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Meha Sharma*
Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Dronacharya College of Engineering,Gurgaon-1235 !,"ndia Email# meha$sh%yahoo&co&in

Rewa Sharma
'ecturer, Department of Computer (cience Engineering Echelon "nstitute of )echnology ,Gurgaon-1235 !,"ndia Email# re*a1 sh%gmail&com


!mar Awa"#$

+"" (emester (tudent, Department of Electronics , Communication Engineering Dronacharya College of Engineering Gurgaon-1235 !, -aryana, "ndia Email#*asti%gmail&com

A%"#ra&#' 0elia1ility of 2E2( 32icroelectronic 2echanical (ystems4 de/ices is 1ecoming an important area *ith the ad/ent of no/el pac5aging and analysis methodologies& Di/erse computational methods ha/e 1rought po*erful techni6ues to calculate relia1ility 1y multiscale modeling supported 1y e7perimental and theoretical methods& "n this de/eloped li1rary of 2ultiscale optimi8ation, relia1ility can 1e calculated *ith a 1etter accuracy& "t is proposed that -igh Performance computing 3-PC4 if used *ith multiscale optimi8ation li1rary then relia1ility calculation can 1e accelerated and also research in relia1ility of 2E2(&"n the proposed *or5, 2odeling and computation is performed using 2A)'A9 multiscale optimi8ation li1rary and sugar 2E2( simulation li1rary& "n this paper *e ha/e sho*n a simplified *ay to perform relia1ility calculations at different le/els of a1straction in a multiscale analysis *here -PC can 1enefit these relia1ility calculations for 2E2( de/ices& 2A)'A9 distri1uti/e computing tool1o7 has 1een employed to perform faster calculations& Different parameters related to relia1ility analysis ha/e 1een calculated for a 2E2( de/ice& Keywords: MEMS,High Power Computing(HPC)Multiscale Optimization Library eliability !unstion,Mean esi"ual #ime(M #),Mean #ime to $ailure(M##!) Carbon %anotube(C%#) ,

2E2( are the integration of mechanical elements,sensors ,actuators and electronics on a common silicon su1strate through microscale fa1rication technology thus ma5ing nano automation possi1le *ith user friendly and relia1le techni6ues&2E2( de/ices offer great potential 1enefits not only as sensors 1ut also as antenna in 2E2( 1ased 0:"D&Earlier :1rication techni6ues *ere de/eloped for integrated *hich *ere time tested o/er se/eral decades on ethics and technology 1ased ideologies&9y using and modifying these fa1rication techni6ues microscopic de/ices can 1e formed *hich match or e/en e7ceed the performance of their con/entional counterparts in a smaller /olume *ith lo*er *eight and a greatly reduced cost&-o*e/er there are considera1le challenges in fa1ricating and pac5aging such de/ices and specially there are many yield and relia1ility issues still to o/ercome&(o 0elia1ility analysis has 1een a ma.or challenge in application of 2E2(

+ictor et al ha/e di/ided the categories of 2E2( failure analysis and relia1ility 1ased on processing and pac5aging& 0elia1ility of microfluidic 2E2( de/ice to e7tract Deo7yri1onucleic acid 3D;A4 from *hole human 1lood and to purify D;A *as studied&<1=)hus 2E2( relia1ility *as impro/ed 1y optimi8ing pac5aging and fa1rication 1ut could not predict anything a1out its failure modeling&>eremy <2= has sho*n other *ays to predict relia1ility 1y categori8ing 2E2( de/ices 1ased on operation ma5ing it easy to *or5 on solutions&)hus studying failure mechanism aids to impro/e 2E2( relia1ility 1ut the effects of failure in time domain *ith strong theoretical 1ase still needs to 1e e7plored&"t means that study of 2E2( failure 1y the use3 of modeling aspects of causes of failure from multiscale prospecti/e is still an area to 1e *or5ed on& As *e 5no* that application gi/es the main essence of the fa1rication and relia1ility analysis ,2E2( failure analysis can also 1e classified in categories 1ased on its application<3= &Accelerated lifetime

