God and Music

By

JOHN HARRINGTON EDWARDS

Origina lyrct nata deUm, viris fessis auxilium
Icttitiam ferens.

et

- God

is its

author,

and not man
all

;

The Us

key-note of

harmonies

;

he laid he planned

All perfect combinations, and he
90 that

made

we

could hear and understand."

NEW YORK: THE BAKER & TAYLOR
33-37 East Seventeenth
St.,

CO.

Union Sq., North

11

L^?

-2

Copyright, 1903,

By

The Baker & Taylor

Co.

Published, February, igoj

HENRr VAN

TO DTKE, D. D., LL.D. A MASTER WORKMAN IN MANY FIELDS AND IN ALL
FOR

W^

iUoster

1

M

'

I

Preface

—^All men
true

are vitally and equally concerned in the

Cause of causes.

answer to the inevitable question as to the The human mind cannot rest in
in

mere phenomena, or
heart of
for

secondary agencies.
its

The

man

refuses to satisfy

undying hunger
immortality
in

a personal

God and
short
of

for personal
reality.

with anything

If

any

art,

science, philosophy, or
valid
tive

supposed revelation there is toward be had to meeting the imperahelp
for absolute truth

demand of human nature

and imperishable love, it will find ardent welcome from every sane and candid person who thinks below the surface of
life.

-^
and exact science of music

The

beautiful

art

promise such aid for the illumination and guidance

heavenward of the soul of man, forever
it

restless

till

finds rest in

God.

This art has long claimed to

be a fitting

medium of communication between
Has modern science
7

Deity and Humanity.

an-

8

PREFACE
Do
the ascertained facts and

nulled this claim?

laws of universal nature

make

it

absurd?

It

is

hoped that the following pages
proof that music, by
its

will give reasonable

constitution, correlations,

and

effects, discloses

a Supreme Being

who

is

all

that the
crave.

mind and heart of man need and

rightly

The

art of

melodious and accordant sound does

not bear solitary testimony to the verity of the great belief; it is one of many truthful witnesses to
this surpassing fact.

The

other

arts, all sciences,

and the philosophic reason
with
it.

fairly interrogated,

agree

The

Christian Revelation, far from being

outlawed in
liefs,

this

receives fresh
side,

day of searching light on all beand ever stronger confirmation

from every
faithfully

when
till

research has been carried

onward
it

it

has attained probable cer-

tainty.

But

is

possible that

some who have no

ear for Moses and the Prophets, nor for Christian
apologists,

may

yet listen to the message of music,

as

it

tells

in clear

and winning tones of the God

harmony, who loves beauty and^ goodness with impartial regard, and man most of
of melody and
all.

in the dents to hope of attracting other studeeper research and a more extensive working of the boundless wealth of closely related artistic and theistic fact hid in the wonderful art of music. the . fruit of many years of thought and reading the writer ble in the how far yet no one knows so well as short it comes of what is possi- same line of inquiry. to freely introduced. much less of a theo- . are but Jrial shafts These chapters sunk into a mine of rich truth. This has is been allowed. remarkable that the theolog- value of the whole territory of aesthetics has litde appreciated. If been so the present attempt made in one section of it shall lead some who are undertake more adequately equipped for the task to an exhaustive study of the subject. ical It is. quotation lustration and il- have been also. To relieve the somewhat technical and dialectic character of portions of the book.PREFACE The argument here of those 9 offered to the consideration who care for either the art or the faith so is closely affiliated. it will not have failed of accomplishing an end definitely sought. indeed. from which tempting specimens have been brought to the surface. show that the view taken not that of a mere advocate.

some facts. are. so far as known. . be seen that many of the wisest thinkers and greatest leaders of men. have been constrained to ascribe a similar evidential value to music. the exact source of ions. The number of such authorities might be indefinitely multiplied. only just to say that what may to some seem commonplaces of musical science or of theological reasoning. The intention has been to make due acknowlreferences to. opin- and valuable excerpts made use of has been^ Credit is given in the Index to all. edgment of the more important and quotations from. to whom credit is specially owing. quite apt to be entirely new to the majority of readers on either side. in the marshalling of known an un- and the converging upon the main point of less more or familiar lines of argument It is in familiar but legitimate way.lo PREFACE It will logical melomaniac. nevertheless. perhaps. lost. other writers. special originality is claimed for the present except. In the accumulated notes of years. as well as those possessed of artistic genius. No work facts. and are necessary to the general understanding of technical matters introduced.

C. Huntington Woodman. also of useful hints and encouragement from the Rev.. Ph. tions as to particular chapters by M. Director of Music in Packer Collegiate Institute. D.PREFACE Acknowledgment M. D. This recognition of indebtedness docs not involve responsibility on the part of either of these friends for any views or state- ments contained in the book. Stitt.. Brooklyn. BrookfynNna YoriKf . and by Mr. of the College of Physicians and Surgeons. D. who kindly read the entire manuscript.. is II gratefully made of suggesStarr. R. Allen D. VV.

.

The Altruistic Art «3 215 .XI.

" 275. and probably — demands." . is consonant with. second line should be "trillions. fourth line — for "and" read Page 147." Page 115." — "other "or of. sixth line "other arts. first line for "four hundred" read — " forty-nine thousand. "Either Lord Kelvin's theory of atoms as uniform whorls in the ether. it is wished that the following corrections should be made by readers Page 113." acts" should be Page 233 second line from bottom before "favored. rhythmical vibration as a necessary condition of atomic constitution." —insert"less" Page from bottom — "millions" Page 295 sentence beginning "Lord Kelvin's theory" may be changed to read.ERRATA A final desired revision of God and Music hav: ing been prevented by ill health. or the newer theory which regards them as clusters of force-points.

The Altruistic Art »3 215 . IN Nature 43 71 IV. Design 193 XI. The Beautifier OF Time VIII. MUSICO-THERAPY Design in 63 X. What Music it Music? 23 III. 1$ II. VI.Contents Thi Thimi I. Law in Music 83 Correlations of Music 95 119 • VII. Wherefore? V. The Power of Music '39 1 IX.

The God Index of Music • 311 . CONTENTS The The Social Art Art 237 XIII. Religious 249 269 291 • XIV.H XII. Music and Immortality XV.

THE THEME .

." seems —Tennyson. through thick veils to apprehend labor working to an end." —Jacob Boehme. hand in hand. embellish. the heart or well-spring of Nature." He And A "God " Take is to hear a Heavenly Friend. and nothing remains. him all proceeds. will continue and eternally to illustrate. im- press."— Andrew Law. from God from Nature. enforce. " Theology and music move on."— Nicholas of CUSA. through time. and fix in the attentive mind the grand and important truths of Christianity.

at least. physical or psychical. which gratify and exalt their all- higher nature. so constituted as to perceive. forces of the universe in will bless his creatures. combine. The Deity thus nature is declared is is a perfect Being. but who delights in every form of beauty. He by »7 has set the laws and an exquisite order. and able to reproduce 1 them by artistic methods in elab- orate or simpler forms. such as their own responsive co- .(university V OF y ) GOD AND MUSIC CHAPTER THE THEME I A WORLD . and enjoy an endless variety of musical sounds. whose harmony. who keenly alive to disso- nance. these in a universe ruled by embracing law that binds together its limitless realms in a unity demanding one sole cause equal. thrilling in every atom with rhythmic vibrations a race of sentient and intelligent be- ings. to the production of ments and forces : —given component elethese factors. what must its we infer ? God.

) spiritual perfecting. with innumerable melodic and harmonic sounds. The Being thus disclosed pro- vides in the structure of the universe and of for the man and. whose nature is full to ceaseless overflow of the love of audible beauty. and one of that without music their ablest philosophers avers life would be a grand mistake. with suffice to implications and possibilities. we need be its neither atheists nor agnostics. Music. power. and goodness. and may greatly aid in its attainment. . would to all show to its appeal. happiness. and also of a spiritual constitution of the universe. in worlds. But the boundless realm of melo- dious and accordant sound does indicate a Creator. probably. supposably infinite in wisdom. that there for a Supreme Power making! and harmony. The Germans picture God as himself singing songs. and of reasoning upon is minds capable of responding its causes and correlations.i8 GOD AND MUSIC operation. that intimate the finer beauty of holiness. making all of melody and harmony " in this Everything that the sun shines on. If there were no other proofs of the existence of a Creator. sings." and sings of the Great Musician. The art and science of music by no means reveal that all God is.

and among all his sentient creatures above the lowest stage of sentiency. so that there can be intercourse and sympathy between aspiring. " All law " is " all love " only if wielded by righteous love. loveless coexistence. always. in superabundance of good-will toward his dependent creatures. struggling invisible Deity and sensitive. no imperative regard for the Such a monarch would be a to the universe. humanity. It is of unspeak- human being and destiny to be certain is life of a nature kindred to his own. divine Autocrat On the other hand. ruler of evil omen his The calamitous results of supremacy would be exceeded only by the woe . could easily develop into an uncomfortable. but with right. Unlimited might. a is conceivable who. the God of music uses this means to effect some of the highest possible ends. Of far wider and more personal import is it to know what God is than merely to be assured that an all-controlling Power able interest to every that the Ruler of his exists. artistic and otherwise.THE THEME 19 Everywhere. would supply them with every means of gratifying their various faculties and cravings. concerned only for the establishing of ethical right.

in the Born sphere of pure spirit. The " passionate love of unity. true to its origin. art's maUce A god who fostered art solely for sake. universe. regardless of moral conditions. It is subject throughout to an is intricate mathematical system. it touches the lower if level of matter only to spring upward. in all in- Music is the lingua franca of the Modern science goes far to confirm this idea of oldest philosophy. Were . yet the most alit truistic of arts. Spiritual in essence. the only known language indigenous to heaven and heard habited worlds. utilizes the senses for the higher education of the soul. The home It is of music is in the bosom of the Eternal. and." which marks our time above others. a regimen of exact law by the Music glorifies gracious dominance of an informing spirit that delights in the well-being and pure happiness of all who hear and feel.20 GODANDMUSIC infinite which an omnipotent sovereign of could cause. finds in fresh this late-born science and eloquent attestation of the oneness of the Creator and the homogeneity of creation. would be an aesthetic Ahriman. to rise on the pulsating wings of the ether to loftier regions.

yet one of the strongest. disclose a God who of such attributes as to love beauty in commend him its to all any of forms. It is not the purpose of this essay to demonstrate that anew God is . From the morning of creation he ordained song and gladness for the recreant but redeemed prodigals of earth on their return to the Father's heart and home. Pantheocracy would be pandemonium. in purpose. prohibitory of science. and thetic in in origin. postulating the common theistic belief as at least possibly true. Its contents. Visible and audible beauty are one ultimate constitution. to inquire if in the wonderful art of music there are any clear . moreover. or demiurgic sub-gods working in the universe.THE THEME at will zi there gods many. is A music- loving and a music-making Deity close akin to the Heavenly Father of the Gospels. the music of the spheres would be palpable discord. The aes- argument in for the being of God has not been at- developed any degree corresponding to that it is tained in other kinds of theistic proof. but. and a torment to ear and soul.

especially know any man " must and act. may be taught by the tones and forms of pure music. as well as sense and think. it will be well worth the labor spent upon it. Possibly better than metaphysics. must be true music. kind of feel reality. and not of sensuous type appealing to the senses alone or chiefly. to the highest. the direct knowledge that all God is the Rewarder of like who it aspire to know and be him." .22 GODANDMUSIC Should the follow intimations of his being and nature. an effluence and eviseri- dence of Deity. argument it attempted prove to some who may a credible suggestion of rich depths and heights of half-discovered truth leading from audible nature up to God. may by prove that art of much essential theology is latent in the harmonious sound. even as yet imperfectly is mastered and understood. and far more truly than by polemics. Moreover. ous is a proposition that deserves It study and sympathetic judgment. worthy its divine Only Original. To show that music.

WHAT IS MUSIC? .

incapable of malice and mechancet'e. as it were. so music which is. is the representative art of the Greeks. W. the attempt to express is the unutterable in feeling of modem thought. As sculpture." " The infinite is " The same transformation through the awakened sense of the seen in the domain of art itself. and aspiration. the manifestation of the inner essential nature of all ^ ' atheists of expression cannot deny the unspeakable of music to and The spirit of music is power express joy pain." is — Beethoven." — D. Forest." Music that is. the representative art . with its exactness of line and severe proportions.

*' spiritual experiences. material and call music is spiritual. which will crown the long progression with perfect harmony. is subhme harmony rhythm Music will is coming. ) it may be *5 poetically described as the consecration of sound.CHAPTER WHAT IS II MUSIC? The universe Its is rhythmical in every element and movement. divine event. is The human art but a trying of the strings. it is yet In^ more the expression of Spohr's words. It is a breaking into sound of the funda- mental rhythm of universal being. the often discordant first attuning of this and that instrument. The full. history marches in ordered throb and step to some far-off. The law itself. of spiritual subdue all things to not merely rhythmic sound ." Schopenhauer more . What men the final a symbol foreshadowing consonance of all things. on earth of the divine symphony of creaBut the motif is recognizable. at best a rehearsal tion.

" These and similar defining statements are a varied phrasing of the truth that music goes deeper than sense. constitute . or of moral temThis may have suggested Zola's epilife is gram. carrying our feelings with it. and character. without likeness to any of them. the very soul of and immanent in all right feeling. motion. it cannot rightly be called miitation of nature. of perament. spiritual process in the universal It is nothing less than cosmic. doubtless." is Plato and Aristotle insisted that music the most adequate imitation. is Thought and Thought feeling are before act. thought. Order. and " action." is second first. as music is an intimate part of nature. and springs out of the life. " Art nature seen through a temperament " j but.26 GODANDMUSIC^ it is definitely says that " the quintessence of life and events. but what . Power is the dynamic of motion. the truest expression. proportion. Efficient power will at work. is mental motivity. Hanslick affirms that " music embodies the general figures and dynamic element of occurrences. meaning. form. the palpable ideality in every art but to say that to put rhythm is the soul of music.

It is great and strong. and then beginning afresh with no deeper purpose than just life.WHATISMUSIC? is 27 thought is depends upon art. struggling. striving. flying." Schopenhauer is •• accurate as arts. ' essence of the the very soul of passion. us just what the will is. Lotzc argues that music if could not generate spiritual states force there were no spiritual it and substance to is utter to a spirit in man. returning to itself. Since modes of motion can produce only modes of motion. well as eloquent when he versally writes : Of all the music hiost uni- 1 and most many-sidedly portrays the very will. it it not in voice that the thing called music hides the uncreated intelligence of tone that genius breathes into the created elements of sound." . and incomprehensible inner nature of ours. world-making. wandering. There Art before Potential music governs the actual. This " Charles the thought which the author of " Auchester is is more subtly expresses : " I felt that . never by virtue of abstract ideas. antecedent tendency. charging. but only it by the might of the will that embodies. Music shows eternally moving. the very heart of this capricious.

motion and deducible from the . persistence of force but this is only a condition. all If. but Creation will. The mutual attraction of atoms vibrating at the same or harmonious ratios may yet prove to be the final mechanical explana- . simply vibratile force subject to intelligent A all its recent theory to account for gravitation may possibly explain the physical origin of matter with form and relations. creation is The whole is attuned to a foreordered har- mony. Every atom and ion in the universe a-tremble with rhythmic motion.z8 GODANDMUSIC The will to create music operates through audible vibrations of certain velocities and is ratios. is a fact of all Rhythm. is can even be affirmed that is not only set to music. Bjerknes supposes that bodies of visible size vibrating at the same musical pitch may attract each other. which the universe the product of exact ratios of the It universal vibration. not a cause of ordered and beautiful existence. is the product of music. Herbert Spencer says. the vibrating units may be drawn together by unisonous impulse acting as the square of the distance. thrill. is among the many modes of atomic tion there one general pulsa- common to atoms.

verifiable nature according " All is num- ber and harmony. Egyptian philosophers They found all-explaining Long made music it before their day the the symbol of akin to astronomy. science. and stellar arrangeis ment. The its early birth- Hindu place. though not Will power will life. as practiced by the primitive Aryans in India. is His axiom. 19 tion of molecular structure. Life in every form rhythmic. the universe." demonstration. were held to have sprung from the five heads of Krishna. the divine. necessarily due first to atomic vibration. by mathematical cosmos Plato was a Pythagorean so far as to reiterate the dictum that the soul of the is musical harmony. crys- organic development. belief traced this art to Its five heaven as modes. chemical affinity. but testifies to early adoption as an expressional aid to worship. set the ether vibrating. Hebrew Scripture does not commit itself to unscientific theories of the its origin of music. and the divine for may conceivably use this means propagating Pythagoras had principle that scientific ground for all his basal God organized to the laws of harmony. The brooding Spirit of the creation account in Genesis consists .WHATISMUSIC? tallization.

The choral harmonies of the spheres are as possible If faith to science as delightful to imagination. Uranus. interrelations with the rest of the universe. while equal marvels doubtless await the ear ? Neptune. as the parent of all The more thoroughly music rhythmical constitution is studied in its and its correlations with other forms of spiritual and physical being. celestial or- may yet take their audible part in the . Inven- where the wonders of the telephone and phonograph have been found but yesterday. were limited to the actually visible and audible. the more and in certainly its it is seen to be cosmical in itself. vibratile motion physical forces. in vain. and its most valuable revelations would be tions in the field of acoustics. when the cold calculations revealed of mathematical asbefore tronomy have planets unseen? Shall the grandest discoveries in our knowledge of the universe be always limited to the visual. known and unknown.30 GODANDMUSIC scientific with the theory of atomic. Why not. may some time enable men to hear plan- etary anthems and sidereal symphonies. progress in science would be impossible. and other worlds.

would be some mechanical means of magnifying the tone waves so as to bring them within present hearing power. may yet lend us ears to hear the seemingly inaudible. and moving with almost are now intercepted and their transoceanic message read by eye and Its ear alike. Herzian waves. indeed. some other force hitherto unknown. millions of miles in length the velocity of light.WHAT chcstra. as telescope and spectroscope now assist the eye to sec rays of light otherwise in- visible. most of the great or Electricity. Science anticipates prophecy. coming triumphs in store who can predict ? Whatever the future of science may have . IS MUSIC? low 31 when far-hearing devices shall enable us to velocities originat- perceive aerial vibrations of ing at great distances. seems impossible. but so have antecedently seemed physical discoveries. we could in But that would be necessary order to perceive the few hundred vibrations in each second which produce most musical tones. With a sound-magnifying instrument. million millions all per second. which would make the ear capable of perceiving coming at the rate of four vibrations in the ether hundred hear red. This.

therefore. music appears to have had its origin. S. Wilks. and in this. J." The origin. in the Medical Magazine " says that there must be up-and-down movement in all muscular action. muscular contraction and Dr." This suggestion is probably true as to the mechanical. according to this theory. the measure of time. . the mathematical argu- ment holds good for the ancient supposition that the created universe not only originated in a Mind ruled and ruling by the laws of harmony. this though is not strictly music. but also thrills in every atom and star with audible conso- nant vibrations — " i^oiian music measuring out The steps of Time the shocks of Chance — — The blows of Death. physiologists teach. to relaxation. art of music springs from a rhythmical Every organ of the human body has its own fundamental rhythm. sensuous element in the art. The pulse-beat is a The heart holds life's representative example. baton and leads the vital chorus. is The muscular sense.32 for the GOD AND MUSIC world in this respect. The time-sense is due. but only the medium of its spiritual essence.

and often of positive pleasure. they' The first articulate probably sang imitatively. cause a feeling of uneasiness or actual pain. or in motion of some other way. Language and the art of . or by rude instruments used to sustain the agreeable the dance.WHATISMUSIC? When regular and harmonious. Whether measured music began in the appeal to the ear and brain by the voice. sense awakened by audible Discords. place signs by which mind communicated with mind were probably musical. The vital functions are stimulated by that which gives pleasure. such as lively tunes at a funeral or dirges at al wedding. Hence music must very early have taken a high among the pleasurable activities of men. in gratifying succession and combination. Before human beings talked intelligibly. gave to the vibrations in the air. the 33 complex or- ganic rhythm gives a sense of well-being. echoes or imitations of melodious sounds in nature. The enjoyment to of rhythmic motion was early found be heightened by the regulated movements of dancing. or musical sounds unfitting the environ-! ment. abated by whatever is painful. it had independ- ent birth in the pleasure which rhythmic sounds. Its disturbance causes pain.

Rude yet sympathetic efforts at expression of first it feel- ing were the ful art. his deepest feelings. was artificial. music expresses the spiritual in man more immediately than painting. of life. all above Schelling's others " the art which strips off music. or even poetry. and his unutterable longings. and learned other possibilities But of expression given it by melodic sounds. Feeling. by motion of pitch. while music was natural. It voices his ideals and aspirations. is. kinds. architecture. in capable of expressing emotion of senting phrase.| The least material of arts. emotion. a ceaseless ongoing. art. Melody. forms of a wonderful and beauti- outgrew this elementary stage as soon as the human soul developed an intellectual apprehension of its own states. Speech. however. is all Repre- pure movement. first effect in psychical experience. the motion. . is the definition of Helmholtz. sculpture.34 GODANDMUSIC music grew from the same common stem. music was born of the perhaps I unconscious attempt to express what was strongly As an and pleasantly felt. For this capacity there is adequate reason in the Life is constitution of mind and of things.

not the eye. Seeing and hearing are in reality complicated acts of judgment. not tympanum or the fibres of is What eye. but can no more originate psychical events than a locomotive can construct a logarithm. or brain receives simply a motion in space. with a meaning and force brations in the atmosphere. music is essentially intellectual." • IS MUSIC? in ethereal 35 It is a dear product of the human form mind in time. The soul dwelling within sends. and so can embody in far the passing. changing spiritual states of the soul. Science is a new of God which pierces even to the dividing . spiritual and alone receives. The mind Corti.WHAT the bodily. In the " first place. ear. human is There is it more than melodious sound symmetrically ordered. The soul of music a spiritual content of mind. which cannot possibly be the product of mere viModes of motion may explain things physical. after the The interval of time rhythmic motion takes between the sensible impression and the mental state or action awakened by it word is not beyond computation. the message of the tones which certain specific vibrations produce. hears. Music begins place." The mind the sees.

and can do. as merry tunes. sensitive as Carlyle's rugged nature was an iEolian harp to the significance and power of this inter-spiritual language. unfathomable speech which leads us to the edge of the into that. He says of " it. A kind of inarticulate. asunder of soul and perceives ual that is. It is a vibrant door opening into the infinite. Think what music means what it to the human soul.36 GODANDMUSIC spirit." : " Tunes and airs have in themselves some aflfinity with the affections. It cannot be a soulless form of physical energy. modulates it by his law-ordered forces. after saying that sound is " one of the subtilest pieces of nature. solemn tunes. demonstration will perhaps be equal to the problem. nor a remarkable result of mechanical evolution. the faculty which spirit- and judges by sense and the higher Psychometrical faculty. ." infinite and lets us for a moment gaze Bacon touched the common underhe wrote standing more nearly when. the sole function of which titillate is to the nerves. The meaning of music goes deep. It is a Marconi system of com- munication between is spiritual beings. it God himself immanent in it. speaks through to his children.

" the not the divinest fine The body. is not the Nor is man all reason. if And music. in the supplying of which coarse and temporary contrivances. even in its finest functions." It is this capacity to express and reproduce the that gives music right to be spiritual moods of men fme art. and these emotions. a seem- ing reminiscence of heaven. with wants. as arbitrary words. arts. In hugi^n life the man. consid- ering that tunes bear a predisposition to the motion of the spirit. called a ers of One of the clearest seeing teachits our time has stated : claim to this rank in these words " We have not only a mortal body. sent to thither again.WHATISMUSIC? so as it is S7 . tunes inclining men's minds to pity. The lower animals never play. nor life all drudgery. play Jnstinct is the root of art. are well enough but we also have an enduring spirit with . The overflowing Music is joy of beauty is a divine benison. draw men . have specific sounds which here of arises are their natural eldest expression. which belong to the nature of spirit. warlike tunes no marvel if they alter the spirit. lasting emotions.

was one of the pure joys of mechanical form. Song. for a little. in it is die : heard pathos of the final word. \ it expresses the in the soul from which it It takes ." The songs of a people keep alive their spiritual They cheer. refine. but the race of Cain. matter. sensibility. cry To aspirations that would The The last appeal. alas. it may only raise them from earth enough to have freedom and excita- tion for the evil that clings to the baser nature. the Bible story runs. get almost free of and rise into the region of pure beauty. God just . more In simplest definition. lifted. elevate. or. soon got hold of music that Tubal Cain in its the earliest bit of recorded art-history the item was father to those that handle the exactly. if By the aid of music they are thus nearer they will. the Pan's pipe. or. is first is rhythmical sound What flows. — The cry of the Ideal.38 GOD AND MUSIC " It is the last appeal to man Voice crying since the world began . for is Eden. music used as a means of expression. organ. inspire. comfort. They furnish atmosphere and wings by which mortals can. we may believe.

a human art for the expression of the spiritual in its mai^ In primitive form. 39 art it is As an not found in nature. marks the course of man's hymns of religious growth. ascent from a crude. In sacred music he utters the' highest that is is in him. This fact indicates a Creator who possesses the love of music to a degree . Nature gives only sound of It is. The provision in nature for music is doubtless universal. music was really a naive attempt to ihterview the invisible spirits to reside within them. The musical capacity of sentient be- ings is well-nigh the same. but belongs to the ear. and aspires after that which far higher. and increases the higher in the scale they are found. and the spirit of man. with the spiritual world to the Veni Bernard's celestial song. as in drum worship and the early religious use of bells. which responded supposed by rhyth- mical and more or less melodious sounds. therefore. which to make music.WHATISMUSIC? color of the soul's atmosphere. the brain. animistic essay at The communion Spiritus. Bach's Passion Music. or the best musical Wesley and Faber in fitting expression.

visions and ideals beyond the power or present . we catch a whispered hint of this bias. but fail to through the barrier of our half-developed sense of hearing. the In the soul of art man and the history of human of music we discern in greater measure and clearness similar indications of proBut art has gressive self-revelation on God's part. we should have evidence of Deity in heaven and on earth as cogent as any the visible universe can furnish. Could we hear the music of the spheres in their rhythmic round.40 as yet but in GODANDMUSIC little recognized. It is impossible but that such a Being delights in this multiform and most spiritual In nature mode of self- expression. we should have potent proof not only of the Creator's existence but also of his characteristic qualities. Were our ears finely enough break attuned to perceive the melodic sounds which continually fill the air about us. and perhaps more appealing to the spiritual sensibility. and who reveals himself both the actual and the potential music of the universe as a God of harmony. The visible heavens gave Napoleon his readiest argument with which to answer the atheistic queries of infidel comrades.

and not have to throw on my colors with a house-painter's brush. refractions of the them. free. beauty upon their The great composers need no instrument in strains working out the which break upon Shall not inner ear at such times." The and essential fact " neither sound nor but something which eye or ear its conveys to the brain invisible tenant. The absolute music a of manifold fact to the absolute Mind. I look forward to the where can develop my rainbow dreams of ideal music in mi- nute gradations of sound. inspiration Moments flash give to artists a brief of this supernal experience. at last. star. In their essential highest creative fall moods. as one greatly gifted says in a private letter. allis possible form of truth and beauty comprehending vision. whether of things seen or things heard. lation is The real reveis to the spirit. The composer often feels.WHAT IS MUSIC? 41 need to express by any known means. God hear his . The divine Mind in sees every direct. I " like a blind life man writing in a frame. To God the ideal is real. the artist sees or hears what is to him absolute beauty in definite form." The motive The spirit of force of art is the radiant beauty of the ideal.

men man ? In this spiritual of all should surely seek to hear more truly.42 GOD AND MUSIC intuitions of divine own melody and perfect har- mony. though we catch but the most thrice-repeated echoes of them in the best music ever heard by arts. of which he drops hints into prepared and listening souls on earth. and both learn and repeat more exactly what God would say to them in musical tones and forms. .

MUSIC IN NATURE .

" " I say that music Nature. " Music is in all growing things. and throbs. Earth's silence lives. sings. is And Of underneath the silky wings smallest insects there stirred pulse of air that must be heard ." Balzac. — is an art woven from the very bowels of ." "The diapason closing — Dryden. from heavenly harmony This universal frame began . "When Nature underneath a heap Of * jarring atoms lay." From harmony. » * » full in * man. and A — Lathrop.

The term nature is to be taken as meaning the whole constitution of things and minds in ordinary relations of cause and effect Whether the human will is an agent above nature. fair to infer the purpose and agency of a music-loving Creator. in If every-day nature. it would seem inevitable that some clear indication of his tonal thought and feeling would be found in nature.CHAPTER III MUSIC IN NATURE If there be a God. personal Creator of that is. The heavens declare his glory to the eye. color reveals a Being The world who rejoices in of light and visible beauty. including the body and mind is of man. there universal provision for the art of its music. Their audible evidence of his love of melody and har- 45 . all else and so the Master Musician. need not concern the present discussion. and whether the divine will ever visibly works in a supernatural way. with leading hints toward it is development.

in common with other non-conduc- tors of sound. sometimes like the deeper notes of a violincello. woolen stuffs. " Everything that the sun shines upon. sends out a deep. but refuse to sing in others. give forth notes of different pitches when played upon by an light. swelling." says Bush" nell. and Flames have a the pyrophone can be . light and alike. or the musical whir of a humming-top. sometimes approaching the roar of thunder. and heard to sing. vibratory sound.46 GOD AND MUSIC is mony trial not yet within reach of human hearing. affords tonal evidence Even the inorganic world of the universal rolling sway of the Spirit of music. intermittent beam of white Colored stuffs will sing in lights of different colors." sound are known to be modulated voice. and can be Gases. so a traveller reports. Memnon ^rising daily intoned a morning hymn when the sun touched and heated the cold marble. but the oneness of creation would give to terres- music universal value as "proof that the same is Creator God also of auricular beauty. sings or can be made to sing. impalpable powders. The polariza- tion of light being now in accomplished. The sand on the slope of a Sinaitic mountain.

in and it feels the pulses on the which cannot be fro silent. sing a definite fibres. then the laws harmony themselves shall answer. one vibrating to another when it is not struck of string itself. every skins. all rapidly vibrating substance. tiality have in them the poten- of musical sound. with the resilient atmosphere. seems incredible that the soul of music in the heart of all created being. The exquisite echo under the full dome of the baptistery at Pisa carries a chord y . All the musical possibiUties of wood. vel- lum. Nor can he *• create harmony by any device except according to laws of sound which he did not establish. melody. Wood." to quote Bushnell again. Man cannot make a musical instrument of anything not foreordained to such use. to 47 stone. " is if it still Or. and the resounding air were hidden in their substance from the beginning. and uttering the concord air to its is it voice of concord simply because it. is a mighty instru- ment of music. Matter thus declares a spiritual origin and intent.MUSIC IN NATURE made metal." The very echoes tossed to and among the mountains in melo- dious tones testify that the framework of the earth. brass. membranes.

ac- cording to Silliman. This tone heard. when the procession of priestly trumpeters during the seven days' circuit may have will struck the key-note of at least It is well some por- tion of them. known that a bell-tower sway responsively to a peal of bells harmoniously tuned and struck. . and in the waving foliage of a large forest. in the roar of a distant city. Everything in nature seems keyed to take its The composite keypart in the cosmic symphony. from is which others sprang. sea The shells by every murmur own. as it is also in the thunder of a railroad train rushing over a bridge or through a tunnel. as does every soHd structure." as though were a refrain from an angelic choir loath to withdraw the heavenly sound from weary-hearted mortals. note of external nature is telling of the universal middle F. it long in a slowly " dying fall. its The Coliseum has for the key-note. a fact which has intimated a possible cause fall down- of the walls of Jericho. continuously with a musical secret of their harmony. when a discordant clangor.48 GODANDMUSIC and holds it in ravishing sweetness. which the five Chinese claim to have discovered years thousand ago all as the root-tone called Kung.

attaining in the race of man the ability to create a distinct book of considerable note a generation or two ago was entitled." Animate power art. Flooding with music vault and nave and aisle. too. no such disturbing This vibrant sympathy air- between architectural masses and correlative waves has suggested a poetic parallel illustrating the power and beauty of ethical harmony. Knows well that its all that temple vast and dim. or hymn. God has given man the material . in the true time These notes must all accord in symphonies sublime. sweet touch plays the great Master's score. Thrills to So he. With firm.MUSIC like the IN NATURE 49 broken step of soldiers upon a bridge. has effect. Of Truth and Love and Duty. True to the changeless laws of harmony. who on the changing chords of life. psalm. Knows. Though he may never hear. evermore. base with anthem. While on his ear falls but a thunderous roar He who. that far beyond this roar and strife. waiting to be evolved by hu- man intelligence. creation. '• The organ keys I / 1/ skillful hand sweep* o'er some cathedral pile. with bold and of — In the composer's lofty motive free. is endowed with to produce musical sounds at will. as a whole." '• A There is no " music " of nature. The Music of Nature. But all music is potential in nature.

the warp and woof of music.50 GODANDMUSIC made into of sound to be but he has furnished him with melody and harmony much more than . ready to be developed. also of Christian culture. subject to the inevitable law of rhythmic pulsation. Harmony was and come to latest gained. full born of Christianity. " See deep enough. abound throughout nature in manifold excellence." Rhythm tion. the heart of nature being everywhere music. Among stages the animals and in the rudimentary of aesthetic development harmony limited. In the constitution of the universe the whole art of music is latent. ready-made sounds. if you can only | reach it. Melody came next. and melody exceedingly But euphonious sounds. It law of the physical crealong ruled the inchoate music of primeis the first val man as with a rod of iron. is un- known. Inarticulate sounds and cries may have given the first hint of vocalized expression to the untutored . stature under the foster-child tutelage of modern science. but rising upon new-found pinions into a region of free spirit." as Carlyle saw \ and wrote. " and you will see musically.

