. The eighth term = 21 + 34 = 55. The sequence is now 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55. The ninth term = 34 + 55 = 89. The sequence is now 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89. The tenth term = 55 + 89 = 144. The sequence is now 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144. 2. D. To find the slope of 3x + 4y = 12, solve for y, expressing the equation in slope-intercept form: 3x + 4y = 12 3x + 4y – 3x = 12 –3x 4y = 12 –3x 4y 12 3x = Divide all terms by 4 to get y by itself. 4 4 4 y = 3 - 3 x , or in slope-intercept form, y = - 3 x + 3. 4 4 3 The slope of the line above is . Since perpendicular lines have opposite reciprocal slopes, the slope of line l is 4 . 4 3 3. A. To solve this equation: 5(x + 3) = 17 5x + 15 = 17 5x + 15 – 15 = 17 – 15 5x = 2 5x = 2 5 5 x= 2 5 Distribute the 5 on the left. Subtract 15 from each side to isolate the variable term. Divide both sides of equation by 5. Subtract 3x from each side to isolate the y term.

Practice Test II

4. B. If 3(2x + 4)(5 – x) = 0, then one of the two factors containing x could be 0. So either 2x + 4 = 0 or 5 – x = 0 2x = –4 or 5 = x x = –2 or x = 5 5. C. To determine if f(–5) does NOT equal f(5), substitute –5 for x and 5 for x to see if the answers are the same. A. For f ^ x h = x , You can easily see that when either –5 or 5 are put in for x, the answer is 5 both times. B. For f(x) = 7, the answer is 7 no matter what the value of x; so once again the answers are the same: 7 both times. C. For f(x) = x3 + 5, you get: f(–5) = (–5)3 + 5 and f(5) = (5)3 + 5 = –125 + 5 = 125 + 5 = –120 ≠ 130 So in this case, f(–5) ≠ f(5); thus Choice C is the answer.

259

then the radius of the smaller circle is 1 r . E. 8. 4 9= k 16 16 : 9 = 16 : k Multiply both sides by 16. The requested ratio is 3 then: AREAsmall AREAlarge = π c 1 r 2m π c 1 r 2m 3 9 = =1 9 πr 2 πr 2 You could also have used 3 for the radius of the large circle and 1 for the radius of the small circle and obtained the same result. Charles is shorter than Rebecca → c < r. m varies inversely as square of r → m = k2 . A. 10. not >). term by term. A. The second inequality is: 6 ≤ xy ≤ 30 The first inequality is: 2 ≤ x ≤ 6 If you divide these inequalities. Change all fractions to common denominator of 6. 1 +1+ 1 x+1 x x-1 = 1 +1+ 1 2+1 2 2-1 1 = + 1 +1 3 2 = 2+3+6 6 6 6 = 11 = 1 5 6 6 Substitute 2 for each x in the expression in the first line. B. Putting these three inequalities together: h < c and c < r and r < m. With the operation ᭝ defined by the equation x᭝y = y . r2 = 144 = 4 With r = 6 . you obtain: 3 ≤ y ≤ 5. you then get: 9 = k2 . If you let the radius of the larger circle be r. you can solve the equation: 4᭝m = 16᭝2 4 16 m = 2 2 4 m = 2 Simplified each square root in previous equation. Mark is taller than Rebecca → m > r or can also be written as r < m (note that all answer choices involve <.Part III: Math Practice Tests 6. but Charles is taller than Harriet → h < c. where k is some constant. 9. which is Choice E. 2 m =2 m=1 260 . r Substituting the given values m = 9 and r = 4. which is Choice E. C. you have: m = 144 36 62 x 11. E. you end up with the compound inequality: h < c < r < m. 16 144 = k Therefore. the relationship between m and r can be expressed as: m = 144 . 7.

which is 5 units left of the axis of symmetry. you can label the angle measures of the triangle with 5x. The first child seat can be filled three ways (any one of the three children). D. For example. you are looking for two numbers that are same distance—left and right—from 5. D. Choice D has just such a pair of numbers: –1 and 11. −3) 10 11 x In the figure above. 13. 14. The points on the parabola to the left of the axis of symmetry are just mirror images of the corresponding points on the parabola to the right of the axis of symmetry. Divide both sides by 18. Your series of seating choices now is complete: 2 3 2 1 1 P C C C P . one for each seat in our row of five seats: P C C C P Under each blank is the letter P for parent. C. Below is a series of five blanks. So to answer the given question. 6x. The person to sit at the left end of the row can be chosen two ways (one of the two parents) and the person to sit at the other end can be chosen only one way (the remaining parent must sit there). and 7x as in the figure below. –1 is 6 units left. the parabola must cross the x-axis at 10 also. y 6 left 6 right Combined like terms on left. Practice Test II 0 −1 5 (5. then the next seat only two ways (one of the remaining two children). since that is just 5 units to the right of the axis of symmetry. and finally the last child seat can only be filled one way (the last un-chosen child must sit there). The dashed vertical line passing through 5 on the x-axis is called the “axis of symmetry” for the parabola. therefore. the parabola has vertex at the point (5. –3). So you find the value of 7x = 7(10) = 70. 2 × 3 × 2 × 1 × 1 = 12 261 . Your final answer is just the product of these numbers. So your series of blanks now looks like: 2 1 PCCC P Next you need to seat the three children. or C for child. and 11 is 6 units right of the axis of symmetry as shown in the figure above. you have the equation: 5x + 6x + 7x = 180 18x = 180 18x = 180 18 18 x = 10 But you want the measure of the largest angle of the triangle.Practice Test II 12. you see that the parabola passes through the origin. Since the ratio of the angle measures is 5:6:7. 6x° 5x° 7x° Then.

Since AB = 2. x 2 . To change yards to inches. A z x° 2 y 2 x° B 2 C D In the figure above. 2 2 262 . forming two 30°-60°-90° triangles. B. x. multiply by 36 (1 yard = 36 inches) To change feet to inches. the altitude drawn to the base of the triangle will bisect the base and bisect the angle at the top of the triangle. The area of the triangle is then 1 b : h = 1 : 6 : 3 3 = 9 3 . Since the triangle is equilateral. then BC = 2 also. you know that AB = 2 2 .Part III: Math Practice Tests 15. multiply by 12 (1 foot = 12 inches) So Y yards = 36Y inches. Using your 3 pattern for this type of triangle. labeled y in the diagram. ᭝ACD is a right triangle. the base of the equilateral triangle is obviously 6. 30° 6 3√3 60° 3 6 6 Referring to the figure above. Therefore a distance of Y yards. you can find the height of the equilateral triangle to be 3 3. ᭝ABC is an isosceles right triangle. since the equilateral triangle has a perimeter of 18. F feet. each angle has a measure of 60°. x. Using the pattern for an isosceles right triangle. and I inches = 36Y + 12F + I inches 16. so you use the Pythagorean theorem to find the length of AD : y2 + 22 = z2 `2 2j + 2 2 = z 2 2 Replace y with 2 2 . the length of each side is 6. D. D. So the length of AD is 2 3. F feet = 12F inches. 8+4=z 12 = z 4$3=z 2 3=z 2 12 = z2 Take the square root of both sides. 17.

