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Electrical grid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Electrical power grid) An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high-voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect individual customers. Power stations may be located near a fuel source, at a dam site, or to take advantage of renewable energy sources, and are often located away from heavily populated areas. They are usually quite large to take advantage of the economies of scale. The electric power which is generated is stepped up to a higher voltage-at which it connects to the transmission network. The transmission network will move the power long distances, sometimes across international boundaries, until it reaches its wholesale customer (usually the company that owns the local distribution network). On arrival at a substation, the power will be stepped down from a transmission level voltage to a distribution level voltage. As it exits the substation, it enters the distribution wiring. Finally, upon arrival at the service location, the power is stepped down again from the distribution voltage to the required service voltage(s).
General layout of electricity networks. Voltages and depictions of electrical lines are typical for Germany and other European systems.
1 Term 2 History 3 Features 3.1 Structure of distribution grids 3.2 Geography of transmission networks 3.3 Redundancy and defining "grid" 4 Aging Infrastructure 5 Modern trends 6 Future trends 7 Emerging smart grid 8 References 9 External links
the first electric utility systems supplied energy through virtual mains to light filtration as opposed to gas burners. all energy was produced near the device or service requiring that energy. Charles Merz. the electrical grid has evolved from an insular system that serviced a particular geographic area to a wider. and telephone companies and thereby were given outlined restrictions and regulatory oversight of their operations. and Europe had town gas piped through their municipalities as it was a dominant form of household energy use. This ushered in the Golden Age of Regulation for more than 60 years. It required transmission line owners to allow electric generation companies open access to their network. with the successful deregulation of airlines and telecommunication industries in late 1970s. electric utilities also took advantage of economies of scale and moved to centralized power generation. direct heating and cooling. by creating a dense distribution grid to feed its industries efficiently. electricity was a novel invention that competed with steam. This started operating as a national system. Modeled after the gas lighting industry. the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992 advocated deregulation of electric utilities by creating wholesale electric markets. Features Structure of distribution grids en. the free encyclopedia The term grid usually refers to a network. At one point. lead to the setting up of the National Grid. The bill was the first step towards an integrated electricity system. Virtually every city in the U. distribution. The more significant Electricity (Supply) Act of 1926. and by 1912 had developed into the largest integrated power system in Europe. tremendous wasted heat which made rooms hot and smoky. In 1934.org/wiki/Electrical_power_grid 2/7 . Interconnection became increasingly desirable as electrification grew rapidly in the early years of the 20th century. a regional transmission network or may be used to describe a subnetwork such as a local utility's transmission grid or distribution grid. expansive network that incorporated multiple areas. In 1916 Merz pointed out that the UK could use its small size to its advantage. With this. but it was not until World War I that Parliament began to take this idea seriously. electric utilities were easily financed by Wall Street private investors who backed many of their ventures. appointing him head of a Parliamentary Committee to address the problem. Grid may also be used to refer to an entire continent's electrical network. However. In 1905 he tried to influence Parliament to unify the variety of voltages and frequencies in the country's electricity supply industry. and noxious elements in the form of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. His findings led to the Williamson Report of 1918. utilities joined together establishing a wider utility grid as joint-operations saw the benefits of sharing peak load coverage and backup power. It was first produced on customer’s premises but later evolved into large gasifiers that enjoyed economies of scale. In the United States in the 1920s. water. In the early 19th century. in 1938. which in turn created the Electricity Supply Bill of 1919. gas production and delivery had become the first centralized element in the modern energy industry. built the Neptune Bank Power Station near Newcastle upon Tyne in 1901. the National Grid. with the passage of the Public Utility Holding Company Act (USA).10/17/13 Electrical grid . With the realization of long distance power transmission it was possible to interconnect different central stations to balance loads and improve load factors. and system management.S. of the Merz & McLellan consulting partnership. During this period. History Since its inception in the Industrial Age. hydraulics.wikipedia. electric arc lighting soon became advantageous compared to volatile gas lamps since gas lamps produced poor light. The Central Electricity Board standardised the nation's electricity supply and established the first synchronised AC grid. Also.Wikipedia. and should not be taken to imply a particular physical layout or breadth. electric utilities were recognized as public goods of importance along with gas. light. and most notably gas. By the mid-19th century. running at 132 kilovolts and 50 Hertz.
