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The current debate on women's rights has until now been predominantly shaped by its progress in the west. Whilst attitudes towards women have changed significantly in the west through the endeavours of feminists and women's rights movements of different philosophical persuasions, Akmal Asghar questions some of the assumptions and their universality as well as the broader impact of their successes. The treatment of women in any society has become, without doubt, a key marker in evaluating its progress. The accepted framework of the debate on women's rights has centred around the need for 'equality', to redress a historic imbalance that has empowered men considerably more than it has women, and to undermine patriarchy and societies modelled on its assumptions. !t is without doubt that the perception, treatment and rights of women are now dramatically different to those of even the last century. "ut alongside the rapid changes that followed the 'domestic revolution', as some term it, a number of very key questions remain unanswered. While historical pre#udices and assumptions may be slowly eroding in areas of opportunity, employment conditions, political rights, and marriage particularly in the West it would be difficult to argue that the debate on women's rights is now over. $any feminists and women's rights activists, while welcoming the changes of the last century, believe that there are many battles still to be fought, although they remain deeply divided on which battles they are. These unanswered questions not only relate to the rights of women, but to the impact that the successes of women's movements have had on society as a whole. Their progress has fuelled increasingly comple% dilemmas on issues such as the rights of children, relationships with the opposite se%, and the escalation of previously rare social problems. They have e%posed shortcomings in the accepted framework and in its very assumptions, illustrated by the bitter divisions that plague post feminist movements. &ritically, one must ask if the discussions in the West promoted as a template and international standard have addressed the core issues of the debate. !f, however, they have overlooked them we are in need of a new perspective. The conte%t The currently accepted framework of debate on women's rights originated shortly after Europe's age of enlightenment. !t was $ary Wollstonecroft, influenced by her company of liberal thinkers, who first applied the conclusions of the enlightenment to the issues of women in her ''indication of the (ights of Women' in )*+,. !t followed the publication of 'The (ights of $an' by her close friend Thomas -aine and challenged the 'domestic tyranny of men' as -aine had challenged the 'divine right of kings'. After nearly a century of campaigning, and through the turbulence of the .rench (evolution, another landmark work on the rights of women was the publication of 'The /ub#ugation of Women' by 0ohn /tuart $ill.
such as those to independent education. /imone 2e "eauvoir. particularly during its medieval to post industrial period.'$odern' perspectives on the rights of women are largely based on the liberal conclusions first articulated by Wollstonecroft and $ill. who maintained that the differences between men and women were a biological fact and not a social construct. Equality3 The European conte%t 9reat significance and importance has been assigned to the discussion of 'equality'. Equality and . A number of contributions forged the historical conte%t in which equality between the se%es was first suggested in Europe. The 2ecretum 9ratiani. liberal positions assert that men and women are fundamentally 'perfectly' as $ill puts it equal. economic.raternity' held that differing political. and )+)*. was deplored as a symbol of sub#ugation and patriarchy 5male dominated society6 and a consequence of the growing in#ustices of the industrial revolution. are now less prominent in the debate on women's rights. was the bedrock on which classical theories of women's emancipation were founded and which now form the foundations of modern perceptions. but rather becomes. 7iberal individualism. the liberals have the victory in the debate thus far. and to the specific meaning it has come to assume. a pillar of Europe's medieval monarchies. Advocates such as 0ames . they asserted. or essentialists. one of the most significant voices after Wollstonecroft. 1bserved differences between men and women. between housewife female and breadwinning male. "ut its symbolism as a key tenet in the debate on women's rights. The 'ictorians held that men and women should operate in two separate spheres 5with the women confined to the home6 based on the long established belief of the world as a naturally ordered whole. played a pivotal role in forming Europe's confused perspectives on women. in which all was harmonious as long as things stayed in their ordained places. &hristian theology. This is the division of labour feminists deplored. famously remarked in her book 'The /econd /e%'3 41ne is not born. !t is events in Europe and post revolution America both of whom share a common European tradition which have defined the accepted framework of the debate on women. such that it has become the very prism through which emancipation is measured. The 'division of labour'. a contemporary of $ill. in his book '7iberty. is largely because of its European conte%t. therefore. The traditionalists. rendering the other subordinate. This is why feminists are keen to differentiate between 'gender' as a social construct and 'se%'. are neither biological nor innate but the product of centuries of conditioning. assigned roles and duties on the basis that 4sin came into . social and economic rights should follow from these determined differences.it80ames /tephen. a woman4. Also termed 'constructivism'. Although conservatives and traditionalists still maintain similar arguments. which formed the basis of &hurch law for nearly eight hundred years between )):. employment and political representation. Equality translated to equal political. and social rights and opportunities. $ovements who championed women's emancipation were defined by their struggle against a distinctly European mindset and the inconsistency with which it treated women in relation to men. Accepting anything less is to promote the oppression of one se% over the other. by western writers.