You can now find the requested ratio: w mr mr 20. which is the same as m + r . Subtract 15 from each side. Just write in left side of the equation. C. Factor x out of the 2 middle terms. Since CE is x. So you have: c = r + m. so you have: x2 + cx + w = (x + m)(x + r) x2 + cx + w = x2 + rx + mx + mr x2 + cx + w = x2 + (r + m)x + mr x + cx + w = x + (r + m)x + mr x 2 + cx + w = x 2 + ` r + m jx + mr 2 2 Expand the right side (FOIL). you want to set the equation equal to 0 and then factor it later. let the height CE of the isosceles right ᭝CED be x. B. BF will also be x and this will be the height of ᭝AFB. you find the base AF of this triangle is just x 3. 2 1 :x 3:x AREA$ ABF 2 3 AREA$ CED = 1 : x : x = 1 or 3: 1 2 19. the coefficients of their respective terms must be equal. Now that you have the base and height for each triangle. D. You are told that the given expressions are equal. Choice C. 263 . constant term on left = constant term on right c = r + m . Then the base ED will also be x. you have the following equation to solve: f(2m) = 15 (2m) – 2(2m) = 15 4m2 – 4m = 15 4m2 – 4m –15 = 15 – 15 4m2 – 4m –15 = 0 (2m + 3)(2m – 5) = 0 2m + 3 = 0 and 2m – 5 = 0 2m = –3 and 2m = 5 m = . Practice Test II For the left side and right side polynomials to be equal.Practice Test II 18.3 and m = 5 2 2 Factor the left hand side. Add underlining for the next step. B 60° x 30° A x√3 F E x x C 45° 45° D In the figure above. Using the given function f(x) = x2 – 2x. Notice that ᭝AFB is a 30°-60°-90° triangle. coefficient of the x term on left = coefficient of x term on right w = mr. you can find the requested ratio using the area of triangle formula 1 bh . so using the 3 pattern. Set each factor equal to 0. 2 Put 2m in for x in the given function.

C. Checking each of the answer choices. 6 and 9 have common factors of 1 and 3. A. getting volume equals x3. 2 2 2 In the figure above. E. 8 and 15 only have a common factor of 1. the total number of votes cast was 50 + 40 + 20 + 10 = 120. you have x3 = 9. Using the given function f ^ x h = 7-x 2 . 10 and 5 have common factors of 1 and 5. and height. A 10 CAND. the total surface area will be the area of the shaded side square multiplied by 6. you are looking for a pair of numbers whose only common factor is 1. CAND. Y 40 CAND. 3. C. X 50 CAND. Candidate Y received 40 of those votes.4 f ^. so x = 2. So they are NOT relatively prime. 2. 120 3 3x 2 .3 ^ .Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IIC Explanations 1. C. x x x To find the volume of the cube in the figure above. So they are NOT relatively prime.3 $ 4 -12 . width. Since you are told the volume is 8. B. you find the product of the length. B.2h = = = = 9 9 3 7 .2 h . you find f(–2) by putting –2 in place of x: 4. The area of the shaded square is 2 × 2 = 4. so the total area is 6 × 4 = 24. So these ARE relatively prime. B 20 From the circle graph above.2h 264 . so candidate Y received 40 = 1 of the votes.^. since there are 6 equal faces to the cube.

The problem says your fraction. 45° x° Cross multiply to solve the given proportion. 12 6. You then solve: n+3 35 n = 14 n + 3 35 35n = 14(n + 3) 35n = 14n + 42 35n – 14n = 14n + 42 – 14n 21n = 42 21n = 42 21 21 n=2 7. 12 12 a circle. so 5 : 360c = 150c. A. Distribute the 14 on the right side. Practice Test II Subtract 14n from each side to isolate the variable term. Divide both sides by 21. has 360°s. In the right triangle in the right side of the figure above. each hour represents 1 of the clock. Subtract 15 from each side. you know that: x + m = 90 15 + m = 90 15 + m – 15 = 90 –15 m = 75 Substitute x = 15 from above. E.Practice Test II 5. 265 . which is now n . If you let n = the numerator of the fraction. is equal to 14 . D. So 5:00 would represent 5 of the clock. 3x° m° In the left right triangle in the figure above: 3x + 45 = 90 3x + 45 – 45 = 90 – 45 3x = 45 3x = 45 3 3 x = 15 Divide both sides by 3. The clock. then n + 3 = the denominator of the fraction. 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 x° 4 12 1 2 3 In the clock above. Subtract 45 from each side.

II. m) m = 2(–2) + 7 m = –4 + 7 m=3 So the point of intersection is now (–2. you then have: x + N = 3m . 2 y = –3x + r and use the point (–2. x2 < x → with x = 1 . you must get a true statement. Distribute the 2 on the right side. and III. as in the figure below. II. I. thus eliminating Choice E. Since x is between 0 and 1. Note that the positive regions of y = f(x) would change 266 . rather than solid. B. Above is the graph of y = f(x) with portions of the graph below the x-axis dotted.Part III: Math Practice Tests 8. which simplifies into 2 > 1 : TRUE 2 1 2 2 2 So your answer must include I. Since the graphs of the two equations intersect at the point (–2. These are the regions in which f(x) is negative. 9. you have > 1 . A. m). In particular. 3). On the left is the average of x and N. so you have: y = 2x + 7 and use the point (–2. If you let the other number be N. If you took the absolute value of these negative numbers.5 2 2 c x + N m = 2 ^ 3m . Multiply both sides by 2.5h 2 x + N = 6m – 10 x + N – x = 6m – 10 – x N = 6m – 10 – x 10. When substituted into the second equation. you must get a true statement. You don’t even need to try III. x > x → with x = . so you now have: Substitute m for y and –2 for x. D. this point must lie on the graph of EACH of the equations. 2 1 1 1 I. they would turn into positive numbers instead. B. y y = f (x) Substitute 3 for y and –2 for x. 3) 3 = –3(–2) + r 3=6+r –3 = r 11. when substituted into the first equation. x −3 −1 4 6 their location since their absolute value would still be positive for the graph of y = f ^ x h . So the portions of the graph of y = f(x) that are below the x-axis would end up above the x-axis for the graph of y = f ^ x h . which simplifies into 1 < 1 : TRUE 2 2 2 4 2 So your answer must now include both I and II. Subtract x from both sides—you are solving for N. use x = 1 and try each choice. you have c 1 m < 1 . The only viable choice is D.

4 the radius of the circle is just 1 of this. you find the difference in areas of the square and circle.Practice Test II y y = f (x) x −3 −1 4 6 12. C. To find the area of the shaded region. With the radius of our cylinder doubled and its height tripled.16π 4 = 16 – 4π Divide each term in expression above by 4. and then find 1 4 of this result. you end up with the original and new cylinders as shown below. 3h h r Practice Test II 2r VOL original πr 2 h πr 2 h πr 2 h 1 VOL new = π ^ 2r h 2 ^ 3h h = π : 4r 2 : 3h = 12πr 2 h = 12 13. If the perimeter of the square is 32. 2 r=4 8 Then AREAshaded = AREAsquare . so r = 4.AREAcircle 4 Area square = (side)2 and area circle = πr2 2 2 =8 -π:4 4 = 64 . the length of one of its sides is just 32 = 8 . 267 . As can be seen in the figure below. A.

y) that satisfy the inequality x + y # 2 are those on the figure above with an open circle around them—count them all and you count 13 such points. With x = smallest even integer. that means y – 3 must be even. Therefore I. then z – 2 = medium even integer. 2 −2 2 −2 Graph of | x | + | y | = 2 (solid line segments) The integer pairs (x. then y = medium even integer. 2 y-3 If is an integer. and x + 4 = largest even integer. Their sum would be: (y – 2) + y + (y + 2) = 3y. so y is odd. so the correct answer choice is E. If x + 4 is an integer. Their sum would be: x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) = 3x + 6. 268 . So 3x + 6 = 72 works. With y – 2 = smallest even integer. so x is even. also works. the four dark segments forming the diamond represent the graph of the equation x + y = 2 . 16. and z = largest even integer. 2 Then with x even and y odd. their product xy will be even.Part III: Math Practice Tests 14. 15. as in II. A. So 3y = 72. E. then x + 2 = medium even integer. and III work. and y + 2 = largest even integer. that means x + 4 must be even. In the figure below. E. II. So 3z – 6 = 72 also works. as in III. With z – 4 = smallest even integer. Their sum would be: (z – 4) + (z – 2) + z = 3z – 6. as in I. as in Choice A.

...... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... / .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13.... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 17.... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 16..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12.. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ........ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ...... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 269 .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . / . / ..... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ...CUT HERE . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10..... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ........ / ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ..... / .............. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 18. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .... / ............. / .- Test IIIA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E Test IIIB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E 9. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 15. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .. / ... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / ........ / .... 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... / .

..........................................................CUT HERE ................................................- A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E Test IIIC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E 270 ...........................

Choice Questions 271 . 20 Multiple.Choice and 10 Grid-in) Practice Test I I I C: 20 Minutes.Choice Questions Practice Test I I I B: 25 Minutes. 18 Questions (8 Multiple.Practice Test III Practice Test I I IA: 25 Minutes. 16 Multiple.

All numbers used are real numbers. Calculators may be used. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane. 3. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° 272 . These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. Unless otherwise stated. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Notes 1. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams.Part III: Math Practice Tests Practice Test IIIA Time: 25 minutes 20 multiple-choice questions Directions: Select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. 2.

C. D. –1) (–3. 7 C. 2 B. Under the translation that moves point C to (–2. B. D. At a flooring center. B. you can purchase carpet in one of five styles and in one of 10 colors. B. B. B. 15 36 40 45 50 7. E. D. 3. E. In the xy-plane. If x + x = 7 . between which two consecutive days of the week was the percent increase in temperature the greatest? A. E. 3). C. Sunday to Monday Monday to Tuesday Wednesday to Thursday Thursday to Friday Friday to Saturday Practice Test III 273 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .x h + 3 . According to the data in the graph above. B. D. 21 E. E. 0 11 5 22 5 33 5 4 100° A C Temperature (°F) 20° 70° 60° 50° 40° 30° 20° 10° TUES SUN WED THUR MON SAT FRI Note: Figure not drawn to scale. D. what is the value of x? 31 A. a circle has its center at point C (0. 2) (–4. then x = A. How many different style-color combinations are possible at this flooring center? A. In the figure above. 0) and contains the point P (–3. 35 B x° ^2 . 7) 2 4 9 2. –7 11 3 4 7 18 5. 4). 1) (1. E. what is the value of x? A. D. C. where will point P be located after this translation? A. C. 14 D.Practice Test III 1. (–1. If 3x – 5 = 16. E. what is the value of f(5)? 6. C. If f ^ x h = x 5 A. 20 50 60 80 140 4. C. 5) (–5.

what is the area of the rectangle? A. E. D. If the average (arithmetic mean) of x. 21 28 33 42 49 9. B. If x = A. D. An employee had to take a pay cut of 20%. B. C. 5x. 10. 12. C. D. 45% 55% 80% 95% 100% 12.Part III: Math Practice Tests 8.45 r .55 r . how many hours will it take her to walk a distance of d miles? A. B.55 r . C. C. and the maximum speed is 65 mph. B. y = –3 x = 4. y = 9 2 x = –2. D. what is the value of x? A. what is c in terms of x. and 10 is equal to 3x. 3x – 2y = –12 and x + 3y = 7 For what values of x and y are the equations above both true? A. r .10 # 10 # 10 # 10 < 10 # 55 274 . C. 6. B. y = 1 x = –1. 14. The minimum speed on a given stretch of freeway is 45 mph. E.mh 2 b 11. C. E. E. E. x = –6. y = –1 m2x2 – b2 (x – m + b)2 xm + b (mx + b)2 2 ^ x . y = 3 x = 10. B. B. Which of the following inequalities could be used to decided if a motorist driving at a rate of r mph is within legal limits? A. If the ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls in a class is 3 . D. dm h dh m mh d d mh m hd 15. C. E. A while later. The ratio of the length of a rectangle to its width is 5:3. B. 2 3 4 5 6 13. At this same rate. 6 15 16 32 60 -b + c . D. she received a pay raise of 25%. b.65 r . and m? m 10. C. E. which of the following could 4 NOT be the number of students in this class? A. D. D. If the length is 10. Her new salary after the pay raise was what percent of her salary before the pay cut? A. E. It takes Lisa h hours to walk a distance of m miles.

y D. y 0 x 0 x C.Practice Test III y y = f (x) 0 x 16. Which of the graphs below is that of y = f(x + 1) + 3? A. y 0 x Practice Test III GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 275 . y 0 x 0 x E. Above is the graph of y = f(x). y B.

The rocket is 80 feet above the ground twice—once on the way up and then again on the way down. and line l is tangent to circles A and B at points P and Q respectively. A C B Note: Figure not drawn to scale. C. circles A and B are tangent at C. 5) C (9. 6 4 3 6 2 8 10 18. 276 STOP . D. D. -3 2 2 3 2 6 12 19. E. after t seconds. How many seconds pass between these two times? A. E. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. B. In the figure above. what is the length of PQ ? A. 1 2 3 4 5 IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. If the radius of circle A is 2 and the radius of circle B is 6. what is the value of x? A. C. In the figure above. 17. A small rocket is fired into the air from the top of a tower. AB = BC . B. C. D. E. is given by: h(t) = –16t2 + 64t + 32. Its height h. B. What is the value of y? A. D. E. B.Part III: Math Practice Tests y A (1. 2) x Note: Figure not drawn to scale. C. y) Q P l B (3. 1 4 1 3 4 6 20. If 82x = 44x – 3. in feet. CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY.

These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section. 3. All numbers used are real numbers. Notes 1. Calculators may be used. 2. Use the 25 minutes allotted to answer both question types. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane. For Questions 1–8. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° Practice Test III GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 277 .Practice Test III Practice Test IIIB Time: 25 minutes 18 questions (8 multiple-choice and 10 grid-in) Directions: This section is composed of two types of questions. Unless otherwise stated. select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet.