The cries of beasts. insect chantings. perhaps. the diapason of wind and wave. by feathered throats than by human voice or instrument. but the euphonious tones of bird and beast are not " music." show a They certain range of sympathetic emotion. suggesting. and refining the attempts of primitive man at vocal expression of mood and feeling. the songs of birds. all more mechanical did their part in evoking and training the musical faculty. called IN NATURE 51 Bird songs are rightly enough so by analogy. provoking. purposed and free. though they have little of the rational and none of the spiritual character of song. are uttered More perfect notes.MUSIC mind of man. yet are resultant rather than creative. reactive not Similar conditions educe similar tones among the same species from age to age. Birds of the air have a much wider range of both routine and sympathetic notes instinctively repeated by the same species through summers without end. Barn- yard fowls have twenty or identical more notes substantially with those of chanticleers who crowed countless generations ago. and sounds. Darwin's gibbon . human licious They early filled the air with de- foretokenings of true melody.

" wrote a musician of a century ago. the Christian poet. . Farinelli. or be bold enough to the delight assert that Billington. hears in their pure lays a voice calling upward : " Whose household words Whose Are are songs in many keys. " And ment. in Lucretius gives : them precedence time and skill « With voice to imitate the song of birds Was earlier practiced than to soothe the ear With measured chant of modulated verse." Birds. of the present age. with all our boasted refineexertions. las^.52 GODANDMUSIC could sound the notes of the diatonic scale. both logically. and Haeckel found that family doing the same during his recent scientific tour in Java." Longfellow. " were assuredly the most ancient music-masters. the admiration of the ever ap- . and theo- as well as scientifically. Sweeter than instrument of man e'er caught habitations in the tree-top even halfway houses on the way to heaven. either our natural and artificial who Mrs. will even to all this day. We have something to learn from our musical artistically kindred and forerunners.

in the brilliancy of their shake. is so remarkable that we cannot but suppose it to be the result of benevolent design. " I have often reflected with surprise on the diversity of the means for producing music with birds. who harmony. IN NATURE 53 proached the excellence of these instinctive mueither in fertility of imagination. salient place in the system In his characteristic style as a thought- ful observer." this One evidence of prominence of music in the scheme of animated is nature adverted to by Dr. and still more with We thus get a high idea of the importance of song in the animal kingdom. insects. notes fill " the beautiful propriety in which singing birds up the day with sive periods of the their pleasing The accordance with the aspect of nature at the succes- day at which they sing. Jenner. " Of the entire animal kingdom music." The race of singing birds approaches man most nearly in melodic capability. or in neatness of execu- tion " ? Darwin depreciated music its as an art. he remarks." man and bird are the only creatures that use separate notes of determinate pitch in their birds alone in that And kingdom below .MUSIC sicians. but was impressed with of nature.

fact. besides the recog- nized thirds of the cuckoo. has commonly been denied show use the intervals of the diatonic scale. and robin. they anticipated mankind in the acquire- ment ment of exquisite musical tones. wood-pewee. wood-thrush. in the use of approximately accurate but also in the employment of exact metronome rhythms. of the United States Biological Survey. Oldys. simple melodic phrase-forms. He instances among others Carolina wren. tufted titmouse.54 GOD AND MUSIC can be taught to reproduce man In human melodies. in- Not only tervals. I (chickadee. and in the developof certain It elementary forms of melodic that they little structure. trained attention will But a that they do employ them. Henry W. and that both are . birds exhibit what he regards as true avian music. this striking evi- " there expert observer affirms that the evolution of dence that the evolution of bird music has paralleled human music. field-sparrow. and the antiphonal method. Mr. blue-gray gnatcatcher. many other birds use that and other diatonic intervals as correctly as the average ithe j human voice. chewink. claims that. ciple Applying the is prin- of universal evolutionary development. the song-sparrow.

birds to have attained the average of their musical in acquirements unknown prehistoric times. hke the animal wisdom of Brer Rabbit and Mowgli. But till then we must suppose that. for the foundation of the diatonic The argument scale in nature has no little support from the records of bird song S. the aesthetics and rationale of bird lore are refractions of human thought. P. " " Cheney's Wood-notes Wild is full of data of this kind. tell whenever the their psychic lark and the vireo are able to story in language intelligible to man. we shall make needed additions to our philosophy.MUSIC IN NATURE tending to the same ideal. nor arrived at a definite expression of psychical states. much less of spiritual concepts. and have neither evolved a scientific system of musical tones and forms. such as that of the purposed praise of a recognized Creator and Benefactor. A single example may be cited from the appendix to that work. and to our theology as well. Of course. It consists of a quotation from Xenas Clark's " Animal . made by many competent musicians. and from many other sources." It 55 re- can only be that marked seem as to this suggestive theory. derived from the author's observations.

fourths. and nine per or. their proportion of the whole number being respectively twenty-seven twenty-six per all per cent. taken four together. but does not.. inherit a quasi-musical of the lower repertoire.56 GODANDMUSIC Its Music. 1879. cent. like the humbler vocalists. he must call devise tools and methods to natural deficiencies. cent. thirds. of the remaining five intervals. per ." partials. Greatly inferior to many animals as to some points of structure and the power to do certain things. but. associated for This fact argues chief accepted origin of our scale Man has a distinctly musical nature. he obliged . upon his reason to more than supplement ^s In like manner. the natural sequences illustrated in their songs are those suggested by the upper tones. All the intervals of the diatonic and harmonic scales are used by the birds ... The perfect fifths.. or with the fundamental notes. eighty-seven per cent. twenty-five cent. April. as Sully has observed." —American Nat- uralist. " Nature and Origin. the natural relations. and octaves have a marked predominance (in bird songs). as against thirteen per cent.

MUSIC to develop IN NATURE^ Alike in 57 and use his rational faculties to create the art and science of music. expressional music. A later chapter will describe more particularly the provision thus made for the actualizing of musical conceptions belonging to man alone in either origination or execution. for a musical career. as conceived only by the infinitely more wonderful mind that also directs the orchestral organs and members of the individual musician. as adapted to this purpose. He . Nevertheless. His natural artistic the privative condition of his royalty. man means for creating true. and hand are marvellously fashioned and it is correlated to produce true music. nerves. and possessing unique aesthetic sensibilities rational intelligence. can the furnish whole brute world an equal. throat. Endowed with organs of incomparable capacity and delicacy and for perceiving and producing musical finds in nature the sounds. To neither of these. is specially ear. mechanical and in artistic achievement the possession of reason and a spiritual nature gives him immense superi- ority to the inability is whole irrational creation. the fitted human organism Brain.

and which are an integral part of the interwoven laws of the universe. required centuries. from the archives comparatively lief that little. covered the diatonic B. c. the common be- our scale It a modern invention does not if hold good. but . not millenniums. like first steps in every art or science. The scale of Pythagoras differed from the diatonic intervals. Egyptian flutes of 3000 have been unearthed which give it entire. Egypt. for the most part. to which his own faculties correspond. disscale. Knowing nothing finds that the tones he which combine to make His his metrical series.58 GODANDMUSIC is discovers that the process governed by laws that are a part of nature. plete. is Therefore. are limited and incom- For thousands of years the world. primitive Other instruments sound the diatonic The Peruvian Harvest Song is known at Lima to have been sung in accordance with them for nearly a thousand years. for ages of vibrational ratios. indeed. easily recognized music form a symby all who have attempts to fix the musical sense. hobbled in scales of four or five tones. in times practically prehistoric. to rediscover and utilize it in modern music. first the terms of this series in regular succession.

Yet the present tonal system of equal temperament. Asiatics use scales with finer tone divisions than the Occidental. if It has qualities of universality. so that to the Oriental ear our Theoretically.MUSIC IN NATURE it 59 is now an enduring basis of both melody and harmony. that of Persia and Arabia lacks dignity and intellectuality. The by its diatonic scale lis ratios is not a sole standard fixed nature. it is more serviceable than any other system It is in the present stage of musical development. tribes. is differentiated among races. and Hindu music. finality. the Persian scale but. have varied in the course of development. not to be placed in the same category with lan- guage as this and nations. like Chinese is the most perfect ever devised. as settled by Bach. so well cor- responds with the mathematical and xsthetic de- mands of the art that it may be said in a general way to be according to natural order. have for thousands of years sifted and tested tone intervals till a scale has been decided on most subtly adapted instincts of The W . Parry remarks. At the very least. music sounds coarse and barbarous. not the character of I man.

Beethoven. Chopin.6o to aesthetic GODANDMUSIC expression. V Nature gave them the diatonic and chromatic scales through the usual method of evolution by human endeavor. An ideally tuned circle probably to be ranked with a squared or the philosopher's stone. vi^rought out almost Wagner. Schumann. The realm known. Results approve its ex- cellence. of acoustics still very imperfectly A vast field of audible beauty remains to be conquered. Bach. and Brahms have not celestial music. with the simple acoustical means at to be convicted of having their command. six hundred perceptible is sounds in musical invention not within sight of the limits . Its laws and resources are intended to be at the command Nature is flexible of reason. Its best forms and most valuable results are to be secured by investigation is and invention. yoked their genius to a false or wholly artificial system. With some the octave. The excellence of the means is proved \ / by the scale is perfection of the product. and comprehensive. the world Oriental refinement combined with initiative will Western science and probably give new and marvellous revelations of the possibilities of this inexhaustible art.

as enjoy it. These are . so that music an outworn art. men make and Musical sounds go in fam- ilies. and bounds of harmony correspondingly extended. what may not be the outcome in musical achievement ? Modern music. and bearing marks of aesthetic intention.MUSIC of tonal expression. When ordinary trained hearing shall attain the delicate perception of Asiatic ears and be capable of identifying quarter and even sixteenth tones. is an art founded on universal acoustics. exhibits a measure of progress not unlike that involved in this supposition. IN NATURE 6i groundless that of the twelve tlie John Stuart Mill's fear was permutations and combinations even now diatonic semitones have been apis proximately exhausted. Every definite tone is accompanied by a called " har- train of lesser tones extending through octave after octave in exact relations. But there is in nature a still more positive indica- tion that music. when the wonderful range of in- flection exhibited in Chinese speech shall be reprotlie duced in melodic expression. as compared with the best known to Hebrew and Greek culture.

" monies. a musical system. trained ears. only a few are usually perceived by even Those produced by the lower vibration rates give to music solemn. majestic." or " overtones. Quality of tone depends upon the number and intensity of the partials. or mournThe middle overtones are less emoful effects. Because the first six notes in each series. she employs only such sounds. as these which attend any funda- mental note at definite intervals. . who gave the first name acoustics to satisfac- •the science of sound. seems that whenever nature makes for herself." They embody the psychical element in music. and are numerous in the tones of the violin. while flutes and stopped pipes lack them almost entirely. siren. they are now known as •' upper partials. the overtones were formerly called natural harmonics . they abound most in the human voice. including the prime. " This It Joseph Sauveur." namely. are consonant. wrote. so to true scientist.62 GODANDMUSIC " partials." An almost deaf acoustician. and bells. but since inharmonic tones appear higher up. Given by nearly all sonorous bodies. Theoretically infinite in number. speak. also proposed a tory explanation of them two hundred years ago.

" or harped " ? and enrichment supplied by the How shall it be known what would express the acoustic partials. The modest.MUSIC tional in IN NATURE of 63 character. vibration rates. Partials high vibration numbers are gay and joyous in the quality imWithout these spirit-like attendants of parted. precisely because of these self-effacing. in common speech would sound But for these character-giving tones. is piped It is fact. musical notes all voices and instruments would have the same quality." Ministering spirits of viewless sound. becoming monotonous and insipid. and none of them without significance. echo notes. seldom recognized partials are . such as would result from the absence of the diversity the question. the world of sound would be infinite tame indeed. Music would be a meagre. Its limitless possibilities of spiritual expression reside chiefly in them. Even the vowels alike. The complexity of human thought and feeling could not possibly be expressed without their aid. rowest limits if superficial art of nar- confined to bare notes of simple In a universe of tonal monotony. they furnish the endlessly varied coloring of music. that there are " so many kinds of voices in the is world.

and any advance in knowledge which they can contribute will be undoubted musical art. for philosophy. The predominant note of Niagara. and for theology. ninth. would not interfere with the essential force of the argument thus far advanced. or is more immediately caused by infinitesimal puffs of air rushing through the passage between the vocal cords. is Whether directly the air produced by the action of the vocal cords modified by cavities through or near which the breath passes. Thayer decided. The experiences. and ^ The newer serted to do away with theory of the action of the vocal cords.^ a positive indication of the thought and providence of a musical The same of the laws of vibrant sound govern the notes human same voice and the thunders of Niagara. physiologists must decide scientific gain for how they do it. is exactly that produced by an organ pipe one hundred and sixty feet high and of proportionate diameter.64 GODANDMUSIC Mind presiding in creation. as is demonstrated by the resonator. series of overtones is The ascending at the said to be found intervals in the cataract's awful music as in the softest accents of a child or of a prima donna. which i» asthe system of overtone resonance as de- veloped by Helmholtz. when we contemplate the voice as the organ of expression for an infinite range of psychical events and Air waves mediately do the whole work. it does not make the sense of wonder or of purpose any less. and verified the specific quality of vocalized breath by acute hearing. Its beat is Eugene which would be in triplets with an accent on the third. . Overtones do exist in the acoustic world. .

" and of plete series of notes all uniting in analytic hearing. or absent altogether. " Were the tone of Niagara a mere noise. He had a remarkably powerful. a com- grand and noble unison. definite.MUSIC IN NATURE twenty-seventh throb. by keen attention. In relating Garcia could hear in a night both the octave and the twelfth this. have heard the same two partials in the voice of a muezzin at Cairo calling the faithful to prayer. the interval of the tenth. voice of a third Seiler perceived in the night watchman at Leipsic. and unapproachable in its majestic perfection. ful in the Yet the impressions of this skillhne of nature's constitution The same allied notes may be heard in the human voice. first the partial. without the aid of a resonator. 65 giving The seventh partial. " I Zahm adds. rich voice. he found more clear and powerful than it is usually heard in the organ. and he this said." To verify this opinion would require a " absolute quite exceptional sense of pitch." He was quite certain that " the musical tone of the Falls is clear. still and then the prime. the night . seventh note would be cither weak. of the note he sang. some of them. or confused. organist were and habit.

enjoyment of Harsh tones and crude noises in which discordant partials abound. the foundation of harmony. was unusually and the minaret on which stood the servant of the Prophet was only a short distance away from me. gave to every creature a distinctive voice. and variety to the primary tones." Creator Must it not be that the same who fixed the laws of sound in the very heart of nature. like all the less easily organized elements in nature. Euphony and harmony are fully appreciated only when their opposites are heard or suggested. stimulate the discrimi- . the same throughout the universe. bler The remainder are fee- and more or less dissonant. they challenge the exercise of reason and furnish a background of contrast. Not richness. " never deceives us." The partials contain the major triad.66 GOD AND MUSIC still. only do they vary and enrich the quality of their fundamentals. but." It is work ? " Our beautiful art of Schumann once first five wrote. but add brilliancy. Most of the higher partials repeat the same intervals. and formed the mind of man his perfect to comprehend and enjoy music. Discord sharpens the perception and concord. also tuned the mighty organ of the cataract.

sixth. called the greatest supplied step in utilized by modern musical advance. The diatonic scale is certainly suggested by the ancillary partials that play so important a role in the universe of sound. which its human intelligence slowly discovers to profit. interval Had they been known. and the science of harmony would have had an earlier birth. possible place in true which have no harmony.MUSIC IN NATURE 67 nating and inventive faculties to reject them. rejected. The dissonant partials also teach the trained ear to refuse intervals. basis of his earlier The eminent French theorist in 1722. The subordinate . and and enjoyed long before the twelfth century. Rameau. another possible addition to the accumu- The sub-minor lating wealth of this affluent art. the tonal value of which has not yet been learned. Among the so-called dis- sonant tones are musical weeds. would have been fifth partial. made them the system of harmony. but add seventh recognized harmony. There are uses in things at first unpleasant. and other intervals were long greatly to is The third. the the of the major third. and composer. such as 11:13. or to remedy their causes.

It is rational. it is subjective. be discovered and employed by reason. Helmholtz even combined theoretic produce a tone of determinate partials successfully to quality. is objective. and taste. intelligence and effort. fact is But that development of so complex and beneficent a of universal intelligence acting through matter force. mechanical. ele- mentary. to skill. may the in part explain the musical sense. proving the likeness of the human mind to the divine. any must never usurp a dominant place in Harmony is not an arbitrary thing. as involved in nature. Innate in man. Thus science is born. Music. The unity of full nature and musical correlations must. and culture grows. its purposed. That scientific marvels and aesthetic beauty are the chance products of let purposeless evolution. The play of action and reaction between the outer world of rhythmic vibration and the inner world of thought and feeling. This was a bit of creation. him believe who can. conditioned by states of brain and nerve. is owing to mindless. on . undirected opposed its to common reason.68 or discordant GODANDMUSIC art. and evolved by human intellectual.

and the Maker and Friend of Man. convince the candid thinker that the also the of Music.MUSIC God of nature is IN NATURE God 69 consideration. .

.

p WHEREFORE? .

Dream. . Out of your darkened valleys of despair . The ' strong. To us his creatures. and forget your life's perpetual stings. divine. reconciling air Breathe.' " — —Celia Thaxter. in any voice. while the great chords seem to all bow Our heads." If God speaks anywhere. surely here and now We hear him. Some pulse of pitying love for you may beat. the symphony's breathless noise to with challenge ! our souls ! Beethoven's music From ' ! the mountain peaks . folded on the breast of Patience sweet . and Breaks over us. I lift you up on mighty wings ! Into Hope's living. compelling thunder rolls « And Come up higher the words it speaks. Behold.

not for no definite pur- pose. mental stimulus. refreshment. The means universe for is fitted up with every conceivable producing musical sounds and the com- plex of them called music.CHAPTER IV WHEREFORE ? In a cathedral stands a majestic organ. and higher inspiration. Such an elaborate preparation in both the external and the of music must have is human world some in for the creation if specific reason. a pianoforte. and the soul of man is craves the spiritual influence with which music instinct. in a is home that orchestra in epitome. The human ear and brain its are marvellously adapted to respond to almost unlimited range of expressive tones. reason anywhere to be found the universe. its The and purpose of music effects. and on a public stage are found a variety of skillfully shaped instruments for producing sounds of differing quality and pitch. —why ? Surely. may be learned from uses 73 . but evidently to give pleasure.

it is the business brain tissue. When a group of is faculties. contrasts. form. The mother's The brain-weary worker finds refreshing for mind and body in home music or the strains of an orchestra. ec- and cataleptic symptoms are not infrequent among any age or persons of extreme musical sensitiveness. . is music far greater upon savage and uncultivated people . of art to call into play fresh sensibilities by change lul- of tone. ally A worshipping congregation The immediate is physic- impressed and often spiritually exalted by the effect of organ's lofty peal. than upon the intellectually refined stasy. or hue. The soldier laby quiets the suffering child. and so give the nerve centres first affected time to recuperate. yet tears. They do calls under the law of which Parry the basis of art-form. the nervous system. in ^^ land. either stimulates or soothes. or sailor is nerved for battle by tunes resonant with patriotism. or a definite region of weary with the appeal made by the same kind of sounds or of colors.74 It J GODANDMUSIC / has to do immediately with that semi-spiritual This it part of the body. Musical sounds affect the nerve-centres as directly as the this most active chemical agents.

inspiring a quicker sensibility to all the love- liness of nature. but rather appeasing the troubles of their souls. higher part of nature." touched is human the heart of the truth. George Eliot's poet" ical definition." The physical and mental . for love the dynamic of . preparing the heart for all else that is beautiful. and softening our feelings to one another. perhaps this not even second to it. has affirmed its that " in that bearings on human happiness we believe emotional language which musical language develops and refines. Herbert Spencer. opening up avenues of pleasure in other arts. The antiPlatonic philosopher. love in search of a name.WHEREFORE? Plato rightly said tliat 75 music was not given to men with the sole view for of pleasing their senses. has ways been associated with religion and religious It is stimulant and ministrant to the worship." A thoughtful American is writer considers that " music one of the most val- uable auxiliaries in the work of human civilization and refinement. is only second in importance to the language of the intellect. utilities is of music It lie on al- the surface its real function spiritual.

whereof. and seeks in his children spiritual affinity and response. idea of a all degrees of culture from the savage to tribes that possess The very no definite Supreme Being are the only ones This fact is destitute in- I of instrumental music. iiD hymnQlogy.. if one take not heed." The Bach family were consistent to this high conception of the art for which they lived and wrought. great- among masters for knowledge of its structure." this. GODANDMUSIC It is of the very nature of him who is a Spirit. if not in always immediate purpose. no proper music. Unbelief in spirit- ual realities is incompetent to produce or fully to unis derstand the highest order of music. that it ministers solely to the honor of God and refreshit ment of the is spirit.76 spirit. but devilish din and discord. None est could know better the real purpose and true function of this art than Sebastian Bach. Their festive gatherings. probably an ^ . Its final " is none other than he wrote. Infidelity has. is This incapacity and irresponsiveness manifested / I by men of the savant. cause. which religious in character. •' and among the highest by inspiration. always be- gan with a chorale. however jovial.

the capacity for music of spiritual quality in the and meaning soon atrophies. Song remains. said to have been once universal. as Francis." Sabatier remarks in his " Life of St. with spiritual implications. Un- worded music. 77 stance of reversion. the beauteous Naclischein. indeed. with intellectual degradation. as of religion. of departed religion. whether degraded savage or in civilized man. above is all other means of expression. the echo-like afterglow. by the theory of historic evolution. in which men attempted converse with the spirit world by using instruments of percussion. The spirit imagined to dwell inside the drum spoke to the spirit in man through the rhythmic response of the instrument to the questioning strokes of the worshipper. unspiritual men still express emotions too deep for definite speech. was intellectual. When living belief in the reality of spirit goes. Hence it is. the origin of music. the gong. In music.WHEREFORE? The earliest cult." that the musical ritual which is sung in an unknown . was that of drum worship. when worship ceases. but in either case or other sounding or visible object of worship identical with the indwelling spirit . Fetichism made the tom-tom. " the language of the ineffable.

Like the Egyptian obelisks. latent in all creation. '• that can listen to the mandates of nature have prized music as their highest vehicle for worship. everywhere and the throbbing air." " All nations. which. spond to these messengers of the The universal sequence is is this : Music proceeds from creative Mind. is transformed into praise." This is the \ waiting in nature to be wrought into notes capable of meaning. and for whatsoever in natural order. symbolically. from the most agonizing struggles to the most unspeakable ecstasies. and. are petrified sunbeams reflected heavenward from that sun-worshipping land. them was Sound is divine." said Carlyle. the . efficient. like a celestial accompaniment which follows the believer's emotions. liquids. for prophecy.78 GOD AND MUSIC tongue often has upon the religiously impressible an effect which psalms and hymns in the common " tongue never have. brain and soul of infallible The ear and man are eager to receive and respiritual world. its ready to convert sounds obedient to behest into melody and harmony. touching the responsive spirit in man. in loftiest is and holiest The law of vibration solids.

and brings he only it into his life as a purifying: power. that the is centre of God's finite love. It is God who has stored the universe with is electricity. God . inscribed with of men whom it has blessed. Now I music as God as is truth or electricity. " because it is the creation of One God. the of our leaders in Christian thought demands music for religion. finds it Man does not createi it electricity out. and applies to his needs. only only finds out." own being No wonder that. Man does not create it he Man does not create truth he . The office spiritual function of music is not an arbitrary imposed upon it or upon man by omnipotent . . Into everything moulded by his creative I hands. with such a source and such a soul of meaning.WHEREFORE? vocal praise of uplooking souls is 79 simply an offer- ing to God of his adoring gratitude own rich gift. creates truth. music has been from the beginning the handmaid of religion. know of nothing which is so much the creation of God finds as it it musia out. or that its best benison is denied to the heart without God. music has passed from God's finger-tips. believe much the creation of God has put music very core and a sweet song of in- everywhere.

fitness of self is music for God himHence Man. Upon this power of self-expression love. in the wonders and beauties of nature. telepathic impres- . Creator's thoughts after him. inspiring Mind at the centre of all that is good. teaching. benefi- cent. laughter. sighs. eye-glances. which is is the There a divine God craving to bridge the void between spirit and spirit. depends the active element of very life of both God and man. Hence the universe. That created minds may be able to commune with each other and with their Maker. has uttered himself. in part. itual GODANDMUSIC It results beings for from the necessity in all spirself-utterance. and bodily movements. All arts and sciences are but of stammering at efforts human minds and not to think the this only. made in the spiritual image of God must mediums and methods of expression for the living spirit within him. God has made sion.8o authority. words. but bottom to commune with the inventive. too. find \ '* under this law. or else w^ither and perish of spiritual inanition. man's religious history. and from the supreme spiritual expression. facial provision for various means of mutual exprescries. Hence the Christ.

but which doubt- be the possession of a riper culture. spoken or written. the earliest known but latest developed. more and more But it to printed for its compensates greater poverty of other means of expression by opening wider and wider the portals of intelligible and soul-moving sound. pression than any other art. Music can never be a and exclusive language for men in their present bodily encasement and needs but it has more of undeveloped potentiality of spiritual exuniversal . and symbols of thought.WHEREFORE? sions. 8l among manifold arts. and. the channels of Civilization narrows human intercourse mainly to words. There is a many- sided possibility of spiritual intercourse of music as yet less little by means will known. . music.

.

LAW

IN

MUSIC

"

God

— the

Mind

that meditates in beauty,

—James Martineau.
!

and speaks

in law."

" Take but degree away, untune that string.
" And, hark, what discord follows

— Shakespeare,

"

A

discord of sounds

is

that of violations of form
finely related to the

and

unendurable, but we can hardly say color. This shows that we are more

and

that the relation covers a
is

laws of sound than to those of form and color, wider range of our nature or, in
:

other words, that music

a better type of obedience. When its laws are broken, the history of disobedience is written out in the
protests of our

whole being

—from

quivering nerve to the indigna-

tion of the heart.

"
is

The musical

ear recognizes laws for which no scientific basis

In the tuning of any stringed instrument certain requirements of the ear are obeyed for which no reasons can be given ; the problem is too subtle even for Helmholtz suggesting
yet found.

that

which man expresses his transcendence of nature. As man himself reaches beyond the -•"terial '.al world and its laws, and goes over into another, even a -^
music
is

that

form of

art in

world, so music
ture,

is

the art that lends itself to this feature of his nait

going along with it and opening the doors as the heavens." T. T. MUNGER.

mounts

into

CHAPTER V
LAW
IN MUSIC
If this

Our
it is

universe

is

entirely law-governed.

age of science has demonstrated anything of value,
the fact of the universal reign of law.
will.

But law
the lay-

is

the expression of intelligent

It is

ing

down

of orderly methods of motion and action,
will of

and always implies the originating
the system
to

a power

possessed of intelligence equivalent, at
displayed
in

least, to that

which they belong.

The superb system

of laws ruling every part of the

knoam, and presumably of the unknown, universe

evSnces
La\f
is

the sovereign volition of such a Power.

" ideal fact,"

Creator to
to realize

and requires in the relations of universe an Author of the ideal able also

it.

That the Source of universal law

is

self-conscious

and benevolent, can only be inferred from, not demonstrated by, the facts of imperfectly evolved,
sin-disordered Nature.

Music, however, with
85

its

his-

86

GOD AND MUSIC
and
correlations, furnishes valuable

tory, possibilities,

evidence of the being and sovereignty of a wise

strict regimen of so and and the existence of an indominance law,

and kindly Ruler of the universe. cosmos more directly reveals the

Nothing

in the

telligent
art.

Lawmaker, than

this exact

and exacting

Its

very limitations are corroborating proofs.

of music-making agencies must inconform to inflexibly ordered rules in the evitably
use of definite tones at definite distances, each from
each, and in positive relations imposed

The products

by mathetake a tone

matical laws of vibration.

One cannot

here and a tone there out of myriads of possible sounds in nature, and throw them together in a
\
'

series dictated

by either chance, fancy, or arbitrary and choice, expect music to result. process like

A

this

is

possible to a limited extent in the use of the

numberless nuances of recognized colors.

