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CANDIDATES DECLARATION

I certify that,
a) The work contained in this seminar report is original and has been done by me under
the guidance of faculty members of Electrical & Electronics department.
b) I have followed the guidelines provided by the university in preparing this seminar
report.
c) I have confirmed to the norms and guidelines given in the ethical code of conduct of
the university.
d) The work has not been submitted to any other institute for any other degree or
diploma.

ABDULBARI
B. Tech (EEE) V SEM

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the report entitled "TYPES OF INSULATOR" has been carried out by
"ABDUL BARI the student of V Semester "Electrical and Electronics Engineering in
Graphic Era Hill University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, under my supervision in partial
fulfillment of the requirement at the 5th semester of B. Tech in the session 2013-2014 as
prescribed.

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
Dr. R.Gowri

SEMINAR INCHARGE
Mr. CHVENKATA AVINASH
MR. JOSE THANKANCHAN

This is to certify that this seminar report is examined by me.

SEMINAR EXAMINER

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We, student of B. Tech (V Sem), Electrical & Electronics department, Graphic Era
University have taken efforts in this seminar report. However it would not have been possible
without the kind support and help of many individuals. We would like to extend my sincere
thanks to all of them. We are highly indebted to Mr. ______________ and his guidance and
constant supervision as well as providing necessary information regarding the report and also
for his support in completing this report.
We would like to express my gratitude towards my parents and friends for their kind
cooperation and encouragement which helped me in completion of this report.

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ABSTRACT
. A Professional study involves both the theoretical as well as practical knowledge of the
subject. So, in this seminar report, I have tried to bring in to attention the transmission line
insulator.transmission line insulator are used in electrical equipment to support and separate
electrical conductors without allowing current through themselves.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE....................................................................................................i
STUDENTS DECLARATION.....................................................................ii
CERTIFICATE..............................................................................................iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT..............................................................................v
ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS...............................................................................vii
LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................viii
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................01
2. ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION.......................................................02
2.1 POWER SYSTEM NETWORK AND THEIR VOLTAGE LEVELS..03
2.2 THE ADVANTAGES OF HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION.........04
3. TRANSMISSION SYSTEM...........................................................................04
4. INSULATOR IN TRANSMISSION LINES.................................................05
4.1 THE ELECTRIC FAILURE OF INSULATOR....................................06
4.2 FACTOR OF SAFETY............................................................................06
5. TYPES OF INSULATOR...............................................................................07
5.1 PIN TYPE INSULATOR..........................................................................07
5.2 SUSPENSION TYPE INSULATOR.......................................................10
5.3 STRAIN TYPE INSULATOR.................................................................13
5.4 SHACKLE INSULATOR........................................................................14
6. INSULATOR MATERIAL...........................................................................15
7. VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION AND STRING EFFICIENCY...................16
8. METHOD OF IMPROVING STRING EFFICIENY.................................18
8.1 USING LONGER CROSS-ARM............................................................18
8.2 GRADING OF INSULATOR.................................................................18
8.3 USE OF GAURD-RING..........................................................................18
9. REFERENCES..............................................................................................20

LIST OF FIGURES
1-How power reach us.
2-Diagram to show the whole system
3-structure of a pin insulator
4-33kv pintype insulator
5-suspension type insulator
6-structure of suspension type insulator
7-strain insulator
8-shackle insulator
9-porcelain insulator
10-glass insulator
11-polymer insulator
12-voltage distribution across the string
13-grading of insulators
14-use or guard ring

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LIST OF TABLES
1. ZONES OF INDIAN RAILWAYS.

05

2. INDIAN LOCOMOTIVE CLASS WAG-5.

20

3. INDIAN LOCOMOTIVE CLASS WAP-4.

22

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