wrote# $%en and women are made for each other. Accompanying the increasing power middle class men enjoyed. did not liberate women from their historical treatment but merely compounded their subordination. be of marginal importance if it means restricting the choices of individuals in the name of the health of the collective. however. the belief that Eve was created out of the bent rib of Adam popularised their secondary nature. the need for a framework of additional ideas and principles arises from no more than human interactions that occur within families. )orrecting historical prejudice alone cannot be a basis for defining a relationship between people. on the value we set on their attractions and on their virtues. (ut if we separate the long history that formed the backdrop to the notion of e&uality. To please men. we are in need of a body of additional ideas and principles. a necessary evil. but their mutual dependencies are not e&ual. The issue of social cohesion may. -irstly. control over wages they earned independently. who justified their typically drunk and unruly behaviour on the pressures of increasing competition in commerce and industry and showed no interest in domestic matters other than to demand that their needs were met. In the wider context of human relationships. and the major part of their marriage rights. an inescapable punishment. we are in need of more than just this simple assertion of e&uality to handle the disputes and organise the relationships that naturally arise between people. Indeed. Indeed. and so condemning women.iberal individualism. They are dependent on our feelings. a domestic danger. corrected perceptions of their inferiority and founded movements that worked for their emancipation. even after the (eformation. a natural temptation. Women bemoaned their treatment at the hands of men. -ope !nnocent '!!!'s endorsement of the book 'The >ammer of the Witches' in ):?:. There are two important issues to consider in responding to liberal objections. "ousseau in ! mile!.ii resulted in thousands of women being burned at the stake. and that even their humanity was questionable convinced monarchs and senior clergy. Industrialisation. which asserts3 4What else is woman but a foe to friendship. e&uality was significant and indeed very controversial when first suggested. may regard this an irrelevant criticism+ it considers men and women as individuals and the unanswered &uestions justified because they represent the personal freedom for both men and women to conduct their lives in the way they see fit. The considerable wealth generated during the industrial age created a growing male middle class who increasingly disregarded women. indeed obvious. to be useful to them to win their love and respect'$iii In this historical context. . on the price we put on their merits. characterised sometimes as putting the !individual before society!. would articulate a deficient political theory if it were to ignore relationships that . therefore. ven the enlightenment!s most eminent thinkers spoke of the subject in a manner reflective of more traditional attitudes. was domestic abuse and violence. a desirable calamity. !ndeed. social groups.i Apart from blaming Eve for original sin.the world through them <women=4 and that 4because of original sin they <women= must show themselves submissive4. however. Thus women!s entire education should be planned in relation to men. that feminists have opposed ever since.iberal individualism. The e&uality debate established the framework by which urope dealt with the subjugation of its women. It does not address how best men and women can cooperate to forge a socially cohesive society. These theological traditions positioned women at the start of the industrial revolution. and society as a whole. it was this situation in industrial urope that formed the key notion of patriarchy. we find the assertion that neither men nor women are inferior to one another is a very simple. an evil of nature. his seminal work on education. Women either found themselves working for a pitiful wage in the large factories brought on by industrialisation or married to the expanding group of middle class industrialists to whom they deferred ownership of their property. the works of theologians that asserted women possessed an innately evil capacity. or male dominated societies. valuating the idea of e&uality The simple assertion that men and women are e&ual*that women are not inferior to men*alone articulates very little if considered outside its historical context+ it leaves a number of unanswered &uestions. . We could survive without them better than they could without us. a delectable detriment. painted with fair colours4. truth.