But the

consequence in the realm of sound would be discord worse confounded. Music must obey strict laws in
the employment of well defined degrees of sound, or it is not music. Helmholtz explains this neces-V

sity

by the

fact that visible art has to
its

do with space,

not time, and thus

forms are always under the

LAW

IN

MUSIC

87

eye for comparison, adjustment, and enjoyment, while music vanishes even while it is heard, and

must proceed

in

ordered steps of tone and fixed
it

tonal relations, or

can neither be understood,

re-

membered, or enjoyed. Whatever the explanation, the absolute

fact re-

mains that the whole system of musical sounds is dominated to the last vibration by a most intricate

code of laws.

Hence

it

immediately involves the

being of a Supreme Lawgiver, and also reveals

what kind of Being is on the throne of the vocal and audible universe. Since a musical fault is al-

ways a

logical

and a mathematical
it

fault,

straight

against nature,

is

plain that the

God
and

of Music

hates tonal transgressions.
gressions
alike, there
is

And
to

since moral trans-

are
is

injurious

music

musician

a fortiori proof from
all

this art that

God

the foe of

moral disorder.

When

certain

accordant tones or melodic series of tones delight,
refine, express,
it

and exalt the best

faculties in

man,

is

no

less

evident that the vibratory principles

which govern their production and audition are the outcome of a regnant musical Will at the heart of
the acoustic cosmos.

A

few

illustrations

out of

88

GODANDMUSIC
known
to students will substantiate the

multitudes

position assumed.

The
sical

difference
is

between mere noise and a mure-

sound

simply in the regularity of their

spective vibrations.

Two common
The
effect
is

stones struck

together send to the ear air-waves of unequal size
at irregular intervals.

unpleasant to
is

the listening ear and brain.

Every musical tone
time.

made such by equal waves
ear at regular
first

of air falling upon the

intervals of

Thus heaven's
and

law

is

vindicated in the production of sym-

metrical sounds,

which alone are

satisfying

beneficent

to

the

hearing organ and the inter-

preting mind.

Musical tones are but the raw material of music.

They combine

in

rhythmic

series to

form melodious

and concinnous groups.

Both melody and har-

mony
them

are under laws of vibration which compel

to conform to a fundamental sequence of tones Starting from different tonal points,
less

called a scale.

and selecting a greater or

number of tones

at

definite intervals of pitch, various scales

have been

employed

cis

the groundwork of musical forms.

Oriental or Euillustration ropean. and invention can scale climb with sure step the Tonleiter of any system into the audible heavens. would furnish similar of the argument proposed ginning. Tones governed by an elaborate system of vibration laws which make music an exact sciintervals are ence and a complex art. ancient or modern. however. all The science of music its is the most abstruse of sciences in possible mathematical ramifications. and including twelve semitones. whatever the scale used. most impressive result of the is apprehension of the order of the world that the laws of the physical universe are laws relation. for . Happily this does not its forbid the child or the peasant to enjoy sweet stimulant. which has a vibration number of 435 waves in a second. . is the most usable." of mathematical is Because musical this is so. It does. confirm the definite assertion that " the scientific this. must always obey the primal law which demands equal length and regular intervals of aerial and waves beating upon the ear. Every scale. but the accepted octave be- example. with the middle A. these coordinated tones.LAW IN M USIC 89 But to remain music. tonality possible.

All scales illustrate the central principle of unity in variety. the ethical principle of free-will under law. its degrees.9© GODANDMUSIC Persian. and the others add most of the which remaining steps. Sauveur's assertion was not without reason. and make them which accompany all richer and more characteristic as their partials are more numerous. art. for the present understood and assimilated. and philosophy. It by no means exhausts natural scale is not an arbitrary canon of nato. and indicates two is facts of prime importance. and also. in the use made of them. and Chinese scales with will doubtless their tone divisions add resources for a completer art. The accepted " tone-ladder " relations. when yet. or ture with an anathema upon whoever adds takes from. The finer Hindu. when he affirmed that the overtones . that the cosmos that musical through and through. strict The series of partial tones musical sounds. it is not necessary to do more than refer to them. scale in its the modern is Occidental main components suggested in nature. basis of harmony. Yet since the first is five the harmonics contain the major triad. science. purpose.

Yet numbers are only the music. is contained the elementary material for the boundless wealth of modern music. invisible skeleton of They give it proportion. safely music may be called mathematics in glorified. descriptive phrase too much ignores a higher force of inspiration. Mathematical mathematical universe inevitably harks back to a mathematical God. possible vibra- harmonious whole. essence of music. " Cunning Music and the Mathematics riage tie. Shakespeare's phrase. IN MUSIC 91 supply Nature with the entire resources for a nat- In the relative ratios fall diatonic series of twelve semitones." Numbers Or. and bind its ethereal elements. The whole " if this art and science deare the spiritual pend upon number. But all . In music he thinks music in a in vibration ratios. and whose nature we learn to know as love. at distances dictated by definite vibration which cause their equal component waves to upon the ear with a regular beat.LAW ural musical system. " hints at a divinely appointed mar- In visible nature God geometrizes. otherwise discrete into a and confused. whose heart-beat is music.

No composer asks as to his tone-visions In every the soul of the com- what is their mathematical architecture. and logarithms could never of themselves produce even a simple. inspired song or symphony lives 4 poser is embodied. Yet more than . cannot be conceived of as a mere by-product of altruistic an unintelligent. Their vibratory laws compel the use of the higher mathesis to unravel their endless permutations. In a musical universe. non- evolutionary tendency. The theistic argument from the universal presof ence those spirit notes called overtones or partials. heart-moving ballad. A system of tone relations in nature so intricate and so wonderfully adapted to spiritual expression and impression. and with a kind of audible immortality. a musical Deity thus breathes into elect men something of his own nature of holy beauty and divine love. ratios. and require a mathematical Mind as their source. Music is a spiritual product. will things in bear repeating. for the uplifting joy of his intelligent creatures. which are the most wonderful and potent music.92 tion GODANDMUSIC rates. unmusical. It is this. or one strain of hymn or anthem which can lift the soul heavenward.

The pure in heart shall hear Grod.LAW this. faculties When our gross senses far or of replaced by the more sensitive a spiritual body. beings. their IN MUSIC 93 adaptation to the expression and genera- tion of spiritual states points directly to a spiritual origin. and power. without the necessary interposition of the clumsy medium of words. we may recognize the omnipresent voice of Deity in tones conveying truth. as we know it. . expressed in forms which all audible and visible nature. love. door into the open a They promise means of communion between the Infinite Spirit and finite Infinite in theoretic extent. they infinite. are etherealized. cannot possibly reproduce.

.

CORRELATIONS OF MUSIC .

Faber. light waves. radiations unison with their notes. and the huge electro-magnetic waves of Herz and Marconi .' radiant energy of various lengths which constitute the harp of vibrate in sympathy with a few strings here and there We — with the tiny X-rays." But I guess by the stir of this music What raptures in heaven can be. Where the sound is thy marvellous stillness." —Robert Kennedy Duncan. . and with it shall vibrate in accord with the Master Musician of it all. W. Some day. actinic rays. we shall know the full sweep of this magnificent harmony. — " Radium receives which traverse all its space —as energy from. a thousand years hence. but there are great spaces. numberless radiations. And the music is light out of thee. piano strings respond to sounds in Space is all a-quiver with waves of < life. heat waves. and responds to. to which we are stone deaf." F.

being always the same. 97 . rhythmical motion. a unitary product with a multitude of differing forms and factors. so that the whole infinite system would be manifestly one creative thought. and intelligent. But that there could thus be evolved a true cosmos replete in every item with evidences of reason. close interrelations between its component Natural selection in- through survival of victorious variations might. moreover. must show parts. psychical feeling. account for occasional correspondences which would sometimes have the appearance of guiding The original and continuous cause.CHAPTER VI CORRELATIONS OF MUSIC A UNIVERSE which is product and embodiment of vibratory motion. beneficent will. deed. intelligence. taking this term in a purely mechanical sense. namely. there might possibly result something like a universe. in which every part bore the mark of apparently adaptation to logical designed ends.

when found. and serve as support to a fine-spun theory that thought is a product of molecular motion. a complete and complex system . all without a this single dominant Will. as is actually is. spirit. it But when in our universe. as a supposition. must be entered from the side of It is possible. and that arise in progressive unfolding there should vi^hich minds innumerable to the material universe would speak of a as a Supreme Mind. that a single wire might accidentally fall across the gulf from the other side. really exist with — — some show of causality proceeding from the side of unthinking energy. from intelligent and form. so named. exactly its book or letter speaks of author's thought and character. The bridge.98 GODANDMUSIC its that in this real cosmos everything in evolving its should trend toward conscious mind as its goal. Motion of mass can produce only The bridge from foot-pounds to conscious thought has never been discovered. Two or three such fortuitous wires might imaginably hap- pen to connect the worlds of matter and of mind if two different worlds. motion of mass. creative is Thinker and a — utterly unthinkable and irrational. The evidence will to force points the other way.

In an intricate machine every added part in- achieving. that Mind. as in parallel lines. it is impossible not to refer the tive whole structure to one Supreme Mind. related universal chemical ratios into all the least change in would carry destruction If is departments of the cosmos. all comprehending Mind. all stretching mutually correspondent. Each wheel and cog with the rest.CORRELATIONS OF MUSIC found of conjoined wires. The creaThinker is necessarily conceived of as planning. and giving plain evidence of a coordinating will as their archi- tectonic cause. . belief that it was planned. and is ruled. by a logical. perfect correspondence adds to the proof of inventive and constructive intelligence. it 99 were. as doubtless the fact. creases the improbability in of accidental origin. from any change of the fundamental laws of vibraon which chemistry as well as music depends ? The correlations of Music are so mafiy and so perof themselves they prove a Supreme creative fect. and maintaining the universal order. would not the same result follow tion. The interrelations of all parts of the universe are so absolutely governed and as to necessitate by precise unvarying laws.

loo

GODANDMUSIC
first

Take

the

reaches the ear and brain.
in the universal ether

medium through which sound Of infinitesimal waves
and the possible music they

may make throughout uncharted space, we can know nothing except by inference and hypothesis
But with the
terrestrial

atmosphere

in

its

elements

and functions we are

fairly well acquainted.

Here

the adaptation to intelligible sound and aesthetic
uses
is

unmistakable.

The atmosphere which
compound number of
life

envelops our planet
fulfil

is

a

of gases so constituted as to

a large

unlike functions, absolutely essential to

under known conditions.
it

Were

it

differently
use, like

composed

might be

fitted for

some one

the transmission of light, yet be wholly unfit for
others, such as

rendering sound.

oxygenating the blood, or correctly As it is, heavy oxygen and

lighter nitrogen, with other elements in
tities,
its

minute quanall

are so mingled that the physical world in

parts

and

relations

is

what

it is

because the

air is

what

it is.

A slight change in

its

constitution would
actual

make

the earth uninhabitable.

The

phenom-

ena of light and color, with the arts and sciences having to do with them, are offspring of the common

CORRELATIONS OF MUSIC
air.

loi

The

active chemistry of the

sunbeam and the

aerial forces at

work upon the inorganic world would
the atmosphere were otherwise conit,

be inefTective
stituted.

if

Without

blank.

This would be a deaf and

human knowledge would be a dumb world, or
for intelligible
air

a world too confused and discordant
or artistic
life,

were the
is.

around us anything

else

than

it

actually

The atmosphere
to tone.

is

so

compounded

that

it is

true

Sounds are louder or

softer in proportion

to distance, but, to the furthest limits of hearing, they

always remain of the same pitch as at their starting
point.
If the gases which make up the atmosphere were not perfectly combined in the exact proportion which is now the case, sound would change its pitch in
its

passage to the
blast
;

ear.

The trumpet would
would

give

an uncertain

voices

lose their identity.

The conduct
ble

of practical affairs depending on audidifficult, if

sounds would be

not impossible.
differ-

Music simply could not
ence in the

be.

A

very slight
to
Prof.

medium,

according
all

J.

P.

Cook,

"

would confuse

those delicate differences

of pitch on which the whole art of music depends."

The

rate at

which sound

travels, differs in

propor-

I02

GODANDMUSIC
and
elasticity of the

tion to the density

gas through
is

which

it is

propagated.

Our atmosphere
its

so per-

fectly constituted that the elasticities of

gases are

exactly adjusted to
"

its

densities, so that the air passif it

ing through an organ pipe sounds as

were one

Had sound travelled in gas. rates differing as much as the known to us, the use of wind
have been impossible
tones of the
;

these two gases at
rates in

most gases

instruments would
all

probably

music, even the

human

voice, would
at

in that case

have
dis-

been discordant to an ear

any considerable

tance from the source of sound.

With the

intense

and elevating character of the pleasure derived, first from the tones of human speech, from the melody
of birds, and other natural music, and secondly,

from the
this

art of music,

we cannot but be

grateful for

adaptation of the mingled atmosphere to the

wants of

man

in his

higher nature."

Now, a
thought,"

deaf, irrational,

and purposeless nature,
of an inexpressive

" the tremor capable only of
if

of anything to be called thought, could
this

not conceivably have effected
tation.

wonderful adapsupposition, the

Even

if,

by any reasonable

gases of our atmosphere could in the course of

CORRELATIONS OF MUSIC
oversight,
tic

103

geologic ages have happened, without intelligent

upon the exact

ratio necessary for acous-

that air so constituted

and specifically musical purposes, the probability would be exactly the sort inall

dispensable for

the other uses of our present

atmosphere, would be geometrically small. It may be answered, that the air being what
it
is,

all

other things

related

to

it

in

the

inorits

ganic, organic,

and mental worlds must under

agency would be

have
like

become what
saying that,

tliey

are.

But

this

being chemically

human brawn and brain constituted as they now are, the
and

history of Greece, Palestine, China, Great Britain

the United States must necessarily have been just

what and

it

is

known
and

to us; and more, that
all

all

the arts

sciences,

philosophies and religions are

solely the product of cerebral gray matter.
is

This
con-

a begging of the question.

The

spiritual

tent of

human

history

is

of another essence from
it.

the material agencies which have conditioned

The

spiritual force dominant

and

directive in the

history of

men

has a spiritual source.

All else
its

is

keyboard and multitudinous pipes, which condition and

medium and environment.

An

organ with

I04
character
as well
all

GODANDMUSIC
the music that comes from them,
as self-built

may

be conceived of

and self-played

as that insensate nature guessed out the ratios of

the

air, fitted

the ear, eye, brain, lungs, heart, arm,

and

fingers exactly to the resulting

compound, and
spirit-

made them agree
fortuitous

to

tell

the false story of a

ual agent within, originating angelic melodies

and

harmonies that

stir

the soul to

its

depths.
related,

Terrestrial air

and the human ear are so

the one to the other, that aerial vibrations of infinitesimal

amplitude and duration are duplicated in

the auditory chamber within, and awaken in the
brain innumerable and inexplicable sensations of

musical sound.

These are

reiterated in the

adytum

of the conscious soul in such wise that not only the

composer's conception and passion are communicated to
it,

but the soul

itself is

often raised to

its

highest degree of feeling, the emotion corresponding in intellectual and moral quality to the character of the listener.

The wonders

of the phonograph

somewhat

illus-

trate the mechanical process that goes on within and behind the ear but this remarkable instrument comes
;

immeasurably short of the perfection of the auditory

CORRELATIONS OF MUSIC
organ.

105

Above

all, it

lacks the greatest of wonders,

a direct connection with a spiritual agent behind
the sensitive diaphragm.
soul.
It

The phonograph

has no

can neither create, understand, nor enjoy
it

the music

reproduces.
is

The

internal ear

a musical instrument of most

and exquisite workmanship. It not only combines and transforms vibrations of the common
intricate
air into accurately " ••

toned sounds, but

is

an

infallible

resonator

for the

exact analysis of composite

tones, far superior to the ingenious device for this

purpose invented by Helmholtz. Every normal head is furnished with a pair of harps strung with
microscopic fibres for sounding wires, to a number
variously estimated
as
3,ocx),

8,700,

13400, and
fibres,

even 26,000 or more.
Corti," so called

These

"

" rods," or

of

from their discoverer, are attached

to the cochlea as their sounding board,

and each of

them

is

connected with a terminal filament of the

auditory nerve.

means of a

The tympanum, or ear-drum, by bony hammer conveys from the air vi-

brations of almost inconceivable rapidity to a liquid
filling

the gallery of the cochlea, and this sets the

microscopic fibres of the auditory nerve into vibrat-

gALlfQl,-

loudness. which depend upon the number. When this complicated mechanism has done it its work. is The hearing apparatus so constructed as to perceive the pitch. yet the crossing a fact of constant experience with every person possessing the sense of hearing. is Here the abyss between vibrating matter and hearing scien- mind which has never been crossed by the tific reason. feeling. most imporsounds are instantaneously " damped. and so permit the hearing of simultaneous feasible. of it The average child hardly out of infancy performs the miracle of perceiving and instinctively judging musical sounds. amplitude. is It defies imagination. making harmony is A tant item that all would make distinction of tones impossible. Any normal child possesses an organ . and form of the air-waves. respond to different sounds.io6 GODANDMUSIC response with absolute accuracy. there takes place the transformation from mathematical motion to is conscious perception. or while still doing it. and thought." since continuous vibration of the fibres tones. separately or in groups. and quality of each tone. a process that involves a logarith- mic solution. Different ing fibres.

taking listeners of and ten thousand varying capacity are as one person in producing or hearing a wilderness of tones made by uncounted millions of vibrations in air and ear. who may know nothing derstand who un- nothing of the laws of acoustics. The the first developed of the activity the special senses. work . and comes into most complete A power. in functional many instru- ments. and is correspondingly affected in conscious ear is emotion. but also the harmonious or discordant quality of the composite sounds perceived. this is done by persons both young and of mathematics. Thus the thoughts of a composer long to the realm of silence. are conveyed since gone by the medium " of every-day air to the minds of the living through the labyrinthic passage of the all human ear. and yet who. Yet old. by some mysterious power. and the infantile brain discerns at once not only the exact tones produced.CORRELATIONS OF MUSIC 107 which instantly and without training reports to the newly formed brain the physical effect of sound- waves of enormous rapidity and complexity. thousand singers or players on different parts. who num- never heard of a sound-wave or a vibration ber.

A superior violinist is said to recognize at least a hundred more. while a forty-fifth of a tone trained ear." The extreme acuteness and accuracy of tone per- ception possessed by expert tuners and trained mu- sicians illustrate the matter before us. But this would be equivalent to only about a quarter of a tone in aural perception. A visual error of not more than one-thirtieth would mark the average limit of perception possible to the skilled draughtsman. intensest pleasure. enjoying. tinguish notes Very acute ears can disis whose vibrational difference that . as com- pared with the octave and a half of definite sensations of color belonging to the eye. is easily determined by the A skillful piano tuner.io8 GODANDMUSIC and communicating to others the out these subtle mathematical problems to perfection. Their keen ears are masters of quite eleven octaves. as stated by Zahm. This would indicate a definite sensation of over six hundred sounds in an octave. can pered fifth. distinguish between a true and a tem- where the difference is only one-hun- dredth of a tone. or nearly three thousand in the forty notes of his instrument.

And when it is scien- determined that a sound can be heard when only two vibrations have been made. in its func- tion of hearing music and interpreting to brain and it. even in the twentieth century. soul the joy and meaning of should be a suffi- cient cure for untheistic conceptions of the universe. the study of the human ear.001. keenly enjoy the innumerable throng of musical air- waves thus set tifically in motion. Newton had knowledge enough to form a of natural facts and laws to enable his unsurpassed scientific mentality judgment worthy the respect of His final all. or one sixty-eighth of a When we remember by that the notes of an orchestra are produced vibrations ranging from 33 to 4. and a musical note distinguished with from two to twenty vibratory impacts of air upon the air tympanum.000 and 1. and compute the by all its instruments durwonder grows to amazement that the human ear can perceive. the and ear seems in- achievement of the Creator of describable. like the .608 per second. accurately judge.CORRELATIONS OF MUSIC half tone. conclusion was that a mechanism of wonderful structure. In fact. and of notes played number ing that time. 109 between 1.

" the independent elements seem few and simple.no ear. and that of hearing. demonstrate a Creator of superhuman skill and unbounded goodness. Other senses share the office of communicating between minds. in- In astronomy. matters nothing in spiritual the argument. that the eye or the ear more intense evidence for a God than the orrery of the Heavens. For example. the complexity gives is so great. the law of gravitation explains all the But in anatomy revolutions of suns and planets. How this organ came to be what it is." like If musical instruments resonator and acoustical devices belief in a the compel human maker. with the one sense . may even in a measure replace Helen Keller. The mental content and in the primal Cause." to quote Dr. efficiency belonging to the boon of audition must and have a have originated definite purpose of blessing as its final cause. most certainly does the marvellous apparatus of hearing by which living interchange thought and feeling at first hand. and without which the worlds of speech and music men would be annihilated. Chalmers in the troductory chapter to the Bridgewater Treatises. " GOD AND MUSIC could not arise by the mere laws of nature.

with J." The long analogies between music and color have Their been noted. and highest enjoyment that would come to that rare soul if the common gift of hearing were imparted to her ! A heart like hers could not con- tain itself for intense joy and gratitude toward her undoubted Benefactor.CORRELATIONS OF MUSIC of touch. to recognize stupen- dous results which the Creator accomplishes by the means employed. Zahm. mutual resemblances have led to theories of an essential kinship faculty. flame. which Bril- have even challenged the inventive liant experiments showing the effect of sound on air. power. and of flames on the resonant resulted in attempts at a " color piano. The average mind must be A. an acknowledged authority in " the acoustics. has appropriated iii more treasure from the realms of pure thought and noble feeling than most persons with every bodily faculty unimpaired. But imagine the unspeakable wealth of sensation. constrained." have Vacuum . and to see in the astonishing phe- nomena wisdom of audition evidences of Divine power and as striking as any disclosed in the whole realm of animated nature.

brations in and sound are and ether. only they know what they air are writing about. is The chief apparent its difference between them that light and family of colors are produced by waves of tremendous are rapidity. progressions. the vibration . resolutions. motifs. also.112 GOD AND MUSIC electric current tubes illuminated ing an by means of a keyboard dischargthrough them at the will of the performer. and if their execution. in terms of optics. From ear the most acute tone perceptible by the human to the extreme red of the spectrum. or lilac. color. in fine. into real symphonies in color. or Nile green mayhap. and. while musical tones the product of vibrations of comparatively small frequency. rest on a general fact of correlation. but musical composition claimed that phases of can thus be translated into phonoscopic harmonies. The electrical displays at recent World's Expositions have come near to demonstrate the practicability of such a scheme. Artistic fads of symphonies in red. it The is invention has remained all a scientific toy. movements. Musical critics. alike products of vi- Light. have a scientific right to speak of phrases. are capable of producing color melodies and color chords.

mere The blind man who felt the blast of a trumpet as akin to his idea of the color red. To produce the vibration number of a wire corresponding to that of the highest note in a grand piano would not be over one ten-billionth of an inch in length. red. and Accordingly. one another as the colors red. and " O " with black. he found V most war-songs written in C (red). may have been a first-hand witness to a twofold fact in Vowel sounds have been reproduced by mechanical means following a calculated scheme of nature. \ ' first. This enormous difference seems prohibitory of real relationship. yellow.CORRELATIONS OF MUSIC difference is 113 that between about fcurJwndred and four hundred and fifty-eight trillions. yet Professor Gruber in Nature is affirms that the connection sical closer between mu- sound and color than with unmusical sound or noise. E " is associated with the sensation " I " with blue. vibrational " compounds. while many pieces de- . and fifth notes of the diatonic scale bear the same relations to blue. an interval of some thirty-four octaves. songs of the ocean and sky in G (blue). The sound of the vowel of yellow. Van der\ Weyde's of the lectures demonstrated that the vibrations third.

df. fication. quite perfect. the vault is the many-sounded kinds of deeper clarinette. G. puts into the mouth of her character represent- ing Mendelssohn this description of an orchestral " rainbow scale Strings first. Violet. Cyanogen-blue. Red.114 GOD AND MUSIC meadows were in scribing green forests and F (blue plus yellow. and if the horns suggest the paler dazzle. Gf. " End . digo. blue — violin. double-bass. The brass. or dim. violincello. The author of " Charles Auchester. Orange Red. a^ b. or dusk. {$. gf . in: ." Miss Shep- pard. cf . Green." is left for the trom- Helmholtz suggests the following non-scientific analogies between the notes of the piano and the colors of the spectrum : In " Physiological Optics " Fjf. f. of course. of course violet. flutes. Upon Green. another vault. these you repose. Greenish-blue. Indigo-blue. the trumpets take the golden orange. g. d. c. Ultra violet. e. and the red bones. facts making green). Orange. Yellow. B. A. vivid. Both the asserted veri- and the laws inferred would seem to need but some interrelation certainly exists. —spring-head — bassoons the darkest wood tone. is yellow. Violet. Af. " " " " " of spectrum. a. Red. Red. end of Red.

incidental and of alone. •anel'. Without further illustration. the laws of vibration stir No known why its reason exists in lower frequencies should not the air of the most distant worlds in rhythmic pulsations audible to ears of teleacoustic power. It is human parentage interwoven with the law-governed forces of nature. The hues of the most remain absolutely the same after their rays have traversed spaces immeasurable through long periods of time. .tone are Triads of color fundamental in both. may logically be inferred from its correlation with light and color. That music cosmical. persists Spectrum analysis proves that color distant stars throughout space. and environment of spiritual fits it to be the is beings. the action of which makes the universe a cosmos. the close correlation of the optical and the acoustical laws of creation points directly to the conclusion that music is not a thing by itself in the universe. which are known to be universal.CORRELATIONS OF MUSIC The seven tones of the diatonic scale are said to have the 115 prismatic colors and the seven primary same proportionate rates of vibration.

munication between the infinite and the mediums of comand the finite. Isaac L. and the recogquadruple." between the relations of geometrical lines in space and the metrical divisions of time in music." made by the vibrations of musical sounds communicated to a membrane covered with sand or colored powders. Rhythm is the shape. in the Geometrical Lines have their Counterparts in Music. shape.ii6 GOD AND MUSIC factor of correlated force in the uni- Each new verse showing that the in all its same mathematical laws rule provinces. a distinct likeness is found to exist between the orders into which geometricians have divided lines moments according to their functions in the measurement of space. elliptic. and hyperbolic. distance between two assumed A meter is the or points of time. form. scribing Cologne symphony using a baseless metaphor. circular." " is not the cathedral as a " frozen mutual counterparts. Starting with these simple data. nized meters of music —dual. form. are a beautiful illustration of the fundamental relations exbetween geometry and music. " How the conditions of all finite existence. triple. of " geometric form. namely. quintuple. Rice. adds to theistic probability in ' geometric ratio)- been noted by Mr. or proportion of things in time . Tone is the correlative of color . Space and time he defines as differentiations of one idea. parabolic. Discords throw the lines as- isting . and These analogous forms in space and in time are clothed sextuple. infinity. rhythm. They are interesting parallel has An a monograph entitled. and are the groundwork Visible nature and audible art are of visual and audible beauty. and that all things work harmoniously toward results of wise beneficence. or proportion is the rhythm of things Architecture is thus correlated with music. straight. A line is the dis- tance between two assumed points in space. so that dein space. respectively with colors and with tones. The " Chladni figures.

visible to the eye. but their influence can never account for the rational and spiritual contents of the evolutionary process. . among musical . nor for the correlations existing between sumed by the material on the membrane into confusion. ever increasing in complexity as he superimposes curve upon curve of note upon note. the external facts have had everything to do with shaping the forms of organs and developing correspondmg faculties of mind. — perception with . the enthusiasm of the dullest person is sure of being aroused. light. will reinforce the argument of the following chapter. the generalizing propensity with the uni- versal order. have been " carried tones arc to such an extent. . Beyond a doubt. while pure tones and harmonies cause it to assume geometric figures of In Sidney Lanier's essay on "The Physics of great beauty. scientists known by When the lecturer pro- ceeds to cast these proportions upon a screen.CORRELATIONS OF MUSIC In all 117 human experience the internal facts cor* respond with the external. color. form and sound the . Music. that their curves. in bands of brilliant light." The aesthetic character of the correlation between visible tific and audible nature thus strikingly brought out under scien- manipulation." he says that the wonderful methods of reducing the proportions of musical vibrations to curves. spiritual sense of beauty with the beauty-making factors in nature ciple of causality in the prin- human thought and with the inthe whole evitable sequence of cause effect in universe . . and to bring out the most graceful and brilliant figures.

. the The power that made the microcosm of human soul made the universe without to be its its school. its changing home. Corti thrill in response to vibrations in the air.u8 these GOD AND MUSIC and outer nature. tool. but is Matter may The possibly fibres of never conscious. and its possible Paradise. common and . different departments of nature be sensitive. stirred be rhythmically but music begins only in the mind behind brain cells may thus the brain. and amid the itself.

It THE BEAUTIFIER OF TIME .

A. its time. " There flows onward. G." —Ecclesias- TES 3: " Beauty to the Greeks was one aspect of the universal synthesis. Svmonds." J. which issues from the original source of all life. from Thy life. an eternal stream of life and power and action." — was the joy-note of the whole who could comprehend it — J. O Infinite One for all ! life is Thy of true and only the religious eye penetrates beauty." He hath made everything beautiful in II. — to the realm . with the conditions of temporal existence. and beasts and stars are satisfied. communicate with all that is fair in manners and comely in morals. as the flowers complete humanity. and echoed by the sole being Man. with the rushing music of mighty waves. It was the harmony of man with nature in a well-balanced and satisfied. It world. the bloom of youth upon a conscious being. Fichte. life.

suflficient and it consonant In conscious experience is subjective. and beauty must have a cause.CHAPTER VII THE BEAUTIFIER OF TIME As a theistic argument. only within the per- ceiving mind. : Darwin all wrote as follows that he says " Still odder. is this : If anything is. which 121 should have thought a nonentity. I it seems to me. of the little its developed argument from the entire reach. is part. existing. the evidence furnished by music for the being and universal activity of an assthetically benevolent God. as beauty. and no small part. In of perhaps the strongest all proofs it for the existence of a Supreme and Being. except in the mind of some sentient . but so plays a leading part is everything in which mind Referring to the Duke of Argyle's line of thought on this subject. as is one of the most attractive characteristic disclosures of his nature. this is Beautiful. on beauty. The beauty general argument is.

also. and audible beauty has always regards existed. the beautiful order of the cosmos becomes a present reality to him.122 GOD AND MUSIC He and might as well have said that love being. when sentient intelli- fixed upon it. The scientist simply finds out in the universe it what has been created or evolved from the beginning. in the pre-Darwinian period. investigate. 248. or even. and this every- sounds have doubtless always been in where beautiful the air. its physical science a reality. potentially as man. though before Likewise. how has come So far as he succeeds. is wholly a thing in the mind. universe. because facts and laws exist in nature." (" Life Letters. colors. if he can. and enjoy . as to the present conception of it. is Nevertheless. into being. Beautiful forms. have only awaited the perceiving mind of man to recognize." IL.) It But science. Rhythmic vibrations in together with symmetry of visual forms in space and in certain atomic arrangements of surfaces and gases. visible unperceived and unenjoyed. really as reit gards the forms and forces which condition and awaken the perception of gence is it. existed during the secondary or Palaeozoic periods. did not exist in the Palaeozoic age. and.

