h q
=
Review Week 2 (2) Review Week 2 (2)
q = = =
2 1
Ground Surface
1
z
2
z
1
1
z
2
z
1 1
+
2 2
+
Subsurface stress increment due to a point load Subsurface stress increment due to a point load
r
Review Week 2 (3) Review Week 2 (3)
p
I
z
P
2
=
2 / 5
2
) / ( 1
1
2
3
)
`
+
=
z r
I
p
Influence factor, I
p
z
Subsurface stress increment due to uniformly
loaded circular area
Subsurface stress increment due to uniformly
loaded circular area
Review Week 2 (4) Review Week 2 (4)
c
I q
0
=
Vertical stress increment due to strip area
carrying uniform pressure
Vertical stress increment due to strip area
carrying uniform pressure
q
B
q
B
X
Review Week 2 (5) Review Week 2 (5)
z
z
X
{ } ) 2 cos( sin
+ + =
q
z
z
X
1
R
2
R
)
`
2 sin
2
1
B
X q
z
r
I q
0
=
B L
Define Define m = B/z m = B/z and and n = L/z n = L/z
Vertical stress increment due to uniformly loaded
rectangular area
Vertical stress increment due to uniformly loaded
rectangular area
Review Week 2 (6) Review Week 2 (6)
Influence chart for vertical stress increase Influence chart for vertical stress increase
Newmark (1942) influence chart , based on the Boussinesq solution to
determine the vertical stress increase at any point below an area of any
shape carrying uniform pressure (q
0
).
Chart consists of influence areas which
has a influence value of 0.005 per unit
pressure
The loaded area is drawn on tracing
paper to a scale such that the length of
Review Week 2 (7) Review Week 2 (7)
paper to a scale such that the length of
the scale line on the chart is equal to the
depth z
Position the loaded area on the chart
such that the point at which the vertical
stress required is at the centre of the
chart.
The count the number of influence
areas covered by the scaled drawing, N
Then, vertical stress increase at z depth,
= 0.005 q
o
N
Approximate method to determine the stress
subsurface stress increment (60
0
approximation)
Approximate method to determine the stress
subsurface stress increment (60
0
approximation)
Review Week 2 (8) Review Week 2 (8)
According to this method, the increase in stress at depth z is
) )( (
0
z L z B
L B q
+ +
=
Contours of equal vertical pressure in the vicinity of
(a) a strip area carrying a uniform pressure
(b) a square area carrying a uniform pressure
Contours of equal vertical pressure in the vicinity of
(a) a strip area carrying a uniform pressure
(b) a square area carrying a uniform pressure
The zone lying inside the vertical stress contour of value
0.2q is described as the bulb of pressure
B width of the foundation
Low Low
Large Distributed Large Distributed
Weight Weight
Very Large Concentrated Very Large Concentrated
Weight Weight
Loading on the surface causes deformation/settlement in subsoils Loading on the surface causes deformation/settlement in subsoils
Introduction (1) Introduction (1)
Low Low
Weight Weight
Weak Weak
Soil Soil
Weak Rock Weak Rock Strong Rock Strong Rock
Introduction (2): Settlement in soils Introduction (2): Settlement in soils
structure
embankment
Settlement Settlement
profile
These loads produce corresponding increases in the
vertical effective stress,
v
Settlement refers to the compression that soils undergo as
a response of placing loads on the surface
Introduction (3): Significance Introduction (3): Significance
If the settlement is not kept to tolerable limit, the desired
use of the structure may be impaired and the design life of
the structure may be reduced
It is therefore important to have a mean of predicting the
amount of soil compression or settlement amount of soil compression or settlement
Total settlement in soil due to loading Total settlement in soil due to loading
Deformation of soil and
rock grains
Compression of air and
water in voids
Drainage of water and
Deformation of soil and
rock grains
Compression of air and
water in voids
Drainage of water and
Elastic Deformation
(Immediate
settlement) (S
e
)
Elastic Deformation
(Immediate
settlement) (S
e
)
Introduction (4) Introduction (4)
Drainage of water and
air from voids allowing
compression of soil
skeleton
Creep movements
plastic adjustment of soil
fabric under a constant
effective stress
Drainage of water and
air from voids allowing
compression of soil
skeleton
Creep movements
plastic adjustment of soil
