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# Lecture Notes

page 1

x!1

c) lim ( 2x5 )
x!1

e) lim f)

x!1

2 6 x 3 2 6 x 3

g) lim 4x3
x!1

b)

x! 1

lim 3x4

d)

x! 1

lim ( 2x5 )

x! 1

lim

h)

x! 1

lim 4x3

x!

d)

x! 1

lim

5 2x3

7+

8 x 5 12 + x x4

g) lim

## 5x3 5x3 5x3

2x + 4 x2 2x + 4 x3 2x + 4 x4

x!1

lim

1 1x

e) lim f)

x!1

2x3 + 1 3x x 2

h) lim i)

x!1

c) lim

5 x!1 2x3

x! 1

lim

x!1

lim

x! 1 x!1

lim ( 2x5

10) 10)

c)

x! 1 x!1

b) lim ( 2x5

## d) lim ( 2x5 + 8x6 )

4. Compute each of the following limits. a) lim x + x2 6 1 6x + 5x2 + 2x3 b) lim x2 + 9 x!1 5x + 2x2 3 c) lim x3 1 3x2 9x + 1 2x 15

x!

x!

Practice Problems
1. Compute each of the following limits. a) lim b) 3 15 x 8 3 15 x 8 c) lim d) 1 8 x x!1 3
x!

x!1

e) lim 4x9
x!1

g) lim ( 7x10 )
x!1

x! 1

lim

lim

1 8 x 13

f)

x! 1

lim 4x9

h)

x! 1

lim ( 7x10 )

Lecture Notes

page 2

## 2. Compute each of the following limits. a) lim b) 3 x!1 x5

x!

g) lim h) 5 2 + 4 x 3x 1 2 5 + 4 x 3x 5 x3 5 x3 7 6x 7 6x

x!1

5x 5x 3 x 5x x 3x 2x 1

2 x+3 2 x+3

m) lim n) lim

x!1

5 5 x+7 x+7

lim

3 1 x5 1

x! 1

lim

x! 1

c) lim d)

x!1

i) lim j)

5x

x!1

o) lim 3 p)

x!1

x! 1

lim

x! 1

lim

x! 1

lim

e) lim f)

x!1

3+

k) lim l)

x!1

x! 1

lim

3+

x! 1

lim

3x 2x

## 3. Compute each of the following limits. a)

x! 1

lim ( 7x5 + x3 )

c)

x! 1

lim

120x5

1 6 x 4 1 6 x 4

e) f)

x! 1

lim

8x4 8x4

3x3 3x3

1 x+2 5 1 x+2 5

b) lim ( 7x5 + x3 )
x!1

d) lim

x!1

120x5

x! 1

lim

4. The graph of a polynomial function is shown on the picture below. What can we state about this polynomial based on its end-behavior?
y

x!

2 11 + x x4

g) h)

x! 1 5x2

lim

3x2

1 3x + 2

lim

5 1 2x3 2 5 x3

e) lim

x! 1

lim

x!

lim

Lecture Notes

## Limits at Innity - Part 1 Sample Problems - Answers

page 3

1. a) 1 2. a) 0 3. a) 1 4. a) 0

b) 1 b) 0 b) b) 1 2

c)

1 c) 0

d) 1 d) 7

e) e)

1 1

f)

1 f) 3

g) 1 g) 1

h) h)

1 5 i) 0

c) 1 c) 1

d) 1

## Practice Problems - Answers

1. a) 2. a) 0 m) 3. a) 1 1 b) 1 b) 0 1 c) 1 o) c) c) 1 d) 1 1 1
x!1

d) 1 e) 3 p)

e) 1 g) 1

f) h)

1 1

g)

1 i) 5

h) j) 5

1 k) 3 2 l) 3 2

f) 3 1 d) 1

n) 1 b) 1

e) 1

f) 1

## 4. Since lim f (x) = leading coe cient. 5. a) 0 b) 0

x! 1

1 and lim f (x) = 1, the polynomial is of odd degree and has a positive 2 3 3 5

c) 2

d) 3

e)

f)

g)

h) 0

Lecture Notes

page 4

## 1. Compute each of the following limits. a) lim 3x4

x!1

Solution: Since the limit we are asked for is as x approaches innity, we should think of x as a very large positive number. Then 3x4 is very large, and also positive because it is the product of ve positive numbers. 3x4 = 3 x x x x
positive positive x!1 positive positive positive