The diversity flowers. each particular curve of a humming-bird's beak. lo. reproduction. and demand an adequate explanation terms of causality. 125 There was no perception of either comparatively. trees. is and the larger organic forms. cannot be necessary to sur- vival. vines. and but Uttlc. recent times. but. Darwin not\vithstanding. of science give ample evidence of their reality. of artistic shapes assumed by leaves. and kingdom galaxies of mani- . before quite aesthetic or scientific facts in the secondary geologic period. feathers. gold of the autumn foliage has no such A blotch of raw color on shapeless petals would attract bees . crystals.THE BEAUTIFIER OF TIME their product. in a single blossom a in the floral little world of beauty. and preservation. of their facts in Beauty has no infinite sufficient ground in utihty. furs. of our in Future generations may say the same Yet the unspeakable joy of men the beautiful. each rainbow hue on scale of fish or feather of bird. scales. and also the wonder-working agency own days. The exquisite symphony in crimson and value. not suffi- ciently explained by the uses they often subserve in nutrition.

ear. is seen or heard by man. the chief purpose of is its existence studies to delight its Maker. Why see ? not God ? ? " He that planted the ear. is Yet in this one tiny out-of-the- way planet there an increasing concert of sweet sounds innumerable. brain. Man in his and works seeks beauty for its own sake. shall he not sense of beauty. man to the height having clear spiritual implications and incalculable possibilities. is well nigh ears hear Human eyes see and human but a millionth either part of that actually realized of arise kind. and associated memories of experience would do the rest. framed the universe that simple aerial vibrations of high and low frequencies constantly produce such is there a Creator who has so effects on eye. shall he not hear " He The that formed the eye. The closely correlated conditions of visible and audible beauty are present everywhere. The thought cannot but if and compel assent that. actual or potential. and yet but the smallest fraction of all this beauty. and the realization of both universal. howl would announce the nearness of lover or foe.124 GODANDMUSIC A raucous croak or a discordant sufficiently fold perfection. may it not be " God's . rising with of a heavenly art. and soul.

THE BEAUTIFIER OF TIME satisfaction " in 125 his works " imparted to man. perceptible. rejoicing in his perfect thought " ? The contemplation of perfect beauty gives a satisfaction of mind and heart which serves to explain the creative the beautiful mood and motive in the production of by divine or by human hands. that beauty is of all tion. is Here perfec- Here ideal If we look and at things with thought for their pur- pose. " as they finally interpret themselves to the shall we agree with Professor Santayana." Since we may even to — — dare to say perfection beauty seems all things what least calls for explana- being tends toward completion be the ideal manifestation of this final cause of being. and also the direct evidence of its possible attainment. Hence all beauty of form or of spirit . is Mind everywhere no failure. If on Almighty has allowed its some parts of creation the the prentice hand of angel or demiurge to try skill. or God in us. thus accounting for signs of imperfect work- manship (better explained by other theories) which some think this to detect here or there in nature. heart. cannot be said of the manifestations of a beauty-loving assuredly tion.

" The aesthetic sense. an overt hint of perfection." yes. to to turn and strive after the perfect joy of existence. which as innate as physical taste or touch. " are so attuned as to give out a music responsive to the chords that is are touched. through sense to the supersensual. and spirit- ualize the lower nature of man." words of Brother Azarias. The priceless susceptibility to . has for its special function to elevate. A faculty so imprinciple portant and so universal must. see in it. more than formal logic or the physical sciences. More than any and allures other art. by every science. of-it. music suggests the infinite. Our souls. refine. of the possible conformity between the soul and nature. a ground of " in the ultimate supremacy of good. Beauty of every kind is a touch of the ideal.126 GOD AND MUSIC / /ITas a moral dignity and importance which should It is " a pledge exalt it above low and selfish uses. have a corresponding reality to occupy and a high office which indicates its true purpose. a breath out of the infinite coming to man in the show which way he far dull is round of practical life. and nature's God. faith We may in the therefore. its self-revealing Author.

or by evolution. which softens the stern aspect of evolution. rather than factors strain In the same difficult to Goldwin Smith " It says. and those among the purest good which are to all appearance unnecessary as inducements to live. and are.THE BEAUTIFIER OF TIME the beautiful." visible What beauty is commissioned to do is for the element of Space." tlie arts. and best. which they throw over hfe seem to bespeak a certain tenderness on the part of the Being in whose power we are. that Music is sent to do for Time. would be account for beauty. 127 any of its forms. are superfluities. thrown into the bargain of life. by physical evolution while their presence and the charm . by music. Rice office is The Beautifier of Time. or the sense of beauty. so to speak. bits of Few delights can be more entrancing tlian such as are afforded especially by natural beauty. but they are products in. and of. "A vast multitude of pleasures. has been Professor be so much surplusage of creative goodHuxley once wrote." goodly " to adorn the ever-moving space of existence." " Music is well called Its by Isaac L. in this or in well said to ness. which yet more intimately and fundamentally connected with Life. .

because mental impressions must first commonly come.128 GOD AND MUSIC to think In both the contemplation of beauty and the power some of God's aesthetic thoughts over again in a halting. And to share the Creator's producing new forms of the beauti- tends directly to intellectuaUze and spiritualize artist. reproductive way. is a frank reveaUng of the Divine mind and heart. That man can perceive kinship to its and recreate Author. through their in the realms But pure beauty of light and sound quickly Ufts the willing soul above the sensual. it proves his primal The first appeal of the beautiful all is. in the instance. prerogative of ful. . The Its beautiful. indeed. intellect. the genuine The inescapably severe condi- tions of artistic production compel self-mastery. and life. man comes very close to the great Lover of Beauty. to the senses. five-barred gate. dedication to the higher strains of The It sense of beauty telligence. is at its lowest among and peoples of low indevelops nearest the animal level. as interpreted to the human spirit. is with the growth of associated with. perfect analogue can be found only in the inmost nature of Deity.

It really seems to be a prize which God gives to intelligent beings when contemplating his most perfect works." beauty is in its essence spiritual. and striving after some likeness to the ideal excel- lence they display. sufficient is answer to the inevitable question. itself to In it perfection looks us in the eye. yet setting mo- tion. and acci- its dental to matter. Beauty? will lead straight toward its cause and essential secret have been all is Its the quest of thinkers susceptible to it So evidently something in power. Since . "The splendor of truth. Any What Source. Its immediate cause. in Leveque's theory. " ideal perfection revealed to the reason in some All particular object or combination of objects. vivifying it. which are in truth the real beauty of beautiful objects.THE BEAUTIFIER OF TIME 129 and promotive of. tliat it bears a plain stamp of the Plato held that beauty consists of self-existent forms or ideas superinduced upon matter." Samuel Harris calls it. and reducing it to beautiful forms. spiritual. is it a simin ple force distinct from matter. utters the ear. mind. moral improvement.

Existing at once in nature and in the mind." also Unity in variety. visible.I30 tones. bringing repose. in sayis ing that the first cause of either a divine Being whose volition immediately invests material objects. Wundt concludes that " the beautiful speaks to us of the profound agreement of the laws of the external with the laws of the internal . with is all their beautiful less And so. the cause of mental satisfaction and spiritual reconcile- ment. and our intuition alone makes and keeps them separate. therefore. which be stated as may variety in unity. in atoms and in worlds. alike. the two are one in nature. a manifestation of the divine thought. is a dis^ . audible. forms. sounds and forms aspects. is its ground principle. Harmony of the unlike yet accordant is the secret of It is all beauty. Reid right. as certainly as visual loveliness. audible beauty. or psychical. its Universal order. GOD AND MUSIC and colors have been found close akin. and elevation in train. recognized from Plato down. beauty nothing than a revelation of the Unconditioned. points direct to the one Being is in whom alone perfection dwells. delight.

" true of all This is true art. and to some minds expresses as no other art. uniform effort of the disturbed order to right by reversion to type." artists. infinite of spirit. the resolution of discords. nor metaphysics can do. extravagant : Browning's words are not . to expand William Knight's " take us nearer the of a well-known truth. " is evidence of this. which shown to be a definite end in nature." it Harmony and This is the joy in are its deep. glad purpose. neither science. and life always springing All nature is out of death. and far brings us into touch with the Infinite. however. a sound-like power in light. suggests the it. the natural vis medicatrix.THE BEAUTIFIER OF TIME thus 131 is closure of the cosmic principle of Beauty. philosophy. The itself. Music. a life like our own higher and more perfect. Art thus bridges the chasm between the concrete and the ideal. the invisible force " That meets all motion and becomes its soul. setting heart of things than the chemist or the physicist. They yet see life beneath all forces. A light in Poets and sound. all Rhjrthm in thought and jojance everywhere. an apocalypse of the Beautiful.

and spirit of music. but the secret of musical beauty matician is is far deeper. but accompanying these there often a mysterious potency which can be ascribed only to inspiration. as " that primitive will and mysterious power. expression are the body. The Great Matheis not all intellect. mystic dissonances. which alone gives it The and expression and spiritual power over the divine." soul of music. seeking through the beauty of holiness the perfecting of his imperfect children. a melody. enriched Regularity." The audible cosmos reveals through sense to in variety. soul. Mathematical ratios in part explain the first two. is something . by which a theme. Music manifests the order of the uniall its is verse in tones and forms. and the threefold source of its power. by and symmetry.132 GOD AND MUSIC " There is no truer truth obtained by man Than comes by music. whose mode of action be forever hidden from us. heart. mind the divine unity its_overtones is Every note with already a harmony. The immediate cause of this has been represented. but a full-orbed Spirit with a nature of purest love. flashes into the composer's mind.

can of themselves create music just as the Th^ as a If m«»rTipniV^ piano-plflying ^"'cc^ whi^h abound. All monochord experietc. No that writer on musical seen deeper or truer than Eduard Hanslick. rhythmic compul- and make it speak to other souls things unaesthetics has utterable. proportions of intervals. sound-figures. is mathematical canons. that is dictum of Leib- " a calculation which the soul is makes unconsciously in secret. its it will never lay hold of the atmosphere with sion. . much printing press can create an epic. but ture no more their crea- than a sunset is the product of optical is formulae.THE BEAUTIFIER OF TIME If 133 anything is certain in our reasoning upon the audible phenomena is of nature. a tone poem nothing is calcu- lated mathematically. The most music that can be conceded the half mystical." But the soul chief and original factor in the process. it is that musical It satisfies beauty not a mathematical product. the music is not first in the soul. and he declares musical beauty has nothing at all to do with " In mathematics.. half arithmetical nitz. Creations of the fancy are not arithmetical problems. ments. and no more.

its its very essence. if monotonous or unharforms. harmony. and out of the category of physical spiritual. In tones and forms spirit speaks to spirit. but musical conceptions come to assistance." in Classic conceptions of the beautiful centred its formal elements. monious. and pro- portion. ics begins where these elementary relations cease. rhythm. raises What it converts music into a tone poem. from its Its spiritual essence finds outlet and influence through the positive beauty of its If unbeautiful. and remains concealed in the simplest relations light without its . and source of greatest apart power. Feeling belongs is preeminently to the beautiful hence music an its elect agent for the production of emotion. sees or hears in an utterance of An ual analytical definition of beauty must include but the spirit- both the numerical and the is spiritual. is something free and and therefore something incalculable. Modern thought emphasizes it its expressspirit. Musical effects. Mathematics prepares only the simple material for intellectual treatment. . iveness. it wearies or irritates. experiments. . beauty is self-subsistent.134 GOD AND MUSIC The department of aesthet- are out of place here.

a homely ballad freighted with tender ories. of the in- herent power of tonal beauty. It depends on the stage of development and the law of ation. as the not. This is proof. will stir the savage or half-civilized breast most accurate polyphonic compositions caneven with cultivated hearers. a simple folk- song. affect the elemental passions of primitive natures in an inverse intellectual ratio to the power of the best music over and critical listeners. Like every other force operating on mind. The simplest tone-forms rendered with fury or with deep pathos. it 135 is true. monophonic rhythm than melody. with more mony. the power associ- of music is subjective and individual. effect of music. A crude national instrument. is not chiefly for an aristocracy of culture. . eloquence. or personal beauty. and of the divine beneficence which has It is made its ministry universal. does its depend upon the pcrfectness of music. at once. such^ as poetry. and entirely devoid of har- Crude. but for the joy and welfare of mankind. will mem- move those susceptible to their specific tones in a degree utterly out of proportion to their musical quality.THE BEAUTIFIER OF TIME The immediate not always forms.

it perceive Oh. Its start on the common level of physical agencies. has been said. " we but it. is Everyif full of God's reflex. to see but for a mo! ment. I did think that great I did see " all heaven before me. rests upon the world of sense. spirit. It is upward into superior to bald science in that on its ascending scale of tones angels of joy fill and blessing descend to echoes of heaven's the dreamer's soul with own harmonies." that symmetrical natural forms are types of some spiritual truth or existence.136 GOD AND MUSIC it Science. thing. it is superhuman in that. . and the God himself! A and belief held by many of the noblest thinkers. still but carry the mind upward and spiritual regions. top reaches into the realm of Muforms sic partakes of this twofold character. Handel felt himself inspired to write the majestic strains of the " Hallelujah Chorus. the whole harmony of the great system to hear once the music which the whole universe makes as it performs his bidding! When I feel I this sense of the mystery which is around me. hke Jacob's while its ladder. called is by Charles Kingsley the " great Mystiall cism. Kingsley thought. so that he could say.

that is action meets a swift is its response in our minds. says." In the tone world akin to our own. mind capable of being so into the audience- Uke coming chamber of the Almighty. ture is The fact that beautiful to us. shadow of the infinite passing over the human The music rising of of Beethoven and Handel. is by supposing that informing spirit our intellect we are forced to suppose a like quality in the Power that shaped us. speaking with acknowledged authority. indeed hardly explicable otherwise. and both exalt the It is humble and impressed. or the up- sands of voices.THE BEAUTIFIER OF TIME feci its 137 a gush of enthusiasm toward God which seems inseparable effect." Is not this mood often in- duced by the feehng of sublimity peculiar to mankind when under the influence of the grander displays of natural forces. In Augustine's phrase. produce this volumes of grand harmony from thoueffect. may be regarded as the soul. or of the loftiest mental conceptions? Animals seem never to show It this feeling in the least. best explained. Because of . all things bright and beautiful are " footprints of the uncreated Wisdom." Na- A scientific writer of our own " its day.

" . and to is be a means for attaining the beauty of holiness. If the shattered colonnades of the Parthenon attest. so full of spiritual meaning and potency. plainly indicated that remarkable prayer of old. And that the aesthetic nature was given us. To hear as well as to behold " the " is beauty of the Lord the sacred privilege of all who ment possess musical sensibility. of earth no less demonstrates a creative Mind capable of devising an art so far above the reach of the merely beyond doubt. or for inducing mere self-culture. but to assimilate the human by soul to its Maker. the broken mu- human. "And upon let the beauty of the Lord our God be us.138 all GOD AND MUSIC is lovely and uplifting music thus both echo and evidence of perfect musical thought and feeling in the Oversoul of the universe. not for selfish enjoy- alone. sic an architect intelligent and artistic.

THE POWER OF MUSIC .

and making the soul graceful of him who is — Plato. musical training is a more po- tent instrument than any other. spirits to tial. — "And therefore I said. : Ineffable. kindle love. I know not whence thou art." Music can noble hints impart. —ClIRYSOSTOM. imparting grace. on which they mightily fasten. but this I know Thou boldest in thy hand the silver key That can unlock the secret fount of tears. or ungraceful of him who is ill-educated. the hidden spring Of purer fancies and high sympathies. With unsuspected eloquence can move And manage '• all the man with secret art. Engender fury." —Addison. O strange. and maketh them light and celes- . O gracious influence. Which falling make life green." " Music doth withdraw our minds from earthly cogitations. up our heaven. lifteth ' ' rightly educated. sweet power. because rhythm and harmony find their way into the secret places of the soul. Glaucon." Lewis Morris.

spiritual cause.CHAPTER VIII THE POWER OF MUSIC The namic. a constant power in human life. exercis- ing a spiritual force so vast. reasoning fails Spiritual effects must have a 141 In . that it demands explanation under the This argument principle of casuality. infinite energy give law to thought. when ordinary to convince. and supply the Back of all is an Power. to the children of the theistic may appeal Dynamic Age. All motivity must come from an Music is exhaustless fountain of energy. varied. principle Civilization force. a Power at the very least all adequate to the origination and maintenance of forces at the active work in the universe. No finite force is autogenetic or really automatic. philosophy of the twentieth century Science is is dy- its foster-mother and servant. and generally beneficial. ical again obeys the persistence and of major The interrelations of phys- conditions of material progress.

strings. by physical environment and life. indeed. sometimes. might be an interesting arithmetical prob- . feeling. The tremor of atmosphere caused affect by them. But its effects on thought. and action. must from five to ten miUion tons of matter. and the sympathetic air. even allow- ing for nervous reinforcement. nigh incalculable. and nerve stimuli are essential to the thinking process. nerve. The energy liberated is and made efficient by sound-producing causes. fingers.142 GOD AND MUSIC experience it human tioned is true that they are condiagencies. wellstates that the notes of Darwin certain small insects may be heard on still nights a mile away. keys. to their production. Music reaches mind and stirs emotion only through physical media. In the present stage of organic brain. is utterly inadequate The physical agency and the . What would be the quantitative result of the aerial disturbance caused by a combined band of ten thousand performers. while the insect weighs not more than quarter of a pennyweight. are often so astonishingly great that the mechanical energy employed. spiritual result are disparate they belong to differ- ent realms. the voice. he estimated.

reflex. thrill is Neural not sufficient to account for the specific and eflfect. transforming. widely varied quality of the sandfold intensity.THE POWER OF MUSIC explaining the spiritual efTect of strain of music. its nor for its thou- uplifting. Nerve excitation by infinitesimal air-waves ex- plains the mechanical part of the process. tively 143 lem. and impressional that the psychical ical influence. Hanslick concludes. but would have absolutely nothing to do with some single tone or The psychic increment imperasufficient to pro- demands a coordinate cause duce it. and mind of man to discover. appreciate. in the last analysis in space. or to the Father of spirits. is Only on the theory a refined form of always a mere product of phys- forces. won- Considering only man's part in its development. first cause not be traced None but a music-loving filled and benevolent God could have so verse with melodic and harmonic constituted the the uni- elements. but not the content of spiritual energy produced. this and truly create the system and forms of derful art. motion can the essentially spiritual essence its of music be denied. after a profound study of the .

Beyond and above these factors. the manifest agency of of \ a divine Spirit choosing this congenial medium V. legend. as the result of the untrammeled working of the human mind on of association. history. . the reproductive agency in in universality and significance. passional impulses. the transference from soul to soul of mental moods. The worlds by a to cities in space were believed to have been framed rhythmic impulse of musical vibration. illustrate and experience combine to to sun-myths the extraordinary effect of musical sounds beast. and spiritual states. communion with the souls of men ? Fable.144 GODANDMUSIC subject. on man and Next and the kindred worship of nature. the early recognition of this potent force. that the spiritual force of music can be attributed solely to " the definite beauty of musical form. must there not be recognized throughout the history of music in its effects on mankind. through the sensitive medium of musical tones and forms. and in numberless cases of individual betterment under its influence." To this must be added the power and still more. comes. material susceptible of intel- lectual manipulation.

stantial truth fucius. Luther. the meaning trees evidently is that human passions are especially amenable to the neuro-psychical influence of music. and both gods and men to be subject to its control. «' When Orpheus played upon the heart of Pluto relented and Eurydice escaped. his lyre. Goethe. Napoleon. the vultures ceased to torment Tityos. Orpheus embodies the ancient conception of the power of music.THE POWER OF MUSIC 145 have been founded and destroyed under its constraining might. Plato. the thirst of Tantalus was forgotten. it conveyed. and vividly suggests the extreme primitive susceptibility fable of The to its charms. Aristotle. This mental attitude was still more strikingly illustrated by the story of the Argonauts and the legend of Eurydice in Hades. the wheel of Ixion stopped. but the and rocks on Olympus were said to be enthralled and moved at will by his lyre. . When not only wild beasts. and the goddess of death did not remem- ber to hfe. Con- Shakespeare." call away the infant or the aged from sweet In our prosaic days the language of fable seems but the positive assertion of the equivalent spiritual fact by the deepest thinkers attests the subunreal .

The Ragas. practice. " Desire ye to know. and inanimate nature to obey them. had specific magical powers. lions and All this signified the power of music over tigers. and months would think of nothing but what he had heard. sentient beings. and another. represent widely different types of thought. and especially its upon human passions. or musical modes.146 GOD AND MUSIC Wesley. but are one in ascribing exceptional value and power to this art. and its people have good morals ? Hear its music. After listening to the com- positions of Quel he refused to partake of food." he asked. out of a multitude of leaders of men. Confucius believed with his educated countrymen that music acts directly on the mind without the medium for three of thought. rain. it Pythagoras enjoined the soul. He used terms regarding its civicx value . and called it god-compelling. and Moody." The Hindus esteemed music to be a creation of the gods. another could eclipse the one charmed serpents. aniOne mals. Raga could produce sun . the peer of prayer and sacrifice. since purifies Plato gave music a high place in his Republic. constraining men. " whether a land is well governed.

aate only in a secondary manner. will in future this reason hope no one undervalue the power of music in arousing courage and devotion. " of Napoleon's opinion was that arts. and called it most magnificent present of God all to men." rendered. it Luther exalted the above all other arts. in his Latinized saying. the liberal and is music has greatest influence over the emotions the art to which the lawmaker should give Perhaps it great attention. change of songs changes acts Aristotle held that music on minds in a primary. 147 Cicero thought him rather ultra " musicortjm status-" . its He I " It said." for would have been well him and life for the world had he yielded more in heart and to the " only art that can draw tears.J' THE POWER OF MUSIC almost identical with those of Confucius." The indescribable influence of some national . The thousand-minded modern susceptibility to dramatist made music a guage of moral sanity. was not the size of our army but spirit that enabled us to conquer. the other ." Bismarck declared that German song was one of the chief agents in bringing about German For unity. cantibus mutatis mutari " civitatum which may be states.

" God save the Queen" has been sung even with their last breath by brave Britons on land and sea in every part of the globe. " " in Matabeleland. indeed. They shot us the last cartridge. till At last we rushed. been shown on ten thouMarseillaise has The been the song of victory or of death for French soldiers a hundred years and more. A little band of Englishmen was entrapped gula." life. die. an plain tale of plain men A American as journalist has truly said to be as thrilling any saga of Odin and his heroes. ward." your people know how to fight and how to That was. and most of them shot themselves with those But who had none left just covered up their eyes and died without a sound. reverently bared their heads and sang their national hymn. with six thousand four. by the wily Lobenagainst their thirty- men in full When the last cartridges were in their revolvers they stood up view of their slayers. that. " a crowded hour of glorious . " Said one of the Matabele leaders after- We were so amazed to see men singing in the face of death.148 GODANDMUSIC in hymns sand exciting the utmost bravery and en- thusiastic patriotism has battlefields. we knew not what to do. Child of a white man.

She says. had no reason to think. Children compose ditties for their games.THE POWER OF MUSIC " 149 Those men. will But their voices henceforth Uve in coundess throbbing hearts. their valor will and to make life and the world nobler all their fellow-men. Song nerves the warrior to deeds of heroism. and did not think. Alice Fletcher. and love. without a chapter on the part played in either side. and solaces those who live to mourn. loyal duty. patriotism called forth by the stem conmultitude of brave men on each side test A died for their cause and country to the strains of national songs or Christian hymns. but modest. " There is not a phase of life among them that does not find its subjective expression in music. adds the narrator of the heroic story. it speeds the spirit to the land of the hereafter. that their death-song would ever be heard by other ears than those of their destroyers. . Of their the Indian tribes lingering in the far faithful full West friend." The history of our Civil War cannot be written it. has written from knowledge of their character and customs. and its robs death of terrors . Their deed was not bravado. on by the martial lyrics and songs of home.

the Teutonic nations carry their devotion to it quite as far. nations. impossible of even reference or classification. One has to do with its religious therapeutic agency. ranks. Two with special points its may be touched upon. and the other function and value. and the old man tunefully invokes those agencies which can avert disaster and death. and ascribed to specific remedial value. The Persians were said to cure various diseases by the sound of the corresponding string on their lute. would soon become. first The Egyptians were inal qualities of music. At the opposite extreme of culture. other uncivilized peoples have shown such appreciation of music." Few.ISO GOD AND MUSIC to give zest to their and young men add music sports. to indicate the mediccalled it They it physic for the soul. In their belief the soul is purified by music. its space. Possible illustration of the benign office of music and power for good in all times. The lover sings his way to the maiden's heart. and spirits prepared by it for converse with the of light . in any limited ages. and homes. with all the added advantage of artistic scientific knowledge and inherited wealth. if any.

in the London Lancet lays the principle that the down vibrate synchronously with music. the blood pressure heart ac- tion and respiration quicken. although instances abound of benefit and cure from wisely adapted music. modern therapeutics. and is a . both scientific practi- and charlatans have employed music as a The bibliography of this branch of healing agent. Albrecht preit scribed certain tunes as a diaphoretic. is well known. tioners the remedial art is increasing in many languages. Saul. Dr. Any full medical library furnishes enough verified examples to warrant In institutions for attention from the profession. Davison. ing at least the temporary benefit of such treat- Dr. the treatment of insanity and idiocy the value of musical therapeuty nestra.THE POWER OF MUSIC around the throne of Ormuzd. Clytem- Haroun al Raschid. losophers of Greece attributed to efficacy for 151 The it greatest phi- high medicinal In body and mind alike. Philip the Second and " historical " cases indicat- George the Third were ment. softest strains human organism tends to Even with the rises. Theory has outrun scientific practice in this direction.

is A learned Russian professor asserts that music a powerful medicine of the soul. that musical sound is a peculiar ethereal fluid which acts contains directly on the parts of the human system at will. plague. this musico-medical been made of its Sporadic use has long form of mental therapeuty. French physician. made of different kinds of wood. translated under the title. and even stupidity ! Musical instruments. and y . sciatica. " Influence of A Music on Health and facts Life. derived from Lucretius." which and suggestions. Dr. His belief is shared by not a few alienists and writers. epilepsy. delirium. as. typhus. but principles are imperfectly understood as yet. with in the treatment of various diseases but here the hmits of admissible theory are reached. and that medical science will yet exploit its great therapeutic value. catalepsy.152 GOD AND MUSIC produce perspiration in matter of experience that some sorts of music tend to either performer or of hearer. for example. of cinnamon-tree bark. based interesting upon a false theory. Lichtenthal gives detailed accounts cures wrought musically in cases of gout. convulsions. Chomet. has written a book on the subject. have been experimented .

science will utilize for the healing of power mind and body. A similar in- . in and was doubtless early employed of worshippers to their aiding the approach recognized deity or definite religion deities. Of illustrate this the sacred office and the incalculable value of music in the rehgious life of man. bell cultus from all lands on the Drum worship and the probably sprang from the animistic belief in an invisible local spirit within the resonant object of faith.THE POWER OF M its results do not warrant scientific generalization. it is beyond question that in music mankind has a potent agency for the restoration and maintenance of bodily and mental health. The next chapter will subject at some length. It was the first-born of arts. lifted Before men had a in they up mind and voice Ever adoration of the powers above them. have ascended globe. Nevertheless. volumes would be needed even to sketch the story. in the near future. It may be its that. rude since. strains of religious music. or cultured and full of true devotion. and the branch of the healthful discipline of both in an intelligent way. and superstitious.

ele- . harp. and employed in the ostensible service of religion. The vibrational influence of nerve-reaction accounts for the immediate effect of music upon the sensorium and the physically impressionable side of the soul. and reconstructed a wrecked life.154 tent GOD AND MUSIC and consciousness of spiritual communion with in the musical forms the Author of the great gift of music. refined. purified. But the history of sacred song and is its in- strumental attendant too full of manifest spiritual power and blessing ology. trumpet. Organ. and that of myriads of human souls that have been by its agency transformed. be wholly explained by physiThe physical action and the spiritual reacto tion are not equivalent. strain A simple from a remembered hymn of untainted youth has sometimes melted a brazen heart. in it our day. To sum up the effect of sacred music in the history of the world's religions. aesthetic sense sometimes minister more to the to and personal glorification than to the worshipful mood. There is an ethical and religious increment far greater than force contained in the vibration any possible numbers of musical tones employed for religious purposes. would be a wondrous aid to devotion assumes voice.

But the Christian religion found in music a^ongenial ally. 155 and cheered on a spiritual their require reach. ready to aid in its progress in the individual heart. The thought of God. and the world's history. and of the immortal sical expression. life. Outside of Christendom. children's and songs are almost unknown. is entirely consonant with mu- Hebrew psalmody and over the earth. tianity Christian hymnody have served as wings to bear the Gospel far and wide Every upward movement of Chrishas been marked by a fresh outburst of lyric to it fervor which has added force. of the Christian graces. of Christ and4 his cross. It inherited a magnificent psalmody. both expulsive and imart pulsive This spiritualized element in . mathematics beyond way heavenward. would human Christianity is the religion of spiritual song.THE POWER OF MUSIC vated. religious music has hardly shed the primitive animistic character of rhythmic noise. and also to the harmony to which modern music owes its the greater part of boundless wealth. but birth to has given new art of an invaluable hymnology.

and more intelligent. The glorious Shekinah of Jeho- vah did not appear after priestly ritual or royal ser- mon." revelation. more modest. it has helped them mightily heavenward. Luther claimed none too much for good music. clear gift power to its inspiring A of the Heavenly father to his earthly children.156 GOD AND MUSIC it evangelism realizes Napoleon's motto. in that drives out seductive evil by the higher joy and purer ministry of sacred song. and " other vices. " It drives devil away the and makes men all joyful. Je remp/ace. to make one sound to be heard in praising and thanking the Lord. pride. impurity. but " it came even to pass. Through music one forgets anger. in mutem- the record of the dedication of the first ple at Jerusalem. and on earth that of the old prophets. and ." L" She teaches us to be amicable. Reformation and Revival have always owed a great measure of their and truth -conveying aid." ) There was more than a symbolic suggestion of the universal religious potency of consecrated sic. sorrowing men. when the trumpeters and singers were as one. It is Music is a divine the language of angels in heaven. It has feathered the gospel arrow for quick flight to the hearts of sinning.

Marpt. the of nascent Christianity is first we hear the responsive morning hymn echoed ory. even the house of Lord. Bernard. Ambrose and Gregbuilt like new Amphions." After the Apostolic age closed. Palestrina. so that the priests could not stand to minister by reafilled son of the cloud : for the glory of the Lord the house of God. and praised the Lord. which con- quered Augustine. The long same night of the catacombs the strains. of the persecuted disciples under Pliny's governorship. Savonarola. The Reformation as its spread and prevailed very much hymnody was known by the people. It Roman Church hymns to the sound of their chants in the Greek modes exalted to Christian was the of Ambrose. For he is good for his . or of de Lisle with his Marseillaise. saying.THE POWER OF MUSIC when they had lifted 157 up their voice with the trumpets and cymbals and instruments of music. so . and an army of hymning evangelists have since wrought greater things for Christendom than the exploits of those priestly trumpeters at Jericho. not his eloquence. up the imperial use. Wesley. Luther. mercy endureth forever filled : that then the house was tlie with a cloud.