see the map of the United States' (right) high-voltage transmission network.wikipedia. A substation receives its power from the transmission network. green are under construction. The logical topology can vary depending on the constraints of budget. connecting a large number of electricity generators and consumers and potentially enabling more efficient electricity markets and redundant generation. For example. Generation and consumption must be balanced across the entire grid. because energy is consumed almost instantaneously as it is produced. The Continental U. This tree-like structure grows outward from the substation. power transmission grid consists of about 300. or "topology" of a grid can vary considerably. Geography of transmission networks Transmission networks are more complex with redundant pathways. Redundancy allows line failures to occur and power is simply rerouted while workmen repair the damaged and deactivated line. The cheapest and simplest topology for a distribution or transmission grid is a radial structure. Most transmission grids require the reliability that more complex mesh networks provide. each generator maintained by a local governor that regulates the driving torque by controlling the steam supply to the turbine driving it. This connection can be enabled in case of an emergency. requirements for system reliability. and the load and generation characteristics. High-voltage direct current interconnections in western Europe . usually contains at least one unused backup connection to a nearby substation. so that a portion of a substation's service territory can be alternatively fed by another substation. and blue are proposed. then this image approximates how a mesh system operates. These feeders carry three-phase power.10/17/13 Electrical grid . Other topologies used are looped systems found in Europe and tied ring networks. As the distance from the substation grows. The physical layout is often forced by what land is available and its geology.red are existing links. In cities and towns of North America.Wikipedia. This allows transmission of AC power throughout the area.org/wiki/Electrical_power_grid 3/7 .000 km of lines operated by approximately 500 companies. but for reliability reasons.S. en. In a synchronous grid all the generators run not only at the same speed but also at the same phase. Interconnection maps are shown of North America (right) and Europe (below left). and tend to follow the major streets near the substation. The expense of mesh topologies restrict their application to transmission and medium voltage distribution grids. A wide area synchronous grid or "interconnection" is a group of distribution areas all operating with alternating current (AC) frequencies synchronized (so that peaks occur at the same time). the grid tends to follow the classic radially fed design. This is a tree shape where power from a large supply radiates out into progressively lower voltage lines until the destination homes and businesses are reached. Most are members of the European Transmission System Operators association. Energy is stored in the immediate short term by the rotational kinetic energy of the generators. the power is stepped down with a transformer and sent to a bus from which feeders fan out in all directions across the countryside. The wide area synchronous grids of Europe. the free encyclopedia The structure. If one were to imagine running redundant lines between limbs/branches of a tree that could be turned in case any particular limb of the tree were severed. the fanout continues as smaller laterals spread out to cover areas missed by the feeders.
its power delivery infrastructures suffer aging across the developed world. the term national grid is something of an anachronism in many parts of the world. 3. Aging Infrastructure Despite the novel institutional arrangements and network designs of the electrical grid. generally involving long-distance transmission. as transmission cables now frequently cross national boundaries. The U. Aging power equipment – older equipment have higher failure rates. Old cultural value – planning. also. Some areas. the free encyclopedia A large failure in one part of the grid . 2. Existing national or regional grids simply provide the interconnection of facilities to utilize whatever redundancy is available.10/17/13 Electrical grid . and modern deregulated loading levels 4. but national grid is often still used for the overall structure.wikipedia. compare the wide area synchronous grid map of Europe (above left) with the map of HVDC lines (below right). where it believes transmission bottlenecks have developed. For example. This provides the benefit of interconnection without the need to synchronize an even wider area. Outdated engineering – traditional tools for power delivery planning and engineering are ineffective in addressing current problems of aged equipment. for example rural communities in Alaska. The terms distribution grid for local connections and transmission grid for long-distance transmissions are therefore preferred. insufficient facilities.org/wiki/Electrical_power_grid 4/7 . relying instead on local diesel generators. leading to customer interruption rates affecting the economy and society. causing further failures. The exact stage of development at which the supply structure becomes a grid is arbitrary. operating of system using concepts and procedures that worked in vertically integrated industry exacerbate the problem under a deregulated industry  Modern trends en. Similarly. A central authority is usually designated to facilitate communication and develop protocols to maintain a stable grid. and has advisory powers in the applicable parts of Canada and Mexico. older assets and facilities lead to higher inspection maintenance costs and further repair/restoration costs. Redundancy and defining "grid" A town is only said to have achieved grid connection when it is connected to several redundant sources.Wikipedia. One downside to a widely connected grid is thus the possibility of cascading failure and widespread power outage. government has also designated National Interest Electric Transmission Corridors. engineering.S.can cause current to re-route itself to flow from the remaining generators to consumers over transmission lines of insufficient capacity. High-voltage direct current lines or variable frequency transformers can be used to connect two alternating current interconnection networks which are not synchronized with each other. the North American Electric Reliability Corporation gained binding powers in the United States in 2006. Obsolete system layout – older areas require serious additional substation sites and rights-of-way that cannot be obtained in current area and are forced to use existing. This redundancy is limited.unless quickly compensated for . Four contributing factors to the current state of the electric grid and its consequences include: 1. obsolete system layouts. For example. do not operate on a large grid.
