You are on page 1of 23

Front. Energy 2012, 6(1): 5779 DOI 10.

1007/s11708-011-0164-8

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Naresh YADAV, Irshad Ahmad KHAN, Sandeep GROVER

Structural modeling of a typical gas turbine system

Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Abstract This paper presents an approach for the structural modeling and analysis of a typical gas turbine system. This approach has been applied to the systems and subsystems, which are integral parts of a typical gas turbine system. Since a gas turbine system performance is measured in terms of uid ow energy transformations across its various assemblies and subassemblies, the performance of such subsystems affects the overall performance of the gas turbine system. An attempt has been made to correlate the associativity of such subsystems contributing to overall gas turbine system functional evaluation using graph theoretic approach. The characteristic equations at the system level as well as subsystem level have been developed on the basis of associativity of various factors affecting their performance. A permanent function has been proposed for the functional model of a gas turbine system, which further leads to selection, identication and optimal evaluation of gas turbine systems. Keywords system modeling, gas turbine system evaluation, graph theoretic approach

Introduction

The use of gas turbines for power generation has increased in recent years and is likely to continue to increase in the future. At present, the demand of gas turbine systems in electrical power generation [1,2] accounts for more than 50% of the world market of the thermal power plants. Gas turbine systems working on combined cycles [3] have
Received May 5, 2011; accepted June 30, 2011 Naresh YADAV ( ), Irshad Ahmad KHAN Mechanical Engineering Department, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India E-mail: nareshyadav5@gmail.com Sandeep GROVER Mechanical Engineering Department, YMCA University of Science and Technology, Faridabad 121006, India

widely replaced the demand of steam power plants due to their comparatively low capital cost, shorter construction lead time and environmental statutory regulations. In a gas turbine system, the powering unit, consisting of a compressor, a combustor and a turbine, is considered to be the heart of the system. The performance of the powering unit directly affects the entire performance of the power generation system. Various support systems, like air atomizing system, lubrication system, water cooling system, and re protection system, etc., along with the control system, help in governing of the best matching performance of the powering unit in a typical power generation environment. Many research studies have been carried out on analyzing design and performance strategies related to the subsystems of the thermal power plants. The quality of the thermal power plants [4] has been evaluated using graph theoretic approach by identifying interactions among the critical but conicting parameters. Similar studies have been conducted for the real time reliability index evaluation [5] and real time commercial availability index evaluation [6] for the steam power plants. The system modeling [7] and the maintenance strategy [8] of the coal based power plants have also been performed in the past using the subsystem studies. A remarkable progress has been observed worldwide over the adaptability of gas turbine systems in power generation sector. A typical gas turbine based power generation unit operating in India has been shown in Fig. 1. For the gas turbine systems, some of the researchers have worked for the improvement of the gas turbine system efciency [9] by considering optimization of various parameters in the existing systems or the usage of advanced technologies related to power augmentation [10], NOx control or the safety standards. Thermodynamic performance aspects of such systems have been paid attention to signicantly. Thermodynamic analysis [11,12] in terms of energy and exergy analysis have been made to predict the energy utilization in such systems. Performance optimization of such gas turbine systems [13] has been calculated in terms of minimizing fuel consumption subject to constrained specic thrust and turbine blade

58

Front. Energy 2012, 6(1): 5779

Fig. 1 View of a gas turbine power station

temperature conditions. Various advanced gas turbine cycles [14] have also been critically analyzed and compared to take full advantage of thermodynamic characteristics of the systems. However, any study on the gas turbine system as a whole for its modeling and analysis based on its subcomponent performance in terms of interdependencies of the attributes or performance variables of these subsystems is still unknown. The performance of the gas turbine systems is primarily represented in terms of its structural conguration, functional relationships of its subcomponents and the response characteristics of its control system. The structural conguration can be represented in terms of mechanical linkages, type of contacts, nature and materials of assemblies. However, once a preliminary gas turbine system is designed to get the performance outcomes for the operating cycles, attention is to be paid to the functional relationships of its various sub-components and the response of the control systems. The performance of various subsystems is again based on its design features. The design of various support systems also contributes signicantly to achieving the desired performance outcomes i.e., thermal efciencies, reliability, operational exibility, etc. of such gas turbine systems. In the present paper, effort has been made to develop a mathematical model for the typical gas turbine system in terms of functional relationships of its various subsystems for the uid ow paths, i.e., air, fuel and the exhaust. Wherever necessary, the structural linkages and the response of the control systems have been considered for analyzing the connectivity and the associativity of various subsystems. The manufactures of such systems like General Electric [15], Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited in India1) and the control system developers like Petrotech2) have provided vast literature related to performance and evolutions, manufacturing & assemblies

and the control features of such gas turbine systems respectively. The graph theory [16] has been used for understanding and analyzing the whole gas turbine system up to its subcomponent or subsystem levels. This technique has already been successfully applied to developing the mathematical model of other engineering systems like structures [17] and thermodynamic cycles [18], etc. in the past. This procedure permits the analysis and synthesis of such complex gas turbine systems with much ease as compared to other alternative techniques available in literature.