the issue is more complex when dealing with disputes. the nature of which have been the subject of many contemporary debates in science. and a lower capacity to learn and reason3 which were assumptions.v differences do not translate to the inferiority or superiority of either sex and must be considered in this context. It is crucial to note that unlike some conservative conclusions. -or example. it is women that give birth and carry the physical impact of doing so during pregnancy and delivery. 7illigan attempted to assert that women possessed a different type of intelligence. Individuals could always choose to isolate themselves from family and society. The 54o et 4syche6 attempted to understand the uni&ueness of women through the use of -reudian. to the conclusions of 4lato and Aristotle. . and so demanding e&uality alone can be misleading. The issue of children is particularly divisive if not managed correctly. particularly -reudian tools or 7illigan!s surveys 2as well as the &uestionable relevance of knowledge of the precise nature of differences in solving practical social problems3. 1istorically in urope.<. whose management is a key element of ensuring social cohesion. /ifferences between men and women can lead to specific needs and complex disputes. and that the discussion of differences had been used historically as a tool for condemning women to subordinate roles. for both mother and child. -or example. as have some of the methods used to understand them. In simple e&uality terms. and relationships between men and women determine the very future of the human race through human reproduction. 1owever. rather than deny. liberal and feminist thinkers asserted that perceived differences between men and women were a social construct. ideas and principles.ome framework is needed to articulate rights. differences between men and women. more elaborate. 0ften received with scepticism. women and their offspring should be appropriated in order to produce a socially coherent society. The conclusions of these scientific and philosophical studies have been disparate and varied*some clearly disproved and erroneous. . This may re&uire specific medical treatment and care arrangements during pregnancy and after the birth of the child. just as they carry the burden of doing what they can to give birth to a healthy child. (ut rejecting all differences by attributing them to the product of social conditions may e&ually result in a dishonest account of human nature. psycho*analyses. not facts. This is because they may result in a demand for different treatment. indeed responsibilities. They assert femininity and characterise contemporary thinking in many ways. let us briefly consider the issue of difference. . following conclusions by =ancy )hodorow published in !The "eproduction of %othering!. a more caring and emotionally sophisticated psyche that was uni&uely different*although some went on to assert it more superior*to that of men. indeed the themes of philosophical discourse over many millennia# from studies by evolutionary psychologists and neuroscientists. These are re&uirements that men will never need as the difference in treatment arises from biological differences between men and women. The early eighties saw the emerging popularity of the !difference feminists!. among the increasingly fragmented post*feminist movements are those who assert. reduced capability for sound verdicts.econdly. the issue of difference. amongst other. The distinction between gender and sex therefore appears justifiable and a helpful way to seperate social construct from biological fact. A simple assertion of human e&uality provides limited guidance on the issue of difference and gives rise to a need for additional. They draw on differences between men and women to identify the uni&ueness of women and refuse male assimilation that results from interpreting female characteristics in male terms. this may appear an endorsement of une&ual treatment. /ifferences between men and women laborating on each of these points. There are observable differences between men and women. about women. but we are born with family and relatives and so naturally relate with them+ we engage in social activity with friends. indeed additional rights under certain circumstances. there have been some perceived differences between men and women 2whether or not women possessed deficient intelligence. Any failure to acknowledge or manage them effectively in the name of e&uality can be just as oppressive and detrimental as believing they symbolise the superiority of one sex over the other. as they involve a collective group of individuals and the relationships between them.are often not a matter of much choice.eaving aside simple differences due to biology. these discourses demonstrate that differences between men and women have been consistently observable and are not recent phenomena. not biological fact. that men. if a couple decide to separate after the birth of .iv In fact. Addressing differences and relationships between men and women &uality alone appears an unsophisticated conclusion in dealing with differences. after the publication of )arol 7illigan!s !In a /ifferent 8oice! in 9:.