fabric under a constant
effective stress
+ Primary
Consolidation (S
p
)
+ Primary
Consolidation (S
p
)
+ Secondary
Compression (S
s
)
+ Secondary
Compression (S
s
)
S
e
+S
p
+S
s
= Total Settlement S
e
+S
p
+S
s
= Total Settlement
Timing Timing
time time log time log time
elastic elastic  immediate immediate  fully recoverable fully recoverable
1 week to several years 1 week to several years
Introduction (5) Introduction (5)
s
e
t
t
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
e
t
t
l
e
m
e
n
t
primary consolidation primary consolidation
due to removal of water due to removal of water
inelastic inelastic
time timedependent dependent
partial recovery only partial recovery only
secondary compression secondary compression
creep of particles creep of particles
inelastic inelastic
time timedependent dependent
unrecoverable unrecoverable
0.5yr 0.5yr 5yr 5yr
50yr 50yr
Elastic (immediate) settlement of soil (S
e
) Elastic (immediate) settlement of soil (S
e
)
AA
Introduction (6) Introduction (6)
Caused by the elastic deformation of soil particles when
the effective stress is increased
Fully recoverable
Not time dependent (occur within very short time)
Calculations generally based on equations derived from
theory of elasticity
AA
HH
FFFF
FFFF
uniform uniform
axial axial
stress, stress,
= = HH / / EE
= F = F // AA
= / = / = / = / = / = / = / = /
= = = = = = = = EE
theory of elasticity
F
o
r
or
F
o
r
or
Flexible vs Rigid Foundation Flexible vs Rigid Foundation
Introduction (7) Introduction (7)
Flexible foundation: uniform contact pressure, nonuniform
deformation
Rigid foundation: nonuniform contact pressure, uniform
deformation
Flexible vs Rigid Foundation
(contact pressure and settlement in clay)
Flexible vs Rigid Foundation
(contact pressure and settlement in clay)
(a) Flexible foundation in clay
Introduction (8) Introduction (8)
(b) Rigid foundation in clay
Flexible vs Rigid Foundation
(contact pressure and settlement in sand)
Flexible vs Rigid Foundation
(contact pressure and settlement in sand)
(a) Flexible foundation in sand
Introduction (9) Introduction (9)
(b) Rigid foundation in sand
Elastic properties (E Youngs
modulus) of clay and sand
Elastic properties (E Youngs
modulus) of clay and sand
In the case of an extensive, homogeneous deposit of
saturated clay, it is a reasonable approximation to assume
that E is constant throughout the deposit
Introduction (10) Introduction (10)
In the case of sand, however, the value of E varies with
confining pressure and, therefore, will increase with depth
and varies across the width of the loaded area
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity)  1
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity)  1
f s
s
s
e
I I
E
B q S
2
0
1
) ' (
=
Bowels (1987) Bowels (1987)
'
0
soil of ratio s Poisson
foundation the on pressure applied net q
s
=
=
) 1948 , (
) 1934 , (
2 / '
4 0
from elasticity of modulus Average
Fox factor depth I
er Steinbrenn factor shape I
foundation of corner for B
foundation of centre the for B B
B z about to z
E
f
s
s
s
=
=
=
=
= =
=
fundation of corner the at
foundation of centre the at
, 1
, 4
=
=
+ =
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity)  2
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity)  2
f s
s
s
e
I I
E
B q S
2
0
1
) ' (
=
1
s
F
1
and F
2
can be obtained from tables using m and n or can
be calculated
F
1
and F
2
can be obtained from tables using m and n or can
be calculated
) 2 / (
' '
B
H
n
B
L
m
foundation the of centre the at
settlement the calculate To
= =
B
H
n
B
L
m
foundation the of corner a at
settlement the calculate To
= = ' '
Variation of F
1
with m and n
Variation of F
1
with m and n with m and n with m and n
Variation of F
2
with m and n
Variation of F
2
with m and n with m and n with m and n
I
s
( shape factor ) can be calculated I
s
( shape factor ) can be calculated
2 1
1
2 1
F F I
s
s
s
+ =
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity)  5
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity)  5
) 2 / (
' '
B
H
n
B
L
m
foundation the of centre the at
settlement the calculate To
= =
B
H
n
B
L
m
foundation the of corner a at
settlement the calculate To
= = ' '
2
1
2
1 0 1
tan
2
'
) (
1
A
n
F
A A F
=
+ =