2 System structure modeling of gas turbine unit


For the system structure modeling of a gas turbine unit, the system is modeled on the basis of structural and functional relationships among various subsystems of the gas turbine assembly analyzed along the ow directions including air, liquid fuel ow, gas fuel ow and the combustion gases including cooling and lubrication media. In order to develop a mathematical model of the structural associativity and functional relationships amongst turbine subsystems, the gas turbine system is modeled into the following fourteen subsystems: 1)Air inlet system; 2)Powering unit system; 3)Gas fuel system; 4)Liquid fuel system; 5)Starting and drive system; 6)NOx abatement system; 7)Water wash system; 8)Enclosure and ventilation system; 9)Fire protection system; 10)Exhaust system;

1) BHEL-gas turbine support systems. ESCI Lecture Notes-Power and Energy Division, July 2009 2) Product bulletin 94091, 94023. http://www.petrotechinc.com/

Naresh YADAV et al. Structural modeling of a typical gas turbine system

59

11)Lubrication system; 12)Water cooling system; 13)Atomizing air system; 14)Control system. The above subsystems contribute directly or indirectly the specic outcomes of the gas turbine system and are also interdependent with varying degree on functional relationships.
2.1 S1: Air inlet subsystem

fraction admitted to lter compartment of the inlet system. The split thrash screen in the system protects against ingestion of ice as well as thrash. Further, a pressure switch indicates an alarming situation to initiate for a controlled shut down when the inlet system pressure drop reaches a predetermined level.
2.2 S2: Powering unit subsystem

The air inlet subsystem, as illustrated in Fig. 2, comprises the following: 1) The ambient air enters the lter compartment and then into the compressor inlet plenum through the duct, the silencer, the lined elbow, and the transition piece. 2) The compressor discharge air with reverse ow is pumped into the lter compartment to clean the lter segment intermittently. 3) To enhance the power augmentation of the gas turbine system through inlet air cooling system, the chiller coil cools the incoming ltered air to reduce the air temperature at the inlet to the compressor. 4) Since the gas turbine systems are to be designed for all weather conditions, anti-icing features are also incorporated. Anti-icing module containing inlet heating manifold in the lter compartment operated through a control valve is tted in the line of compressor discharge

The powering unit, the most important subsystem of the gas turbine system, consists of an integrated module of compressors, combustors and the turbine unit, which contributes to the energy transformation responsible for desired outcomes of the gas turbine system. In the present case, a 17-stage axial ow compressor coupled with 3stage axial ow gas turbine through annulus can combust assembly with provisions of power augmentation and NOx abatement systems. The powering unit subsystem, as demonstrated in Fig. 3, comprises the following: 1) The air from the inlet plenum enters the compressor through variable inlet guide vanes (IGVs) into the rst stage wheel-dovetail-blade assembly mounted on forward stub shaft. 2) After the compression of this air in 1st to 4th stage cascade (wheels tied with each other through tie bolts), a fraction of the air is extracted through expansion port at 5th stage which is used for cooling of all bearing assemblies, seals, wheel assemblies in compressor including wheels

Fig. 2 Schematics of inlet subsystem

60

Front. Energy 2012, 6(1): 5779

Fig. 3 Schematics of power unit subsystem

and spacers in the gas turbine and reconnected to turbine exhaust main line through turbine exhaust frame to the exhaust diffuser of the gas turbine. 3) The compressed air at 5th stage is further directed through blade cascades between 5th and 10th stage of the

compressor. The stator blades are mounted in the aft casing and the rotor wheels are tie bolted. A fraction of the air is again extracted from the expansion port at 11th stage for the pulsation control during the start up and shut down of the gas turbine. No bleed is permitted from this expansion

Naresh YADAV et al. Structural modeling of a typical gas turbine system

61

port during other time of the operation. 4) The compressed air at the exit of 11th stage is further admitted to 11th stage to 17th stage cascade assembly from where a fraction is again extracted prior to 17th stage through expansion port, which is used to cool turbine 1st and 2nd stage buckets and rotor wheel spaces. This air is again admitted to exhaust air through the exhaust diffuser of the gas turbine. 5) The compressor discharge air as extracted from the combustion wrapper is fed into the ow sleeve in the combustion chamber. A fraction of the same is also used for liquid fuel atomizing the air, the anti-icing mechanism in the inlet air system, reverse ow dust removal from the lters in the inlet air system, cooling 1st stage shrouds and 2nd stage nozzle cooling of the gas turbine. Except for air fraction required for dust removal and anti-icing mechanism, the entire cooling air is again fed into the turbine exhaust through exhaust diffuser to the exhaust plenum of the gas turbines. 6) Steam from the steam injection subsystem is also admitted to the compressed air discharge line for power augmentation and lowering of NOx emission. A fraction (i.e., almost 10%) of the compressed air enters the slotted combustion liner cap zone, 20%30% in the cooling zone of the combustion liner and the rest enter the dilution zone to provide sufcient air condition for complete combustion. 7) In the combustion liner interaction takes place with atomized spray consisting of gaseous fuel and atomized liquid fuel through duel fuel nozzle assembly and the products of combustion with high heating value advances through different zones of the combustion liner to the turbine inlet nozzle blades. The hot gases advance through turbine cascades producing work output in terms of rotational motion of the drive shaft, which can be further converted to desirable form of work or power like electricity. 8) Other air fractions also join this main exhaust gas line at the exit section of the turbine.
2.3 S3: Gas fuel subsystem

Fig. 4 Schematics of gas fuel subsystem

The gas fuel subsystem, as displayed in Fig. 4, comprises the following: 1) The gas fuel enters the speed ratio valve and advances to gas fuel control valve through gas stop valve. Each valve has its own specic function for gas fuel ow. 2) The gas fuel enters the gas fuel measuring device where the pressure and temperatures of the gas fuel ow are measured through the input/output unit of the control panel subsystem and signals of the same are transferred to the actuators from the control panel unit for necessary corrective measures of the ow. 3) The measured gas fuel enters the gas fuel intake manifold of the dual fuel nozzle assembly tted in the combustion chamber outer casing assembly.

Fig. 5 Schematics of liquid fuel subsystem

62

Front. Energy 2012, 6(1): 5779

2.4

S4: Liquid fuel subsystem

The liquid fuel subsystem, as exhibited in Fig. 5, comprises the following: 1) The liquid fuel is fed to fuel the conditioning unit from the fuel pump in order to remove contamination in the liquid fuel. 2) The conditioned fuel is fed into the fuel pump through a fuel stop valve. A bypass line is also provided across the fuel pump. 3) This fuel is further fed into the ow measuring device, which interacts with the input-output unit of the control panel for corrective actions with respect to the reference values of pressure, temperature, pressure drop, temperature drop, etc. 4) The outlet fuel from the ow measuring device is supplied to selector valve assembly through a ow divider, so that each can combustor is supplied with equal fuel ow for the uniform combustion in all the nozzles of these combustors.