" The " infectious frenzy of " sacred song was a whirlwind force with which emperors. swearing by all that is holy that not a hair of his head should be touched. battalions. slum dwellers. They took the preacher by the hand. A party of na- went to the territory of a cannibal . It is related when bloodthirsty crowds could not be quelled by John Wesley's coalblack eye." The part which gospel lyrics have had in subduing the half-wild animal natures of American pioneer settlers. nor by Whitefield's imperial voice. Missionary work in lose if quarters of the globe would one of its most pervasive and per- suasive forces sically Christian propaganda were mu- dumb. An incident which occurred in will serve as New Guinea not long since tive evangelists an illustration of the possible power of this agency. and went his way with him. " he has conquered us. arm in arm. in and the Inquisition that " itself grappled vain. Their ringleaders more than once broke down under them in tears and groans of remorse.158 GOD AND MUSIC By his songs that Cardinal Cajetan said of Luther. they were known to turn and slink away when the truth was sung at them in Charles Wesley's hymns. and Belleville ouvriers all is well known.

THE POWER OF MUSIC tribe to Christianize their 159 dreaded neighbors. convinced them of the unselfish motive of these friendly natives. and. softened them. and their enemies became warm friends and followers of Jesus. Music unlocks with magic key the silent forces of sacred memories. ordered them to return to their homes. The heathen savages came out to meet them. The sound arrested their enemies. But the savage brandished The wild band guns and clubs as though about to slaughter the brave messengers of the gospel of love. The zealous but unarmed Christians could not consent to give up their apos- toUc task. they began to sing their Christian hymns. The hum- Holy their Spirit aided the faithful ministry of those ble workers for Christ. after hearing the purpose of their mission. and high . necessary. sionary The mis- company knew not what if to do. and continued to tell their story and plead with their foes to hear of Jesus. heart was unmoved. fond associations. as wit- nesses for Christ. but with the spirit of martyrs ready to die. and finally so wrought upon their evil hearts that they invited them to remain and teach their own tribe the new religion.

i6o
aspirations.

GOD AND MUSIC
Old men
in

the backwoods of the
like children at the

.West have been known to weep

/
/
1

long unheard singing of the Hundredth Psalm. It brought back their early home, the happy days of
youth, and a thousand sacred recollections, and also
stirred the

\

slumbering religious sense deep down

in

\

every

soul.

But

this subtle influence of association
its

can-no more wholly explain
the turbid deep
of

profound

effect

on

human

souls,

and on whole

generations of men, than can mere vibrations in
air

and

ear.

John Henry Newman suggests the
:

true reason in these words

"

Can

it

be that those

mysterious stirrings of heart, and keen emotions,

and strange yearnings after we know not what, and awful impressions from we know not whence,
should be wrought in us by what
is

unsubstantial,
itself?

and comes and goes, and begins and ends in
It is

not so

;

it

cannot be.
;

No
the

;

they have escaped

from some higher sphere
of
eternal
;

they are the outpouring

harmony

in

medium

of
;

created

sound

they are echoes from our

home

they are

the voice of angels, or the magnificat of saints, or the living laws of divine government, or the divine
attributes
;

something are they besides themselves,

THE POWER OF MUSIC

i6i

— though
eliciting

which we cannot compass, which we cannot utter, mortal man, and he perhaps not otherthem."

wise distinguished above his fellows, has the gift of

MUSICAL THERAPEUTICS

<<

Music that brings sweet sleep down from the

blissful skies."

—Tennyson.
field is

"And
there
!

for

music the health-giver, what an untrodden
invalid forget pain

Have we never known an
flush up,

and wearia pale

ness under the stimulus of music ?

Have you never seen

cheek

apathy ? What the nervous system directly, reaches and rouses when physic and change of air can neither reach nor rouse. Music will some day

a dull eye sparkle, and animation succeed to does all this mean ? It means that music attacks

become a powerful and acknowledged therapeutic agent. And it is one especially appropriate to this excited age. Half our diseases come from disorder of the nerves. I point to a new vocation—the vocation of the Musical Healer."— H. R. Haweis.

CHAPTER

IX

MUSICO-THERAPV

An

accumulation of interesting evidence touch-

ing the therapeutic value of music warrants an
additional

chapter at this point, illustrating the
is

position
this

assumed that the divine benevolence
It

by

means exemplified.

would seem graciously

fitting, if

not ethically demanded, that the
"

Maker

of an organism so " fearfully as well as " wonder" framed as the human body, with its intricate fully and delicate system of nerves and brain cells, so
adjusted that the least disturbance of their balanced
action deranges psychic states, should also provide

a neuro-psychic agency that would mediate
the disturbed relations with
restorative

among
by
air,

potency.

Such a benign influence
the
musical

is

actually provided

potentialities

of

the

common

through the vibrations communicated by it to the brain and nerve tissues. As indicated in the previous chapter, the fact that music has great value
165

was recognized as far back in human history as anything Uke history goes. last In the early part of the Esquirol. undertaken by experts both medical and musical. have been found most amenable to its directly influence. accompanied by more or mental disturbance. countries. two distinguished century. Trustin this worthy records of interesting last field.i66 in GODANDMUSIC both exciting and calming the neuro-mental states. and principally to the past Recent experiments in various twenty years. furnish material for at least tentative induction as to the specific effect of music in different diseases. disordered condi- tions of brain less and nerves. experimented with music as a therapeutic agent among their patients in the Bicetre and the Their Salpetriere. In 1824 and 1825 Esquirol adopted more system- . immediate imitators overestimated the influence of music. and used it so promiscuously as to aggravate the condition of some of their patients. Pinel and alienists of France who made great improvements in the treatment of the insane. limited to the hundred years. scientific observations are however. and with considerable success. As would be expected.

The music must be carefully adapted to each patient. Dr. was considered by Esquirol to be a complicated form of treatment requiring great medical care and skill. J. affection was acute the effect but with the convalescent music would be found of real value. a beneficial purpose. with some if not too exciting. upon the subject. it seems to produce no is except when the condition the result of . and carefully selected the subjects on whom they were tried. An writing will eminent Dutch physician. While the mental would be uncertain . He gave his personal supervision to the experiments. inducing In moral sleep and pleasant thoughts. In more chronic it forms of mental disease and in convalescence frequently serves natural insanity. It degree of musical knowledge. His observations led him to advise that with the insane the musicians should be few and out of sight. Petersen. preference being given to pieces that had been agreeable to the individual prior to his malady.MUSICO-THERAPY atic 167 measures. says that the effects same music have very different states. this writer says. effect. and affirms that tions music is on different psychic in all acute mental condi- contra-indicated.

neurastheniacs. delusional and impulsive insanity. forget their troubles in an equal deIt gree to music. for children. tranquillizes excitement. and portance can hardly be exaggerated." The it great sympathetic influence of music is when coincides with temperament. provoking a friendly cooperation interest in the patient's surroundings. it indicated in the following appreciation of as a therapeutic means employed an Irish alienist. written " by Dr. a high one. them Nothing cheers these patients. assuages grief. to lead his thoughts into definite channels. and ought to be. patient." insane im- . and to control Orchestral music comes into prominence and an in fostering mutual kindli- ness of disposition. to improve his disposition.i68 GOD AND MUSIC It is to education and environment. removes the cloud of depression. if ever. to employ the his will. Drapes. we may regard music as a valuable agent in par- ticular affections. be deprecated " For the and in acute stages of rest. transports them to another region for the time being. The position of music the treatment of the its is. produces the slightest in ill effect. or helps in Irish asylums. and fur- thering the progress toward a better social bearing. and rarely.

It was under the leadership of Canon Frederick K. and the project Miss Florence Nightingale gave efiforts her warm approbation." He said. Harford. that music. The plan included the hiring of a large central hall. but doubted whether the Cecilians would ever " charm away a tumor. of Westminster Abbey. editor expressed appreciation of the benevolent en- deavor. Cecilia. ' its limits. Music-boxes and musical phonographs were also utilized. the Queen Victoria was much interested in experiment. however. or purge a tuberculous lung of within to bacilli. and that in this age of ' nerves it might play an important part in the prevention of .MUSICO-THERAPY 169 A society." was in 1891 to furnish trained London musi- who would supply hospitals and infirmaries with music for tlie treatment of patients Its under the to direction of physicians. The Its of the Guild were reported from time to time during 1891 in the British Medical Journal. members were be ready to meet calls for such service at any time. in which there would be continuous music to be conveyed by telephone to hospital wards and sick rooms. may be a most useful handmaiden medicine. called formed cians in the " Guild of St.

and of its forms of nervous disorder there can be no question. Third Group Became ally. Group : one case of severe pain after crushed leg . a case of delirium tremens. later talked rationfinally and " discoursed on * soothing har- monies. As a sedative and hypnotic. " its influence in calming the dehrium of fever real usefulness in certain may be allowed.' Following this example. very violent. a St. Lack of pecuniary support cut short the laudable under- taking in both instances.I70 GOD AND MUSIC many diseases fostered by depression and fatigue. Lullaby she wanted it played and talked : freely for several hours. Musical treatment was . and the dropsy patient said that this was the first time she had been free from pain since she : entered the hospital. quiet after music began. half an hour while the music was playing. one case of dropsy All kept quiet for two cases of mental depression." Among the cases reported by the Guild's leader : were the following with great pain " First . Cecilia Guild was formed in New York for the same purpose. Second Group one case of had not talked for two weeks. melancholia . At ' ' the end of the again.

an expert pianist. while the musicians were not trained scientific observers. forty and Downing's Ninth Regiment Band of It should be remembered that the pieces. thoven's " Funeral March played patient quiet violent and smiled. and the pulse . in .MUSICO-THERAPY furnished for a time 171 for the by the New York Guild insane patients in the Manhattan State Hospital on Ward's Island. Lively could music made her frantic. Pulse 100. Several years earlier similar ex- periments were tried well's among J. Pattison. neces- crude and imperfect. sarily The music tests were. Island by Mr. after two minutes became Pulse 1 20. Female. A few representative cases are appended to illustrate the effect of the treatment on different phases and stages of mental aberration. From the rein port of the fifth attempt on Blackwell's Island 1878 the following cases are selected. . asylum " five years. therefore. More " Funeral March. Case I." pia- nissimo: patient quiet again. the insane on Black. prognosis bad brought in violent. together with the opinions of the physi- cians in control of the experiments. W. Chronic Bee- mania . in physicians charge were not musical experts. but again.

ond made her more third dose. and talked sensibly. Remark : " Fine case. All kinds of music made her intensely attempt. stopped swearing. Case years 6. First dose aroused her. violent and usyears in asylum. Female. Became ." 19. asylum. at fourth. Total pulse change from not 150 to 80. secintelligent . Chopin Nocturne played An result. religious. automatism. who be" Rhapsodic Hongroise was " Cradle quiet after hearing played. she was exalted and talkative. Case Song." Case 8. gan to pray loudly.172 GOD AND MUSIC be counted. she immediately At present fell on her knees and beprognosis good. three in Chronic mania. thirty-two years old. prognosis bad. Case 2. three Chronic mania. she became affectionate. Female thirty-five years old. age Incurable melan- cholia. brought in with straight-jacket on. of Beethoven less nervous. This made her thirty. Female. ing profane language. A came " quiet after the dement of long standing. Sent back Adagio : : A without straight-jacket. Case 7.

and makes the stolidly melancholiac chatty. cheerful. with seances each week. t^vo The treatment covered a five period of months." 1900. of extremely demented people could not called a favorable class of subjects for musical Two of the patients most happily affected : by the treatment are thus reported XIII. An Was exaggerated case of agitated melan- looked upon as a favorable subject. (2) In all probability. (1) 173 in Instrumental music has some cases a temporarily good effect. well educated.MUSICO-THERAPY "Conclusions. cholia. when eighteen cases were treated. such as familiar marches ginning. the latter being regarded as a sign of improvement. soothes the nervous. which varies the according to the temperament of patient Music tranquillizes the violent. and of refined habits and manner. . another experiment was made at the hospital on Ward's Island. This company be therapy. Was deeply affected and appreciative from the beLively music. and disposed to weep. and administered In in properly regulated doses. eleven of acute mania. these effects of music may be made permanent by continuous treatment adapted to individual cases. and seven of acute melancholia.

as otherwise her sympathies cannot be reached in this way." " Observations. She soon became attentive and interested in all kinds of music. temperature usually increased in nearly (2) cases. able.174 GOD AND MUSIC like. (5) In cases of mania. is dreamy music and bodily all best adapted. "Conclusions. and the effect always cheered her to smiles. respiration. slow. Has since recovered. lasting. simple. A case of acute mania . (i) That music is a powerful agent in affecting the emotions of some of the insane. (i) Pulse. since the attention of the patient can best be arrested by sound vibrations. (2) To get this effect. The was generally Rapidly improved and has since gone home. it is necessary that the patient have a natural love for music. this (4) Melancholia seems to be best suited to kind of therapy. three-fourths showing a marked in- . XIV. considered favor- Music of a quieting nature always had a sedative influence on her. ( 3) The quality and character of music have to be regulated to suit the natural preferences of the patient. Bodily nutrition greatly improved in large ma- jority of cases.

The all patient placed in visual and thus removed from aural disturbance. THERAPY crease in 175 weight.33 per cent. 27. showing that the calmative effect was at least prodisturbed patients were longed for some time. Dent. less (3) After musical treatment.76 per cent" The recent experiments of Doctors Bond and Monette under the oversight of Dr.88 per cent. (2) (i) Recovered. of acute The black room and used for cases it. 27. seem to show the value of the color treat- ment for the insane. 72. with high vibration frequency. per cent. Patients are placed in rooms painted one or another of the primary colors. per cent. through the night. 38. the Superintendent of tlie Woman's Hospital on Ward's Island.MUSICO. 33." "Calculations. E. (3) Improved. C. its Red. mania. (a) Unimproved. the fundamental principle of vibrational influence being the same with that rul- ing in musical therapeutics. according to the type and stage of their malady.21 Not benefited. and they generally manifest the favorable in effect of is the color environment. is employed . usually soon becomes quieter.21 {d) Benefited.

tuberculosis. new development of Whether the cure diseases the of same lupus. and diminishing its intensity. in soothing the perturbations of mania. room they are removed to one in deep pink. The Report for 1902 expresses doubt concerning the efficacy of melancholy. Phototherapy is a general principle. then to one of a flesh tint. The brain principle of establishing cerebral equilibrium by the effect of vibrations communicated to the from the ether and the atmospheric air. The actual results of the in musical treatment of patients the institutions above named indicates a similar therapeutic po- . to a white room. finally. or the interior valid as tympanum and its channels of sound. would appear to be to both senses.176 GOD AND MUSIC From the red for subjects of melancholia. but attributes this treatment in chronic a good influence to the color environment combined with quiet and isolation. through the optic nerve. the healing cause at bottom a matter of intense vibrational frequencies. A less number as of hours need be spent in the color rooms improvement results. and. and other is by the concentration of light rays the effect of a chemical or of a is mechanical process.

. N. Y. and positive cures its have means. Samuel B. That is we value the effect of music on our patients evi- dent from the fact that we maintain an orchestra of . value. The Dr.MUSICO." and the practical difficulty of a continuous and thorough application of such a in the present method of treatment incomplete units utility derstanding of musical therapeuty. Medical Superintendent of the Bloomingdale Asylum at White Plains. THERAPY color test. sometimes been apparently wrought by The cost of this " most ex- pensive kind of noise. writes : " So many different means are used and divert morbid in hos- pitals for the insane to interest patients. 177 tcncy more marked than those obtained under the In perhaps every large institution for the insane in the United States music has been found a val- uable auxiliary to other forms of treatment. that hard to assign the relative value to each one. Lyon. it is and to substitute healthy for ideas. pitals Several superintendents of hosfor the and asylums mentally diseased have its kindly given their opinion as to following are fairly representative. limit in actual practice.

A. All we can say concerning it is that it is one of many important agencies in the moral treatment of nervous and mental invalids. have regular musical entertainments at frequent intervals.. Pilgrim. N." Dr. R. and no doubt the same influences are exerted upon persons whose minds are abnormally excited or depressed. and also ber of pianos about the house." Dr. Superintendent of the Hudson River State Hospital at Poughkeepsie. . but paper is. Blumer. and since published in the for American Journal of Insanity " I still January. it We have cultivated the while they are with up We can all appreciate from our own experience the cheering and soothing effects of certain kinds of music. brilliant says. in reference to a paper prepared by him when connected with the Utica Asylum. Superintendent of the I. Charles W.178 GOD AND MUSIC composed of our medical atthat we have distributed a num- eight or ten pieces. Butler Hospital. tendants. the enthusiasm of my I fear. not quite borne out by the facts of general experience. or who art in the past. Providence. 1891. to take us. G. and we encourage patients who have musical talent. have faith in music as mind medicine.

is In our opinion." As I " chairman of a committee on the maintenance of musical organizations in State hospitals. where its : they can do so is much for the sick and feeble. and are intensely fond of music adapted to their condition. he says in " There are so many obvious reasons Report for the maintenance of bands in the hospitals." When systematic and long continued experiments with this therapeutic agency have been skillful scientific made under results supervision. that it unnecessary to recount them. Enough has already been learned of efficacy in the treatment of the nervously and men- tally diseased to warrant farther investigation and wise experimentation. as the much to the reputation of a maintenance of a good musical or- ganization. there will doubtless be definite reits more considerable and more ported. In institutions for the imbecile on both . also testifies : 179 good effects have always believed in the of music upon nervous patients. there nothing that can give so much pleasure to the patients. or add so hospital. The idiotic are peculiarly sensitive to musical sounds.MUSICO-THERAPY Y. therefore fited they are especially bene- by it..

An interesting account of his treatment of is various classes of nervous invalids Medical Record of January 2i. and in some instances the abortive soul comes to its real birth and a life among men. J." Dr. The rhythmic concatenation of sound which we know as music. must be held to have a divine origin and purpose. like music. made by a specialist in nervous Leonard Corning. The principle on which it was grounded is that of the revivability or rejuvenescence of the emotions along strictly physiological lines. the morose are molliand humanized. can almost create a spiritual personality. yond all If the human soul have a value be- material estimate.i8o sides of the GOD AND MUSIC ocean results of positive value have al- ways attended the use of instrumental music. stolid are fied The mentally awakened. of New York found in the City. " is capable beyond affective all " else of achieving the revival of the memories. But its relation to the feelings . 1899. an agency which. A contribution to the " therapeutics of the emo- tions" worthy of attention from students of the subject has been diseases. Dr. Corning observes.

Vigouroux. tenderness. suppleof mented by the employment chromatiscope that the figures as sleep inducing. On this serenity. • 181 for. while certain arts at once awaken ideas which give this of a determination to the feelings. and Mortimer . sadness. When later. inversely. by Buccola. its canvas the intellect embroiders designs at varying according to individual pleasure. which we by vague terms —joy. ature I glanced through the meagre this liter- touching important question.MUSICO-THERAPy docs not stop here. especially of a depressing character. uneasiness. Corning says. tranquilUty. Boudet de Paris.' To avoid the arbitrary influence. " proclivities. I found that the essentially physiological view was held by notably a considerable number of writers. It creates dispositions music acts organic state translate depending on the and on nervous activity." Dr. The theory was soporific effects of music are produced by vibrations itself imparted to the brain " through the intermedia" tion of the acoustic apparatus. the plan sical vibrations just was adopted of utiUzing mubefore and during sleep. exerted by music upon nerv- ously disturbed minds in a wakeful and self-conscious state. as Ribot justly remarks.

Corning devised an definite communicating musical vi- brations to the brain at the will of the operator. follows that in so far as the ultimate material effect of music upon the central nervous system is is concerned. GOD AND MUSIC whose researches. . An acoustic helmet was made covering the entire head. one and all. in the drowsy state thus produced " the musical waves of sound surg- ing into the labyrinth and onward to the senso- rium produced effects indescribable. Dr. the scientific view." not "Acting upon apparatus for this theory. it If this. the ears in this tallic Over openings against helmet-like hood were placed me- cups connecting by rubber tubes with an Edison phonograph placed on a shelf or in an adAfter the patient's power of attenat joining room. but leaving the face exposed. tion had been diverted and exhausted by looking a bright object on a screen rapidly revolved and illuminated by a hidden light. the participation of consciousness essential. From . . . be accepted. go to show that music acts ultimately as a species of vibrative medicine. This shut out other sounds from the ears except those intended to reach the tympanum.i82 Granville.

has recently disease deemed the treatment of by music worthy rhythm were of experimental investigation. The Acadanie des Sciences.MUSICO-THERAPY music rectly it 183 the far-reaching nature of the psychical efTects of is evident that the cerebral areas both diindirectly influenced and by such is vibrations its must be extensive. not of theoretical acquisition merely. . of Paris. and other neurotics arc burdened. with the injunction that it be considered only an important adjunct to purely medical resources already known. according to musical A rhythmical contraction of the muscles era- was thus produced. neurastheniacs. After prolonged and numerous here. but of substantial achievement in the realm of the tangible and useful. Electric currents in- terrupted utilized. . this vibrative treatment capable of mitigating a number of troublesome symptoms by which melancholiacs." A num- ber of instances of decisive improvement under this form of treatment are given in detail. responsive to the rhythm . . full When allowed to produce effect. I have become convinced that field. untrodden we have spread before us a host of new opportunities. in this trials.

p. perhaps the foremost fol- medical journal in the English language. Therefore." A recent volume of this jour- . respiration and lively tunes were increased and discords. . The idea of mind ' must be eliminated. The London Lancet. 755) it says. motion. ployed. or else a clear scientific idea cannot " be obtained. . through the nervous system It is of most use in depressed mental conditions. which stimulates ' the nerve centres. probably on account of music being vibratory or wave . was found to have specific effects in nervous diseases. Music acts as a refreshing mental stimulant and it restorative. " Music influences both brain and heart through the spinal cord. braces depressed nervous tone." In 1888 its editor says. In 1886 (xi. and indirectly reaches the tissues. This agency. As by by with other experiments of the kind made elsecirculation where. but were diminished rallentando and diminuendo passages. whether of waltz. or solemn music. combined with mental suggestions. has lowed experiments of this kind with careful atten- tion for twenty years. and only physiological action on tissues considered.i84 GOD AND MUSIC jig.

that is to say. but it is no quack's nostrum. a good antidote to . although sad music has the opposite of this sensitive indicator is effect. as of decided scientific value. act in relation to music similarly to the heart . an apparatus for measuring the effect of musical vibrations giving results on the body. joyful music resounds along the excito-motor fibres." scientist The St. and sad music along the depressant or inhibitory fibres. be regarded as a serious a therapeutic agent. and that it exercises genuine and considerable influence over the It is functions of the body. Tarchanoff''s theory is that " the voluntary muscles being furnished with excito-motor and depressant fibres. It is one of those intangible but effective aids of medicine which exert their healthful properties through the nervous system. Petersburg that concludes.MUSICO-THERAPY nal contains the 185 matured opinion that " the value of music as a therapeutic agent cannot yet be precisely stated. " music may after fairly rigid experimentation. By means it proved that tired muscles regain their strength under the influence of music." The same " " of ergograph journal describes the Professor Tarchanoff".

The psy- has always diseases. Theophrzistus affirmed that in his at so is wounds and snake . its the body. even in some organic Music exercises a double influence upon by means of vibratory motion. directly and indirectly through powerful effect upon the its mind. " A man was conveyed to a hospital in Paris suffer- ing from an accident which resulted in a serious . however. but his were cured by music assertions cannot be verified bites distant a day. scientific judg- ment must time decide. If as true as interesting. To which of these is reputed success in traumatic healing to be ascribed. power of melody and harmony over the sick been noted. taken from a reputable journal of recent date. music might possibly be thought a real vulnerary. The following account. while the modern scientific mind demands a degree cannot furnish for which history asserted cures by this means in of evidence life the earlier days of man's chical on earth.i86 GOD AND MUSIC pernicious habit of the introspection and self- analysis." The ancients had in the much greater faith than the moderns efHcacy of music as a curative agent in disease of every kind.

therefore. be concluded if that the reported cures in the Paris hospital. stated. which was bared for the purpose. It and musical instruments. " In another case the all wound continued to supviolin purate despite that could be done. and it the various treatments applied to desired end. ceased. and death appeared certain. . has been thor- oughly without tried in the case of open wounds.MUSICO-THERAPY wound." Vibratory treatment. ices of At length the surgeon enlisted the serv- a good viohn player and treated the sufferer patient's paroxysms and from that time the wound began to The violin playing was continued at intervals to a musical remedy. however. and the instrument was played close to the injured part. and the process of healing began and progressed rapidly. This 187 all wound refused to heal. soon observed a change. till The recovery was assured. The was called into requisition in this instance also. failed to effect the The man was attacked from time to time by violent paroxysms. as were caused by the influence of the mind. healthier The surgeon The wound assumed a appearance. but may. heal. by the use of large tuning-forks effect.

if is value The practice.i88 GOD AND MUSIC by the music. deemed by some a panacea. air. has been noticed . An as Easter is in the hospitals of much benefit It as well great their inmates. so. music might have part of the credit. growth of the healing In the good seed has sprung up and Christmas musical mission productive pleasure to there and borne fruit of promise. able change in conditions. of deep breathing of pure fostered demanded and means of is by vocal music. The musical well-prepared plant of song. invaluable as a It health maintenance and improvement. city of Boston ought to furnish soil for the fact. perhaps. possible. or. and in improving is is the general health. Whether its efficacy its of a chemical or a mechanical character. Entirely within the limits of observation and ex- perience is the great utility of right vocal culture in disordered conditions of the throat and lungs. also. over the morbid by some favorEven if excited and cheered condition of the body. indisputable. it has no uncertain spiritual Singing is a most healthful exercise for body and mind. and analogies.

therefore. A kindred theory affirms that every individual has a constitutional key-note. .MUSICO-THERAPY that in in 189 some of the smaller ones. Hence. Mrs. a less opiates is amount of night needed to quiet them musician of for the A cultivated altruistic bent. The experience of those who have been much in military hospitals among during the sick and actual wounded war. music counterappeals to the principle of order. at their especially enjoy her ministry of song. Mary A. encouraged by her influence healing the sick. Livermore. where the Sisters charge sing to the patients every evening. which responds to music harmonious to itself. confirms belief in the value of music as both a moral and a physical power of untold influence for good to the lonely victims of battle or of disease. and thus and mind which are the of acts the disorders body causes of sickness. and harmony order. as an edifice trembles to sounds in its particular key. Her theory is is that music is harmony. has issued in cheering and even a professional card or offering to use her gifts for invalids in hospitals " " shut-ins The homes. health of body and of soul may be promoted by properly adapted music.

are already within reach to show that here is an agency of no small power and value in the treatment of ills human of of many kinds. it may reasonably be expected that the therapeutics of music will have a broader basis and more responsive material to operate upon. communicate a healing force to bring comfort and cure to the myriads of his sentient and suffering creatures on earth. vi'ho were sent for in every direction to sing to the sick in their hardest conflict life and dying with the insidious foes to all. nostalgia worst of When musical culture has become universal. Among is — other articles one of special interest in the Arena. and the advanced races of men have returned to classic and Christian simplicity of living. however. organized a among the nurses. . Music a fitting medium grace through which a sympathizing Creator might conceivably. ical Note. and health. for March.190 GODANDMUSIC for her benevolent labors in known and honored corps of singers behalf of the soldiers in the Civil War. and even probably. Increasing attention has been paid of late by both medand musical writers to the subject of healing by music. and especially in ministering to is minds diseased. Sufficient facts.

is of great social importance. So music should be wisely selected and skillfully applied to render it a useful therapeutic means. but only remedies carefully adapted to the individual case. Massachusetts. S. which has a bearing upon physico-mental therapeutics by the agency of music. Hence. Scaring gives this as the conclusion he has arrived at as the result of much experience with the younger criminal class : " I think that knowledge of correct musical intervals and the in- toning of these intervals assist the mind to regain its lost sense of believe that all our thoughts are intervalled. Music should be applied more systematic- ally to vicious children. so to speak. Another article " Music 1902. South Boston. by Mr. or to disturbed bodily conditions. our thought-intervals become distorted . Stnitton.MUSICO-THERAPY 1 191 in Musical 90 1. food is nutritious." . they become sharped or flatted. the following theory is advanced by the chaplain of the House of Correction. and Crime. on '* The Key-note Therapeutics. as well as upon iu undoubted ethical and social utility." The general principle is expressed in this way . I abused by wrong thinking. Henry W. according to the laws of music. but only certain foods are sons." brings together valuable evi- dence from many sources to prove that the ethical influence of music." Every organism has its keywhich makes the individual organism respond to sounds of coordinate degree. musical intervals sets the mind into right moral grooves. its own state of harmony for the state of mental and inhannony called disease. find the key-note of the human indiAll vidual. entitled by the same writer in the Arena for February. Besides facts and opinions from various quarters worthy of attention. Music heals by substituting physical note. both educational and remedial. Chaplain S. " Music is the health. and noise the disease. Not adapted to certain perall medicines cure every disease. but when the mind is harmony. and its restores equilibrium. and suit the musical remedy to the particular case. of sound. that The singing of correct is.

.

DESIGN IN DESIGN .

in the present state of our knowledge. mysteries which no man can unravel.<< Now it and est holiest cannot be that music has taken this place in the deepmatters of man's life through mere fortuitous It arrangement. this capacity of angels. why is that certain vibrations sent forward by the tympanum along the bones spirit and fluids of the inner ear — — of man endowed with should at length arrive at the such a prodigious and heavenly energy. at what point of the course they acquire being up to that point mere particles trembling hither and thither these are. . by virtue of which the latter is stimulated and forced onward toward the great End of all love it and aspiration. must be that there exists some sort of relation between pure tones and the spirit of man." —Sidney Lanier. What may be the nature of this relation.

not music. to work miracles in the realm of sound. and conwonders of structive skill intended them 195 ^ to do their . The forge lathe is called by mechanics the " iron calculator. within law. sounds without noise. men be free. and to an acoustic chaos. The automatic screw cutter is infallible up to the fifty-thousandth of an inch.CHAPTER X DESIGN IN DESIGN " The history of music is a history of design. forbidden direct finite God be shut up by his own laws to rational minds and worlds toward any and beneficent end ? There are machines that act with seeming intelligence swifter and more accurate than that of most men. are Undesigned vibrations. stinct Such marvels of mechanical Inventive genius art are in- with purpose." because it turns out the most gigantic tasks with invariable accuracy." order. sition is Every note in a musical compowhere and what it is because it is meant to Shall be so.

that his theory required more teleology verified than it displaced. This assertion is by the musical constitution of things and minds. composite adaptations and is it and its magnificent outcome. aesthetic. unwilled forces. No design in the universe ? This intricate art of music with of law. with- out any purposed structure or designed end of bless- ing ? It would be tools far easier to see in American machine an automatic evolution of uncon- scious. tremors in the original. its its rigid perfections correlations. Darwin said with positiveness. GODANDMUSIC and they do them just because they were meant to do them. should have no ultimate genesis other than accidental ether. homo- geneous The scheme obstacle in the in the of creation by evolution throws no or continuous design way of initial making of a universe.196 exactitude. and altruistic The idea that such a . Music is one of the most conspicuous proofs that the Creator of the universe is a Being of mathematical. which absolutely demands in its authorship distinct pur- pose. than that this most complex of arts with its spiritual involutions and beneficent influences. attributes. both scientific and benevolent.

perfectly adjusted to the of the universe. art. in one with melody and harmony. and I have found none that will work without a God. Clerk Maxwell's saying: have looked into most philosophical systems. and with spiritual implications of incalculable significance. By the theistic theory. Forces might be conceived to act in straight lines and within narrow limits so accurately as to give the appearance of unconscious design. It is a crime against and the law of gratitude. aesthetic Atheism could . to deny is God any part or purpose in their existence. the strain less. But it is more in ac- cord with the natural working of minds like ours to see purposed ends in results of such a character as those attained by music. upon either reason or faith is immensely But leaving the general argument in the . logic. than it is to imagine a pseudo-immanence of finality directing a system of rest sounds so complicated. find some excuse filled in a dumb or ugly world but. if the two words do not kill each other. true that causality does not prove finality.DESIGN IN DESIGN Mind could work with no intention " I is 197 intelligent or benevolent irrational." might be made specifically as to the laws and facts of the universe.