We are therefore in need of a social framework comprising additional. simply because of the fact that the continuation of the human species depends on their mutual coming together. 4oliticians and thinkers have not only been preoccupied with disputes. who takes responsibility of the child if both want to do so> If one does take custody. in different situations. has limited practical use+ there is a need for something more detailed and sophisticated. and how to attain it. Therefore. and not the somewhat nebulous labels used to describe them. the amount of time spent. and do not always carry reciprocal meanings as has been briefly illustrated. complaining of unfair treatment. of itself. labelled !e&uality!. as can criticising alternative perspectives on women!s rights through its use. The meaning of !e&uality! is heavily contested exactly because it has come to include perspectives on the ideal social framework. but exactly how depends on this framework. and !fair! are closely associated. any criteria of relevance. therefore. !une&ual!. regardless of the precise nature or extent of differences between them. (ut although termed !e&uality!. or even some time after that. if not misleading. e&uality. financial assistance the mother or father have with that child if they are not the ones granted custody> Women may consider they have a greater right over the child because of the physical impact they endured carrying the child during pregnancy. or perception of. rights.uch feelings of unfairness are unfortunate. a number of problems naturally confront men and women. -or example. western system+ for some radical feminists it is primarily fighting patriarchy+ for socialist feminists it is e&ualising economic conditions+ for some it is even reasserting motherhood. feminist activists and thinkers implicitly acknowledge this. but also with the ideal setting for their convening and the impact that fractured relationships can have on both sexes and society as a whole. in western liberal democracies has been to grant women the rights and opportunities that men have enjoyed historically. It gives a line of argument. it is essential to separate it from opinions on social framework and policy. establish much. by itself. as fairness rests at the heart of any pursuit for. indeed additional.viii )riticising through the prism of e&uality Indeed. -ailures of the current social framework The predominant approach to social framework. arbitrating justice. The need for a social framework A simple assertion of e&uality alone. access. )ritics also point to the fact that a principle of e&uality provides insufficient guidance in. undermine or replace the current system+ whether or not to assert difference or to regard it as having no bearing in the appropriation of rights+ whether or not the domestic mother is a subjugated role or a symbol of distinct femininity+ whether or not the terms !feminine! or !femininity! themselves inherently depict subjugation and should be rejected. approaching the subject of women!s right through the term !e&uality! can be ambiguous. which often results in fundamentally opposing conclusions. The substantive debate is thus over the social frameworks used to manage the relationships between men and women. It has translated into a . the use of the women!s body in advertising or pornography+ whether to correct. and how to administer them. rights and responsibilities. what governs the relationship. . As the philosopher ? " . These disagreements and disputes all centre on translating or !practicalising! e&uality. are just a few of the subjects that deeply divide contemporary feminist thought. but not any definite conclusion$. It provides limited insight into the rights either sex should be appropriated in such disputes.uch disputes have proven a challenge for western legislators. -or liberal feminists. but since the principle of formal &uality does not provide. Terms such as !justice!. for example. the increasing divorce rates present a number of complex scenarios. it does not. and lucrative for its legal profession+ among other things.their child. more elaborated. Indeed.ucas points out# $It is clear that formal &uality by itself establishes very little' %any of these differences we may wish to rule out as not being relevant.vi The words of 4eggy Antrobus resonate these limitations as she describes !e&uality vs difference! being amongst the woman!s movement!s $paradoxes and dilemmas$vii in her book !The 7lobal Woman!s %ovement!. !e&uality!. it is largely correcting prejudices in the prevailing. and all these are among many others. . a demand that asserts biology can justify different. The failures of the current system 2discussed in detail later3 to deal with such situations have left both sexes. The !-athers for ?ustice! campaign in (ritain is one public example of parents expressing their sense of anger at the unfairness with which they believe the system has treated them in relation to women. Asserting that neither men nor women are inferior to each other can be accepted as universal+ current opinions on social policy are not. ideas and principles that tackle justice.