5) The fuel received from the selector valve assembly is fed into the intake manifold of the dual fuel nozzle assembly tted in the combustion chamber. A schematic of the liquid fuel subsystem is shown in Fig. 5.
2.5 S5: Starting and drive subsystem

The starting and drive subsystem, as presented in Fig. 6, comprises the following: 1) The power source drives the torque converter with the help of the induction motor. The torque converter provides the starting torque to the gas turbine drive unit through an accessory box coupled with the over speed trip assembly and jaw clutch. 2) The accessory gear box enhouses drive units for driving gas turbine power drive unit shafts 1 and 2. The shaft 2 in turn supports drive system integration for shafts 3A, 3B and 4 (both end driving) through gear meshing. These shafts integrate the drive unit assembly for driving

Fig. 6 Schematics of starting and drive subsystem

Naresh YADAV et al. Structural modeling of a typical gas turbine system

63

fuel pump, atomizing air compressor, high pressure hydraulic pump and lubricating oil pump, respectively. 3) The AC power source also provide power for driving all redundant devices like the vent fans, motors, miscellaneous pumps in the gas turbine circuit.
2.6 S6: NOx abatement subsystem

which receives the signal from the input-output unit of the control subsystem. 4) This conditioned steam is fed into the compressor discharge line or directly into the primary combustion zone of the combustion chamber.
2.7 S7: Water wash subsystem

Although gas turbines are low emitters of exhaust pollutants, the stringent restrictions imposed by statutory regulations have made it necessary to reduce the level of certain pollutants, especially NOx. The steam injection system is considered for the NOx abatement technique adopted in the present system. The NOx subsystem, as depicted in Fig. 7, comprises the following: 1) The steam generated in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) section mounted in the exhaust subsystem is fed into the solenoid controlled pneumatically controlled steam stop valve through a metered orice and the strainer. 2) The stop valve opens to permit the steam injection ow and closes to shut off the ow when the system is not operating or is tripped. 3) The down stream side drain valves serve to heat the steam prior to admission in the compressor discharge line and the ow control valve regulates the ow of steam,

The water wash subsystem comprises the following: 1) The water washing subsystem involves the processes like ringing the compressor with hot water, mixing the detergent with water in the proper ratio and injecting it to the compressor after initial rinsing, soaking and subsequently rinsing the compressor. 2) During the water washing, the gas turbine is kept in cranking mode. 3) The water is drained from the gas turbine system through drain ports and the exhaust plenum. A schematic of the water wash subsystem is shown in Fig. 8.
2.8 S8: Enclosure and ventilation subsystem

The enclosure and ventilation subsystem, as shown in Fig. 9, comprises the following: 1) Three separate enclosures namely accessory compart-

Fig. 7

Schematics of NOx abatement (steam injection) subsystem

Fig. 8 Schematics of water wash subsystem

64

Front. Energy 2012, 6(1): 5779

2.10

S10: Exhaust subsystem

The exhaust subsystem, as described in Fig. 11, comprises the following: 1) The exhaust gases as received from the turbine exhaust diffuse to the exhaust plenum of the gas turbine unit. 2) The further ow of these exhaust gases are controlled by using guillotine damper or the diverter damper as either these gases are ew away to the stack directly through the control or diverter damper or are fed into the HRSG unit through the guillotine damper. 3) In the HRSG unit, the heat energy of the exhaust gases is utilized for producing steam from the water received from the steam power cycle through indirect heating process. 4) The steam is fed to the steam turbine unit, where the heat energy of these exhaust gases is utilized for producing power to run the generator. A part of this steam is also fed into the compressor inlet for power augmentation and limiting NOx in the gas turbine unit. 5) These exhaust gases, after releasing their energy into the water, are allowed to y off through the duct unit to open atmosphere.
Fig. 9 Schematics of enclosure and ventilation subsystem

2.11

S11: Lubrication subsystem

ment, gas turbine unit compartment and the load gear compartment have provisions of ambient air inlet as well as ltered air inlet and its venting. 2) The vent fans mounted on each compartment sucks the air from the air inlet windows of the compartment and vents them through the air out vent sections. 3) These vent fans exhibit the redundancy in the subsystem and are run by using separate power sources and ensure the minimum number of air changes and ventilation in the subsystem control volume. 4) Fuel leakage vapours from the liquid fuel subsystem and gas fuel subsystem are also fed to the exhaust by these vent fans.
2.9 S9: Fire protection subsystem

The lubrication subsystem, as presented in Fig. 12, comprises the following: 1) The main lube oil pump driven by the accessory shaft 4 and an auxiliary lube oil pump driven by an AC motor and an emergency lube oil pump driven by DC motor regulate the ow of lube oil through lube oil lters from the lube oil reservoir to all the bearing, seals, gear meshes in the gas turbine circuit. 2) The pressure and temperature measuring device controls the ow of lube oil through the control panel response. 3) After completing the circuit, the lube oil is drained back to the lube oil reservoir sufciently large for the lube oil to retain its lube properties during the ow.
2.12 S12: Water cooling subsystem

The re protection subsystem, as displayed in Fig. 10, comprises the following: 1) The temperature rise detectors send the signals to the unit control panel, which further actuates the control valves to release the CO2 in the accessory compartment, gas turbine compartment and load gear compartment. 2) The CO2 gas ow is controlled and supplied from the CO2 bottle bank by separating pipelines for ooding as well as extended discharge to each of the three compartments. 3) Minimum CO2 ow is also maintained in the compartments for re extinguishing purpose during operation.