What is the product of the slopes of the sides of ᭝ABC? 6 x A. and 1 ? 2 3 6 1 A. 3 D. C. B. In ᭝ABC above.47) 5 5 2 (approximately 7. E. 5 12 2. 87 7 6 7 3 10 3 29 3 A B P D C 5. -4 9 5 36 9 4 36 5 It cannot be determined from the given information. –2 –1 -1 2 1 2 4. C. D. If n represents an even integer. 2 2 8 16 16 2 32 y B (4. B. D. D. 278 . 1 2 E. what is the value +n of m mn ? A. B. what is the area of the square? A. C. 3n + 2 n2 + 3 (n + 4)2 5n – 4 7n + n2 A (3. E. In the right triangle above. 2 2 5 (approximately 4. which of the following represents an odd integer? A. D. 1 6 1 C. 12 + 75 = A. B. 4) C (7. If (x + m)(x + n) = x2 – 5x – 36. In the figure above. C. square ABCD is inscribed within circle P.07) 2 13 (approximately 7. E. 6) x Note: Figure not drawn to scale. What is the average (arithmetic mean) of the numbers 1 . E.Part III: Math Practice Tests 1. If the area of the circle is 8π. C. E. D. 6. E. 22 B. 7) 3. B. B. D. AB = BC . what is the value of x? A. 4 Note: Figure not drawn to scale. 1 .21) 7. C.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Decimal point . E. In the figure above. a rectangle is inscribed within a square of side length 4. D. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fraction bar .Practice Test III 3 1 3 1 8. Answer: 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . What is the area of the shaded region? A. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .7 Answer 1/2 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Practice Test III GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 279 . Examples of the appropriate way to mark the grid follow. B. 16 10 6 3 2 2 Directions for Student-Produced Response Questions (Grid-ins): Questions 9–18 require you to solve the problem and enter your answer by carefully marking the circles on the special grid. C. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

answers may start in any column. Always change mixed numbers to improper fractions or decimals. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Each grid-in answer below is correct. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 or 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer 123 Space permitting. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 280 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .Part III: Math Practice Tests Answer 2 1/2 Do not grid-in mixed numbers in the form of mixed numbers. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . No credit will be given if more than one circle in a column is marked. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Answer 8/9 Accuracy of decimals: Always enter the most accurate decimal value that the grid will accommodate.889. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .888 or . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .89 is considered inaccurate and therefore not acceptable. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . can be gridded as . GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 281 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . For example: An answer such as . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Practice Test III Be sure to write your answers in the boxes at the top of the circles before doing your gridding. Grid-in questions contain no negative answers.8888 . . The acceptable grid-ins of 8/9 are: . Even though some problems may have more than one correct answer. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .88. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / .Practice Test III Answer 258 (no credit) Note: Circles must be filled in correctly to receive credit. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . . it is very important to ensure accuracy. Mark only one circle in each column. . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . or . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Although writing out the answers above the columns is not required. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / . Example: .8. Gridding this value as . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . grid only one answer.

and 6 are used to create fivedigit numbers that begin and end with an even digit. 4. what is the value of 3xy 2 ? x y 2 . If the current bacteria population is 1. The length of a rectangle is decreased by 25% while its width is decreased by 20%. 5. rectangle ABCD is inscribed in the circle with center at the origin in the xyplane. y) is located on this circle. CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. In the figure above. If the radius of the circle is 5.Part III: Math Practice Tests 9. point C is the center of the circle. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. If 10x x + m = 12 . What is the value of x? D + 15m m 12. If 12(m + n)(c – r) = 72 and 3(m + n) = 9.5y 2 2 16. If the average (arithmetic mean) of five different two-digit positive integers is 20. what is the value of x ? Note: Figure not drawn to scale. If x = 4. how many of these five-digit numbers can be created? 25° C x° A y B Note: Figure not drawn to scale. In the figure above. The area of the new rectangle is what fraction of the area of the original rectangle? 15. If each digit can be used only once in each of the numbers. The population of bacteria in a culture doubles every 10 minutes. what is the area of rectangle ABCD? 14. 282 STOP . y) 11. If the median of a list of seven consecutive odd integers is 23. what is the greatest possible difference between the largest and the smallest of these five integers? IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. 3. 13. The digits 2. how many minutes ago was the bacteria population only 32? 18. x C (3. Point C with coordinates (3. what is the difference between the largest and smallest of these integers? 10. what is the value of c – r? 17.024.

These figures are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that a figure is not drawn to scale. Calculators may be used. all figures and diagrams lie in a plane. Unless otherwise stated. Notes 1. 3. Your scratch work should be done on any available space in the section. All numbers used are real numbers. 2. The figures and diagrams are meant to provide information useful in solving the problem or problems. Some problems may be accompanied by figures or diagrams.Practice Test III Practice Test IIIC Time: 20 minutes 16 multiple-choice questions Directions: Select the one correct answer of the five choices given and mark the corresponding circle on your answer sheet. Data That Can Be Used for Reference Area rectangle A = lw triangle A = 1⁄2 bh circle A = πr 2 C = 2 πr r h l b M Pythagorean Relationship A b c a2 + b2 = c 2 w C a B Special Triangles 30° − 60° − 90° 30° 45° − 45° − 90° x 45° Volume rectangular solid V = lwh h l w right circular cylinder V= πr 2h r x√3 2x 60° x√2 45° x x h A circle is composed of 360° A straight angle measures 180° The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180° Practice Test III GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 283 .

B. D. E.Part III: Math Practice Tests 1. E. B. x = 30. D. what is its 4 circumference? A. 5 8 E. 3 2 N 7 3 A 6 C O 6. 5 12 B. E. the number obtained is 24.3y 2x r? 2. D. Note: Figures not drawn to scale. ᭝ABC and square MNOP have equal perimeters. In the figures above. 5 D. D. B. –17 –3 3 7 17 8. D. C. E. what is the value of m 3r 5 A. C. In ᭝ABC above. What is the given number? A. B. B. When a given number is decreased by 5 and this result is tripled. 81π 256 81π 16 3 2 3π 2 3π 284 . which of the following must be positive? A. E. 16 24 2 24 3 48 3 144 4. 5 8 12 C. If 0 < x < y < 1. If the area of a circle is 9π . B. C. 4 71 2 15 22 29 5. E. E. 2 4 5 8 16 7. What is the length of MP ? A. If m – n = 11. C. 3. The quantity 5x – 7 is how much larger than the quantity –10 + 5x? A. B. 11 3 29 3 7 12 13 C B M P A x° B Note: Figure not drawn to scale. and the length of AC is 8 3. C. AB = BC . D. D. C. x–y x2 – y2 1-1 x y –(y – x) . What is the area of ᭝ABC ? A. what is the value of 2m – 2n – 7? A. C. If 2m = 8 .

C. 5j is a point on the graph of the equation y = x2 + k. –2) only (9. B. If 0 < x < 1. D. –2) (9. In the xy-plane. The accumulated value of her investment t years later is given by the function A. (9.191.000 in an IRA paying 6% per year. C. CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. D. 2 3 4 5 6 16. where A(t) = 1. what is x in terms of y? A. If x 3/4 = y 3/8 . x + (2x – 1) = 2x + 1 x2 + (2x – 1)2 = (2x – 1)2 x2 = (2x – 1)2 + (2x + 1)2 x2 + (2x – 1)2 = (2x + 1)2 x(2x – 1) = 2x + 1 12. B. In the xy-plane. Rachelle invested $1. D. 8) only (9. E. 3) lie on a circle with center A and radius 5. –5) (3. D. which of the following could NOT be the value of x + y? A. 7) and (9. 8) and (9. Which of the following points is NOT on the given circle? A. –4) (0. x . B. 4) (0. 14. C. 7) None of the above points are on the given circle. B. For what positive value of x will y = 7? A. B. the set of points 5 units from the point A (6. D. and 1 x? A. STOP 285 . 1 2 3 4 5 11. The length of the longer leg of a right triangle is one less than twice the length of the shorter leg. E. D. B. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST. If the length of the shorter leg is x. 37 20 18 15 13 Practice Test III IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED. ` 7.02? A. 7) only 10. D. which of the following gives the correct order of 3 x . C. 4). C. E.000(1. E. What are all the possible points on this circle having an x-coordinate of 9? A. C. a given circle with center at the origin contains the point (–3. C. In how many years will Rachelle’s investment be worth $1.06)t. 1 y y y y3 y6 2 13. If xy = 6 . which of the following equations could be used to find the value of x? A. C. E. D. E. –1) (9. 1 < x<3 x 3 x<1 x< x<3 x< x x 1 x 1 3 x< x< x 1 <3 x< x x 15. and the length of the hypotenuse is one more than twice the length of the shorter leg. E. (3. E. B. B.Practice Test III 9. In the xy-plane.