peaking to B9E. per week in . that while heralding the triumph of liberal democracies in !The nd of 1istory and the . 1owever. The impact has been to burden parents with numerous social and financial dilemmas and to burden society with the impact of their inevitable mistakes. Indeed. 4articularly if the existing system is institutionally at the service of men. The onset of a number of social dilemmas and problems can be traced back to confusion and a lack of guidance over social responsibilities. as the conomist magaFine points out. the @nited . indeed irresponsible. The breakdown in family structures and the loss of !social capital! in the west he asserts. and more often than not will hire a woman. despite the financial paradox. abortions. (ut the technological advances which delivered the computer and the pill were not the cause of women entering employment+ but rather tools for advocates of women!s liberation. income or costs. Alongside increases in the number of women in paid employment has been an increase in demand for childcare. A mother seeking employment creates an employment opportunity in doing so. -ukuyama admits that individualism 2which conse&uently led to the basis of feminism3 now compromises social stability# $The tendency of contemporary liberal democracies to fall prey to excessive individualism is perhaps their greatest long*term vulnerability and is particularly visible in the most individualistic of all democracies.xi above the national average wage.ome couples may share responsibilities but the numbers of single parent families are rising. %en and women may lead independent. with children. liberation against domestication through pursuing paid employment has often made little financial sense. If the mother. and social rights and opportunities. ven for most dual*income families this is a considerable financial burden. which together reflect a weakening of social bonds and common values in Western societies'$ understanding the causes of which he dedicates a book. values.xiv . but to e&ualise treatment under it.DDD a year. and attempts to combat sexist prejudices. compounded by current shortages. -eminist thinkers considered financial independence from men a key part of emancipation+ that men!s monopoly over earnings has meant that power has rested with the male half of humanity historically. it appears a rather complicated reshuffle but with the same net effect*someone must care for the child. a considerable segment of feminist thought rejects it as a counterproductive approach. has subse&uently created crime.tates$. In fact. (ut as current employment debate demonstrates. and !unintended! births. the situation is rather ironic. and with it substantial costs of hire. is estimated to be nearly BCDDD a year for a < year*old child. and has created concerns over relationships with children. and whether or not to divide or share tasks between couples. It is an approach that seeks to e&ualise rights and opportunities in the context of the existing system+ not to replace it. a trend which has subse&uently compromised traditional family structures. insecurity and moral decline.ast %an!. had remained at home it would not have considerably altered her. has led to difficulties of other kinds. -rancis -ukuyama points to the. lives but the birth of a child brings with it a shared responsibility that needs to be managed.demand for e&ual employment. $'negative social trends.ix The cost of day nurseries in the @A. It does not correct inherent errors in the values that form the existing system.xv It is ironic. economic.uperficially. commitment. through the need for someone to mind her child whilst at work+ hiring the child*carer costs a considerable proportion of her own wage. nationally. 1e contends that the onset of service based industries and the independence provided by the invention of oral contraceptives in the EDs and CDs unleashed women to the labour markets. therefore institutionalising their disadvantaged status. as are children available for adoption. it appears that the popular perception among men is that they are not. women continually refer to their rights in male terms as they play catch*up in a system that is accepted as preferential to and prejudicing men. a policy that seeks simply to e&ualise treatment in an existing system may also be oppressive. although liberal individualists may interpret such shortcomings as welcome freedom. or father. and says nothing of the mental and physical effort that is re&uired to combine paid employment with responsibility for children.x and the cost for a nanny is estimated at averaging over B<9. A 7reat /isruption> In his book !The 7reat /isruption!. employment has become an icon of empowerment and is demanding that women!s child*bearing nature should not put them at any career disadvantage to men. 4romoting economic independence. teenage pregnancies.ondon. or the couple!s. Working parents have a limited amount of time with their children. but assimilates women into them. however.xvi This increasing confusion over social responsibility has prompted some to attempt to identify the most . political.xii . an issue of considerable regret as surveys indicatexiii and there is confusion over responsibilities towards children in respect of time. or single mothers. It is not only financial pressures that women and couples have come to endure. The issue of employment opportunities and rights has featured significantly in this approach. -or those couples. While women increasingly confront the assumption that they are primarily responsible for the care of children.