The water cooling subsystem, as illustrated in Fig. 13, comprises the following: 1) The water from the water source is conditioned through a ltering and deionising unit. 2) This conditioned water is circulated through the coolers, especially lube coolers and the atomizing air cooler controlled using three way bypass valves. 3) The cooling water is further cooled by either an open system cooling tower or an industrial-type water-to-air type heat exchanger operating in a closed loop.

Naresh YADAV et al. Structural modeling of a typical gas turbine system

65

Fig. 10

Schematics of re protection subsystem

Fig. 11 Schematics of exhaust subsystem

2.13

S13: Atomizing air subsystem

The atomizing air subsystem, as demonstrated in Fig. 14, comprises the following:

1) The high pressure air received from the compressor discharge is fed into a pre-cooler, i.e., heat exchanger, where it is cooled. 2) The cooled air is further boosted to higher pressure in

66

Front. Energy 2012, 6(1): 5779

Fig. 12

Schematics of lubrication subsystem

the main atomizing air compressor. The booster air compressor coupled in the suction of the main atomizing compressor supplies adequate pressure during start up when main atomizing compressor speed is insufcient to boost up the air pressure. 3) Sufcient number of drain points is provided along with isolation valves to allow condensed water to drain out. 4) The atomized air is supplied to fuel nozzles to break up the fuel into small droplets to facilitate efcient combustion.
2.14 S14: Control subsystem

The control subsystem, as given in Fig. 15, comprises the following: 1) The signals received from the ow measuring devices

through the input/output control panel are fed into the common data processor. 2) The common data processor interacts with the interface data processor to get the manual input and print output if required. 3) The signal/information from the common data processor is transmitted to all the control processors (high level of redundancy) for voting. The control processor also sends signals to back up display in case of emergency stops or operating conditions. 4) The control processor shares the information with the protective processors (high level of redundancy) through sensor inputs for the voted value of signals. 5) The control processor is hardwired connected with the trip card for protective action actuation. Based on the structural and functional relationships of

Naresh YADAV et al. Structural modeling of a typical gas turbine system

67

Fig. 13

Schematics of water cooling subsystem

Fig. 14

Schematics of atomizing air subsystem

above mentioned subsystems contributing to the functional output of the system, a typical gas turbine system can be represented in the form of a system model with well

dened constrained relationships. The 14 subsystems of the gas turbine system interact directly or indirectly with each other affecting the performance of the subsystems as

68

Front. Energy 2012, 6(1): 5779

has been used to represent the whole gas turbine system in terms of interactions among fourteen subsystems. It is to be noted that some of the interconnections of sensors, actuators related to some of the sub-subsystems have been omitted while preparing the diagraph assuming that some separate panel arrangements along with power sources may exist in those systems. However, insertion of these additional links or directed edges may complicate the generalized diagraph, as shown in Fig. 16. The subsystems have been represented as vertices (Ti, i = 1, 2, , 14) and interconnections (Tij, i, j = 1, 2, , 14) among these subsystems as directed edges in the digraph.

Fig. 15

Schematics of control subsystem Fig. 16 Gas turbine system digraph

well as the gas turbine system. For example, in case of the gas turbine system working on multi-fuel option, without the atomizing air system, the liquid fuel injected into dual nozzle fuel assembly at the combustor inlet will not provide peak ring temperature during its combustion and thus affecting the net power output of the gas turbine system. Similarly, at the sub-subsystem level, the net power output can be enhanced by making adequate arrangement for inlet air cooling and anti-icing methods in the air inlet system along with steam and/or water injection techniques in the compressor exit or combustion chamber contributing to lower NOx emission levels and increased power outputs.

4 Matrix representation of the gas turbine system


The above digraph representation of the gas turbine system design provides only logical information about the subsystems or the attributes of the gas turbine system. Further, it is difcult to process the logical information available directly from the digraph representation. Since the matrix representations of information available about any system can be processed easily, the extracted information from the digraph is represented into equivalent matrix format, which is exible enough to incorporate the structural and functional information of the subsystems as well as sub-systems of the gas turbine system.
4.1 System structure of the gas turbine system

3 Graph theoretic model of a gas turbine system


The graph theory is a branch of mathematics that has been successfully used to represent several different types of system as stated earlier. In the present paper, it is used to represent the gas turbine system consisting of 14 subsystems as identied from Figs. 2 to 15. A digraph

Consider a generalized case of a typical gas turbine system with N subsystems as stated above. An adjacency matrix (0, 1) of order NN is developed for the gas turbine system. The off-diagonal elements of this adjacency

Naresh YADAV et al. Structural modeling of a typical gas turbine system

69

matrix represent the connectivity between subsystem i and subsystem j such that Tij = 1, if subsystem i is connected to subsystem j, and 0 otherwise. Thus Tii= 0, if any subsystem i cannot to be connected to itself. Only in case of self loops, the subsystems will be

connected to themselves and thus, Tii = 1 for such cases. On the basis of interconnections specied in the digraph of gas turbine system shown in Fig. 3, the adjacency matrix A for the subsystems is written by Eq. (1).

This adjacency matrix does not provide any information about the level of the interdependency of the subsystems. Further, no information is furnished by this matrix about the effect of subsystems as all diagonal terms of the matrix are zero. Since the characteristic features of the subsystems do not come into picture, a characteristic system structure matrix is dened for the gas turbine systems.
4.2 Characteristic system structure matrix for the gas turbine system

system can be realized by using the characteristic system structure matrix B = [T I A]. This kind of matrix has widely been used in mathematics for characterizing the system elements. In the present matrix, T and I are the system characteristic and the identity matrix, respectively. The system characteristics may be either subsystems or the attributes affecting the performance outcome of the system. For the present case of typical gas turbine system, the characteristic system structure matrix B is given by Eq. (2).

Various subsystems or the characteristic features of any

In the above matrix, the values of all the diagonal elements are the same. But in a real system, the attributes or the subsystems may have different levels of inheritances, i.e., the value of diagonal elements in matrix B. Moreover, the interdependencies have been assigned only

for presence. No representation about the level of interdependency among various subsystems or the attributes exists in this matrix. In order to consider this fact, a new matrix variable characteristic system structure matrix is considered for the gas turbine system.