" But number. Modern science echoes all. correlated. will indicate a be enough for the present essay few points at which the facts of and view. Diman. is due to a certain number of vibrations within a given time. The quasi-thinking ma- . chemical fact all the transformations combination. philosophy music confirm the theistic The mathematical character of the laws that govern the universe in all its parts. and so are the long-drawn notes of the organ that uplift the soul in praise.198 GOD AND MUSIC of specialists it hands like Janet. reasoned. and the tiny feathers in the wings and tail of the humming- bird are all numbered. is the most im- pressive feature of current scientific conceptions of the processes of nature. organized. or the varied accents of the hu- man voice. Each color in the rainbow that spans the arch of heaven and makes the heart leap up. Number rules Gravi- tation. and to Flint. early Greek philosophy. the stellar orbits. A crystal is frozen geometry. presupposes mind and will. Harris. in and manifestations of " force admit of precise numerical expression.

though existence. this did not cause either to doubt their second causes and their That minds accustomed to look only at scientific relations. like an audi- spectrum. its A ble single musical note with component over- tones sounding up the acoustic scale." working with a complex accuracy comprehensible only by the use of the higher mathematics. the necessary inference is that they were intended so to work. seem facts present- unable to take the logical step from ing plain evidence of mathematical thought to a Thinker planning and executing his works in invariable mathematical sequences. The greatest philosophers of old and most plain . Some ears cannot perceive these higher notes that accompany each primal musical sound. as Tyndall's comrade could not hear shrill the call of certain insects plainly heard by him.DESIGN IN DESIGN into it 199 chine works out only the mathematical thought put by inventive and constructive mind. cannot be permitted to annul the rational inference to this effect. " the When we find the fundamental laws of vibration. which govern deep pulsations of the world. every step prescribed by strict mathematical law. leads the mind upward to the Great Mathematician.

now. The musical theoretician does but discover and follow the logical steps in the divine thinking. they do foster. on which the whole art and science rest. if not compel. aesthetic is the significance of the fact that the element in musical compositions and the incalculable power they exert over the human soul . the history of human design. by themmore when taken selves. belief in a Supreme infallible Mind thinking and acting with accuracy toward is reasoned results. If the history of concrete music in Parry's phrase. The soul of music not an aes- thetic Frankenstein to be created out of acoustic its material according to scientific formulae. is.200 GODANDMUSIC to a thinking people of to-day agree in arguing from number Numberer. its mathematical constitution. along with the geometry of the heavens and the mathematical and still ordering of everything in the universe. yet highest inspirations and most aerial flights are subject to mathematical law. much more certainly proves a divine Designer. What. of music do not The compHcated mathematics begin to explain its spiritual secrets. yet.

and later writers of musical and philosophical authority pronounce the problem apparently insoluble. and among men.DESIGN IN DESIGN have never 201 been scientifically accounted for? Helmholtz. as solely the effect of skillfully managed aerial vibrations acting mechanically on ear. It is not a coldly reasoned or deftly manufactured Still less product. a spiritual force. for disposing of it such The great composers have often thought themselves inspired from above. and nerves. effect to cause is legitimate in Whatever the origin and nature of the tone-creating agencies. By the weakest supposition. be a merely physical pheMusic has every appearance of being. can it be explained in terms of physics. and affecting the spiritual faculty in man with a direct. deep-reaching influence. of ever-changing form. intended as a medium of communication between spirit and spirit. cerian The easy Spendoes not convince method minds. Hauptmann. the aesthetic content of any music worth the name is a non-material factor. brain. between God and men. and spiritually powerful to nomenon. It is too immaterial. mysterious. Hanslick. the sesthetic force devel- UN\Vt . Reasoning from this instance. or of exercising.

— to his moral constitution than that ful. the history of music. to his moral culture The development ple of evolution of music. If induction ever proves design. strikingly illustrates the progressive princi- and bears the same mark of tendfinite ency toward the perfecting of processes that develop their beings through own best powers. social. as an art and as a science. educational. which is so help" ? as music eminently is. ought to lead to con- The abuses of the art cannot nullify the force of the induction religion itself. Dr.202 GODANDMUSIC oped by them produces on mind and heart such profound and lasting effects as to warrant the belief that these effects were purposed. in promoting the this well- being of clusion. and moral. Man any more than in the case of was made to be religious in a true sense. Chalmers spoke only the truth in affirming that " the iveness of music may well be regarded as a power and expressmost beauteous adaptation of external nature to the moral for what can be more adapted constitution of man. This tendency appears with the beginnings of variation . and his musical endowment was his nature in likewise meant and to help him develop its higher finer faculties. men in all ages. religious.

the true. 203 its Death and sex were among Whatever the part natural selecits tion has played in the history of development. words " : those of the idealist author of " Phases of Criticism It is Thought and higher nature. as- serted as a general truth that " the continued effort of animated nature raise itself to is to improve its conditions and to such utter- a loftier level. we . Darwin said of design.DESIGN IN DESIGN and differentiation. and the beautiful are cultivated each according to It is its nature and by its own method. steady purpose. If we do not its That realize that harmonious development to fullest extent." Tyndall. intellect dream comes to us and a well regulated all. ciplined the rhythm of a thoroughly dislife. or result suggesting purpose." Add ances. dwell " There is another and the nature of a soul in which . order and method which coordinates all knowledge. like by way of completion and contrast. earliest helpers. has been for betterment. in the Belfast Address. which recognizes the ideal. as Plants " : when he in often used language " Movements of clearly per- "In almost every case wc can ceive the final purpose or advantage of the several movements. in which the good.

Beauty. gives great force to the discussion of this subject. ethical thus reinforces the argument for purpose in evolution." significance discloses the it fitly In sensible manifestations represents the inevitable effort of a Perfect Being to body forth his perfections. adopting the method most efficient in the whole course of organic proved development. whether is visible or audible. points toward perfection. The evidence in for theistic design furnished by the universal presence and beneficent tiful its office of the beau- specific myriad forms. It and greatly helps in its attainment. the attempt in nature or by " man to realize the ideally perfect. in It and that its ministry is an invaluable aid developing the spiritual ideal in the soul of man. In the Symposium." to be drawn for use in the present discussion that the history of music illustrates the upward trend of evolution. its full its The idea of beauty unfolded in idea of God.204 GODANDMUSIC The corollary is should cultivate both the spiritual sense and the moral sense with care and assiduity. Plato describes in singularly . full and aid his creatures to attain their measure of them.

worthy to be from called be an ignoble But the notion of a sub- stance. divine beauty reality. is this pure. without consciousness. has hold. is to use the individual beauties of earth as steps along which the seeker mounts is upward for the sake of that other beauty.DESIGN IN DESIGN eloquent 205 language what he calls the absolute beauty. but in terms which can be understood only. he will he brings forth and educates true be enabled to become the friend of immortal." asks the lofty life ? minded philosopher. absolute. is a figment of transcendental imagina- . he reasons. surely. order. beauty. this. as he probably intended them. of a Supreme Mind The true possessing and radiating all perfections. . not of an in image. which. which beauty only. imparted to the ever growing and perishing In communion with beauties of all other things. " •' and be mortal man may. everlasting which. to it. separate. Would that. man If. simple. without diminution and without increase. absolute volition. " if God. but of a love of it and wedded virtue. infinite and perfect. its or motive. communicates own all unwasting mass something which pervades lower forms of the beautiful. and makes them such.

angles. the exclusive perquisite of minds able to per- ceive and enjoy it. that of beautiful forms and etchings of shells had the same motive as that of the graver. GODANDMUSIC Only conscious mind can create or perceive beauty. The same is true of every art. and media of the beautiful. lines be distinctly art.2o6 tion. yet nature excels his finest conviction expressed We cannot avoid the the endless variety by the Duke of Argyle. The graver significant intends to his polished surfaces and beautiful. Even the cave- dweller had aesthetic intent when he scratched the rude figure of a deer upon a piece of bone. Art . The conditions. must be purposely arranged by mind beauty. the air. The causal link between intent. colors. artist the beautiful as either the supreme or only a subordinate element. tones. are the result They exist and are beautiful because the or artisan meant them to be what they are. the eye and ear. filled with the love and knowledge of ideal To is recognize and enjoy this in any of its forms. ground. author All and percipient must be gracious human works having of design. such as surfaces.

is It is the overbrimming of that which divine in him. The world of thought this mere chaos. and beauty might as well not be. Happy are those who not ciate the audible beauties of music.DESIGN IN DESIGN is 207 It the assertion of man's spirituality. has been described as the infusion of his personality into dead matter. we cannot reason from the prius of human are left art to a like motive in the divine Artist. The theory that these apparently designed adjustments are but the outcome of a continuous equilibration suffi- of internal with external relations. does not ciently account for the very complex result. if supremely admirable and beneficent cosmic fact has neither intelligent cause nor adequate only appre- end. The adjustments and its of nature to provide for music enjoyment give cumulative evidence of the purposive activity of a scientific. aesthetic. and generous Being at the causal fountain-head. with . but also hear in it the kindly voice of their most gracious Creator. who is Creator of that If makes for beauty in the universe. how much more all of his Maker. This being true of man. intellectual wc to is anarchy.

in Im- manent plan Intellect is clearly indicates anticipative design. The actual universe has every appearance of having been planned to attain by the agency of inde- pendent yet converging forces. it. . is Final cause. Chance variations and a Kilkenny struggle for survival could never issue in a cosmos as a whole. is such as friendly wisdom would have planned. The end proposed and at- tained does not belong to the nature of things. that a " preof interacting agents established harmony" can alone explain the consistent and beautiful results observed in nature. for quite a different universe might easily have come from the same elements. in Hegel's a concurrence of independent agencies acting toward the production of a definite end. with crammed reason full of marks of scientific purpose and divine benevolence. is Far more in accordance with the theory of Leibnitz. The system prophetic tendency toward perfection. Its Maker and not alone the God of things as they are. but such a condition as that fore- shadowed Builder is in Christian revelation. definition.2o8 its GODANDMUSIC logical and interdependent connections. not the present wayside status. Goodness its is manifest.

it Imagine the task has to accomphsh when over- . which is an intellectual and spiritual event. ear The car possesses a selective power that almost merits the epithet of miraculous. The Philosophy won- of Music. " spiritual ex- periences. It is An certainly significant that definite musical far tone plays but a small part in nature. there to be transformed into mental and In his standard work.DESIGN IN DESIGN but rather the 209 God of things as they will be in the ever developing future. while by the greater portion of the auditory apparatus seems set apart for the most minute discrimination of the pitch and quality of tones. The human for and throat are expressly adapted song. and for nothing else. example or two from the realm occupied by musical sound will illustrate and confirm the position taken. fact in every-day audition somewhat as By nize the " law of Ohm " the ear refuses to recog- any sound-wave except of the simplest form. by which it is en- abled to carry audible messages to the brain." William Pole illustrates this truly derful follows.

forming therein a single air-wave so complex as to contain some element representing every simultaneous sound in the room. the plash of fountains. but also the quality of every accidental noise. the nerve filaments twenty microscopic automatically single out each element. Yet when this wave action reaches the nerve tips. The only means by which the hearing organ can perceive such a rushing tempest of sound-waves continually breaking upon the ear. If " the " tetanus theory of William James were correct. laughter.2IO GOD AND MUSIC conflicting of. a promenade concert. the shutting of doors. the tramp of feet. and sounds from the outside world. conversation. is by the condensation and end of a tube rarefaction of particles of air at the about the size of a knitting-needle. attributing the same . Each of these it is reported to the mind as accurately as though had been heard alone. whelmed by the numberless mingled and sounds say. convey to the conscious teristic by itself. and mind not only the characclass notes of every instrument and of voice. through the delicate tapping of the piano keys of the possibly twice thousand Corti rods. made such by their distinctive overtones. the rustle of gowns.

and several thousand psychical states. which together give the sensation of tone quality and. of a single tone impression are multipUed by the number of sensations present to consciousness in every successive instant of a concert or an opera. In John Fiske's Through Nature is to God. the analysis of either the acoustic or the psychic fact passes the grasp of even the most vigorous imagination. he says. also. in which differs according to his personality. still farther. also. has a similar selective capacity of . Each person. fifty-five times as many psychical states . an immense number of psychical states f which together convey the sensation of inWhen the almost innumerable elements tensity.DESIGN IN DESIGN effects to successive instead of 211 composite impres- sions on the hearing organs." the extreme complexity of sensation produced by a single violin musical tone vividly described. Each sound has a definite : any such acoustic conglomerate effect upon the mind of every hearer. On a sound the F one octave above the treble staff". are produced which together make up the sense of pitch . . the wonder would be '• no less.

the type of a civilization. the history of a nation. The songs of a people inspire and impel. or gravity. seem almost childish The factor of tonality in the government of scale relations furnishes a specific example of manifold adjustment for a controlling end. large. does not the solution of the is various problems involved that offered ? by purely physical theories. in little or in may determine the course of a Hfe. then the inconceivably complex sounds of such a concert as supposed. while their laws may only compel or restrain. The psychical results of music. key of arch. is the inherent tendency of melody rest finally and harmony to on the tonic as an acoustic corner-stone.212 GOD AND MUSIC what sounds shall influence mental and moral choice. Considering the numberless adjustments necessary in the simple act of hearing a single composite tone. amounting to practical free-will. This feature. or centre of This centripetal influence corresponds to . as to him and how. as recognized in modern music. which strongly suggests purpose. and then the coordination of these with the infinitely more complicated relations of human life. the action of a community.

" the sixteenth century did Palestrina. the It is bond of unity and it harmony in the universe. For a years ecclesiastical thousand music ended. to-day what was <t. Guido of Arezzo. is importance in a matured system of music Aristotle a comparatively recent discovery." expresses a correct estimate of fact in fundamental " Gravitation music as illustrated in nature — this restraint of nature it ? —what knowles- edge have we of All but It is its mathematics capes our analysis. In the tenth century that inven- note at the base of the diatonic scale. supplied the lacking But not till " set Christianity to music. the genius of spiritual melody who its give to tonality long waiting throne. and Its 213 the attraction of gravitation that binds the stellar makes planetary life possible.DESIGN IN DESIGN universe together. The music of the its Occident sway. knew of as truths of science. in the air. " God this : His World. tive genius. . it. in his suggestive book. may be too exclusively submissive to Henry in Mills Alden. he had prevision of nearly all the universal But it was lost sight of. as it were. Oriental nations with their half-developed musical systems have still to learn its full value.

214

GOD AND MUSIC
stars

when the morning

sang together.

It is

indeed
it is

the tonahty of that song continued.

And

in

musical tonality, with
tion, that

its

accord and inward obliga-

we have

the nearest symbol of natural or

spiritual

harmony."
the notes of any complete scale to
its

The

theistic significance of this force in music,
all

which binds
one basal

centre, lies partly in

cosmic analogy to

gravitation,

and partly

in its office of coordinating

the scale relations.
that
is

It supplies

the unity in variety
It gives relative

the central principle of

art.

character to every note,

makes modulation

possible,

and
its

is

the anchor cable that holds the melody and

precious freight of

harmony from
it is

drifting

upon

acoustic shoals.

That

this vital fact in

music could

merely have happened, that

only a post hoc in
it

the course of unguided evolution, that
its

could have
in-

office
is

tent,

and power without creative reason or too difficult for even scientific faith.

THE ALTRUISTIC ART

k

" Music, sister of sunrise, and herald of life to be, Smiled as dawn on the spirit of man, and the thrall was free."

—A. C. Swinburne.

Mario singing by the wayside to fill the hat of a beggar; Jenny Lind giving the best of her wonderful powers at every call of charity ; de Reszke emptying his pockets to save an immigrant
ity

family of musicians from starvation, are examples of the generosof those whose nature music makes responsive to human need.

action

" Music leaves logic behind in the race toward sympathy and if it were not in itself noble and true, it would work ; great
It abets

mischief in society.

reason,

and only

discloses

its

full

power and works
truth.

its

mightiest results

when used

in the service of

Hence

there

is

no music in nations and races that are with-

out nobility of thought, and there is no truer test of the quality of a nation than its music. Bach and Haydn and Beethoven would be

and a Schleiermacher, and the former are as
character as the latter."

impossible in a nation that did not produce a Kant, a Schelling, truly exponents of its

^T.

T.

MUNGER.

CHAPTER

XI

THE ALTRUISTIC ART

There

are two

ways of learning the character of

a personality, whether

human

or divine.

One

pro-

ceeds from concept to deeds, and compares the two.

The

other sees in actions certain qualities, studies

their results,

and reasons from these to the

sort of

character behind them.

Music, as a universal fact

and with a history
to the search after

fertile in definite results, invites

God along both
is

these paths.

The

idea of perfect being

a necessary product

of thought, as the

mind

inevitably rises from the

physical to the metaphysical.

A

personal Being

who

corresponds to this conception will be not

only structurally complete, but also morally perfect.

And

moral perfection demands and

is

that self-forgetting, self-giving impulse

compact of which mod-

erns call altruism, but of which the old, best
is

name
by

Love.

A

divine Person,

if

such there be,

will,

the impulse of his essential nature, plan and labor
217

zi8
to

GOD AND MUSIC
all his

make
as

sentient creatures,

and especially

his

dependent children,
well
delight.

happy
will

in

ways

that benefit as
refine,

He

seek to purify,

elevate,

and

incite to unselfish action those
in his

whom
and

he has formed

own

likeness, since true

lasting happiness can only thus be attained.

Noth-

ing in the original arrangements of the cosmos, except the family relations, so fully meets this

demand

of reason on a Creator morally perfect and able to

make

his creatures

happy and good

like himself, as

does music.
"

Low

in the Purple under us,
in the Purple above,

High

That music weird and wonderous O Universe, whisper me whether The key of it was not Love."

Or,

we might argue from

the intrinsic qualities
fact

and

verified effects of

music that a

and an

art

so spiritual, joy-giving, and morally potent must

have emanated from a Creator who
lence,

is

pure benevoIn
end,

and who himself loves and makes music.
its

the search for

real nature, its origin,
its

and

its

we should

look to the mature art and

best results

to furnish our data.

THE ALTRUISTIC ART
Each of these
lines of

219

argument

starts

from the

primary psychological law of self-expression, which Mind must articulate itself, if not in is instinctive.
material shapes, yet in definite thought-forms de-

manding audible or
nizable
that in the universe

visible

embodiment recogetymology, nature
continually
is

by other minds.
which

By
is

coming

to

the birth,

externalizing
will

itself.

In the psychical

realm personality

out

A

benevolent Creator

must express
intended to

his essential character in his

make

ways fit and creatures better and happier.
all

This law of necessary self-enunciation applies to
intelligent beings in
faculties

a degree corresponding to their
It is

and powers.

the source of art, the

means of improvement, and the chief agency for producing like admirations, affections, and endeavors in other minds.
fosters

The

strongest social bond,

it

reciprocity,
is

and discourages

self-isolation.
is

True

art

the expression of whatever
artist.

best in the

soul of the

He

is

under inward compulsion

to actualize his noblest conceptions, not merely to
gratify the irrepressible impulse to incarnate
ideals,

his

but also to impart to others something of his
in the beautiful.

own joy

It a and power.220 GODANDMUSIC potentially than speech. The morning stars caught their the theme of creative goodness given out by Almighty Maker. with intelligent beings capable. we may but a diminutive sample of innumerable worlds filled with singing flames and waters. history it of altruism in the natural realm is said. with the self-dividing process infusoria by which kind. discovering the tonal laws of universal acoustics. heroism. the earliest multiplied their This being so. But we must go selfish farther back for the fountain head of un- love. The began. fatherhood. of taking the divine hints in nature. physical and vicarious in redemption had their origin the temporary self-sacrifice of the amoeba for the sake of posterity. Care for others sprang eternal in the . and. like ourselves. is developing motive. must it not be in other worlds than one. melodious birds and insects. Earth. and creating true music. antiphonal to that which springs from nature's heart. and the universe its still rings with believe. music is Even more cosmic fact probis ably a universal mode of self-expression. motherhood.

elementary arrangements of the is universe the provision for music involved in the cosmic laws of vibration. in the book. still less for self-glorification. the pur- pose to bless the objects of creative power. scientific fact. as he creates to Hence. an instance of the Creator's thought of all his for the welfare sentient creatures. or even audi- bly by causative will. wolves. Animals in Captivity.THE ALTRUISTIC ART heart of God. God much in the love to create. A musician once lent his aid to scientific tests of the effect of various in- struments upon the animals confined in the " Zoo." is interesting and suggestive. The only h indifferent were the Elephants. his lyre latter-day. selfish desire 221 Creation was never the outcome of a on the part of the Deity for mere self- realization. The delight of most animals and many insects in is musical sounds of their own or of human make. as central motive. jack- . The noblest music of earth seems but an echo of supernal strains. does not so love. its but in the very act was included. God sings as he creates. was turned into animals entirely The fable of Orpheus and seals. like skilled composers. It is not irreverent to say that mentally." London Wild The account " given.

of his by sweet sounds. as it own joy is Musical sound defined sound capable of being used sion. or pleased. overflow. GOD AND MUSIC and foxes did not seem to enjoy the kind of all music offered them. The tervals ability to distinguish musical is tones and instatis- practically ecumenical. auditors best of tion. whether potential or actual. an in them. or enraged. The violin suited the animal fine appreciafall which shows a He who watches the sparrows has pro- vided for his humbler creatures some share in the pleasure given were. while the flute soothed.222 als. all. incumbent now to point out ways in which this proposition may be proved by both the history and the philosophy of this art. frightened. in which some of It is his choicest attri- butes express themselves. less pleased. tistic an outflow of the benevolence of an Creator. especially the serpent shrill As a rule. by Hauptmann to be as a means of expresar- As is a cosmic fact. Almost the other animals were more or tribe. the notes of the piccolo an- noyed. music. German ticians report as many persons naturally incapable .

was much impressed by it. and among them contains as a souls. may yet prove an aesthetic VolapUk. What possibilities method of future intercourse between cannot and more catholic than the It rest. There is a solidarity of atoms. degree that has little and among most animals. What means this well- nigh universal aesthetic capability happiness for human and welfare is beyond computation. social or- importance to the social nature is and to ganization at least equal. any other faculty. of a counterpart among men. To bridge the distance between human individuals God it has given the race various means of expression. I do not see they could have helped in the struggle for ex- istence. Humanity differentiates as it evolves. The gulf between souls widens with advance of knowledge and refinement. finer the art of music." The value of music as a means of individual culture is and enjoyment Its a matter of common experience. They are gratuitous gifts. tells for and a benevolent Author of the universe. is my how enjoyment of scenery and music. " which weighs with me against pessimism.THE ALTRUISTIC ART of tone perception as lack 223 is. " One thing." Huxley he said. be foretold. . that about six or ei|^ in a thousand.

They " " cannot sing like a bird without hard work. and spiritual reality. Men must the bird mine. that music. not as a finished product. and he jiew is forever allured fairer in the search for truth. is be- stowed as a potentiality. unattained goodness. in narrow grooves. which is entirely spared. experiment for it. sects drone. It is a blessing not always appreciated. beauty. Inat and those short range. The rudimentary and artistic career. com- This arrange- ment is a prime condition of rational and sesthetic evolution. explore. result. and beasts repeat the^. man opens onward the boundless universe of material. music can hardly be over- There is a wholly beneficent communism appertaining to the art. mental. incomplete elements of music furnished in nature might seem a handicap to man's peUing the use of reason and but are in truth the best possible provision for will. that knowledge or of . Both character and culture and hear but a few Birds noises.224 GODANDMUSIC social value of But the stated. Growth and scientific culture are gained in the pursuit of artistic excellence. like all man's best privileges and possessions.same Their faculties run forever Before notes from age to age.

statured and equipped. complete science of A music. As a mental and moral discipline music takes rank with the most valuable educational means. passion for progress are given man. or a perfect the skies.THE ALTRUISTIC ART full 225 would be impossible if either came Minerva-like. The necessary materials and organs. an unmixed blessing to the well. in any land or season. is a clear indication of presiding goodness in the world. The provision of such a therapeutic means. all. the aesthetic the craving for joyous expression. sician of every degree The muminds as may also minister to as diseased and to suffering bodies. would symphony handed down from be a more than doubtful boon. Pythagoras under- . and a delightful remedy for the sick. Thus the music-loving mind is tempted and guided onward in the twofold path of melody and harmony. and the faculties. but the artist becomes a creator. well to the healthful enjoyment of young or old. with elementary hints in the so-called music of nature to entice to the search for a more adequate art of euphonious sound. until it not only knows the ecstasy of consummate musical sound and form. and shares God's peculiar joy of imparting pure and elevating happiness.

developed and would excel those furnished by_any other single art. in which music was one of the most disciplines are again in important of the four branches pursued.226 GODANDMUSIC this. betterment. As too however. music is on those who do not yield behests. which. Music is still far much a mere contains ele- accomplishment. the mind made intent and retentive. The senses are thus trained to finest peris ception. entire obedience to its Consecration. places education. frowns on sensual indulgence. and the side of the soul toward the invisible and infinite is rendered acutely sensitive. Like It an exacting mistress. intelligence. and its costly feeling are conditions exacted for high rewards. its neither has been thoroughly adapted to place and work. stood and the Greeks long maintained his quadrivium. and musical proper Gymnastic resuming their yet. inherently . industry. \ Prophets and poets have always sung their loftiest messages in rhythmic if not melodic strains. or an exceptional adjunct to culture. an unthinking recreation. It ments of mental and fully spiritual utilized. Though the votaries of this beneficent art often misuse its capabilities. and turns its back all real art.

musical it faculty the forthgiving of very In imagi- nation. which wisest Its it love. is is characterized supreme excellence everywhere gives not so much the pleasure in this world and. and holy beauty. itself for immediate effect. or it is is a failure. poetically.THE ALTRUISTIC ART and abuse their 227 own souls by making is selfish en- joyment or gain issue of their chief end. Right enjoyLike charity. object of a completely disinterested pleasure. It Tonal beauty utters must please. yet the generous element of self-donating devotion the legitimate music rightly pursued. The primal source of music we have found in the essential nature of God. music is not " love in search of a word. enriches is the giver. and nervous en- ergy harmoniously cooperate. understanding." ment of it it robs no one. The exercise of life. sensibility. in Windelband's conception. is The " the beautiful. like religion. perfect by harmony." but love in itself the act of expressing audibly for the delight and betterment of others. human Except life. we it infer. as the fact that tends to It is reproduce the same qualities in preeminently the Christian art. The purpose of the musician to give . in all inhabited worlds.

" music has been pronounced by good philosophic Nothing authority. the : principle in a happy way Passion. and caressing flow of his That was consolation." violin. in aesthetics or in Scripture forbids perit sonal enjoyment of art. was success. to in " The Ruling enough want the pleasure of making everybody feel the same delight that he felt in the clear tones. cheer. That was power. thyself. . his GOD AND MUSIC Unless the artist is false to his art and God. Van Dyke. battle-fields. ties The exercise of artistic facul- comes within the purview of the second great " commandment.228 pleasure. according to the ability of each to enjoy passively. That What endless comfort sympathetic and. hospitals. the ruling motive in all he does is so to " Fundaplease as to refine. mentally altruistic. and elevate. them." puts the twofold " He was selfish merry cadences. contrasted music has given to the heavy-hearted children of earth ! Camps. while activity in imparts pleasure to others. also. whether actively Dr." Thou gifts shalt love thy neighbor as Musical imply the right to share their benefits with those who or are in the neighbor's place.

relates that when death had laid his finger on the sensitive. to assuage his death agony by her melodious voice. The heart-broken singer obeyed her master. and a feeling of grateful comfort that such soothing had come to him from extremity. restless. " at the piano. and the arena have witnessed its healing. and at last gave me consolation. prisons." he " He said much played on for more than an hour. Beethoven shrank from coming to her house for some time. The dying asleep with man came under tones . the Countess Potocka. pilgrimages. the spell of her sympathetic fell he forgot his torment. She found him seated ing. cheering. of musical intelligence and taste. " Simply sayLet us speak to each other by music.THE ALTRUISTIC ART 229 shipwrecks. he sent for his friend. after she lost her last child. the stake. At length he invited her to visit him. and highly poetic Chopin. his beloved art in his last Mendelssohn wrote to a friend that Madame Ertmann told him that." Referring to ." Avas the testimony of his bereaved listener. con- quering power. fice. An example or two must suf- A medical writer. to me.

often unworded messages inexpressible comfort. or sympathetic borne on the appealing strains of familiar music. Even com- when the thought they bear is not literally prehended. fitting But the ballad." Those who of are sensitive to its accents find in and its cognizant their meaning.230 this incident. " not beautiful. speaking plainly to me. her countenance " Is it her eyes. is GODANDMUSIC Mendelssohn said of himself. words of psalm. and . She had become interested in a society offered for the aid of unfortunate children. and to give a night's performance at double prices for their benefit." she exclaimed. It returned a large sum. " Music a distinct language. or hymn. and when she heard that she had thus helped a large number of worse than orphaned children. that I can tears filled beamed. in the autobio- graphical story of his a characteristic incident of Jenny Lind. have had a history of cheer and healing far wider than that possible to instrumental harmonies. the sweet and tender tones themselves bring spiritual balm to the sad hearted. Hans Christian Andersen life. and remarks that on this occasion only did he ever hear her express self-conscious joy in her great talent. relates.

She said afterward of this it experience that she regarded as the greatest it achievement of her language : life." Music has with angel. went to the prison with It was an August night. and described in thrilling " She lay in I my arms when she received her. Suddenly there came to me music. It seemed awful. as I I felt dispirited watched the moon flooding everything. the death sentence. The choir of the prison was at practice. " I first Through of sensible I the hoUness there is in art." spent two days in the death cell of an Italian murderess. As and the music I came to me knew that if it I knelt down by the girl. Then I made out hymns. Through her self learned that one must forget one's in the service of the Supreme. much truth been called the only unfallen the prisoners in of " the angel of The volunteer visitor among the title New York C»ty who won the Tombs. It was low and soft at first. The only thing we could hear was the tramp of the guards." the author friend of children adds to his account. I stood at the barred window looking out. would do any good I would .THE ALTRUISTIC ART sing so " ! 231 " unnumbered became her.