44 Practice Test IIIC 1. B 9. B 8. B 13. 50 15. C 7. E 6. C 5. C 3. B 5. E 14. D 4. B 15. C 17. D 18. 2 14. D 11.667 3 13. 3 5 12 10. C 14. 2 or . B 12. C 6. 65 12. C 8. D 8. B Practice Test IIIB 1.666 or . B 4. 12 16. C 3. C 2. 48 18. B 20. 36 17. A 3. C 19. E 9. C 10. C 2. C 13. E 5. C 16. C 7. B 12. B 16. D 15.Part III: Math Practice Tests Scoring Practice Test III Answer Key for Practice Test III Practice Test IIIA 1. E 9. E 7. C 11.09 11 11. B 4. C 6. D 2. or 1. D 10. D 286 .

These results should then be reexamined for trends in types of errors (repeated errors) or poor results in specific subject areas. carefully tally your mistakes by marking them in the proper column. 287 . Now that you have taken the practice test and checked your answers. This reexamination and analysis is of tremendous importance to you in ensuring maximum test preparation benefit. The complete process of analyzing each subject area and each individual problem should be completed for each practice test. Mathematics Analysis Sheet Section A Multiple Choice Subtotal Section B Multiple Choice Grid-Ins Subtotal Section C Multiple Choice Subtotal Overall Math Totals Possible 20 20 Possible 8 10 18 Possible 16 16 54 Completed Right Wrong Completed Right Wrong Completed Right Wrong Analysis/Tally Sheet for Problems Missed One of the most important parts of test preparation is analyzing why you missed a problem so that you can reduce the number of mistakes. compare it to other practice tests to spot other common mistakes.Practice Test III Analyzing Your Test Results The charts on the following pages should be used to carefully analyze your results and spot your strengths and weaknesses. Reason for Mistakes Total Missed Section A : Math Section B : Math Section C : Math Total Math Simple Mistake Misread Problem Lack of Knowledge Lack of Time Practice Test III Reviewing the preceding data should help you determine why you are missing certain problems. Now that you’ve pinpointed the type of error.

So by simple subtraction. and then 3 units up (0 + 3 = 3. E. and then 3 units up (4 + 3 = 7) will end up at the point (–5. the two angles marked 20° are equal because they are vertical angles. Using blanks to help solve this problem. D. after being moved 2 units left (–3 + –2 = –5). D.). the new x-coordinate). You are making two types of choices: style and color of carpet. To solve this equation: Cross multiply to solve the proportion. 4). you see that x = 80. Then you know that 100 = 20 + x. Divide each side by 3. The translation that moves point C from (0. you can make a style-color choice in the following manner: 5 : 10 Your answer is just the product of 5 and 10. E. which is 50. Subtract 7x from each side to the variable on just one side. since the measure of an exterior angle of a triangle equals the sum of the measures of the two nonadjacent interior angles. 100° A 20° C 20° In the figure above. you have: style color Since you have five styles and 10 colors from which to choose. 0) to (–2. 4. B x° Add 5 to each side to isolate the variable term. 288 . Distribute the 7 on the left side. style color 5. 2. 3) moves the point 2 units left (0 – 2 = –2. 7). To solve the equation: 3x – 5 = 16 3x – 5 + 5 = 16 + 5 3x = 21 3x = 21 3 3 x=7 x+4 = 9 x 7 7(x + 4) = 9x 7x + 28 = 9x 7x + 28 – 7x = 9x –7x 28 = 2x 28 = 2x 2 2 14 = x 3.Part III: Math Practice Tests Complete Answers and Explanations for Practice Test III Practice Test IIIA Explanations 1. Divide both sides by 2. So the point P (–3. C. the new y-coordinate.

but greater than 1 for Choice D. her new salary after the pay cut and then the pay raise will be exactly what is was before the cut and raise. D. Therefore Choice D will have the greatest percent increase in temperature. Friday to Saturday: 45 Notice that the fractions for choices A. Wednesday to Thursday: 10 10 25 D. To find the value of f(5).x h +3 x 5 2 so f ^ 5h = ^ 2 . Multiply both sides by 6. 8. Writing the average of the numbers equals 3x. Subtract 6x to get all the variables on one side. 9. she will make just 4 P dollars. Monday to Tuesday: 15 25 C. 4 4 5 Therefore.Practice Test III 6. Sunday to Monday: 5 20 B. Suppose that the employee was originally paid P dollars. A. Practice Test III 289 . you have: x + 6 + 10 + 12 + 5x + 20 = 3x 6 6 c x + 6 + 10 + 12 + 5x + 20 m = 6 ^ 3x h 6 x + 6 + 10 + 12 + 5x + 20 = 18x 6x + 48 = 18x 6x + 48 – 6x = 18x – 6x 48 = 12x 48 = 12x 12 12 4=x Combine like terms on the left side.3h +3= + 3 = 9 + 3 = 12 = 2 2 . C. Thursday to Friday: 20 25 E. 5 5 1 After the next 25% (or ) pay raise. After a 20% (or 1 ) pay cut. you need to substitute 5 for x in the f(x) formula: f ^ xh = ^2 . Another way to do the problem is to pick a salary. 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 2 7. and E are all less than or equal to 1. is the same as the original. So she will have 100% of her original salary. C. E. Original salary –20% pay cut New salary + 25% pay raise 100 –20 80 +20 100 Final salary .5h ^ . B. so it’s 100% of original. she will make 5 c 4 P m = P dollars. say $100. $100. C. You need to compare the temperature change between the two days to the temperature on the first day of the two-day pair.

you must first try to eliminate one of the variables. Choice C. 3). 13. Divide both sides by –11. leaving you with just an “hours” label for the final answer. C.2y = -12 . 10 6 Put 3 in place of y.9y = . 33. B. So the number of students in the class must be a multiple of 7. Lisa walked a distance of m miles in a time of h hours. D. E. With a length to width ratio of 5:3 and a length of 10. 11. you can set up and solve the following proportion: 5 = 10 3 w 5w = 30 w=6 Your rectangle now looks like the figure below. This is the sum of the pair of equations in previous step. is NOT a multiple of 7. The area of the rectangle above is now 6 × 10 = 60 290 . and then solve that for x.3x .21 –11y = –33 -11y . To find how many hours it took her to walk a distance of d miles.33 = -11 -11 y=3 Distribute the –3 through the bottom equation. substitute y = 3 into either of the original equations. as follows: 3x – 2y = –12 x + 3y = 7 3x – 2y = –12 –3(x + 3y) = –3(7) 3x . Notice that the x’s cancelled out (3x + –3x = 0 ). To find the corresponding value of x. You will multiply the bottom equation by –3 to make the coefficients of x opposites in the top and bottom equations. 12. The original second equation looks like less work: x + 3y = 7 x + 3(3) = 7 x+9=7 x = –2 Therefore the point of intersection is (–2. use the formula t = d to get the r h hours following: t = d miles = ^ d milesh # h hours = dh hours m miles m miles m h hours Notice in the work in the line above that the “miles” labels will cancel out just like numbers. you must have: 4 3 parts girls + 4 parts boys = 7 parts total. To solve the system of linear equations. Cross-multiply to solve the proportion.Part III: Math Practice Tests 10. Since the ratio of boys to girls is 3 . So her rate was: m miles .