70

Front. Energy 2012, 6(1): 5779

4.3 Variable characteristic system structure matrix for the gas turbine system

A variable characteristic system structure matrix S is dened by considering all the system attributes in terms of their inheritance levels as well as their interdependency levels. Consider a matrix Cij (i, j = 1, 2, , 14) representing the interconnections between the subsystems

Cij instead of 1, where subsystem i is connected to subsystem j, and 0 otherwise. Similarly, another matrix D with its variable diagonal elements Di (i = 1, 2, , 14) representing the characteristic structural features of the gas turbine system is dened. Then the variable characteristic system structure matrix for the gas turbine system is given by Eq. (3). S D C :

The matrix can provide useful information through its determinant. But, the determinant contains some positive terms as well as some negative ones. During the calculations, some of the useful system information may get lost. Hence, it does not provide complete information about the gas turbine system. In order to avoid this loss of information, another matrix variable permanent system structure matrix for the gas turbine system is considered.

4.4 Variable permanent system structure matrix for the gas turbine system

For realistic characterization of the gas turbine system, the effect of all the subsystems should contribute to its maximum in the system desired output. For the stated reasons, the new matrix Variable permanent system structure matrix P is written by Eq. (4). P D C :

This matrix contains the information about the inheritance levels as well as the interdependencies of the attributes. Hence, this matrix can serve the purpose of realistic characterization of attributes of the gas turbine system.

4.5

Variable permanent function for the gas turbine system

Since the digraph and the matrix representations are not unique, as these changes with labeling of the nodes or

Naresh YADAV et al. Structural modeling of a typical gas turbine system

71

vertices. In order to develop a unique representation of the same, the permanent function of the variable permanent system structure matrix for the gas turbine is proposed. The permanent function is a standard matrix function in the combinatorial mathematics. The permanent function is calculated in the same manner as the determinant. But, the
14 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1

negative terms are converted to positive ones. This computation results in a multinomial, where every term has its signicance and no information due to any negative term is lost. This permanent function for the present gas turbine system consisting of fourteen subsystems is represented by Eq. (5).

perP Ti
i 1

14 X T12 $T21 $T3 $T4 $T5 $T6 $ $T14 w1

14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1

14 X T12 $T23 $T31 $T4 $T5 $T6 $ $T14 w1 14 X T12 $T23 $T34 $T41 $T5 $T6 $ $T14 w1

( 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X
i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1

14 X T12 $T21 $T34 $T43 $T5 $T6 $ $T14 w1

( 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X
i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1

14 X T12 $T23 $T31 $T45 $T54 $T6 $ $T14 w1

14 X T12 $T23 $T34 $T45 $T51 $T6 $ $T14 w1

( 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X
i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1

14 X T12 $T21 $T34 $T43 $T56 $T65 $T7 $ $T14 w1

14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1

14 X T12 $T21 $T34 $T45 $T56 $T63 $T7 $ $T14 w1 14 X T12 $T23 $T31 $T45 $T56 $T64 $T7 $ $T14 w1

14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1

14 X T12 $T23 $T34 $T45 $T56 $T61 $T7 $ $T14 w1

( 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X
i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1

14 X T12 $T21 $T34 $T43 $T56 $T67 $T75 $T8 $ $T14 w1

14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1

14 X T12 $T21 $T34 $T45 $T56 $T67 $T73 $T8 $ $T14 w1 14 X T12 $T23 $T31 $T45 $T56 $T67 $T74 $T8 $ $T14 w1

14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1

72

Front. Energy 2012, 6(1): 5779

14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 14 X X T12 $T23 $T34 $T45 $T56 $T67 $T71 $T8 $ $T14 i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1 w1

( all higher order groupings up to


14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X 14 X i1 j1 k 1 l 1 m1 n1 p1

) 14 X T12 $T23 $T34 $T45 $T56 $T67 $T78 $ $T13,14 $T14,1 :


w1

(5)

This permanent function of the matrix is a mathematical expression in symbolic form. Each term in Eq. (5) represents a physical subset of the system. The multinomial, i.e., the permanent function when written in N + 1 group as represented above, presents an exhaustive way of structural analysis of a gas turbine system at different levels (subsystem level up the component level) and links to improve the performance characteristics of the system. The physical signi cance of various groupings is explained as follows: 1) The rst term (grouping) represents a set of fourteen independent subsystem characteristics as T1, T2, T3, , T14. 2) As there are no self loops within the system itself, therefore second grouping is absent. 3) Each term of the third grouping represents a set of two elements attribute loops i:e:, Tij $Tji and is the resultant dependence of attribute i and j and the evaluation measure of N 2 connected terms. 4) Each term of the fourth grouping represents a set of three element attribute loops Tij $Tjk $Tkj or its pair Tik $ Tkj $Tji and the evaluation measure of N-3 unconnected elements or attributes within the system. 5) The fth grouping contains two subgroups. The terms of the rst subgrouping consists of four element attribute loops i:e:, Tij $Tjk $Tkl $Tli and the 10-subsystem evaluation index component T5 $T6 $ $T14 . The terms of the second grouping are the  product of two element attributes loops Tij $Tji Tkl $Tlk and the index evaluation component i:e:, T5 $T6 $ $T14 . 6) The terms of the sixth grouping are arranged in two subgroupings. The terms of the rst subgrouping are of ve element attribute loop i:e:, Tij $Tjk $Tkl $Tlm $Tmi or its pair Tim $Tml $Tlk $Tkj $Tji . The second subgrouping consists of a product of two attributes loops i:e:, Tij $Tji and a three attribute loop i:e:, Tkl $Tlm $Tmk or its pair i:e:, Tkm $Tml $Tlk and the index evaluation component i:e:, T6 $T7 $ $T14 . 7) The terms of the seventh groupings are arranged in four subgroupings. The rst subgrouping of the seventh grouping is a set of 3-two element attribute loops i:e:, Tij $Tji ,Tkl $Tlk ,Tmn $Tnm and a subsystem evaluation index component T7 $T8 $ $T14 . The terms of the second