=
L
D
f I
f
, ,
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity)  6
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity)  6
f s
s
s
e
I I
E
B q S
2
0
1
) ' (
=


\
=
B B
f I
s f
, ,
I
f
can be obtained from charts using D
f
/B,
s
and L/B I
f
can be obtained from charts using D
f
/B,
s
and L/B
I
f
can be obtained from charts using D
f
/B,
s
and L/B I
f
can be obtained from charts using D
f
/B,
s
and L/B
I
f
can be obtained from charts using D
f
/B,
s
and L/B I
f
can be obtained from charts using D
f
/B,
s
and L/B
Due to the heterogeneous nature of soil deposits, the
magnitude of E
s
may vary with depth. For that reason, Bowles
(1987) recommended using average of E
s
Due to the heterogeneous nature of soil deposits, the
magnitude of E
s
may vary with depth. For that reason, Bowles
(1987) recommended using average of E
s
z E
f s
s
s
e
I I
E
B q S
2
0
1
) ' (
=
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity)  9
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity)  9
z
z E
E
i s
s
=
) (
smaller is whichever B or H z
z depth a within elasticity of ulus soil E
i s
, 5
mod
) (
=
=
Example 1  1 Example 1  1
A flexible shallow foundation 1 m X 2 m is shown below.
Calculate the elastic settlement at the centre of the
foundation.
A flexible shallow foundation 1 m X 2 m is shown below.
Calculate the elastic settlement at the centre of the
foundation.
f s
s
s
e
I I
E
B q S
2
0
1
) ' (
=
Example 1  2 Example 1  2
f s
s
s
e
I I
E
B q S
2
0
1
) ' (
=
z E
E
i s
=
) (
B = 1 m, L = 2 m B = 1 m, L = 2 m
B m z 5 5 = =
z
z E
E
i s
s
=
) (
kPa E
s
400 , 10
5
) 2 000 , 12 ( ) 1 000 , 8 ( ) 2 000 , 10 (
=
+ +
=
For centre of foundation For centre of foundation
10
5 . 0
5
) 2 / (
' , 2
1
2
' , 4 = = = = = = =
B
H
n
B
L
m
5 . 0
2
1
2
' = = =
B
B
Example 1  3 Example 1  3
10 ' , 2 ' = = n m
From tables, F
1
= 0.641 F
2
= 0.031 From tables, F
1
= 0.641 F
2
= 0.031
659 . 0 031 . 0
3 . 0 1
3 . 0 2 1
641 . 0
1
2 1
2 1
=
+ =
+ = F F I
s
s
s
709 . 0 , 3 . 0 , 2
2
, 1
1
= = = = = =
f
I figures from
L
D
mm I I
E
B q S
f s
s
s
e
27 . 12 01227 . 0 709 . 0 659 . 0
400 , 10
) 3 . 0 1 (
5 . 0 4 150
1
) ' (
2 2
0
= =
709 . 0 , 3 . 0 , 2
1
, 1
1
= = = = = =
f S
I figures from
B B
4
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil3
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil3
( )
2
0
0
1
s
E F G e
e
E
I I I B q
S =
foundation of length L
foundation of width B
=
=
For circular foundation For circular foundation
foundation of diameter B
B B
e
=
=
kz E E
s
+ =
0
z with ulus elastic soil in increase of rate k
foundation of bottom the from depth z
depth foundation at soil of elasticity E
mod
0
=
=
=
Influence factor for the variation of E
s
with depth Influence factor for the variation of E
s
with depth
) , (
0
G
B
H
kB
E
f I = =
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil 4
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil 4
( )
2
0
0
1
s
E F G e
e
E
I I I B q
S =
e e
G
B kB
Foundation rigidity
correction factor
Foundation rigidity
correction factor
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil 5
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil 5
( )
2
0
0
1
s
E F G e
e
E
I I I B q
S =
3
0
2
2
10 6 . 4
1
4


\





\

+
+
+ =
e
e
f
F
B
t
k
B
E
E
I
Foundation embedment
correction factor
Foundation embedment
correction factor
1
( )
2
0
0
1
s
E F G e
e
E
I I I B q
S =
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil 6
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil 6
( )