you can write an inequality that represents the range of legal speed limits r: 45 ≤ r ≤ 65. If k < 0. which can be translated as: “the distance between r and 55 is less than or equal to 10. move graph of y = f(x) RIGHT h units. if k > 0. The only difference is where they are located in the xy-plane. b. have exactly the same shape.” 16. So each of these rates. move graph of y = f(x) LEFT h units. move graph of y = f(x) UP k units. the graphs of any equation y = f(x) and y = f(x+h) + k. (mx + b) = c 15. m:x=m: f mx =. In general.Practice Test III 14. move graph of y = f(x) DOWN k units. B.b + c +b + b mx + b = c ^ mx + b h = ` c j 2 2 Add b to both sides to isolate the c term. Practice Test III y y = f (x + 1) + 3 x 291 . Notice that half-way between these two numbers is 55. and m. you move the graph of y = f(x) 1 unit LEFT and 3 units UP to arrive at the graph below. if h > 0. You solve the following equation for c. ii. in terms of x. You want to find the graph of y = f(x+1) + 3. D. So with y = f(x + 1) + 3. is just 10 units either left of right of 55. This relationship can be expressed with an absolute value inequality: r . where h and k are constants. C. x= -b + c m -b + c p m Multiply both sides of the equation by m.55 # 10 . y y = f (x) 2 x Above is the graph of y = f(x). With a minimum speed of 45 mph and a maximum speed of 65 mph. Square both sides to get rid of the radical. 45 and 65. The constants h and k affect the graph of y = f(x) as follows: i. If h < 0.

3 3-1 2 292 . Subtract 8x from each side to get variables on just one side.3 ). find the slope of BC in terms of y. Replace 8 with 23 and 4 with 22.Part III: Math Practice Tests Note that an easy check is to see that the “vertex” was moved left 1 and then up 3 with the graph in the same vertical orientation. 82x = 4x4x – 3 (23)2x = (22)4x – 3 26x = 28x – 6 6x = 8x –6 6x – 8x = 8x – 6 –8x –2x = –6 . y C (9. Cross-multiply to solve the proportion. D. and then solve for y. you know that their slopes are just opposite reciprocals.2x = .5 = . find the slope of AB and use that to help you find the value of y. Slope of AB = 2 . C. To solve the equation 82x = 44x–3. Add 6 to each side to isolate the variable. y) A (1. notice that both bases. In the line above. Distribute the 3 on the left side. 5) B (3. First. On each side. 17. multiply the exponents. 2) x Since AB = BC . 3 y-2 2 = Slope of BC = 9-3 3 y-2 2 = 3 6 3(y – 2) = 12 3y – 6 = 12 3y – 6 + 6 = 12 + 6 3y = 18 3y 18 = 3 3 y=6 18. 3 2 2 Next. since the bases are equal.6 -2 -2 x=3 Divide both sides by –2. are powers of 2. 8 and 4. and then solve the resulting equation. So you will first change both sides of the equation to the same base. Then the slope of BC has to be 2 (the opposite reciprocal of . the exponents are equal. set it equal to .

(B) n2 + 3 = (even)2 + 3 = even + 3 = odd. Q x P l 2 A 2 8 6 B 2 T 4 In the figure above. 2 Subtract 16 from each side of the equation. C. AT has been drawn perpendicular to radius QB to form a rectangle PATQ and a right triangle ATB. The distance. To find the times at which the rocket is 80 feet above the ground. C. you set h(t) = 80 and solve for t. 3 3 3 3 2. B. B. x. you have: in right ᭝ATB: x2 + 42 = 82 x2 + 16 = 64 x2 + 16 –16 = 64 – 16 x = 48 x = 48 x = 16 # 3 = 4 3 20. so Choice B IS correct. Notice that the length of AB is 8. t = 1 So the rocket is 80 feet above the ground at 1 second. Each of these is perpendicular to line l since line l is tangent to the circle at points P and Q. Take out common factor of –16. and then again at 3 seconds. you are looking for is the same as side AT in the right triangle. Factor t2 – 4t + 3 into (t – 3)(t – 1) Set each factor equal to 0. Subtract 80 from both sides to get 0 one side. 293 . Take the square root of both sides. just the sum of the two radii 2 and 6. so Choice A is not correct. radii AP and QB have been drawn. So using the Pythagorean theorem. 80 = –16t2 + 64t + 32 80 – 80 = –16t2 + 64t + 32 – 80 0 = –16t2 + 64t – 48 0 = –16(t2 – 4t + 3) 0 = –16(t – 3)(t – 1) t–3=0t–1=0 t = 3. Trying the choices one at a time. Practice Test III Practice Test IIIB Explanations 1+1+1 3+2+1 6 2 3 6 = 6 6 6 = 6 =1 1. with n being even. x = 12 + 75 = 4 : 3 + 25 : 3 = 2 3 + 5 3 = 7 3 3. B.Practice Test III 19. The difference between these times is 3 – 1 = 2. you have: (A) 3n + 2 = 3(even) + 2 = even + 2 = even.

y B (4. 8π = πr 2 π π 8 = r2 8=r 2 2=r Simplified 8 = 4 # 2 = 2 2 Since the radius of the circle is 2 2 . x 2 pattern.Part III: Math Practice Tests 4. d = 4√2 As you can see in the figure above. 6) A (3. 7) C (7. x = 4 # 5 = 2 5 .47 5. ᭝DBC is an isosceles right triangle (45°-45°-90°) with a hypotenuse of 4 2. C. its diameter is twice this. C. 6 x 4 In the right triangle above. The area of the circle is given as 8π. B. 6. the Pythagorean theorem gives us: x2 + 42 = 62 x2 + 16 = 36 x2 + 16 – 16 = 36 – 16 x = 20 x = 20 Take the square root of each side. Thus the area of the square is 4 × 4 = 16. or 4 2 . you know that each side of the square is now just 4. 4) x 294 . Take square root of both sides. x. Divide both sides of equation by π. Therefore 8π = πr2 Area of a circle is found by the formula πr2. So with your x. A 45° P 45° D 4 C 4 B 2 Subtract 16 from each side of the equation. or approximately 4.

their respective terms must be equal. Factor 2 middle terms on left. So the product of all 3 slopes is just . x. and the last constant terms on the left and right sides of the equation must be equal.1 . Shorter Method: If (x + m)(x + n) = x2 – 5x – 36. So you have: n + m = –5 and mn = –36 + n -5 5 Thus the ratio is m mn = .36 = 36 8. 5 Let the length of the original rectangle be L.36 2 2 Expand left side (FOIL). specifically. Add underlining for next step. Slope of AC = 6 . If you decrease this by 20% (or by of W). you find the width of the rectangle is 2 and the length of the rectangle is 3 2 as shown in the figure. each triangle at each corner of the figure is an isosceles right triangle.5x . So all you have to do is find the slope of AC . So using your x.4 = 2 = 1 . 5 5 Practice Test III original rectangle W new rectangle (3)L 4 ( 4 )W 5 L 295 . Since the two polynomial are equal.Practice Test III Since AB = BC . you have only remaining. ii. i. 1 1 45° √2 3√2 45° 3 3√2 √2 45° 3 1 45° 3 3 1 In the figure above. B. 2 2 7-3 4 2 7. B. then you know that m + n = –5. the coefficient of the x terms on the left and right sides of the equation must be equal. If you decrease this by 25% (or by 1 of L).6 = 10 9. you know that the product of their slopes is just –1. Then you have Areashaded = Areasquare – Arearect. and this will give you the product of all three slopes of the sides of ᭝ABC.1 # 1 = .2 # 3 2 = 16 .36 = 36 . 4 4 1 4 Let the width of the original rectangle be W. since that’s how factoring works. you have only 3 remaining. + n -5 5 So the ratio is m mn = . and mn = –36. = 4 # 4 . 3 . x 2 pattern. Longer Method: (x + m)(x + n) = x2 – 5x – 36 x2 + nx + mx + mn = x2 – 5x – 36 x2 + (n + m)x + mn = x2 – 5x – 36 x + ` n + m j x + mn = x . multiply that by –1.