testing is 1eing used in many areas and its application in 2E2( is also .ustified<?=)here is an important role of 6uantum mechanics in computational techni6ues and -igh Performance Computing 3-PC4 has made the 6uantum mechanical calculations easier for electronic studies<5=&0ohit et al ha/e sho*n optimi8ing -PC for nanotechnology 1ased computation<!=&2A)'A9 has tools *hich can pro/ide easy access to utili8e -PC resources<@=,such as the distri1uti/e computing tool1o7 *hich allo*s user to harness the po*er of a cluster of computers for tas5s in/ol/ing intensi/e computations&-PC setup for multiscale modeling in different programming en/ironments has 1een sho*n 1y (atyadhar >oshi et al<A=&"n this paper they ha/e proposed relia1ility modeling codes for 2E2( technology to calculate different parameters li5e :ailure rate function,0elia1ility :unction,2ean 0esidual )ime320)4,2ean time to failure32)):4etc&"n 0elia1ility 1ased 2E2( (ystem 2odeling and Bptimi8ation,;an 'ui et al e7plored methods for 2E2( design optimi8ing the performance o1.ecti/e function *ith relia1ility 1ased constraints<C=& 0elia1ility Calculations are 1ecoming more comple7 1y research in ;ano Composite material 1ased 2E2( de/ices li5e ;i-P-C;)s ;anocomposite :ilm for 2E2( applications <1 =,<11=&)herefore the need for sol/ing comple7 mathematics emerges& ;eural ;et*or5s can 1e employed as an important mechanism for correlating 2E2( properties to failure pro1a1ility calculations&)hey ha/e also 1een used for identifying desira1le 2E2( attri1utes for high relia1ility<12=&)here are primarily t*o *or5ing states of classical relia1ility methods i&e *or5ing or failed 1ut *hen *e consider other states such as partially *or5ing or partially failed,ne* dimensions need to 1e added in 2E2( relia1ility analysis<13=&A part of 2E2( de/ice may function partially and still can affect the system in a *ay *hich can 1e modeled mathematically& )hus *e can rightly say that each phenomenon of multi scale modeling can accurately predict the 1eha/iour of a particular 2E2( de/ice and failure redundancy is not al*ays the correct solution in t*o mode systems&

A li1rary for computations of nanotechnology from micro to macro le/el is proposed&)he li1rary consists of functions and tools for computations of nanotechnology *hich *ill ma5e optimal use of cluster for 1est performance as sho*n in figure 1 <1?=
Nano Job Submission Nano Job Scheduling Nano Job Execution

F$.!re() /0% Crea#$0n"1 "&he2!3$n. an2 e4e&!#$0n 50r &0m6!#a#$0n nan0#e&hn030.7 )he calculations are 1ro5en into smaller .o1s and se/eral small .o1s are created *hich perform a specific part of *hole calculation& )hereafter these .o1s are distri1uted among cluster nodes&)he .o1s are scheduled to 1e e7ecuted on nodes&After the *hole e7ecution process the final result is compiled from the results of al the nodes&

-)( MODELING LIBRARY )his is the main li1rary for modeling of C;),2E2( and other nanoscale de/ices and materials&A model in nano technology is a physical ,mathematical or logical representation of a system of entities,phenomenon or processes occurring at nano le/el&9asically a model is a simplified a1stract /ie* of comple7 reality&"t consists of modules and functions *hich *ill allo* easy designing of many comple7 nano scale de/ices&"t allo*s ma5ing of formali8ed interpretations dealing *ith empirical entities,phenomenon and physical processes occurring at nano le/el in a mathematical or logical *ay&"t is 1ased on di/ide and con6uer principle to handle comple7 pro1lems&)his li1rary allo*s to /ie* models in a 3 dimensional /ie* and to change parameters of the de/ice *ith an interacti/e graphical user interface3GD"4&"t allo*s the /isuali8ation of 3D models of de/ices and their structure according to the specified parameter of the de/ice or material *hich further helps in understanding of the de/ice& -)* SIMULATION LIBRARY )his is the main li1rary for simulation of C;), 2E2( and other nano scale materials and de/ices&"t attempts to simulate an a1stract model of a particular nano le/el system& An e7ternal math li1rary is used for comple7 computations in/ol/ed in simulation and computations of nano scale phenomenon&)his li1rary is used along*ith modeling li1rary to simulate the de/ices and materials made using the modeling li1rary& -)- RELIABILITY LIBRARY )his is the main li1rary for relia1ility analysis of C;),2E2( and other nano scale de/ices and materials&"t computes the a1ility of a system or component to perform its re6uired functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time *hich is often reported in terms of pro1a1ility&Calculation of relia1ility of nano scale de/ices and materials *ill help us in predicting their life span and the time period in *hich their functioning *ill 1e proper&Ee ha/e a fe* e7amples here illustrating relia1ility computations in nanotechnology&"n <15=author has demonstrated physical models elucidating se/eral facets of de/ice degradation at the nanoscale &"t has 1een su1stantiated that /arious 6ualitati/e differences must 1e ta5en into consideration&)he computations re6uired can 1e e7emplified 1y follo*ing t*o formulas&A simplified /ersion of the prelocation model <1!=for nanoscale de/ice damage modeling gi/es us a failure function of the form F8#9:(;<(;58#9#04=a >A04=a*,*here f3t4 is the defect density generated in 1loc5 of dimension a,to7 and Ao7 are the o7ide thic5ness and area respecti/ely&)he rate of defect creation for nano scale de/ices has 1een calculated assuming the defect creation e/ents are independent and that single electrons are responsi1le for a 1ond 1rea5ing e/ent&)he rate e6uation for defect creation is of the first order in the num1er of defects and its solution is gi/en as #N8#9:(;e468#=9 ,*here ; is num1er of defects and is the lifetime for the creation of the defect&)he a1o/e formulae e7plicate the need for -PC &2odeling of materials and de/ices can 1e done using the modeling li1rary,simulate them using the simulation li1rary and then *e can compute the relia1ility of the de/ice&)he relia1ility depends upon many parameters such as en/ironmental conditions etc& and the li1rary *ill calculate and analy8e the relia1ility for the pro/ided parameters and specifications of the de/ice&