subgrouping of the seventh grouping are of two element attribute loop i:e:, Tij $Tji and four element attribute loop i:e:, Tkl $Tlm $Tmn $Tnk with subsystem evaluation index component T7 $T8 $ $T14 . The terms of the third subgrouping of the seventh grouping are of two three-element attribute loops i:e:, Tij $Tjk $Tki and Tlm $Tmn $Tnl with subsystem evaluation index component T7 $T8 $ $T14 . The terms of fourth subgrouping of the seventh grouping are of six elemental attribute loop i:e:, Tij $Tjk $Tkl $Tlm $Tmn $Tni and subsystem evaluation index T7 $T8 $ $T14 . 8) The terms of the eighth grouping are arranged in four subgroupings. The rst subgrouping of the eighth grouping is a set of three element attribute loop , i:e: Tmn $Tnp $Tpm and two element structural diads as Tij $Tji and Tkl $Tlk . The second subgrouping is a set of a two element diad Tij $Tji and a ve element attribute loop i:e:, Tkl $Tlm $Tmn $Tnp $Tpk . The third subgrouping consists of a three element attribute loop i:e:, Tij $Tjk $Tki ) and a four element attribute loop i:e:, Tlm $Tmn $Tnp $Tpl respectively. Similarly, the fourth subgrouping of the eighth grouping is a seven elemental attribute loop i:e:, Tij $Tjk $Tkl $Tlm $Tmn $Tnp $Tpi each having a subsystem evaluation index T8 $T9 $ $T14 . Similarly, other terms of the expression are dened up to the fteenth grouping. Each term of the grouping as well as the subgroupings have their own independent identities which are useful for the designers and the development analysts for one-to-one qualitative analysis of the gas turbine systems.

Evaluation of gas turbine system

The diagonal elements of matrix given by Eq. (4) correspond to the fourteen subsystems that constitute the gas turbine system. The values of these diagonal elements are calculated as T1 perVPSSM1 , T3 perVPSSM3 , T5 perVPSSM5 , T2 perVPSSM2 , T4 perVPSSM4 , T6 perVPSSM6 ,

Naresh YADAV et al. Structural modeling of a typical gas turbine system

73

T7 perVPSSM7 , T9 perVPSSM9 , T11 perVPSSM11 , T13 perVPSSM13 ,

T8 perVPSSM8 , T10 perVPSSM10 , T12 perVPSSM12 , T14 perVPSSM14 :

5.2

Powering unit

Here VPSSMn represents the variable permanent system structure matrix of nth subsystem. The procedure for calculating the T1, T2, , T14 is the same as adopted for per (P) using Eq. (5) for the whole gas turbine system. For this purpose, the system structure graphs of the 14 subsystems are drawn as follows. The schematics of these 14 subsystems (Figs. 2 to 15) are drawn by taking into account their different sub1 1 systems/components as S1 , S2 , , etc. as specied in Section 2. Some of the component assemblies of the gas turbine system, which may assume to be integrated for the purpose of functional relationships with other subsystems, may be grouped to form a unit link of the subsystem. Identify the interaction between different subsystems/ components of these subsystems on the basis of their functional relationships. While drawing the system structure digraph some of the equipment/sub-subsystems showing grouped behavior in the assembly have been represented by a subsystem link only. Some of the links or edges shown for the structural assembly relationships only, have been omitted during digraph representation due to their lower order signicance towards functional outcomes of the subsystem or the integrated system. Thus, the digraph representation may be slightly varying with respect to the system structure graphs of these subsystems. However, it has been ensured that the objective of the evaluation of gas turbine system remain unaffected. Based on the above assumptions, the digraph of all the 14 subsystems has been represented in Figs. 17 (a)17(n). The methodology as adopted for the system digraph may be utilized for each of the subsystems up to its subsubsystem levels sequentially for analysis of the whole gas turbine system. The salient features of the 14 subsystems of the gas turbine systems are described in the following subsections.
5.1 Air inlet system

As the powering unit expresses the desired system performance, i.e., net power output, thrust or specic fuel consumption, the cascade unit performance of compressor, combustors and the gas turbines becomes the most signicant criteria. For preliminary gas turbine system design, the net thermal efciency of the gas turbine system may be considered as reference. Therefore T20.40, if 45% is the net thermal efciency as in general case, it varies from 21% to 45% for a simple cycle gas turbine plant. However, while evaluating at subsystem levels, the individual performance parameters of the compressors, combustors and the turbines may be considered as criteria and the relative effect of other attributes affecting the individual subsystem performance may be taken into account so that T2 can be enhanced.
5.3 Gas fuel system

As the gas fuel system is very sensitive to inlet gas pressure and temperature; hence, a range of operating pressures and temperatures are to be prescribed depending upon the frame size of the gas turbine. Wobbie index is one of the most appropriate function for analyzing the gas fuel system in terms of variety of gas fuels to be used, skid type with a dual manifold and dual set of fuel nozzles or the a dual fuel system. Therefore, T3 may be selected from the Wobbie index permissible limits for the given gas turbine system normalized over a scale of 0 to1.
5.4 Liquid fuel system

As the fuel system is to be designed for operating at higher pressures, the efciency of the fuel pump driven by the accessory gear box helps in distribution of fuel evenly to all corners of the combustion chamber. Better results can be obtained by maintaining higher fuel pressures. The spray nozzle performance is also improved due to fuel pump pressure. Hence, T4 may be appropriately scaled up for operating limits of the pressure ratios of fuel pump.
5.5 Starting and drive system

In this subsystem, the provisions for the air inlet cooling, anti-icing, etc. have limited importance as these are either considered for weather constraint or slight power augmentation, i.e., up to 10%14% only. However, the lter efciency is the most prominent constraint which affects the inlet air quality to its maximum. Therefore, T1 may be taken as approximately equal to lter efciency if performance of other sandwiched techniques in the air inlet system has been xed.