## So the answer is 1. We state the answer: lim 3x4 = 1. b) lim 3x4

x! 1

Solution: Since the limit we are asked for is as x approaches negative innity, we should think of x as a very large negative number. Then 3x4 is very large, and also positive because it is the product of one positive and four negative numbers. 3x4 =
positive

negative

negative

negative

negative

## So the answer is 1. We state the answer: lim 3x4 = 1

x! 1

c) lim ( 2x5 )
x!1

Solution: Since the limit we are asked for is as x approaches innity, we should think of x as a very large positive number. Then 2x5 is very large, and also negative because it is the product of one negative and ve positive numbers. 2x5 = So the answer is lim ( 2x5 ) 2
negative positive

positive

positive

positive

positive

## 1. We state the answer: lim ( 2x5 ) =

x!1

d)

x! 1

Solution: Since the limit we are asked for is as x approaches negative innity, we should think of x as a very large negative number. Then 2x5 is very large, and also positive because it is the product of six negative numbers. 2x5 = 2
negative negative

negative

negative

negative

negative

x! 1

Lecture Notes
e) lim 2 6 x 3

## Limits at Innity - Part 1

page 5

x!1

Solution: Since the limit we are asked for is as x approaches innity, we should think of x as a very 2 6 large positive number. Then x is very large, and also negative because it is the product of one 3 negative and six positive numbers. 2 6 x = 3 So the answer is 2 3 x x x x x x

positive

positive

positive

positive

positive

positive

negative

## 1. We state the answer: lim

x!1

2 6 x 3

f)

x! 1

lim

2 6 x 3

Solution: Since the limit we are asked for is as x approaches negative innity, we should think of 2 6 x as a very large negative number. Then x is very large, and also negative because it is the 3 product of seven negative numbers. 2 6 x = 3 So the answer is 2 3 x x x x x x

negative

negative

negative

negative

negative

negative

negative

## 1. We state the answer: lim

x! 1

2 6 x = 3

g) lim 4x3
x!1

Solution: Since the limit we are asked for is as x approaches innity, we should think of x as a very large positive number. Then 4x3 is very large, and also positive because it is the product of four positive numbers. 4x3 = 4 x x x
positive positive positive positive

## So the answer is 1. We state the answer: lim 4x3 = 1

x!1

h)

x! 1

lim 4x3

Solution: Since the limit we are asked for is as x approaches negative innity, we should think of x as a very large negative number. Then 4x3 is very large, and also negative because it is the product of one positive and three negative numbers. 4x3 = So the answer is
positive

negative

negative

negative

x! 1

Lecture Notes

## Limits at Innity - Part 1

page 6

2. Compute each of the following limits. 1 a) lim x!1 x Solution: This is a very important limit. Since the limit we are asked for is as x approaches innity, we should think of x as a very large positive number. The reciprocal of a very large positive number is a very small positive number. This limit is 0. b) 1 x! 1 x Solution: Since the limit we are asked for is as x approaches negative innity, we should think of x as a very large negative number. The reciprocal of a very large negative number is a very small negative number. This limit is 0. lim 5 2x3 Solution: Since the limit we are asked for is as x approaches innity, we should think of x as a very large positive number. We divide 5 by a very large positive number. This limit is 0. c) lim
x!1

d)

x! 1

lim

5 2x3

7+

8 x

Solution: This limit is 7 since the other two terms aproach zero as x approaches negative innity. Using mathematical notation, lim 5 1 2x3 7+ 8 5 8 = lim + lim 7 + lim =0 x! 1 x x x! 1 2x3 x! 1 7+0= 7

x!

e) lim

x!1

2x3 + 1

5 12 + x x4

Solution: This limit is 1 since the rst term approaches negative innity, the second term approaches 1 and the other two terms aproach zero as x approaches innity. Using mathematical notation, lim 2x3 + 1 3x 2 5 12 + x x4 = lim 2x3 + lim 1+ lim
x!1

x!1

x!1

x!1

5 + lim x!1 x

12 x4

1+1+0+0 =

x Solution: This problem is similar to the previous problems after a bit of algebra. We simply divide by x and then the limit becomes familiar.
x! 1

f)

lim

x! 1

lim

3x x

= lim

x! 1

3x x

2 x

= lim

x! 1

2 x

=3

## Last revised: May 21, 2011

Lecture Notes
g) lim 5x3 2x + 4 x2 5x3

## Limits at Innity - Part 1

page 7

x!1

Solution:
x!1

lim

2x + 4 x2

5x3 2x 4 + 2 + 2 = lim 5x 2 x!1 x!1 x x x 2 4 = lim ( 5x) + lim + lim = x!1 x!1 x!1 x x2 lim

2 4 + 2 x x 1+0+0= 1

h) lim

5x3

x!1

Solution:
x!1

lim

= lim

x!1

= lim

x!1

i)

x!1

lim

5x3

Solution:
x!1

lim

= lim

x!1

= lim

x!1

=0

## 3. Compute each of the following limits. a)

x! 1

lim ( 2x5

8x4 + 7x3

10)

Solution: The rst term, 2x5 approaches innity and the secomd term, 8x4 approaches negative innity. This does not give us enough information about the entire polynomial. A limit like this is called an indeterminate. We will bring this expression to a form that is not an indeterminate. In this case, factoring out the rst term does the trick. In case of a polynomial, the limits at innity and negative innity are completely determined by its leading term. Recall that the leading term is the highest degree term. lim 2x5 8x4 + 7x3 10 = lim 2x5
x! 1 x! 1

Here is the computation showing why this is true. We rst factor out the entire leading term. lim 2x5 8x4 + 7x3 10 = = = lim lim lim 2x5 2x5 2x5 7 5 + 5 2 x x 4 7 5 lim 1 + + 5 2 x! 1 x x x 5 1 = lim 2x 1+
x! 1

x! 1

x! 1 x! 1 x! 1

4 x

We can now easily determine that this limit is 1. (See problem number 1.)