)raditional tools used till no* ha/e 1een successful in simulating the 1eha/iour of simple function de/ices 1ut they fail *hen more comple7 areas come into picture&)he reason 1eing physics de/eloped so far cannot e7plain al the properties accurately *ithin a practical amount of time&2A)'A9 pro/es its utility in technological ad/ancements in 2E2( as it facilitates the design process and reduces the time of computation&(ome of the features are pac5aged in a CAE for 2E2( tool called (DGA0<1@= *hich ha/e also 1een sho*n in <1A=& 2echanical 2odeling as from 0:-2E2( prospecti/e is gi/en<1C=*here 0A3;4 is /ertical reaction at left end and 2A3;m4 is the reaction moment at the left end &)he concerned e6uations are as follo*s# MA:;8Pa=3*983;a9* RA:8P=3-983;a9*83@*a9

"n Electrical modeling direct tunneling current is formulated in ;ano C2B( circuit as per<2 = is gi/en 1y

E6ui/alent Circuit parameters are studied at /arious le/els of a1straction&2E2( 1ased inducti/ely coupled 0:"D transponder for implanta1le *ireless sensor applications has 1een sho*n in<21=&)his is the part of the code to distri1ute the computation among /arious nodes&"t is 1eing de/eloped for 2icrosoft Compute Cluster (er/er En/ironment as sho*n in figure 1& Gi/en 1elo* is the demo code from the de/eloped 2ultiscale optimi8ation li1rary

Communicator comm& F Communicator&*orldG Console&Erite'ine3HChec5 form processI J comm&&0an54G s*itch3comm&&0an54 K case # Console&Erite'ine3HProcessI J comm&0an5 J Hstatus# calculating 0eaction 2oment of 2E2(I4G calc0eaction2oment:rmCase34G 1rea5G case 1# Console&Eriteline3HProcessI J comm&&0an5 J H(tatus# calculating )unneling Current of nano C2B(I4G calc)unneling:rmCase34G 1rea5G case 1# Console&Eriteline3HProcessI J comm&&0an5 J H(tatus# calculating "nduced +oltage of 2E2( )ransponderI4G calc"nduced+oltage:rmCase34G 1rea5G default# Console&Eriteline3HProcessI J comm&0an5 JI(tatus# "dleI 1rea5G L MNAll Processes .oin here NM comm&9arrier34G MNAll Processes completedNM "f 3comm&&0an5FF 4 K Console&Eriteline3HAll Processes CompletedI4G L )his code sho*s the result of 2ultiscale Bperations

F$.!re *) Re"!3#" 05 #he m!3#$"&a3e &0m6!#a#$0n" Ee performed relia1ility analysis calculation for e7ponential distri1ution 03t4Fe-t (t>0,>0).-ere *e ha/e assumed 83t4Fe-CtM11 for a single cantile/er of a 2E2( de/ice&Ee distri1uted the 3 functions on relia1ility to 3 data1ases and our results sho* that considera1le speed up can 1e achie/ed *hich is also in accordance *ith results gi/en 1y 0ohit et al< 1A=