Currently. Also. A recent proposal by Transcanada priced a 1. With everything interconnected. Future trends As deregulation continues further. Funds have also been allocated to develop more robust energy control technologies. 2000 Here (http://www. Even globalization with foreign purchases are taking place. a recent 6 GW. the differences between distribution and transmission grids will continue to blur. 3-GW HVDC line at $3 billion USD and would require a corridor 60 meters wide.org/wiki/Electrical_power_grid 5/7 . demand response is a grid management technique where retail or wholesale customers are requested either electronically or manually to reduce their load. the largest private electric utility in the world. These resources can be brought on-line either at the utility's behest. The smaller generation facility might be a home-owner with excess power from their solar panel or wind turbine. Scottish Power purchased Pacific Energy for $12.10/17/13 Electrical grid .2 billion.K’s National Grid. or by owner of the generation in an effort to sell electricity.[citation needed ] Domestically. the electric utility industry seeks to take advantage of novel approaches to meet growing energy demand.Wikipedia. can be brought on-line to help supply the need for power. local electric and gas firms begin to merge operations as they see advantage of joint affiliation especially with the reduced cost of joint-metering. offshore wind farms. utilities are driven to sell their assets as the energy market follows in line with the gas market in use of the futures and spot markets and other financial arrangements. Utilities are under pressure to evolve their classic topologies to accommodate distributed generation. en. Technological advances will take place in the competitive wholesale electric markets such examples already being utilized include fuel cells used in space flight.8 billion.600-km. locomotives). Electricity is expected to see growing demand in the future. aeroderivative gas turbines used in jet aircrafts.gov/rules/other/35-27154. Recently. One study for a European super grid estimates that as much as 750 GW of extra transmission capacity would be requiredcapacity that would be accommodated in increments of 5 GW HVDC lines.850-km proposal was priced at $790 million and would require a 69 meter wide right of way. The hope is to enable utilities to better predict their needs. The promised benefits include enabling the renewable energy industry to sell electricity to distant markets. U. In the U. As generation becomes more common from rooftop solar and wind generators. The Information Revolution is highly reliant on electric power. developments in space conditioning. industrial process. With 750 GW of new HVDC transmission capacity required for a European super grid. and transportation (for example hybrid vehicles. solar engineering and photovoltaic systems.wikipedia. and the communication advances spawned by the digital world particularly with microprocessing which aids in monitoring and dispatching. Other growth areas include emerging new electricity-exclusive technologies. or mega grids. and open competition occurring in a free market economy. In India. 1. it starts to make sense to allow and even encourage distributed generation (DG).sec. See the SEC filing dated March 15. transmission grid operators use demand response to request load reduction from major energy users such as industrial plants. the land and money needed for new transmission lines would be considerable. numerous efforts are underway to develop a "smart grid". It might be a small office with a diesel generator. Local opposition to siting new lines and the significant cost of these projects are major obstacles to super grids. Many small generators are allowed to sell electricity back to the grid for the same price they would pay to buy it. Smaller generators. the ability to increase usage of intermittent energy sources by balancing them across vast geological regions. the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 are providing funding to encourage smart grid development.. and in some cases involve consumers in some form of time-of-use based tariff. and the removal of congestion that prevents electricity markets from flourishing.htm) Also. the free encyclopedia As the 21st century progresses. Furthermore. Various planned and proposed systems to dramatically increase transmission capacity are known as super. usually not owned by the utility.S. bought New England’s electric system for $3.