\

+
=
6 . 1 4 . 0 22 . 1 exp 5 . 3
1
1
f
e
E
D
B
I
\

+ =


\

=
1 . 0
log 2 . 0 1
5 . 0 1
2
1
years in time
C
q q
q
C
given by: given by:
Elastic settlement of sandy soil using strain
influence factor  3
Elastic settlement of sandy soil using strain
influence factor  3
z
E
I
q q C C S
z
s
z
e
=
2
0
2 1
) (
The strain influence factor I
z
for square (L/B=1) or circular foundations and
foundations with L/B10 is shown here. I
z
diagrams for foundations with 1<L/B<10
can be linearly interpolated
The strain influence factor I
z
for square (L/B=1) or circular foundations and
foundations with L/B10 is shown here. I
z
diagrams for foundations with 1<L/B<10
can be linearly interpolated
Elastic settlement of sandy soil using strain
influence factor  4
Elastic settlement of sandy soil using strain
influence factor  4
Procedure for calculation of S
e
using the strain influence factor Procedure for calculation of S
e
using the strain influence factor
Step1: Plot the variation of I
z
with depth
Step2: Plot the actual variation of E
s
of
soil with depth. E
s
can be calculated
from SPT or CPT results
Step3: Approximate the actual variation
Step1: Plot the variation of I
z
with depth
Step2: Plot the actual variation of E
s
of
soil with depth. E
s
can be calculated
from SPT or CPT results
Step3: Approximate the actual variation Step3: Approximate the actual variation
of E
s
in to number of layers of soil
having constant E
s
Step4: Divide the soil layer from z=0 to
z=z
2
into number of layers which will
depend on breaking in continuity in I
z
and E
s
diagrams
Step5: Prepare a table to obtain
Step6: Calculate C
1
and C
2
Step3: Approximate the actual variation
of E
s
in to number of layers of soil
having constant E
s
Step4: Divide the soil layer from z=0 to
z=z
2
into number of layers which will
depend on breaking in continuity in I
z
and E
s
diagrams
Step5: Prepare a table to obtain
Step6: Calculate C
1
and C
2
z
E
I
s
z
Example 2 1 Example 2 1
A 3 m wide strip foundation on a
deposit of sand layer is shown along
with the variation of modulus of
elasticity of the soil (E
s
). The unit
weight of sand is 18 kN/m
3.
Calculate the elastic settlement of
foundation after 10 years using the
strain influence factor.
A 3 m wide strip foundation on a
deposit of sand layer is shown along
with the variation of modulus of
elasticity of the soil (E
s
). The unit
weight of sand is 18 kN/m
3.
Calculate the elastic settlement of
foundation after 10 years using the
strain influence factor.
1
.
5
m
kPa q 200
0
=
3 m
2
) (MPa E
s
6 Mpa
3
=
strain influence factor. strain influence factor.
Depth (m)
15
7.5
12 Mpa
10 Mpa
3
/ 18 m kN =
z
E
I
q q C C S
z
s
z
e
=
2
0
2 1
) (
Example 2 2 Example 2 2
kPa q 200
0
=
) (MPa E
s
3
/ 18 m kN =
2 . 0 =
z
I
5 . 0 =
z
I
z I
z
z
1 . 0 2 . 0
3 0
+ =
10 0 . 3 , = =
B
L
B L
5 . 0 =
z
I
) 3 ( 9 / 5 . 0 5 . 0
12 3
=
z I
z
z
9 / ) 3 ( * 5 . 0 5 . 0 = z I
z
Example 3 3 Example 3 3
Layer No z [m] E
s
[kPa]
Z to the
middle of
layer
I
z
at the
middle of
layer
1 2.0 6000 1.0 0.3 0.0001
2 1.0 12000 2.5 0.45 0.0000375
] / [
3
kN m z
E
I
s
z
Example 3 4 Example 3 4
4 . 1
1 . 0
10
log 2 . 0 1
1 . 0
log 2 . 0 1
922 . 0
27 200
27
5 . 0 1 5 . 0 1
2
1
=

\

+ =

\

+ =
=
=


\

=
years in time
C
q q
q
C
kPa D q
kPa q
f
27 5 . 1 18
200
= = =
=
mm m z
E
I
q q C C S
z
s
z
e
75 075 . 0 000334 . 0 ) 27 200 ( 4 . 1 922 . 0 ) (
2
0
2 1
= = = =
1 . 0 1 . 0
\ \
kN m kN m z
E
I
s
z
/ 000334 . 0 ] / [
3 3
=
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