The starting system mainly affects the cranking of the gas turbine before ring to breakaway from standstill, accelerate to ring speed and subsequently to self-sustainable speed and speed rotating for its cooling purpose after shut down. Since the electrical work efciency is very high, approximately equal to 0.98, the overall transmission efciency of the gear trains of the accessory gear box and other driving units are approximately 95%97%. Hence, T4 may be taken as average of two terms or slightly higher (i.e., T50.965).

74

Front. Energy 2012, 6(1): 5779

Naresh YADAV et al. Structural modeling of a typical gas turbine system

75

76

Front. Energy 2012, 6(1): 5779

Fig. 17

Digraph of the 14 subsystems

(a) Inlet subsystem; (b) gas fuel subsystem; (c) liquid fuel subsystem; (d) powering unit subsystem; (e) starting and drive subsystem; (f) NOx abatement subsystem; (g) water wash subsystem; (h) enclosure and ventilation subsystem; (i) re system protection subsystem; (j) exhaust subsystem; (k) water cooling subsystem; (l) control subsystem; (m) lubrication subsystem; (n) atomizing air subsystem

Naresh YADAV et al. Structural modeling of a typical gas turbine system

77

5.6

NOx abatement system

5.11

Lubricating oil system

As low NOx emission levels in the gas turbine systems are one of the most essential parameters due to statutory regulation, any method (i.e., steam injection or water injection technique) adopted for this purpose is highly appreciated for the gas turbine performance evaluation. Therefore, the inheritance for the NOx abatement system T6 is generally rated as per the customer desires and the usage community constraints. However, in general, this factor should be kept more than 0.7 over a scale from 0 to 1.
5.7 Water wash system

Since the proper lubrication system is considered to be the lifeblood of the gas turbine system, the performance degradation is measured with respect to the adequacy of the lubrication measures adopted. In the present case, the factor T11 for the lubricating system may be considered as a ratio of degradation of gas turbine unit under actual conditions to the idealistic service life of the turbomachinery used in the gas turbine system.
5.12 Water cooling system

Since the water wash system enhances the power output of the gas turbine unit by reducing the fouling in the compressor, etc., its presence makes it useful for gas turbine system life without its degradation. Its importance T7 may be represented in terms of ratio of fouling based power output to the maximum power output due to fouling reduction per water washing operation either ofine or online.
5.8 Enclosure and ventilation system

Apart from cooling the space in the enclosure, ventilation also helps in evacuating fuel vapours formed due to fuel leakages and the containment area for CO2 gas, and helps to extinguish re. Even though the ventilation system is designed for minimum number of air changes, there is high degree of redundancy in this system. 100% redundant fans are provided in the gas turbine unit. Therefore, the value of T8 approaches 1.0 as condition of minimum number of air changes is always ensured.
5.9 Fire protection system

Since the effectiveness of the heat exchanger arrangement in HRSG unit primarily affects the gas turbine system directly. The inheritance level T12 may be considered to approximate the value of effectiveness of the heat exchanger unit. The effectiveness of the HRSG coils mounted in the exhaust pipe primarily affects the net power output from the exhaust system. T12 may be taken equal to, or slightly less than the maximum effectiveness value, i.e., T120.6, if 0.6 is the effectiveness of HRSG coils. At the sub-subsystem level, the heat transfer relationship under convection Q h$A$T for liquid to liquid interaction or for radiation Q $T4 for piping to air interaction or both may be used for dening the inheritance levels.
5.13 Atomizing air system

In the case of this subsystem, high degree of redundancy exists as separate lines ooding and extended discharge of CO2 gas exist for each of the gas turbine system compartment. But, in case of re in the gas turbine compartment, there is no option except for extended discharge of CO2 gas to extinguish re and system safety. Therefore, the value of T9 also approaches 1.0.
5.10 Exhaust system

As the liquid fuel droplets are to be converted into ne droplets of mist like mixture facilitated by high pressure air through the pre-cooler for removing the moisture before being fed to the combustion chamber, the effectiveness of the pre-cooler and the continuous drain system plays a key role in designing the atomizing air system as the type of fuel and the type of turbomachinery fused for desired pressure ratio are almost const for a given system. Therefore, T13 may account for the effectiveness of the pre-cooler and continuous drain performance.
5.14 Control system

In the case of exhaust system, the heat energy of the exhaust gases is to be utilized for steam generation through heat recovery steam generator and subsequently the power output from the steam turbine. Therefore, T10 may be considered to be equal to work efciency (ratio of work output by the steam turbine unit to the total heat energy of the exhaust) of the steam turbine unit installed in the exhaust line. However, at the sub-subsystem level, the criteria may be different.

The control system does not increase or decrease the performance of the gas turbine unit. However, it supports the gas turbine subsystems to perform better through dynamic decision making for the operating variables. Since the sensitivity of the control unit for the signals is responsible for the better performance of the subsystems, the inheritance value T14 may be considered to be equal to sensitivity of the control unit. The values of the interactions Tij (i, j = 1, 2, , 14) between different subsystems S1, S2, , S14 can be written as a multinomial or a matrix, the values depending upon the type of interaction/interdependency. The subsystem can again be treated as a system and the similar procedure

78

Front. Energy 2012, 6(1): 5779

as adopted for the subsystem may be adopted again. The adequate normalization of the data in terms of permanents calculated for the diagonal elements of the respective matrices is to be carried out, so that no diagonal element becomes so stiffened that the effect of groupings or the subgroupings becomes redundant or ineffective at any stage of permanent calculation. Work is in progress for conducting the performance analysis of the gas turbine system from different perspectives using the structural model presented in this paper.

inheritance levels as well as interdependency levels of the attributes/sub-systems, which can also be used for making decisions towards further improvements at the subsystem level or the sub-subsystem levels in the gas turbine system. This methodology has been adopted in the present paper for developing the complete multinomial permanent function for a typical gas turbine system. Efforts are further in progress for calculating the performance analysis of a gas turbine system from different perspectives.