its associated arc. The sum of the measure of the angles of a triangle is 180. A 25° x° C 50° x° B 50° $ Since the 25° angle is an inscribed angle. we have in ᭝ACB: x + x + 50 = 180 2x + 50 = 180 2x + 50 – 50 = 180 – 50 2x = 130 2x = 130 2 2 x = 65 Divide both sides by 2. 3x = 3 # 4 = 12 = 12 or 1.5 11 11.5i x .5 4 2 . segments CA and CB are both radii of the circle.5y 2 y 2 ^ 3x h 3xy 2 3x = 2 2 2 = 2 x y . as follows: 2 x y 2 .5 16 . Subtract 50 from each side of the equation.09 x 2 . 296 . it appears that you need to know the value of both x and y to find the value of the expression 3xy 2 . 65. or 1.09 11 At first glance. AB is twice that.5y y _ x 2 . 5 12 10.5 2 As you can now see. But if you do some factoring first. Notice that since C is the center of the circle. so their lengths are equal. Then.Part III: Math Practice Tests Then you have: Areaoriginal = LW and AREAnew = c 3 L m c 4 W m = 3 LW 4 5 5 So the area of the new rectangle is just 3 of the area of the original rectangle. or 50°. its measure is the same as that of arc AB . $ Since ∠ACB is a central angle. you find that all of the y’s will cancel out. So the angles opposite these two radii are equal. which is 50°. you only need to know that x = 4 in order to find the value of this last expression. as marked in the figure. thus the two angles are marked x° in the figure.

with 23 being the median. Subtract 12m from both sides. So the difference between the largest and smallest of these is 29 – 17 = 12. 50. having an odd number of integers (as in this case.666 or . 2 128 40 minutes ago. the population was 256 = 128 .Practice Test III 12. 3 13. 12(m + n)(c – r) = 72 3 × 4(m + n)(c – r) = 72 3(m + n) × 4(c – r) = 72 9 × 4(c – r) = 72 36 × (c – r) = 72 36 # ^ c . 12. 2 Doubles every 10 minutes into the future. the list of consecutive odd integers is: 17. we want to get m x on one side. the population was = 256 .r h 72 = 36 36 c–r=2 Divide both sides by 36. 2. the median is always the middle number in the list of the consecutive integers. In your case. Current population is 1. whose value you are given. In place of the 3(m + n) above. 23. Your goal is to find the value of c – r from the equation below. you put a 9. 25. Practice Test III 15.667 3 You are asked to find the value of m x from the following equation: 10x + 15m = 12 x+m ^ x + m hc 10x + 15m m = 12 x + m ^ h x+m 10x + 15m = 12x + 12m Multiply both sides by (x + m). 10x + 15m –10x = 12x + 12m – 10x 15m = 2x + 12m 15m – 12m = 2x + 12m –12m 3m = 2x 3m = 2x x x 3m = 2 x 1 c 3m m = 2 # 1 3 x 3 m=2 x 3 Subtract 10x from each side. 14. Shorter Method: For any problem with consecutive integers and consecutive odd/even integers. There are a couple of ways to approach this problem—one shorter and one a bit longer. i. Factor the expression on the left this way so you get one factor as 3(m + n). 2 50 minutes ago. 19. 10 minutes ago. 21. 2 512 20 minutes ago. the population was 64 = 32 .024. Divide both sides by x. 297 . 27. and 29. 2 30 minutes ago. seven integers). the population was = 64 . 2 or . the population was 1024 = 512 . Multiply both sides by 1 .

17. you can choose the last digit in only one of two ways—the other two remaining even digits. you have even even . So the first and last digits must be with a 2. then you can write: a + b + c + d + e = 20 5 a + b + c + d + e m = 5 # 20 5c 5 a + b + c + d + e = 100 If a = 10. then two of the remaining digits. If your integers are a. (2. You can choose the first digit in any one of three ways. 27. 36. Therefore the area of the rectangle is 6 × 8 = 48.Part III: Math Practice Tests ii. You are using the five digits 2. 16. Since the median of the list of the seven terms is n + 6 and you are told that this is 23. The difference between the largest and smallest is 29 – 17 = 12. d. the length of the hypotenuse of the shaded right triangle in the figure above is labeled as 5. 4. then the one and only one remaining digit. If you use a series of blanks to indicate the choices to 3 2 be made in creating your five-digit numbers. Then your seven consecutive odd integers are 17. The average of the five different two-digit positive integers is 20. so n = 17. y). 3 3 even 2 1 2 even Our answer is just the product of these numbers in the blanks. y A B 3 y x 2y 5 D 2(3) = 6 C (3. or a 6. y) Since the circle has a radius of 5. b = 11. its height is 2y. 23. and 29. so the horizontal leg of the right triangle is 3 and its vertical leg y. n + 4. c = 12. 6). 4. and since y = 4. 298 . c. 4. and 6 to create five-digit numbers beginning and ending with an even digit. you would then have: 10 + 11 + 12 + 13 + e = 100 46 + e = 100 e = 54 The difference between the largest and the smallest would be 54 – 10 = 44 Multiply both sides by 5. Longer Method: Let n = first odd integer. you have n + 6 = 23. 18. 25. The digits in the middle can then be any one of three remaining digits (since you have already picked two). 48. b. 3. n + 6. 21. n + 8. so 3 × 3 × 2 × 1 × 2 = 36 different five-digit numbers. then the next 6 consecutive odd integers after this will be n + 2. 44. n + 10. Point C has coordinates (3. This is just a 3-4-5 right triangle. so the y must be 4. 5. Notice from the figure that the base of rectangle ABCD is just 6. and e. and once you choose one of these even numbers. 19. the height is 8. and d = 13 were the values of the 4 smallest two-digit positive integers. and n + 12.