" narrow " prison of and displacing low thoughts and habits of a disinterested enthu- by the expulsive power siasm of art. my would have Foster been lived. its and refining in- One this of the most fruitful instances of the kind in taken country was that of the work under- among William the poor children of Chicago by Mr. Tomlins. give Then I resolved that life if I could save but one woman. Frank Damrosch in New York uplifting City." When Rebecca was borne to her reward the burning of a in a literal chariot of fire at New York hotel. might and well have been a strong support in the fiery strains of heaven's greeted her as she entered hke. this memory trial. like the Choral Union conducted by Mr. The results of popular choral classes and societies. furnish abundant evidence of fluence.232 GOD AND MUSIC my life well for hers. made by request at the Parliament of Religions. he gave a most inter- . conductor of the famous In an address Apollo Club. own music doubtless the home of the Christ- would be impossible to compute the effect on character and life wrought by the ministry of music It in lifting the selfish out of their the soul. M.

but most of them from the alleys and poorer streets of the city. But soon a better mind came to them through the of children sang always in to the right use of their voices. gradually helpful.THE ALTRUISTIC ART csting account of the experiment 233 and its outcome. favored companions. Some went little to the hospitals and sang." to gather up worn clothing . At first influence The and music taught in a Christian and everywhere. He need of right moral training in determined to help the rising genera- tion to better things in both respects. Rude boys became thoughtful and modest. —a pertinent illustra- tion also of the youth. not from the avenues. For nearly or quite a score of years he taught gratuitously several large classes of children. The narrative is worth somewhat extended insertion as well illustrating the topic of this chapter. One boy established an " Old Clothes Club. home the streets. Others started classes for their. His immediate object was to train them they were rough in manners and selfish in everything. Mr. changed. Tomlins began by speaking of the multitude of voices spoiled by wrong habits that might have been corrected in childhood. wild girls. at Their characters gentle and spirit.

The address before that gathall ering of religionists from parts of the world is ended with these words : " It my desire to all show you that in art." The record of every such endeavor. and aesthetic. taken in a kindred altruistic art lead shows that the as lines of outward as well upward. Another issued little philanthropic newspaper. underspirit. among his God has given you voices. showed a widely self-multiply- ing power for good. a great blessing children themselves. the Apollo Club gave ten-cent concerts to the working people of Chicago. why not your neighbors?" The appeal was spirit. essential With a change of two . the lines lead up- ward. With that spirit to the of helping others. came Under its generous conductor's lead. Then the same leader in artistic well-doing went to the musically gifted " working-class audiences and said.234 GODANDMUSIC distribute it and a among the poor. and inclose who in turn an ever increasing number of beneficiaries become benefactors. sing to help and taught you to use them. responded to in the same ethical and the results. and so fulfill the law of Christianity. as in religion. seventy thousand of whom attended them in four years.

we know thy lore rejoices O'er each work of thine . Here. All unworthily. great God. In our choicest Melody. And for thine acceptance proffer. . For kind deeds combine Craftsnum's art and music's measure For thy senrice Didst design. Hearts and minds. didst cars Thou and hands and voices . to-day we oSier Of thine own to thee. and hands and voices.THE ALTRUISTIC ART or three words these verses of a : 235 hymn express what should be the feeling of every musician Yea.

.

THE SOCIAL ART .

then. and music is the art-form that links them together. is What alchemy like this We are the vocation of humanity when its full redemption is come. the variety in harmony. the obedience power from sympathetic feeling." T. — MUNGSR. T. full chorus and orchestra is a perfect down to man society. moving on toward an age and a world of sympathy. " As in nature there is a resolution of forces by which heat besort. and sympathy is the solvent of trouble. of perfected hu- of voices and instruments to each to other. music will be turns into joy. so emotion. the conspiring together to enforce a mighty feeling which is also a thought we thus have an exact symbol of the destiny of hu- — manity. of whatever music. the inspiration of law drawing its a noble theme. The summit of existence is feeling ." The united action of the transcript. . if intrusted to ! comes light. the summit of character is sympathy. The the last relation and finest particular. In some supernal sense.

its forms. but the search and after the physical or the psychical secrets of nature ordinarily demands task. pursuit of scientific truth It is usually a solitary has as an ultimate end the greater good of the greatest number. its environ- ing conditions. has direct or beholders.CHAPTER XII THE SOCIAL ART The quest. and human aim. nor the faculty of sight. beauty. in one or other of Their all-comprehending object. Artist folk are a sociable people. silence is entire devotion to the exacting social in its Art more its nature. to convey " its benison to ears attent. The air •' uncharits freedom" of the common among all divides wealth wthout partiality to receive who have power and enjoy. The "stilly night carries its message to 239 mind and heart with . Music tered is essentially communistic. to audience or reference to hearers spectators. It does not even require the light of day or of lamp.

and peoples for its bounty are perforce compelled to pay regard to all who aid and all who receive. The visual have somewhat aristocratic limitations. But music has own. Their business and the laws of their art require united intention and attention. places. for hearts attuned to receive them.240 often arts GODANDMUSIC an added freight of meaning. The law of syntony exemplified by Marconi's is in- vention. are vested with a democratic suffrage of the Athenian sort. if it is not to be strangled at its birth. under penalty of excommunication by the benevolent despotism of cal acoustics. conscientious agreement. with recipro- The ministrants of music's sympathy and cooperation. Play in time and tune. all times. binds performer and hearer in mutual obligation." gains . ! Artist and composer and listener. of Many of God's best messages for the ear and soul man wander on Herzian waves of the spiritual The saying. let him hear. too. " He that hath ears to hear. though they. or murdered afterward. atmosphere. seeking. inquiring everywhere in vain. all con- cerned in the realization of potential music must be in actual. or be silent artisan. or the most exquisite music given in vain.

The laws of sound are the same identical in Vibration numbers are every zone and land. priceless heritin the great age which Teutonic peoples possess composers belonging to that stock. if Bismarck was a competent judge. They afford endless scope for differing conceptions. A similar influ- ence is visible in the history of other nationalities. possible. in welding together the German empire. art. styles. . the democratic for all. This. Sounds at all pitches move at the same rate of speed in the same medium. and tastes. is for all Hence alone harmony is The same ears. may some time be found an exmankind is Racial and individual tastes divide into temporarily opposing camps. The same The masterpieces of tone poetry are enjoyed the world around by all who possess sufficient culture. but there a growing internationalism of music that gives candid hearing to every school and style. then. yet inhere in what act science. and doubtless throughout the universe.THE SOCIAL ART greatiy acoustical law S41 added force from the new revelations of made by is the science of our day. had no small part. aesthetic and the same must principles rule with all normal minds.

a Providential lyric in praise of country and origin. too much to hope for a . liberty fact is sung its to a tune of foreign The that strains are possibly of German parentage. would be in perfecting the solidarity of It a powerful agent our is. tempts of Folk-songs were probably the at- men to express the social feeling. composite republic. common stock. and the beginIs it nings of patriotism. This function doubtless increased the " survival value " of musical peoples by giving them a ^nse of oneness. without a trace memory of sectionalism or race spirit.242 GODANDMUSIC American national A or truly hymn. Heil Dir im Siegerkranz. will be Music is to have an influential role in preparing the way for the hoped-for federation of first mankind. of a peace-compelling Dreibund of three great nations of essentially realized. clan sympathy. and that they are also used around the entire globe to express the loyalty and patriotism of the subjects of imperial Britain. or racial characteristics. incident that our commonly used perhaps. national. and furnish the national anthem of Germany. far may be prophetic of a time not splendid vision distant when the of Cecil Rhodes. and also to represent tribal.

is. subject to their sway. at the they are beaten paths to ascend his among the heights vision. and cul- ture? This noble art teaches the indispensable social principle of liberty within law. in either unconscious or conscientious obedience to artists find them. has long taught men the beatitude of obedience.THE SOCIAL ART world folk-song. by strictest The system It of universal order finds in music a most instructive analogue and a beautiful example. They wings. and shall keep alive the 243 to common hu- feeling of unity amid endless variety of race. the most original and inspired of the fixed la\vs of sound an invaluable aid to ordered are freedom. not chains. Yet. sical The laws of mu- sound are exact and imperative. The loftiest genius that seems at times to make new laws for art. least. which shall be manity. enabling him mounts of and descend to the waiting world with secure step. nation. bearing great treasure. the nevertheless. and will yet be a schoolmistress to help . religion. In nothing is the benevolent wisdom of the Creator more evident than ting his creatures in put- endowed with a goodly measure of free-will into a universe governed law.

the for same itself. then society has agency for securing this very end. them win scope Music gives freest for individuality. Goldwin Smith has been perhaps the only writer to insist on the universal teaching of music in schools for the young as a specific against Prof. while restraining independ- ence within the bounds of self-mastery. summum bonum of social organization full is. It is a proposition worthy the attention of statesmen and educators.244 GODANDMUSIC social redemption. as Spencer and Giddings affirm. anarchistic tendencies. Every man for himself. Men will always be separated by intellectual Charles the Fifth could not conceptions. and to the other members of is it. The civilized world . in principle as every instrument The resulting acoustical chaos would aptly represent the social condition that would ensue. make his roomful of clocks tick together. the development of the personality of social man. Complete personality cannot be attained without reference and deference to society as effective in this puissant art an a whole. Anarchy would be and voice social discord. essential alike to art If the and to society.

their common human Great music brings us very close together. aesthetic By is the derivation of the word. Thus art. appeals to the universal element in man's nature. or other divisive . sympathy Africa. and the original verb music in is the fundamental meant to perceive by the ear. But feeling. without regard to accidents of birth.THE SOCIAL ART taught 245 has in good part learned the lesson his experience him too late. when calamity has kind. and touches all men feelings. fallen is heavily upon any of fruit it human This one of Christian has inspired. in its ultimate analysis. makes the world unites. station. Music will mightily help on the good day It when the law of kindness shall rule mankind. One true touch akin. fundamental of it human emotion. civili- zation aided by the inventions The Christ spirit will yet blend all human hearts in a sympathetic unity denied to the intellects of men. Telegraph and cable send nerve shocks of common pain to people in every land on the globe. is the susceptibility. the sense perception by feeling. This eleaesthetic ment. soul to soul. from a heathen Mungo woman branch Park found quick in darkest when a falling hurt his head.

The subject of the present chapter involves so wide a range of both theoretical and practical concern that it can be presented. Music of the right character will have but there is always need to discriminate. in a word. and company should be The music circle of the home. Having such direct and subtle power over the emotional and sympathetic nature. and this effect . human music. and to select only that which will benefit. classes. or possibly. time. refine. social opens up a vista of achievement for that should attract the benefit of all mankind . GODANDMUSIC All music which interprets the human heart. Therefore. it may easily leave the susceptible mind open to evil impulses. kind carefully chosen. and also probable. the school. all is understood by people of all nationalities. It possible. to humanize. of the church.246 factors. place. friendly of music. and being so closely connected with the nerve centres in its origin and influence. and the has a socialistic importance even greater than that of the public audience room. and every grade of culture. Democracy needs music elevate it. only in the way of suggestion. in limited space.

memory rejoin of the dead. the will present to us a reflex of the Infinite to which the human soul is born to aspire. activity of sacrifice and virtue. forecasting the possibilities of the art. and enthusiasm into Genius will recomspirit pense and console sacrifice by leading the . evil. and will elevate the true mission of Music . 147 passage from Mazzini's essay on the Philosophy of Music. and our yearning hope to are them among the thousand rays. woman. pity. Genius will solve the problem of the struggle that has heaven and this is gone the on for thousands of years between mind and matter. inoper- ative belief into enthusiasm. beauty. good and social hell idea— for . and unbroken harmonies and Raffaellesque melodies and of which the love.THESOCIALART thinkers and encourage practical effort. and the possibility of achieving an immortality to at the present day. — to the height of a religion raise our cold. the vastness of the means at its disposal. is A appended as stimulating " The and suggestive. It its which none dare to aspire will ascend to heavens yet unexplored. starry firmament. will power of Genius be strengthened a thousandfold by a sense of the g^'catness of the social aim.

will represent an affec- every melody an action. every concord a moral synthesis.248 GODANDMUSIC through the musical expression of all the passions in an ascending series of sublime harmonies." . wherein every instrument tion.

THE RELIGIOUS ART k .

T. love can reach nearer Not only does it win its way into the Church. not way. There are those who declare that music is to be the Church of the future. We only in the cognitive viray. — . Worship being a moral act or expression. We may spirit God the silent communion of with Spirit. " The truth that music is for religion is evident in the fact that nothing calls for it like religion. Eloquence and logic will not take its place." There is a constant endeavor of man to relate himself with the Infinite. materials." T. No one can doubt this who reflects for a moment on the rise of music in the Church. Munger. And get to so the in many ways — by aspiration. it depends upon the rhythm and harmony of art for its Church in all ages has flowered into song. but also in the emotional can only think toward the Infinite . by so by fidelity of service. wherein all creeds will unite like the tones in a chord." — Sidney Lanier. but there is no path of expression open and direct as that of music. music does carry our emotion toward the Infinite. it may be that our its Object. but it gradually takes on more and more importance in the service of worship. As a philosophic truth.

*5> . relatively Noblesse God owes is to men what he com- mands of men. sense. the one to the oblige. and responsive to. existence. is Every man should all be. emotion. and more. if Character and culture are religious only by. expresses that nature in faultless forms of truth. of the superior as minded persons. and will. ruled God is truly religious in that he is always gov- erned by the perfect laws of his own nature. inferior as well conversely. the self-expression and mutual response of rightto the other. the divine ideal. it is the voluntary recognition of personal and an accordant life. Religion relations. but must include the activity of the whole being. it Like all conscious has its rise in feeling. intellect. More largely stated. beauty. not of any one faculty alone.CHAPTER XIII THE REUGIOUS ART God is a religious being. Otherwise it is religiosity. Religion the outgoing of the whole personality.

Thought naturally words. The religion of our God is seen in the ceaseless out- giving of the infinite riches of his own perfect being for the benefit of the intelligent creation. wisdom. and of unselfish goodness. of beauty.252 GOD AND MUSIC real and goodness. that he bestow upon their inhabitants blessings in- numerable. but language. imperfect chan- . end. know him. and justice. to be really like the supreme love of truth. His nature itself to his is holy. Some common medium bodies itself in of expression is neces- sary for this mutual relation. and shall give back to him and then to is their fellow-creatures. their To secure this Maker imparts himself to them in multiform modes of self-revelation. unselfish love. and responds to the need of every created being with impartial love. For all men the starting-point life and constant condition of a religious are that they shall in turn. This expresses creatures in method and measure adapted to the capacity and need of each. ters stars like dust He scat- may through space illimitable. beings The him in greatest possible blessing is for made in the formal Hkeness of God. a clumsy. always varying is and narrowly limited. the generous love which his greatest gift to them.

Neither could the divine for self-revelation be mainly to the logical faculty. this has to do with the forms of thought. ulty of musical manifesto. moves feeling stirred.THE RELIGIOUS ART nel of mind. Aristotle said. and after its thought. The universe verse God's expression of himself in nature. 153 Feeling is before. and ruled by. in greater or less degree. Isochronous vibration is the simple to mechanical means by which God communicates \ . to if sway of melody not all. beneath." Pure intellect. and harmony. not directly with its spiritual spirit content is world of The moving force in the emotion. " nothing. have some facdeclare himself to chiefly. spirit are Sense and not coordinate. All Hving beings are sub- the ject. and demands a mode fit of utterance of own. Music furnishes a and universal medium is for this greatest psychical power. The whole man stirs is only when Nothing ever yet had any great power over man that was divorced from feeling. the uni- and potencies of music. the elements. and most. Emotion is excited in the first instance by motion. laws. By what medium should God finite minds ? Not through sense alone or for nothing so easily discolors thought. and is filled with.

aerial is translates waves into beauty of form. by Art some process beyond our comprehension. its vibratile is God's chosen messenger of and ear alike take from the air Eye message. is men To move the soul imme- diately there sic. medium between the vibrant creations of this spiritual art and man's heart and will. Here is miracle indeed. is the The imagination. and to God.254 GOD AND MUSIC the idea of beauty. or tone. by highest color and tone. regal faculty of mind. or that emotion is the sole object and end of music. for God. for no power in nature Hke that of mumusic is motion spiritualized. religious of the arts of ex- pression. in All the arts have their converse be- function the reciprocal is tween God and man. from God. And here divine beneficence beyond In nature God speaks to men chiefly by light and sound. apprisal." Fiske Few have been more . It the mental vision or audition of the ideally beauthus brought into consciousness. color. It the elect art of speaks " of God. but music religion. is This not to say that musical vibration causes in emotion a mechanical way. ideal beauty. that stirs tiful the is emotions. The most calls it. and the interpreting brain.

" Madame de fine arts it is Stael carries the same thought life : into the inner world of man's spiritual this " Of all the the soul. The others lead which acts most directly upon it toward this or that the inmost source of this alone appeals to existence. all metals and valleys and mountains and waters. harmonic." The ." he wrote. and changes entirely the interior disposiWhat has been said of divine grace. from the that a grand. the objects of the natural cre- woods and and that things without life. an argu- ment for God more it is impressive in one view. our understanding has in the light of the sun. " 255 sensitive to the ambassadorial office of music than We " have. so that our feelings might have play in it. tion. be other arts ipaterialize applied to melody.THE RELIGIOUS ART Horace Bushnell. and toned to be a language to the feeling of the heart. which instantly changes hearts. are tempered with distinctions of sound. soul-interpreting law all of music pervades ation. It is as if God had made as the world about us to be a grand organ of music. and the outward colors and forms of things. because the matter of fact so deep and mysterious. can. humanly speaking. idea .

earthy. or to sublimize. mathematics silent But whence comes melody ? street. Like other widely seeing minds. Neither history nor evolution will help us to account for Schubert's *Trocktie Blumen' and Here. of the earth . Max MUller felt that in the art he loved with lifelong devotion there is a spiritual element. which angels descend from heaven to have ears to hear.256 the spiritual is . GODANDMUSIC music spiritualizes the material. and in music alone of arts. if anywhere. all the something that is not entirely of this earth ? Harmony and rhythm may be under settled laws. and thus a congenial agency for the divine Spirit in his work for human perfecting. words. right when they hear in the shore . for whisper sweet sounds into the ears of those who Words cannot be are so inspired. subject is thought upon the " Is given in these suggestive words latest : His there not in music. to improve. we see the golden stairs on earth. or in Surely not from what we the woods. which reports an origin above the merely human. we know. we hear with our outward and are able to imitate. in and that sense mathematicians call may be music. or on the sea- not from anything that ears.

led to the idea of deathless deity. Possibly Matheson's sug- also worth considering. gave earhest hint of immortality. that the conit tinued existence of the thing worshipped. in time. first and the history of music animism and fetichism were the steps in man's converse with invisible spirit.UNiV THE RELIGIOUS ART greatest of musical poets has truly said. are not of this earth. and so. All races have worshipped their gods by musical offerings thought to be pleasing to celestial ears. however. The pictured harp on the wall of a tomb at Thebes shows a certain degree of musical knowledge at a time when all art was religious. in contrast with man's seemingly brief life. sonorous object gestion is itself. and the Heard melodies are sweet. The inferior gods of India were believed to have originated the other . his inchoate religion was generated and ex- pressed by rude musical sounds. were only a rag. but those unheard are sweeter. * 257 Melodies.' " The are history of religion If inseparable. first His elementary worship was revealed sticks of the supposed indwelling spirit by the tones of drum or bell or beaten and stones then it became worship of the .

sculpture. a similar course of artistic similar initiative. but nomadic and pas- Hebrews a musical only one around them grew up among the ritual. Miriam was not the the music of Egypt into the Israelite slaves. The Apollo legends and the Orphic hymns give evidence of the religious origin of the musical cult in Greece. GOD AND MUSIC but Brahma himself gave music to men. The Vedic hymns were chants sung at sacrifices to the nature gods of the Indian Aryans.258 arts. development followed a The Bible story of human beginnings ascribes instrumental music to the inventive artistic taste of the Cainite clan. This may intimate that vocal music was the preferred medium by which the Sacrifices were Sethite tribe worshiped Elohim. and painting of later days were the efflorescence of this early musical worship of the gods of Hellas. In other lands. central in the rehgious rites of toral peoples. drama. accompanied literary by the lyre. poetry. were the root of Greek art expression. The hymns The to the gods. who brought wilderness on the great trek of the /i') . They were house- especially part of the sunrise worship of holds around the literal family altar.

psalteries and harps and cymbals. is who wrote the sacred songs " All the music of the human heart in the Psalms. and of the source of refining culture during struggle years foes. had more to do with shaping the national character than had all its kings and priests. per- haps. When the ark was brought of to Jerusalem. with hardships and desert The priests and Levites had charge of the music of the moving sanctuary. and these. The name King David represents a long line of psalmists of the nation. 259 other arts that had been learned in the land of bondage.THE RELIGIOUS ART The their nacle." After the and hfting building of the temple this tribe furnished a per- manent choir and orchestra of four thousand members. If David had written a doctrinal treatise instead of some . ready at all times to lead the praises of the of people. sounding aloud up the voice with joy. served to build and adorn the taberbut music was the permanent medium of their worship." Gladstone said. the Levites were prepared to celebrate the great event " with instruments music. the solace of their wanderings. The art remained in a rudi- mentary stage future till the tribes became settled in their home.

they went . At the climax of his mission on they had sung a hymn. the prophets of tional faith. not only to the chosen people but also for the in all after ages. The schools of the prophets were schools of music. " when earth. unless there is in music something akin to the nature of truth. Jesus and his folit is lowers doubtless often sang together. and ? to the divine nature Sacred song and sacrifice continued to be the stood. his down its to us. this Why should Jehovah choose truths method of imparting the most important whole world of religion.26o GODANDMUSIC name might never have come of the favorite religious lyrics of his people and their descendants. and at altars worshipped around the national with the hereditary ritual. birth period Judaism might not have survived if it had not been a singing re- ligion. and Judah embodied and preserved the naProphecy and music were indissolu- bly wedded. More than any other Israel class. mediums of Jewish worship while the temple Christianity was born to the first strains of celestial an- thems. although not necessary to infer with Bettina that he was a great musician.

it helped awaken Europe from The Re- formed doctrines sang their way through the nations. trans- The conversion of the Slavonic peoples has been attrib- uted to the sacred melodies of the Church of Constantinople. Luther was the first long centuries to write sacred lyrics in the popular tongue. The Saxon English were so devoted to their folk-song tunes that the churchmen often sang them to attract the public to their services. After the Norman settlement. Christianity redeemed the music of the classic and pagan world. The history of evangelical music is a story . This led to part- and this to counterpoint Har- mony was the offspring of religious music. hymnody for the people. ious for The Reformation brought with it an era of relig." 261 he to the great sacrifice.THE RELIGIOUS ART out. Music once restored him from a cell. singing. his disciples to begin the task of the world's conversion. sacred words were frequently set to secular tunes. or descant. and became the prophetic symbol of redeemed Humanity. swoon in his and through him religious stupor. Barbarians were won and formed by the sound of Christian hymns.

ited by many imperfections of so of spirit." Sole Hymner of the whole of he looked forward to death with content and hope. the service of Christian song and the consecration to it many musically gifted servants of Christ and art furnish no small part of the " live force " of Christianity in the present day. and " " Haydn's frequent In " Laus Deo noted on his manuscript works showed the deep religious feeling with which he wrote his noblest compositions. . in hopes of meeting his good God. The devotion religion of their powers to the service of by some of the foremost composers of modern times is another intimation of the high nomine Domini " source of the best music. the great composer calls " whom Sidney Lanier life. and the dignity ern religious history. art. Like Mozart. of Gospel truth. but manifested the true Christian and constant benevolences.262 GODANDMUSIC The power of worship in modMarred and lim- of evangelistic triumphs in later times. wishing toward the end " that he might breathe his last on Good Friday. are largely due to the varied development of religious music. his Beethoven did not often speak of in his character religious spirit emotions. and use.

Neither Raphael nor Angelo. as a rule.* is verifia- by the best biography of turn for a It may well be " If we moment from fact the world of executants to the strike us world of composers. one must — that not only the great composers. and to diffuse here on earth these godlike rays among " ! mortals. " than to draw nearer to the Godhead than other men. take it do seriously. neither Palestrina nor Mozart would have been what they were without strong religious convictions." I he " answered. not addicted to the excesses were which some would have us believe inseparable from a musical temperament. It .THE RELIGIOUS ART his 263 sweet Lord and Saviour. but they appear to have been singularly free from them. cannot understand how possible for or^_poetJlq be without religion." This testimony art. But what all is all this com- pared to the grandest of above." he wrote." Nothing can be more sublime. above Masters of harmony — A Parisian journalist insinuated that the Requiem " I by Verdi was not to be taken seriously as indicating genuine faith in the Last Judgment. If my Requiem has power and worth it is because it is the ble ' work of a believer. on the day of his •• resurrection. The most beautiful master works have been inspired by an artist Christianity. as I it take is all my religion.

" Music and Morals. if you would be its priests. but also of high-minded and even religH. an echo of the visible in- world." p.264 GODANDMUSIC heeded by those who are tempted to take a materialistic view of either ethics or aesthetics. and in compassing the affection " ? whole creation is your study and noteworthy that so many great composers have been men whose emotions were so severely disciplined. Mazzini's earnest advice to young musicians. soul. and whose lives were so well regulated. and sacred incense of that civilization. The art intrusted to your ministry bound up with the progress of civilizaand tion. if regarded by them. one note of is the divine concord to sound. Itahan and you must render your lives holy. which the entire universe some day How can you hope to seize that note if not by elevating your minds to the contemplation of the universe. that they stand out as examples not only of steady and indefatigable workers. Music is the is closely harmonious voice of creation. would tend to secure the highest artistic success and also the true end of living. The patriot and philosophic statesman wrote to such : " The art you cultivate is holy. may become the very breath. R. viewing with the eye of faith things invisible to the unbelieving. 81. ious men." — . Haweis .

has clear an artistic theistic implications. but when ends it has never failed to elevate the mind above crass materialism. which interwoven with the very warp is one of the most distinctive proofs of the Creator's beneficent wisdom. It also brings a solemn charge to hold it . which appeals to the spiritual nature in man. sharing with them his own delight Some is direct means of spiritual expression and of communion between especially the Infinite and created spirits needed in a universe that so over- whelmingly impresses the senses. The religious history of music declares it eminently fit for this double use.THE RELIGIOUS ART An art 265 which is of the cosmos. at inall dicates things. and furnishes wings to the soul in to its upward approach It God. this divine art may easily employed for spiritual be perverted and degraded. it. Mind the source of of The joy-giving potencies music are such a provision as a kindly Father would make for his in children. Like all best things. easily comes with a universal and comprehended appeal for faith and adoration toward the Artist God. and aid Music the seeker after God to draw near him.

alone makes All worship is manifest. " His song was only living aloud. in fine. How " life it holy should the heart of the his art musician be incense of a ! Whoever makes devoted work the in everything to the Holy One. which we lay sufficient for it : is sweet or little our love's expression is but every word of love. or smile of love. seems to be a force of spiritual . " meet " for the Master's use. yet dwelleth there. or from the organ where all musics mingle. precious to us. I Only in God now reveal himself as in days of he. think. so he makes the love that Religion burns to utter. itself." Music. I suppose that as we make the music that issues from the orchestra. but that is unut- terably holy. of him may be said. for the musical. sacred. dwelling and I do believe that not in temples made with hands. and must be so to Love music does old.266 GODANDMUSIC all its sacred in " forms for the higher needs of men. but that Music." Charles Auchester voices this words as true as tenderly offer it is devout : obligation in " It is not that anything we can can be worthy of the feet at not that anything .

but which unperceived by divine.THE RELIGIOUS ART telegraphy between the spirit in Spirit of the universe. 267 man and the its Parent To secure true effect. all who are out of unison with the k . there must be spiritual syntony. the receiver being attuned to the Sender. that he may catch the mesis sage intended for the individual soul.

.

MUSIC AND IMMORTALITY .

and of the everlasting life of God which perfect spirits live in heaven . Man did not make the laws of music he only found them out. Until we doubt not that for one so true There must be other nobler work to do. goes on certain laws and rules. if he be self-willed and break them. . all he brings out is dis: cord and ugly sounds. and. Uplifted high in heart and hope are we. a life in harmony with each other and with God. there is an end of music instantly. Music is fit for heaven. Music " There is music in heaven because there is no self-will. a life of melody and order in themselves." —Tennyson." While we hear The tides of music's golden sea Setting toward eternity."— Charles Kingsley. Music is a pattern and type of heaven.

like the icy brilliance of a wintry sleet-storm when the warm sun has h gently freed every branch of burdened tree and iminvestment of prisoned shrub from its transient 271 . and in the possibility of its endless repetition in a practically infinite variety of form. strong reinforcement for the long- ing beUef of earth is men in all ages that human Ufe on In but the beginning of their existence. its living dying. In so impermanent a fact can there be valid indication of an endless duration of the life of man. the timeless freedom of eternity the sadness of perishing joys must pass away. Fleeting as audible in nevertheless. the cosmic reality of musical sound.CHAPTER XIV MUSIC AND IMMORTAUTY Music is like the conscious human moment life in that it vanishes with is its " . which its seems almost as transitory ? forms always are. there is." The evanescence enjoyment of it of music has always tinged the with a shade of melancholy.