F$.!re -) F8#9158#91R8#9 "h0wn 50r an a""!me2 e460nen#$a3 5!n&#$0n

2A)'A9 pro/ides an e7cellent platform to *or5 *ith -igh Performance computing 3-PC4and distri1uti/e computing3DC4&Efficiently using parrelli8ed computational techni6ues is the 5ey to optimi8ation of -PC&Parrallel 2A)'A9 has 1een used in signal processing as sho*n 1y ;adya)& )o sol/e a lot of pro1lems<22=Ee ha/e sho*n that 2A)'A9 multiscale optimi8ation li1rary and its tool 1o7 can apprecia1ly speed up calculations to analyse relia1ility of 2E2( de/ices&Distri1uti/e computing needs to 1e disseminated and optimi8ed for calculations in nano domain scale *here e/ery pro1lem is studied and sol/ed at different a1straction layers *hich ma5es multiscale modeling an important part of ;ano domain modeling&

"ntegration of distri1uti/e computing and 2E2( de/ice is an area *hich is going to play an important role in reali8ing ;ano Electromechanical systems as in future Car1on nanotu1es and nanocomposites are sure to 1e integrated *ith 2E2( de/ices &)he current status of research in nanotechnology ,its ad/antages and applications in /arious domains is accelerating *ith a remar5a1le pace&Car1on nano tu1es are going to 1e used in in many applications of nanotechnology li5e C;) nanocomposites in 2E2( and undou1tedly relia1ility analysis in such cases need to 1e e7plored&;early realistic simulation for C;) using -PC has 1een sho*n 1y (yogo )e.ima et al that is among the most con/incing research in this area<23=&)hus -PC using multiscale optimi8ation li1rary pro/ides a good platform to 1e used in many areas of ;ano and 2icro domains&

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<1!= 0&Degrae/e, G& Groesene5en, 0& 9ellens, >&'&Bgier, 2&Depas, P&>& 0oussel and -&E& 2aes, H;e* insights in the relation 1et*een electron trap generation and the statistical properties of o7ide 1rea5do*n,I 'EEE #rans2 Electron 3e-ices, +ol& ?5, pp& C ?-C11, Apr& 1CCA& <1@= >ason +aughn Clar5, ;ingning Rhou ans P&(&>& Pister& 2E2( (imulation using (DGA0 / &5& http#MM***-1sac&eecs&1er5el&edu <1A= 0ohit Patha5, (atyadhar >oshi, D&P& 2ishra& 2 C& Distri1uti/e Computing for 0elia1ility Analysis of 2E2( de/ices using 2A)'A9 323-2? >an& 2 C4& "n Proceedings of the &CM 'nternational Con$erence on Computing, Communication an" Control S C, 32 C4& <1C= +i.ay P& +aradan, P&>& +inoy, P&A& >ose& 2 >ohn Eiley , (ons, 'td& 3& 0: 2E2( and )heir Applications& ?& ;A;B-C2B( Circuit and

<2 = 9an Eong, Anurag 2ittal, Ou Cao, Greg E& (tarr& 2 Physical Design& Eiley- intersceince&

<21= 'u, -&2&G Goldsmith, C&G Cauller, '&G >eong-9ong 'ee& >une 2 @& 2E2(-9ased "nducti/ely Coupled 0:"D )ransponder for "mplanta1le Eireless (ensor Applications& "EEE )ransactions on 2agnetics, +olume ?3, "ssue !& 2?12-2?1?& <22= ;adya )& 9liss, >eremy Pepner, -ahn Pim, Al1ert 0eyther& 2 @& P2A)'A9# Parallel 2A)'A9 'i1rary for (ignal Processing Applications& "n Proceedings of the "nternational Conference on Acoustics, (peech and (ignal Processing32 @4& "CA((P& <23= (yogo )e.ima, ;eo.ung Par5, Ooshiyu5i 2iyamoto, Pa8uo 2inami , 2i5io "i8u5a, -isashi ;a5amura and Da/id )omane5& 2 ?& 'arge (cale (imulations for Car1on ;anotu1es& "n Proceedings of the Se-enth 'nternational Con$erence on High Per$ormance an" ,ri" Computing in &sia Paci$ic egion 32 ?4& -PCAsiaQ ?&