women and children have towards each other. is fraught with dilemmas. when he was (ritish home secretary. and apparent paradoxes. A framework is needed to articulate responsibilities and rights that men. This is most apparent when considering alternatives. or women.he is afforded rights to property. wrote in his introduction to !. by feminist thinkers has largely been to undermine historically western assumptions about women. -rom the discussion on managing differences. It inspires. 1owever. a domestic mother in the Islamic social framework is in an empowered and honoured position. The logic of each creates an impasse. The heart of the problem in the current framework lies in the paradox created by trading*off liberal individualism and the need for social cohesion+ liberating women from traditional family settings and the need for stable homes+ challenging men!s monopoly on earnings and the disadvantage created by women!s child*bearing nature+ seeking e&uality with men and appropriating for human differences. preference. =o right to vote+ to own property or to dispose of income as one wishes+ denied access to education and work+ considered meaningless in political and intellectual circles+ regarded as inferior to men*all these describe the condition of women in uropean history. the 4ankhurst!s and the suffragettes. Thus. This Islamic framework does not measure worth in terms of wealth or access to it. abuse of rights and manage disputes between them. %ill!s work on the !. It plainly makes sense for the government to do what it can to strengthen the institution of marriage$. as women seek empowerment in the labour markets.ubjugation of Women!. Islam does not consider men predominating in the work place as representing patriarchy. to prevent subjugation. The Islamic framework is built on accepting that men and women are e&ually human. indeed defines. Huestioning the assumptions G presenting alternatives The story of the modern woman is one of her journey through the history of Western urope and =orth America. as has increasingly been the case in the West since the advent of liberal )apitalism. none other than ?ack . . or placing society at the service of men!s needs. It is true that in the industrial middle class. and so motherhood is valued no less. should we reject the notion of a !social construct! per se. an answer is difficult as it is trapped in gender polarisation. than a highly paid role. by strengthening either patriarchy or matriarchy. and the domestic mother in the context of advent of liberalism and capitalism came to represent a subjugated role. the -rench revolution. is encouraged to learn and gain scholarship. (ut it would be short*sighted to reject all beliefs about social relationships between men and women on the back of uropean experience and the roles it appropriated its women. (ut its uropean context has entrenched a number of urocentric assumptions. feminism in other parts of the world. and often more so. such as the Islamic social framework. the reality of men and women lead us back to conclude that some social system is needed to regulate their relationships. the &uestioning of social construct. or the !successes! of !second wave! feminism in the EDs and CDs+ it is the uropean experience that has been taken as the global model for women!s emancipation. ither it is men that decide roles and responsibilities. indeed to reject them. or specifically those false !social constructs! that lead to the subjugation of either sex> (ut in a secular framework. "oles G "esponsibilities Western societies have increasingly rejected the notion of different roles and responsibilities between men and women to handle their increasing social dilemmas. to be politically active*indeed is granted the vote*and is afforded a number of marriage rights including access to divorce. it appears that even after deconstructing social roles and constructs.xvii (ut promoting !stable! family structures in the context of expanding dual income families. Indeed. and the costs of childcare. a view fought vociferously by radical feminists in his own party. both social roles and policy.traw. men translated economic prowess as power both in society and in family. complications. 1owever. as it does challenge this subjugated feminine construct. they will fuel accusations of bias. neither inferior to the other 2indeed it did so well before urope!s . In the development of the debate in the West these are the accusations that arguably rendered the appropriation of roles irrelevant in the first place. Whether the depiction of %ary Wollenstonecroft as the !first feminist!. and privilege towards the deciding sex.upporting -amilies!# $The evidence is that children are best brought up where you have two natural parents and it is more likely to be a stable family if they are married. Whoever decides. families and society as a whole. It seems appropriate to undermine these assumptions.appropriate social setting for children. (y the same token. as part of a social construct of gender and a disadvantageous division of labour.