Methodology

Conclusions

A methodology for the gas turbine system structural modeling described in Sections 25 based on graph theory and matrix methods is summarized as below: 1) Identify the gas turbine system and analyze its conguration in terms of type of turbomachinery used, special arrangements, nature of fuels to be used, materials of construction, ow passage for air and fuels including exhaust, special provisions like inlet air cooling methods, heat recovery arrangements, etc. 2) Develop the structural topology of the constituent parts or subsystems interacting with air/fuel or exhaust ows contributing to desired performance of the gas turbine system at the macroscopic level as well as microscopic level. 3) Obtain the functional relationship among the above identied subsystems using structural topology of the gas turbine system and develop a system functional digraph using the interactions among the subsystems. The subsystems are to be represented as nodes and the interactions are to be represented as edges. 4) Develop the generalized system structure variable permanent matrix of the above digraph using concepts of graph theory and represent the permanent function for the same in the form of a multinomial. 5) Evaluate the functions/values of the diagonal elements and the off-diagonal elements of the system matrix on the basis of the subsystem inheritance levels and the interdependency levels of these subsystems contributing to performance outcome of the gas turbine system. The values of the interactions among the subsystems of the gas turbine system can be obtained by analyzing the type of interaction, functional constraints of the subsystem etc. The inheritance levels of these subsystems can be calculated by using the contribution as well as possible compromise limits of the subsystem usage. The step is to be repeated at the sub-subsystem level up to the component level to precisely analyze the inheritance and interdependency levels of the attributes, sub-systems of the gas turbine system. 6) Calculate the permanent function value for a given gas turbine system using precise information about the

The graph theoretical model of the gas turbine system presented in this paper represents its structural information including its subsystems, sub-subsystems up to the component level. Using this methodology, a real life gas turbine system consisting of 17-stage axial ow compressor- annulus can combustor 3-stage axial ow turbine has been modeled in the form of block diagrams at the subsystem levels and the graph theoretic representation for a typical as turbine system. The permanent function of the gas turbine system represents the characteristic features of all the combinations of its subsystems. These combinations form a powerful tool for the structural modeling of the gas turbine systems. To the best knowledge of the authors, this method has been adopted for the rst time in this paper for such gas turbine system. This methodology is exible to accommodate any design or performance variations for such typical systems. This method may be further used for the optimum selection, criteria based decision making about gas turbine systems, benchmarking and the sensitivity analysis through the permanent function evaluation for the developed digraph and matrix representations of the gas turbine systems.

References
1. Islas J. The gas turbine: a new technological in electricity generation. Journal of Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 1999, 60(2): 129148 2. Poullikkas A. An overview of current and future sustainable gas turbine technologies. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2005, 9(5): 409443 3. Polyzakis A L, Koroneos C, Xydis G. Optimum gas turbine cycle for combined cycle power plant. Journal of Energy Conversion & Management, 2008, 49(4): 551563 4. Garg R K, Gupta V K, Agrawal V P. Quality evaluation of thermal power plant by graph-theoretical methodology. International Journal of Power and Energy Systems, 2007, 27(1): 4248 5. Mohan M, Gandhi O P, Agrawal V P. Real-time reliability index of a steam power plant: a systems approach. In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part A, Journal of Power and

Naresh YADAV et al. Structural modeling of a typical gas turbine system

79

Energy, 2008, 222(4): 355369 6. Mohan M, Gandhi O P, Agrawal V P. Real time commercial availability index of a steam power plant: graph theory and matrix method. In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part A, Journal of Power and Energy, 2007, 221(7): 885898 7. Mohan M, Gandhi O P, Agrawal V P. System modeling of a coalbased steam power plant. In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part A, Journal of Power and Energy, 2003, 217(3): 259277 8. Mohan M, Gandhi O P, Agrawal V P. Maintenance strategy for a coal based steam power plant equipment: a graph theoretic approach. In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part A, Journal of Power and Energy, 2004, 218(8): 619636 9. Franco A, Casarosa C. On some perspectives for increasing the efciency of combined cycle power plants. Thermal Engineering, 2002, 22(13): 15011518 10. Alhazmy M M, Najjar Y S H. Augmentation of gas turbine performance using air coolers. Journal of applied Thermal Engineering, 2004, 24(2,3): 415429

11. Bilgen E. Exergetic and engineering analysis of gas turbine based cogeneration systems. Journal of Energy, 2000, 25(12): 12151229 12. Sue D C, Chuang C C. Engineering design and exergy analysis for combustion gas turbine based power generation system. Journal of Energy, 2004, 29(8): 11831205 13. Silva V V R, Khatib W, Fleming P J. Performance optimization of gas turbine engine. Journal of Engineering Applications of Articial Intelligence, 2005, 18(5): 575583 14. Heppenstall T. Advanced Gas Turbine cycles for power generation: a critical review. Journal of Applied Thermal Engineering, 1998, 18 (9,10): 837846 15. Eldrid R, Kaufman L, Marks P. The 7FB: The Next Evolution of the F Gas Turbines. USA GE Power Systems Report, GER-4194, 2001 16. Swamy M N, Thulasiraman K. Graphs: Networks and Algorithms. New York: Wiley, 1981 17. Shai O, Preiss K. Graph theory representations of engineering systems and their embedded knowledge. Journal of Articial Intelligence in Engineering, 1999, 13(3): 273285 18. Chandrashekar M, Wong F C. Thermodynamic systems analysis-I: a graph theoretic approach. Journal of Energy, 1982, 7(6): 539566