uk/enquiries/energy/evidence/ShawA1. L. 6.wikipedia. Welch. (2009). Many research projects have been conducted to explore the concept of smart grid. CRC Press. G. and management. The needs and changes present the power industry with one of the biggest challenges it has ever faced. the ability to get richer data to and from customer smart meters and other electric devices. Boca Raton. Electrical Power Transmission: Background and Policy Issues. Pp. M. The protection system is the subsystem in smart grid that provides advanced grid reliability analysis. The National Trust.Encyclopedia of Earth 8. R. The traditional electrical grids are generally used to carry power from a few central generators to a large number of users or customers. This information could be mined and retrieved by interested parties to reveal personal information such as individual's habits. ^ Mazer. Inc. 400 pgs. Electric Power Planning for Regulated and Deregulated Markets.org. 2008 . activities. Most of the existing works aim to improve energy efﬁciency.com/survey/survey-utilities. Distributed Generation: The Power Paradigm for the New Millennium.nationaltrust. 7. monitoring. A.Net. ^ Kaplan. S. We must note that the advanced infrastructure used in smart grid on one hand empowers us to realize more powerful mechanisms to defend against attacks and handle failures. we will replace a physical infrastructure with a digital one. opens up many new vulnerabilities.org.the infrastructure system. 4.eoearth.org/article/Energy_profile_of_Alaska. (2001). V. cost. and Sons. The infrastructure system is the energy.pdf) (PDF)._United_States). Smart Grid. the management system. ^ "Survey of Belford 1995" (http://www. and 3) advanced communication technologies.royalsoced. ^ Willis. North Northumberland Online. R. delivery. Aging Power Delivery Infrastructures. John. machine learning. For example.nnouk. Wiley. 3. demand proﬁle. an enhancement of the 20th century electrical grid. failure protection. the electrical grid is expected to evolve to a new grid paradigm--smart grid.html). F. information. Within the advanced infrastructure framework of smart grid. ^ a b c d Borberly.. and game theory. The obvious privacy concern is that the energy use information stored at the meter acts as an information rich side channel.org/wiki/Electrical_power_grid 6/7 . FL. Royal Society of Edinburgh. and Kreider. ^ "Lighting by electricity" (http://www. based on the infrastructure by using optimization. Government Series. but on the other hand. 2) advanced information metering. In the transition from the conventional power grid to smart grid. and emission. The management system is the subsystem in smart grid that provides advanced management and control services. is also its Achilles' heel from a privacy viewpoint.10/17/13 Electrical grid . H. 313pgs. J. and on to GB SYS 2005" (http://www. the new emerging smart grid uses two-way ﬂows of electricity and information to create an automated and distributed advanced energy delivery network. Editor: Cutler J. 2.uk/main/w-chl/w-places_collections/w-collectionsmain/w-collections-highlights/w-collections-lighting-electricity.Wikipedia. Hoboken. In contrast. and consumption. NJ. Last Updated: July 30. 5. ^ Energy profile of Alaska. (2001). and Schrieber. and communication infrastructure underlying of the smart grid that supports 1) advanced electricity generation. and the protection system. utility. United States (http://www. the research is mainly focused on three systems in smart grid. Cleveland. 1-42. more and more new management services and applications are expected to emerge and eventually revolutionize consumers' daily lives..shtml).. ^ Mr Alan Shaw (29 September 2005). and even beliefs. NIST pointed out that the major benefit provided by smart grid. behaviors. A. and security and privacy protection services. References 1. The Capital. According to a newest survey on smart grid. "Kelvin to Weir. the free encyclopedia Emerging smart grid As mentioned above. Marcel en. (2007).