Lecture Notes
b) lim ( 2x5
x!1

## Limits at Innity - Part 1

8x4 + 7x3 10)

page 8

Solution: In case of a polynomial, the limits at innity and negative innity are completely determined by its leading term. Recall that the leading term is the highest degree term. lim 2x5 8x4 + 7x3 10 = lim 2x5
x!1 x!1

Here is the computation showing why this is true. We rst factor out the entire leading term. lim 2x5 8x4 + 7x3 10 = = = We can now easily determine that this limit is c) lim ( 2x5 + 8x6 ) lim lim 2x5 2x5 2x5 7 5 + 5 2 x x 4 7 5 lim 1 + + 5 2 x!1 x x x 5 1 = lim 2x 1+
x!1

x!1

4 x

lim

## 1. (See problem number 1.)

x! 1

Solution: In case of a polynomial, the limits at innity and negative innity are completely determined by its leading term.
x! 1 x! 1

lim

= = =

x! 1 x! 1 x! 1

## lim 8x6 = 1 because lim 8x6 8x

6

lim

2x5 = lim
x! 1

x! 1 6

8x6

1 4x

= lim

x! 1

8x6

x! 1

lim

1 4x

lim

1 = lim 8x

We can now easily determine that this limit is 1. (See problem number 1.) d) lim ( 2x5 + 8x6 )
x!1

Solution: In case of a polynomial, the limits at innity and negative innity are completely determined by its leading term.
x!1 x!1

lim

= = =

x!1

lim

## lim 8x6 lim 8x6

1 4x

= lim 8x6
x!1

x!1

lim

1 4x

1=1

We can now easily determine that this limit is 1. (See problem number 1.)

Lecture Notes

## Limits at Innity - Part 1

page 9

4. Compute each of the following limits. x + x2 6 a) lim =0 x! 1 6x + 5x2 + 2x3 Solution: The numerator approaches innity and the denominator approaches negative innity. This does not give us enough information about the quotient. A limit like this is called an indeterminate. We will bring this expression to a form that is not an indeterminate. Let us rearrange the polynomials in the rational function given. Then we will factor out the leading term in the numerator and denominator. 1 6 x2 1 + 2 x +x 6 x x2 lim = lim x! 1 2x3 + 5x2 + 6x x! 1 6 2x3 1 + 5 + x We now express the limit of the product as the product of two limits x2 1 +
x! 1

lim

2x3

6 x2 6 1+5+ x

1 x

= lim

x! 1

x 2x3

1+
x! 1

lim

6 x2 6 1+5+ x

1 x

The rst expression can be simplied and thus has a limit we can easily determine its limit. The second expression, although looks unfriendly, is always going to approach 1. x 1 2x3
2

1+
x! 1

x!

lim

lim

6 x2 6 1+5+ x 1 x

1 x

= lim
x!

1 1=0 1=0 1 2x

The entire computation should look like this: x +x 6 = 2x3 + 5x2 + 6x = b) lim
2

x2 1 +
x! 1

x! 1

lim

lim

2x3

6 x2 6 1+5+ x

= lim

x! 1

x 2x3

1+
x! 1

lim

6 x2 6 1+5+ x

1 x

x!

lim

1 1=0 1=0 1 2x

x2 + 9 1 = 2 x!1 5x + 2x 3 2 Solution: Both numerator and denominator approach innity. This does not give us enough information about the quotient. A limit like this is called an indeterminate. We will bring this expression to a form that is not an indeterminate. Let us rearrange the polynomials in the rational function given. Then we will factor out the leading term in the numerator and denominator. x +9 lim = 2 x!1 2x + 5x 3
2

x2 1 +
x!1

lim

9 x2

1+

9 x2 3 2x2

## Last revised: May 21, 2011

Lecture Notes
c) x3 x! 1 3x2 Solution: lim x lim x! 1 3x2
3

## Limits at Innity - Part 1

9x + 1 = 2x 15 1 9 + x2 2 3x 1= 1 x3 5 x2
x!

page 10

9x + 1 = 2x 15 =

x3 1
x! 1

lim

3x2 x3 1 3x2

x3 = lim x! 1 3x2 x 1 3 1=

1
x! 1

lim

1 1

9 + x2 2 3x

1 x3 5 x2

x!

lim

lim

1 1=