you just find their difference. you have: a given number decreased by 5 → n – 5 the result is tripled → 3(n – 5) the number obtained is 24 → 3(n – 5) = 24 3n – 15 = 24 3n – 15 + 15 = 24 + 15 3n = 39 3n = 39 3 3 n = 13 7. Multiply by 3 (the reciprocal of 2 ) to get m r by itself.y = 1 . which is negative since 1 is greater than 1 . C. E. So the length of side MP is 16 = 4 . 8√3 30° 4 60° 4√3 2 2 Distribute 3 on left. Then trying each of the choices. you have: 4 2 A. Then. If you let the number be n. You can write the expression 2m – 2n – 7 as 2(m – n) – 7 by factoring a 2 out of the first 2 terms.Practice Test III Practice Test IIIC Explanations 1. To find how much larger one quantity is than another.1 . 5. To solve the proportion: 2m = 8 3r 5 3 # 2m = 3 # 8 2 3r 2 5 m = 12 r 5 r 5 m = 12 You were told that m – n = 11 in the problem. Practice Test III Divide by 3. which is positive. 10 5 Take the reciprocal of both sides of the equation.y 2 = c 1 m . 4 2 6.c 1 m = 1 .1 = 4 . 4 2 4 16 4 16 1 1 1 C. Add 15 to each side. reduce the product 24 to 12 . 2 3 On the right. 4 2 2 4 B. the perimeter of square MNOP is also 16. The perimeter of ᭝ABC is 3 + 6 + 7 = 16. 4 4. Since 0 < x < y < 1. 1 x . 2(m – n) – 7 = 2(11) – 7 = 22 – 7 = 15 2. C. C. So suppose you let x = 1 and y = 1 . x . B. so Choice C is correct.y = 1 . use some convenient fractions for x and y (they are both between 0 and l ). C. x 2 . A. Since the triangle and square have equal perimeters. So (5x – 7) – (–10 + 5x) = 5x – 7 + 10 –5x = 3. 3. which is also negative since 1 greater than 1 .1 .2 = 2 . x 299 .

Area = πr2 9r = πr 2 4 1 9π 1 2 π c 4 m = π _ πr i 9 = r2 4 3 =r 2 1. –5) is on the circle also. From the symmetry of the circle.Part III: Math Practice Tests Since AB = BC and x = 30°. Since the point ( 7. 4). y (−3. The circumference = 2πr = 2π # 3 = 3π . E. –4) and (3. the circle with center at the origin contains the point (–3. The area is ∆ABC = 1 bh = 1 # 12 # 4 3 = 24 3 . you can find the radius of the circle. 5) is on the graph of y = x2 + k. C. x 1 64 8 64 Since 1 < 1 < 64. x 3. the correct order is Choice C: 8 4 x= x<3 x< 1 x 11. 2 2 8. so this point is not on the circle. 4) (0. you can tell that the points (3. −5) (3. Knowing the area. you can see that the circle’s radius is just 5. Since 0 < x < 1. 4) are also on the same circle. you can find that BC = 4 3 . Then you have: 3 x = 3 1 = 1 64 4 1 = 1 . 2 9. 7) is between 2 and 3 units from the circle’s center. and then. B. 5=7+k –2 = k 300 . Multiply both sides by π Find the square root of both sides. D. you know that ᭝ABC is a 30°-60°-90° triangle. point (0. With AC = 8 3 and using your x. you should get a true statement when substituting the point into the equation: y = x2 + k 5 = ` 7j + k 2 Replace y with 5 and x with 7. from that you can find the circumference. 4) 5 4 x 3 (3. −4) In the figure above. But point (0. since you can easily find both its cube and 64 square roots. say x = 1 . Since the circle’s radius is 5. Using your 3-4-5 right triangle pattern. √7) D (0. select a convenient value of for x. 1 = 1 = 64 . Then AB = ` 4 3 j # 3 = 12 . 10. 2x pattern.

The factor pairs of 36 and their respective sums are as follows: 1. (9. y + 1 = 0 y = 7. Factor the right-hand side. B. and then use FOIL. Set each factor equal to 0. the points are (9. 301 . –1). 3). 7) and (9. 25 = 9 + y – 6y + 9 25 = y2 – 6y + 18 25 – 25 = y – 6y + 18 – 25 0 = y2 – 6y – 7 0 = (y – 7)(y + 1) y – 7 = 0. then by squaring each side. you have: AP = 5 = ^ 9 . y) If you let your desired point be P. y = –1 2 Therefore. y) and (6. 3=x x 3/4 = y 3/8 _ x 3/4 i = _ y 3/8 i 4/3 4/3 12. you get xy = 36.Practice Test III Therefore. C. 12: 3 + 12 = 15 4. Subtract 25 from both sides to set the equation equal to 0. Choice C. In the xy-plane. it would then have coordinates (9. 14. y) 5 (6. and then simplify. there are two points that could be 5 units from the point A (6. y). y = x2 – 2 7 = x2 – 2 9=x 2 Replace y with 7. B. Expand (y – 3)2 = (y – 3)(y – 3). x = y 1/2 = y 13.6 h + _ y .3i 25 = 9 + (y – 3)2 2 2 Square both sides of the previous equation. 3) A 5 (9. Add the 9 + 9 on the right. Practice Test III 5 = 9 + _ y . So you are looking for factors of 36 (their product is 36) whose sum CANNOT be one of the numbers in choices A through E. Add 2 to both sides of the equation. 18: 2 + 18 = 20 3. 3) and have x-coordinate 9. 36: 1 + 36 = 37 2. 3 Multiply the powers on each side. If xy = 6 . you have: Take the 4 power of both sides to get x to just the first power.3i 2 2 Find the distance between (9. Take the square root of both sides. To solve the equation for x. 9: 4 + 9 = 13 6. Using the distance formula. 6: 6 + 6 = 12 So the sum you CANNOT have is 18.

C. t = 3: A(1) = 1.06)3 = 1. 2x + 1 x 2x − 1 Referring to the figure above.000(1.Part III: Math Practice Tests 15.000(1. then 2x – 1 = length of longer leg and 2x + 1 = length of hypotenuse.06) = 1.060 B. you can then use the Pythagorean theorem to create the equation: (short leg)2 + (long leg)2 = (hypotenuse)2 Substituting the appropriate pieces in terms of the variable x. so Choice C is correct. With x = length of short leg of right triangle. D. t = 1: A(1) = 1. NOTE: This is one of the few problems where you really need to have a calculator to do the problem quickly. you have: x2 + (2x – 1)2 = (2x + 1)2.123.60 C.000(1. substitute values of t until you arrive at the desired amount of money. A(t) = 1. 16.191.02.000(1.06)t A. which is Choice D. Using the given equation.06)2 = 1. 302 . t = 2: A(1) = 1.

Add the total number of incorrect responses for the multiple-choice questions only. 5. some questions may be slightly easier or more difficult. dividing 16 by 4 gives an adjustment factor of 4. giving you an adjustment factor (round off to the nearest whole number). 2. this may affect your scoring range. you will see questions similar to those in this book. Needless to say. 3. This raw score is then scaled to a range from 200 to 800. The total number of incorrect responses for the multiple-choice questions should be divided by 4. Add the total number of correct responses for the three Mathematics sections. Subtract this adjustment factor from the total number of correct responses to obtain a raw score. Note: No deduction is made for incorrect grid-in responses. Subtracting this adjustment factor of 4 from the original 30 correct gives a raw score of 24. When you take the actual new SAT I. 6. Using your scores: _________________ – ___________________________________ = _____________________ total correct answers wrong answers on multiple choice ÷ 4 raw score 7. This raw score is then scaled to a range from 200 to 800.SAT I Score Range Approximator The following charts are designed to give you only a very approximate score range. however. 303 . Example: If the total number of correct answers is 30 out of a possible 45 and 16 multiple-choice problems were attempted but missed. How to Approximate Your Score in Mathematics 1. 4. Use the following table to match your raw score for Mathematics and the corresponding approximate score range: Raw Score 49–55 41–49 26–40 11–25 5–10 1–4 4–0 Approximate Score Range 710–800 640–700 500–630 380–490 310–370 240–300 200–230 Keep in mind that this is only an approximate score range. not an exact score.

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