the validity of opinions is not measured by assumptions about the advocating sex. -ebruary <9. 4eggy. (() =ews. The 7lobal Women!s %ovement. but does not suffer from gender polarisation as it is not men or women who decide the preferred roles and responsibilities but their )reator. p. chapter. =ote. 9IC.9J.A. ?akob. ?une C. <DDK. (() =ews. (() =ews. It is common to hear criticisms of Islam!s treatment of women because of the difference in. . ?ohn ". Med (ooks.tuart /. (ut as the discussion earlier demonstrates.ucas. 1. =. or even sexist. The %alleus %aleficarum. And so labelling Islam!s social framework as promoting ine&uality is to do no more than say it is different+ alone it represents no universal criticism as views on social framework are particular to broader viewpoints of ideology and disputed among feminists themselves. for example. and those earnings are measured by merit and not by sex+ women will earn the same as men if undertaking the same work. (oth men and women may choose to work and earn. <DDK. 9:C9.*9I9. mile. 29:C93. &uality. "eprint. .yons# /over 4ublications. 9<II*9<IE.tephen ed. 8 $. ?anuary <9.tuart /.iberty -und. edited by A.C:*9. ?ean*?ac&ues. (() =ews.. -raternity by ?ames -itF?ames . nglewood )liffs. References I /ecretum 7ratiani. 9K. 8I . <DDJ.urvey conducted by the Institute of -iscal . It promotes different roles for men and women. ..tudies. NI $4arents 1it by "ising =anny costs$. III "ousseau . )ausa JJ. @.ack of )hildcare$. 1einrich.9+ reprint 7raF 9:II+ vol. 9<C.enlightenment3 and are judged e&ually before their )reator. ?anuary <I. formulated by Aristotle in reference to 4lato# !treat like cases as like!. =ew Lork. ?ustice and &uality. <DDK. (ookI. NII $)hildcare industry should !welcome men!$.ource# =annytaxO=ursery World. col. N $4arents! childcare costs rise$. Warner to .ikewise. .. This is interpreted as representing ine&uality and subjugation to men. Warner. criticising difference as ine&uality is an unsophisticated outlook and practical views on e&uality are actually views on social framework.-riedberg. 8II Antrobus.E. &uestion I. not only in terms of physical strength. IN .iberty. ed. but also in terms of !greater intellectual force! and !greater vigour of character!$ &uoted from the -orward by . formal e&uality principle.prenger. $Against &uality$. . 9::J.tephen holds that men are superior to women. $Women )onstrained by . pp. . $Is &uality nough>$ The @niversity of )hicago 4olitical Theory Workshop. KJ.eipFig 9. Indianapolis# . . 9: II . dress code.. but as the product of human reasoning. I8 4lato!s assertion that# $It is only males who are created directly by the gods and are given souls$.?. 9. and Aristotle!s that# $women are defective by nature$. 8III Woodly.(edau. p. /eva. )orpus ?uris )anonici. and Aramer . <DDJ..A.
pp. -ebruary <9. The Atlantic %onthly. <DD9 N8I -ukuyama. The conomist.abour!s -amily 8alues$.NIII $%others. $The 7reat /isruption$. . %ay 9:::. I. 8olume <.J. <DDJ. II*. NI8 $Are women /oing it All>$ (() =ews. 0ctober <J. -rancis. N8 $1egel forgotten$.D N8II $=ew . (() =ews. 0ctober 9I. work and the guilt factor$. <DDJ. =o.
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