GOD AND MUSIC Even as we look. Absolute perfectness is . emotions. So. To this gravitating trend of things in our universe both evolution and revelation bear witness. may be. is a laying up impressions. because the past ness gone The incomplete- and fleetingness of the joy which music brings. and aspirations that can be realized to perfection only in an enduring state. constrain the forward look of the soul to a world where the best things do not perish in the instant of their enjoyment. the very loss of present sweetness and delight ministered by music of for the passing mo- ment. toward which the heart turns with all is the more longing and purpose forever. and swells each bud with the promise of an enrobing more beautiful and enduring. The shaping tendency plete in nature is toward a com- embodiment of ideal perfection. it perishes . and a new life soon leaps to the tip of every twig. or that which has every appearance of being such. The melting wreck of an hour's radiance feeds the soil from which the current of a it fresh life is drawn. hopes. ing nite effort of nature has been to express The increassome defi- thought or plan.272 beauty. but spring comes on.

the divine end that was involved from the beginning. as man. this conclusion strongly stated " : Toward the spirit- ual perfection of Humanity the stupendous moall mentum tending of the cosmic process has along been . if 273 ever. . that which can give value to the spectacle of eternal beauty." This tendency has exerted unmistakable in- fluence over human history. this What would be the destiny of a mortal to whom it should be granted to contemplate the beautiful without alloy... general course of evolution points steadily toward To quote again from Professor Fiske's is last book. Mankind has been caught in its spiral advance. Hence and all human beckons " progress. — no longer clothed with the flesh and hues of humanity. The genius of ideal beauty ever men is with irresistible charm. in its purity and simplicity. but the it. and with all those vain charms that are it condemned to perish. attained in the natural order. The race as a whole art has shared the upward impulse. Hear Plato : O my life dear Socrates. as the true goal of evolution.MUSIC AND IMMORTALITY scidom. —to whom should be given to see face to " ! face the divine beauty The glimpses of perfection which man.

fair ideals yet true friends of the imperfect. The momentum of the whole creation toward the complete. but largely also the result of moral sluggishness and the misuse of privilege. They arouse Salvation is is and stimulate the slumberous arousal. and gives keen edge to the hunger for ideal good. Heaven is opportunity. at times beholds. soul. Present imperfection is a necessity of unfinished it is evolution. yet it awakens a sense of powers undeveloped. Rather is it to healthy minds a If the goad to spur on toward the is perfect. strongly the future pro- . Of this brighter side of human incompleteness the nature and scope of music offer encouraging evidence. the science far from finished. have a twofold effect. by no good are means inevitable.274 GODANDMUSIC which are the more alluring as nearer to it. too often the enemy of the best. Eternal life endless possibility. which Newman Smyth presents as a valid argument for indicates immortality. The art is in its infancy. the soul rises The contrast of the actual with the ideal shows only too sharply the incompleteness of the best attainments of mortals here. That the is imperfect should continue such forever.

and h the four hundred xniBiens of a definite red in the spectrum. Beethoven of felt that he had but touched the " I feel. whose and discovery seemed to them as a few pebbles gathered on the sea-beach of boundless truth.MUSIC AND IMMORTALITY gressive perfecting of both music to utilize 275 and the power and enjoy it. or the two thousand and forty-eight of the highest soprano on record. Art is limitless. total of learning Like Newton and Darwin. The highest attainments in this art are but tide- marks showing limitations as well as achievements. there is space. Between the four hundred vibrations per second of a high tenor note. for twenty . hfe at the longest is too short to master perfectly any branch of " it In this " terrestrial imbecility in the few become more than journeymen use of any sense or faculty. out a new path through untravelled regions of ac- cordant Finer senses and deeper under- standing will give musicians new worlds of melody and harmony to conquer." had written scarcely more than a few original ability strikes Every composer of sound. fringe " as though notes. it is estimated." musical I possibility. he said.

grand. "-j( Carrying the thought farther. " the Tyndall imagined that full air about us may be of heaven's hallelujahs.2/6 senses. inspiring book. Benjamin Peirce in that Ideality in the Physical Sciences. from unreasonable to suppose that there will be a corre- sponding variety of ways of knowledge. for reinforcing the sense. " Prof. and exclaimed. while we . says. and lovely forms of fancy and imagination. for the ear we might go forth into a world as new as that opened to a short-sighted person when he first puts on near-sighted glasses. possess. It is far contrary to the analogies of Nature." Henry Ward Beecher supposed an instrument which would do what the microscope does for the eye. for the development of strange inventions. and for the creation of wonderful." " That the immense extent of unheard and is unseen vibrations with which the universe tating should never palpiis become available to the soul. " If an auriscope could be invented. and of opportunities for scientific study. GOD AND MUSIC each equal in range to those we now Where in this vast unknown of ethereal vibration the dividing line runs between the sense of possible hearing and that of potential sight is beyond knowledge.

human body is. he concludes even of the study thus •• : It is not a tale told by an the idiot. '• in the exquisite organization of the celestial sub- stance." Reviewing the which with the process development began postulated by the nebular theory. the range of sensible vibrations may be in- creased immeasurably . signifying immortality." Science and revelation alike represent as possible a more perfect and enduring incasement for the finite spirit. than the frail framework it now in- habits for a very brief Wonderfully made as the span of years on earth. with its fitted to organs of sight and hearing so admirably serve the inhabiting spirit." It did not burden the scientific imagination of the learned astronomer just quoted to suppose that.MUSIC AND IMMORTALITY hear 277 only the feeble whispers of our own prayers. It is poem of an infinite imagination. it is legitimate to conits ceive of an organism with all senses as preteris naturally acute as a single sense found in ex- . and the ultimate limits to which future perception and education may advance. signifying nothing. is possibly a mystery transcending the research ideal archangels.

Other avenues between the also cosmos without and the microcosm within are conceivable. some sort of melodious sound might be imagined as an acci- . the instrument through which the indwelling spirit directly communicates with spirits. out of the numberless different possibilities of progress stuff. man is the is crowning product of evolution. state fitted for to which the present a more perfectly deis but pre- As a rational and artistic personality.278 ceptional GODANDMUSIC persons. The human frame It is is a mechanism expressly adjusted to convert physical energy into psychical force. would be according to the analogies of organic history that the individual soul should organize about itself an envelopment veloped paratory. other Having accomplished its it special mission in the present stage of existence. The human race the only part of the biologic series which has arrived be called science or unguided The probability is infinitesimal that evolution could attain to such a result. at anything that deserves to art. from undifferentiated universe Taking the single problem of the origin of music.

and then that the spiritual beings alone of earth's denizens are fitted to who apprehend and primary simply if enjoy it. Strange indeed a song. not a Beethoven. while the mind that created could be . may it live on for ages. which. lization if there is to be no rea- of the ideal possibihties of human na- ture? The moral If factor. for exstructural elements of his being. it. outcome of an automatic process in nature but not such an art. offering veloped on a scale practically without itself to a growing appreciation also apparently with- out bound. perhaps. a Paderewski. the individual evil. is vital and dominant. Wherefore this unlimited range promising of spiritual potentiality. Yet in every human individual are faculties.MUSIC AND IMMORTALITY dental 279 . such a science. is and would be is unjust. prove the ruin of the But that. which but recorded breath. would equal or excel those of Mozart or Handel. moral ample. a Wagner. developed to the full. a universe of artistic beauty could be delimit. should all be annihilated in the stages of educated ability to appreciate irrational. germinal and un. it fails to eliminate the poison of may. though they often seem. it is true.

nightingale. the doubling and redoub- ling of her voice. transitory but full of an immortal stimulus to hope.28o snuffed out GODANDMUSIC by a breath of bad air. and say. have the sweet descants. He that at midnight. another of But the my airy creatures. what music hast thou provided for in heaven. loud music out of her throat. that it might make mankind to think miracles are not ceased. when thou afifordest bad men ' ! such music on earth " The whole course of evolutionary history shows . should hear. the clear natural rising airs. as very often. the and falling. when I the weary laborer sleeps securely. licious His de- meditation carries the devout soul almost " within hearing of the celestial choirs. Lord. * the saints might well be lifted above earth. poisoning its bodily casement! Is it not more reasonable to send the thought in sure flight from the music of earth. upward to its fitting home and a Hfe undying? Isaak Walton found in the nightingale's song not only exquisite pleasure but also occasion of praise in anticipation of the far sweeter melodies of heaven. breathes Uttle instrumental such sweet.

The plain realization upon a power not its own. Immanent design latent in- It depends for telligence. intellectual faculties. directive it agency manifest potential faculties evolution will see to that will already belonging to man develop to a degree surpassing present conception. water and fins. fensive. inference is that the in same intelligent. see. the auditory apparatus has doubtless kept pace with the provisions for its exercise. That environment has had a leading part in developing the organs of sense. and known by the heavenly ones themselves. a thought-process. are faculties First light. always under guidance. then the eye.MUSIC AND IMMORTALITY that organs 281 and environment. deaesthetic purposes. correlates. Organic development and the history of music . In heaven we shall hear. The visual sense has been perfected contemporaneously with the geologic and biologic advance of nature which would furnish objects of sight for nutritive. in response to environing influences of a higher sort than any hitherto experienced. heard. and Likewise. not. matters all above and through is all. have developed along with Air and wings. and know as we are seen. and even the Evolution is.

The unused potencies of nature immeasurably ex- ceed the bare fringe of multiform force hitherto discovered and utilized. and continuity is lifted to a higher plane. But few any genera- under the most favoring circumstances. tistic of development and oppor- The vast provision in the universe for ar- progress has not been made for no sufficient craft or purpose. The . fields only to find fresh tunity. The same promise belongs to every faculty and every art. Personal immorre- demanded to master and minister the in sources of infinite beauty. The territory of truth open before the intellect is boundless. another always taken up. progress has been worked out. tion. can in the culture of make even a beginning powers furthest which have every promise of exceeding the reach attained by the highest earthly art. and the scope of noble action in a life without end must also be unlimited. to a future Science often challenges It points more and more directly when faculty shall overtake potentiality. No possible advance in its human science can more than touch nearest border in the short period of mortal tality is life.282 GOD AND MUSIC when one idea or stage of is are alike in the fact that. increase of faith.

in The soul purified by music longs for way communion with higher beings and purer spheres ." not by the refining and spiritualizing influ- ence of any art whatsoever. " and." . " It said." clearer The vision of the Christian seer was who have and saw deeper. illustrative and alluring As the most spirit- ual of all the forms of artistic expression. The redeemed are those " washed their robes and made them white. music is most prominent of all in Scriptural references to the heavenly state. is yet prepared for converse with the spirits of light. art. looking forward to a speedy departure from the scenes of his artistic labors and triumphs. There is reason for this in the nature and conditions of the art. though darkened by the opaqueness of the body. 283 the one most universally may appeal to the majority of minds with force.MUSIC AND IMMORTALITY example of a single enjoyed. but " in the blood of With the motive of unmerited rethe Lamb. dwelt much upon and the spiritualizing influence of music. standing around the throne of the Al- mighty. The aged Gounod." belief entertained this : A Persian sage expressed the by the best among his people. gives a foretaste of the immateriality of the future hfe.

but that we also have an enduring spirit with lasting emotions. in Lowell's phrase. to philosophic insight the high faith who joined and hope that make life. It rests upon this fact that we have not only a mortal body. that music will fur- medium. and that these emotions. of vocal inthe inhabitants of heaven. not the chief means. which are their natural .284 GODANDMUSIC lift demption. It has been a favorite imagination with some in ancient and in nish a modern if times. the nearest expressed this thought in words not to be " : changed There is a fine art of sound. The song of praise is represented as the only adequate vehicle of adoring gratitude for those who have eternal reason for offering the highest expression of their love and devotion. in the supplying of which such coarse and temporary contrivances as arbitrary words are well enough. with transient wants. which spirit. tercourse among A Christian scholar of the last generation. they unitedly heart and voice in the Hallelujah Chorus of heaven. unto him who loved them and gave himself for them. belong to the nature of have specific sounds. the next life.

as Bushnell argues. loftier be organs and finer than in this most imperfect the language Besides. . that souls will of feeling. the harin a monious flow and succession of emotions spirit pure should express itself in a like harmony of sound. or of falling waters it so that may be that in a better land the emotions of pure spirit * Toluntary more Harmonious numbers. like the unconscious voice of . or of that which in another world may take the place of sound. . but the joy of society that of feeling expressed. of feeling must be finer and more perfect. is the joy of the glorified is. still and feeling being then state. " what . the harp of the winds. the eldest fine arts. 285 if And here arises music. further.MUSIC AND IMMORTALITY expression. These intonations are the elements of music and. its not the divinest of the Every emotion of the intelligent spirit has appropriate intona- tion of sound.' and so the spirit goes spontaneously singing a percon- fect iEolian strain in its blessedness. rising of itself." This certainly must be true in a future life tinuous with the intellectual and emotional experi- ences of the present.

unless by feeling whose speech music." Confucius seemed to have a conception of such a world. flowing into choirs of harmony and improvised anthems. voices angelically tempered by inward love and purity. spon- taneous. that are but the ocean beat of bosoms conscious of God. significant of the all-including synthesis and perfect accord of the . the expression of spiritual har- mony. by the conditions of life. when he named heaven the " House of Hymns. fit by some voices of medium. adoring uttered in melodious forms expressive of the will highest spiritual emotions. melody Music we have found to be eminently the social art. society in pure immediate." The " new song " heard by the Revelaits tor represents the hymnody of redemption in its his- tory from Moses to Jesus. If necessarily individualistic. love. By what is other. of course. and on to tion. The heavenly the heavenly art of sound is. universal. consumma- Whatever the it scale or tonal scheme of that music. be the outpouring of grateful. is polyphony is its prophetic type.286 GODANDMUSIC and great feeling. propagated. harmony is the art-form of the idea of Humanity.

but mutual service itself the end which order exists. listeners. Two or both. not for the law's sake. or dissonance the acoustic crime of one thinks of others . The original cell all divides itself by a law that conditions progress.MUSIC AND IMMORTALITY entire citizenship in the 287 lowship is life's last. The musician always of composer. every component cell and every organ and member are found laboring for that the others and for the composite whole. fellow-musicians. but for the sake its of multiplying kind. each subserving progress and the common good. greatest. The art of music embodiment. the common is law of the kingdom heaven is of nature and of grace that no man of liveth or dieth to himself alone. The kingdom is its simply the full development and fruition aesthetic of this principle. FelHeavenly republic. unmusical. Rising higher in the scale of life. and immortal word. Soon groups of cells are found." " Order is is nature's for first thought . voices must agree is in their relative vibration numbers. and even the When many voices or instruments . When organs and members are formed by the allied efforts of the multitudinous living atoms preceded them.

even would that the others should regard his own. his If his first it is thought fail is necessarily for own notes. twofold law with is Discord Self-love is musical sin sin is moral discord. for either acoustical or The only excuse moral dissonance is that. so that key and pitch shall be rightly taken and kept. lest they in relative accuracy or in sympathy. The individual all else member of orchestra or chorus must above heed the regnant tonic. double law is as he The imperative : Follow the leader's baton with all the mind. and keep in touch each with his neighbor. mind. the anti-social violation of the musical principle fundamental in ethics. consciously or un- consciously. . and then he must pay constant regard to the acoustic and aesthetic tone of accompanying voices and instruments. as he would have his neighbor do to him. in absolute this The heavenly all choirs and orchestras are harmony because they perfectly obey the heart. every singer or performer sitively sen- attent to every other. The two great commandments of executive harmony by the Master to cover are counterparts of those given all duty.288 GODANDMUSIC is sound together. by it reason of the very distress occasions to ear. .

the ineffable Name? ! Builder and Maker. a perfect round. the longing to return to the calm current heightened. is 289 or heart. thou. so much good in the heaven. of a discord. The evil What was more. is null. is nought. for nothing in nature requires the resolution False ratios of vibration numbers never cure themselves. restore the missing accord. The is divine reconciliation of the sinner olution of his moral dissonances. On earth the broken arcs . is A musical will must interSin. shall be good. shall live as ! Doubt before. is silence implying sound . the ethical res- " Therefore. accepted can be fully resolved and in the harmony of the heavenly Grace can do what nature cannot.MUSIC AND IMMORTALITY of pure consonance. An expectant " dear to the discord. we may expectant moral discord which by free grace and atoned—at-oned— life. for evil. pose and believe. of houses not made with hands What I have fear of change from thee who art ever the same ? that thy power can fill the heart that thy power expands? There shall never be one lost good What was. . with. This is an aesthetic reason. to whom turn I but to thee. good. musician. be- cause the ear and mind naturally desire to rest upon agreeable impressions." has this effect.

290 " GODANDMUSIC else Why was the pause prolonged. than does the absolute unity and mutual regard that bind them together in the eternal king- dom of love. ? The harmonies state. or in some other sphere. whether on a renovated if earth. but that harmony should be prized 'Tis we musicians know. altruistic love The accord St. then aesthetic. cannot matter rules there. then social. prophesies not more the sublime harmony of universal praise offered by all the inhabitants it of heaven to their God and Saviour. holy. but that singing might issue thence ? Why rushed the discords in. as an ideally perfect first spiritual. are Its of heaven. . : music realizes the ground law of ideal society Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. Its lo- cahty. four thousand voices —number of the hundred and forty- of universality — in the vision-anthem of John.

THE GOD OF MUSIC .

LORD. It is present Yet. For him is this "For as.IVaise ye the LORD. ." —Josiah ROYCE. every temporal instant contains a seeking after — God's perfection. even in the whole symphony of life at once. but as nevertheless this very perfection is in the whole symphony itself so in the universe. but of time. and of all that infinite time contains. Praise him with the sound of the trumpet : Praise him with the psaltery and harp. fection attained. Let everything that hath breath praise the Praise ye the LORD. every chord itself it restlessly strives after a musical perfection that in only hints. Praise GOD in his sanctuary Praise : him in the firmament of his power. never at any instant of time is this peronly to the consciousness that views the infinite totality of this very process of seeking. " God in his totality as the Absolute Being is conscious. finite symphony. the chords of his endless symphony. Praise him for his mighty acts : Praise him according to his excellent greatness. not in In time time. in their sequence. there follow.

life to The theistic is argument from the musical point of view a valuable contribution to the general discussion as to the being and character of God. being perceived through the things that are h made. St. Paul affirmed that things of him since the creation of the cosmos are clearly seen." 293 . as an elemental and swer : — From God. To the tion for individual men. Whence this world and the universe of which it is an almost infinitesimal part ? spiritual art. even his everlasting power and divinity. and whose bless.CHAPTER XV THE GOD OF MUSIC To the question. tific It will have cogency according to the scien- knowledge. mental habit. musical understanding. and religious attitude of each person. is whose laws are harmony. gives an- music. Lover of beauty and man. Speaking with authority. Who : more momentous quesand What is God? music again makes reply —The one almighty and of it all-wise Creator. both as logician and as " the invisible apostle.

. The testimony aesthetic gives to the scientific. work Afterward men have found that the per- Supreme Energy is the immore mensely weighty element in the theistic problem." The unity of creation is the ruling thought of our day in both science and philosophy. moral. is point. The contribution which the art of viewless sound makes to the perception of the invisible divinity of the directly in sonal quality of the Author of all perfect it beauty. It imIn the unitary scheme plies a single creative Mind. when man faced the overwhelming physical power at nature. of A summing up some of the chief aspects of evidence which may be ception gathered from this cosmic fact and the art springing from it.Z94 GODANDMUSIC quantitative evidence for an almighty first The Maker has in and Ruler of the universe has always strongly impressed the and most human mind. beauty and the universal blessing should be peculiarly persuasive. may aid toward a true con- of the character discoverable in " the Eternal Genius that built the world. and is attributes of the Being who fold the one divine Source of it manibrings.

All the arts are members of one family with common vibratile parentage. and having the same purpose. are products of differing degrees and forms of vibrant motion. orra y ^^ substance called ether. and one directive thought leading to a harmonious consummation. One system. and perhaps the vital forces. if reason is to be trusted. whose gracious provision they are.THEGODOFMUSIC 295 which has been worked out through endless complexity of form and function. . one efficient power. Each of them gives its special evidence to the creative skill and unceasing benevolence of the Divine Artist. elec- sound. holds its hypothetic Heat.' tricity. method by which potentiality beis comes transitive force that of wave-vibration in constiin the | the ether. The universal All physical forces are phases of motion. light. ground. everything is By musical its the logical consequent of antecedents. to interpret God to man. prove unity of cause. including musical notes. Everything in the universe else. color. chemical energy. is har- moniously related to everything law. music has an essential part to play. tution as Lord Kelvin's theory of atomic simply that of uniform whorls still ~' ) .

dem- The evolutionary scheme. has its unity. is art. is manifold perfections of harmonious a beautiful example of the oneness of the its universe. vincingly of intellect. Mind would be discordant . Music.296 GODANDMUSIC art. tciste. the probability of one Evolver who is- was also the Involver of everything normal that sues during the process. music speaks conseeing Creator. which. both science and of design. continuity. Music. with- out a single coordinating chaos. inevita- But when a harmonious unity of plan all found to exist throughout the different departments of evolu- tionary activity. and goodness guiding the purpose of the single Author of If many gods had taken part this unitary system. like a sym- phonic poem. becomes substantial onstration. is far an instance of the educative good-will of a By itself. and distinctive character only because these are in the original plan. It illustrates the fact that nature is an in- tellectual unity in a composite variety. in form. consummate in a ble discord composite preparation for such an would have been the result. according to laws immutable yet permitting free exercise of genius. Its historic overflows with marks development.

music ciple of causality with the entire cosmos in comes under the same prinits com- plex yet unitary structure. latent in acoustic forces and their la\vs. it nor creates motion therefore. traces origin. order unmistakably that of a thought-process. As by a peculiar manifestation of cosmic forces ruled universal laws. Mere order not It requires thought. The unity of nature Its the product of a is single intelligent Cause. and thought implies a is thinker. art which is most its spiritual in its elements processes. neither thinks. the music of the universe.THE GOD OF MUSIC Human reason demands a cause for every First. As an example. 297 fact. of the universe is The underlying reality it now believed to be spiritual. matter. coming to definite birth and unfolding glory in the art history of man. Physical cauis explain itself. directly to a non-ma- Matter. Second causes depend upon a sation cannot causal. The terial feels. cannot pos- . absolutely requires an intelligent Source of stitution its scientific con- and its aesthetic development. is being more and more doubted whether there any and such thing as a separate entity to be called matter. lineage as . temptingly hinted at in both animate and inanimate nature.

our common it the human mind. or motivity. the physical forces in the world. If an appeal to sense only. would deserve no more consideration than veyor. He who truly feels. stands in immediate relation to the insensuous world. original source all must be the primal its Mind from which ordered force derives en- ergy and character. emotion. music could never man. Within the sonorous embodiment of musical tones aligned in law-governed forms. note apart from intelligent will in or above nature for every musical note is a complex event demand- ing mind for either production or audition. is This. but ultimately thought and must be traced back to the originating will of the Infinite Spirit. imagination.298 GOD AND MUSIC All sibly impart thought. to reason. must have had a psychical experience. tent that in is a psychical conorigin. move a grain of Much less could they produce one musical . can- not generate new force enough to sand. a merely physical origin of music cannot be Its possible. Grove asserts. that of the soda-water pur- But it appeals to the spiritual nature. There- fore. As a mere satisfy the soul of this art combination of sweet sounds to give sensuous pleasure. . sentiment.

more of God loftier there is in composer or performer. and purposive By it their harmo- nious action beauty. and perfection. has power over that of reason the spiritual nature of itself. is its awaken in thousands inaccessible to we must infer a spiritual authorship for effects so spiritual. order. must be traced back to Nothing but soul can put soul into music. there is a increment present which factor. the Tribes without a defi- and purer the strain. It the cooperative activity of imagination. divine Spirit. power any other form of high emotion. . among to the arts in that its ut- terances pass direct to the consciousness. And hence Gurney thinks. unwill. 299 — to God. a sense of beauty. and in this guided development.THE GOD OF MUSIC love. The a personal. it gratifies the profound craving for ideal In its time and place. and the soul is God's work. is thoroughly But music calls for not mere expression of feeling. by far its most important its In the original scheme. man beyond After the mathematical and purely physical in elements spiritual music are taken account is of. and music It is is a guiding influence that may bring the sensitive soul quickest into this alone presence. Hence. derstanding.

philosophic atheism also. in their best forms. lest it wander its in confused intent. so ethereal an art. If is and music.300 GODANDMUSIC nite idea of a divine Being are also destitute of anything that can be called music. its law has home in the it bosom of God. Unbelief does not praise. with a mission of universal It benefaction. would be harnessed under strict law. for the special behoof of those the gift. At the other end of the scale of civilization. and willful all its ways. from the airiest of swift-winged notes to the sombre requiem or measured fugue. who take the Giver with would be expected that. Mathematics are as fixed as physical constitution. with such authorship. and sends forth with it an inner frame of acoustic all steel that will carry to worlds unchanging and unhurt. . no elemental force is more bound by exact its statutes of unbending nature. fate. there it finds music. in nothing but number applied to sound. The real Author of melody and harmony keeps these priceless boons. as is a rule. musically barren. and so plasticity spoil free high With and range of form.

" and is thus a subject of not strange." Melody is more ships. shares the same order. no deviation in its its is moveallowed harmony even boldest flights. too. to note that the same Lord. has often quelled moral and social disturbance. with its rhythmic charm and pure and happy associations. restricting its freedom to the latitude of the laws whose expression it is. is bounds of law. in " in the two grand divisions. wide range of modulation and novel combination at command. its nor that kindly song. It is mu- sicians. Music. An al- mighty will seems to have bound it to magnificence and grandeur. are a law-abiding class. which guard it from random and rebellious has its Harmony. The be God's musical realm may well our songs in the house of our . and stimulated the weary and statutes of despairing.THE GOD OF MUSIC The law manifest. who are really such. Freedom under law is the God-given charter of the human its spirit. scale relation- and fine laws of expression flights. therefore. free. though subject to tonality. 301 is of absolute order in " harmony dearly ments as to Regular and measured in the celestial orbs. brought peace to distracted minds.

a lure from outward to perfection. but .302 pilgrimage. GODANDMUSIC They are world. inward First come certain arrange- ments of matter not in themselves beautiful. The mathematics of music save the universe from acoustic chaos. and an intention the Creator to awaken the same in intelligent beings. and share its joys with them. There that is an ascending scale of things beautiful plainly meant to lead from the lower to the is higher. Arrangement for a definite end shows design plus motive. from the natural and human to the divine. more in the Design is shown not mathematical regimen of music than beauty of its in the manifold ordered forms adapted to spiritual ends. Its tonal beauty reveals a creative also love of the in beautiful in sound. Physical loveliness lectual is the fitting envelope for intel- and moral beauty. Atomic arrangement from the first dis- closes orderly mind. Laws so his spiritual law in the natural perfect and so beneficent could only come from a Lawgiver of ethical and aesthetic perfection. In primal chaos the laws of matter are latent and inoperative.

The question why should take on an in- vestiture of universal. This is the conscious perception of a^thetic beauty. as the manifestation of the divine character thus made concrete and fruitful in blessing. reveals a side of God most inviting to all his creatures capable of aesthetic pleasure. principle of each is and all these de- of perfection the principle of absolute It is the law of God's this principle own being. the sense of unity. It is echoed and magnified itself. life. in the action of the is mind so that well ordered thought more ad- Last and highest. leads to was to reveal in congenial and so to beauty. symmetry. . kindled as spark from flint by these purposely ordered atoms. Then follows. spiritual The beneficence of the beautiful." This is the essential beauty of spiritual being. attract men toward the higher. The primal grees truth. " the calm beauty of an ordered mirable than ordered form. is moral excellence. and grace. and alluring manner the nature of the divine Mind. the conclusion that it many-sided beauty.THE GOD OF MUSIC which awaken the aesthetic idea in 303 that can mind alone perceive beauty.

perhaps. must be inseparable. since he structurally like his Maker. quisite ful to us. we are forced to suppose a like quaUty in the that shaped it. informing best explained is by supposing that Spirit akin to our own. and spiritual. Not as naturalists. Professor Shaler says. Too commonly. according to the etymology of the word.304 GODANDMUSIC love of beauty inherent in the divine nature it The explains the place is holds in man's mind. but as reasoning beings. . men select the lower forms of the beautiful to cultivate and enjoy. Man feels a sense of kinship. Hence it is that the human soul reacts so universally to the visibly and audibly beautiful. moral. This is literal heresy. intellectual. physical. fatal in the end to both the lower and the higher types of beauty." Power In the mind of God the various kinds of beauty. with the Author of this ex" The fact that Nature is beauticreation. neglecting or opposing the claims of the True and the Good. That music should be and made to minister snatched from hands celestial. that its action is meets a swift response in its our minds. and heresy of a most unworthy sort.

only hears in the gladness of belief. and follow its own sweet or unsweet will. their commends the beauty Happy own indeed are mortals both. represents the holiness of beauty. the must know beauty's Author. spiritual history. who see in Maker the union of and aspire to realize both in their ing. music. in native purity and power. those who know God." applies equally to audible art sight and to spiritual "He 1 He only sees who is happy in the seeing. Beyond other arts. is 305 aesthetic blasis phemy and ungrateful atheism." To know and enjoy the highest beauty of art.THEGODOFMUSIC to sensual or self-glorifying uses. Holiness whole- moral unity. or any other self-willed individual. conversely. A voice or an instrument that should break away from the written harmony. who chooses to enjoy music solely for the pleasure or sordid gain its it may bring. and of holiness. see and hear more soul . would not more surely make unbearable discord than in moral relations does the artist. ness. And. regardless of other concerted parts. Goethe's say- " The eye must be sunny and hearing. that would see the sun.

It may be conceived of as a strand of audible beauty running through the whole fabric of evolution. history. Not only does life greatly increase the it " vital value" of spiritual value in this world. himself perfect in holi- ness.3o6 in his GODANDMUSIC works than other men. but adds to a of progressive worth good for all worlds. The Great Musician continually furnishes to all sentient creatures the elements of tonal beauty which he has capable of enjoying. In the closely articulated book of nature an illu- minated chapter might be found showing the place. happiness. is evidence of purest altruism in the world's Governor and government. and race of man. is it to be thought of as a divine . Or. made them in the de- He of leads men on velopment of this art which ministers health. and manifold benefit of the universal fact of music. and potency grace wherever rightly it known. That the Divine Artist. to bless the sentient creation especially to spiritualize the more and more. For them the absoall its inferior lute beauty shines and sings in forms. seeks in every way the holy wholeness of men. nature.

and ever since worked out forms of increasing complexity and beauty adapted to each stage of advancing development. when the morningin sang together. Storrs in " Bernard of Clairvaux great reverence for music. and called sages those served well on organs. and yet to be ? No boon richer in potential blessing. This art.THE GOD OF MUSIC theme given stars 307 in the beginning. " tells us. as Dr. who indeed. of which in the divine voice of the Spirit of terrestrial melodies are but echoes. So she insisted that the art should be cultivated in a devout frame of mind. which she declared to have an origin God. according to the capacity . present. and treated In this respect. should be held in sweetest reveras a revelation of Deity for man's ence. past. the greatest blessing of music that in it the very voice of God testifies of the Creator's^ own profoundeat love of the beautiful. She had. and his desire that every living creature. has been given to mankind. of which music is a ministering agency. Hildegarde set highest good. an example worthy to be remembered. St. then. It is. except Redemption. till in hu- man experience it has become representative of the harmonies of heaven.

His aes- . man of the many-sided nature of his Maker that he exists to bless the offspring of his creative Fatherhood. shall share his joy in It tells . that his nature is perfect in good- and beauty. the Sovereign of the universe gives proof that the inhabitants of this world. that his laws are justly uniform in . he wills to do only that which beautiful. is in harmony with the is true and the his This the liberty he would have earthly children freely choose and enjoy.3o8 GODANDMUSIC it. the All-wise shows that the Beautiful rests upon the True and the Right. These nature. principles of his own is nature are basic in all His character moral adamant. at least. revelation in either form. of each. parts of his universe ness. and that he has formed man to perceive and richly to enjoy the divine selfIn the unforced development of the art of music. Able to do whatever he wills. truth. By the system of inflexible law which rules the universal acoustic realm. that his omniscience truth in the least is pledged to maintain absolute his and the greatest works of all power . are accorded true freedom under a wise and beneficent reign of law.

form. loved. like him. Shakespeare. and imitated. shall put on the exquisite. stimulus. Plato. and. Such a God. yet clothes himself in robes of visual and audible beauty. In the perfect harmony of the life divine qualities man has a perfect standard for here and hereafter. Too often. however named or wor- shipped.THE GOD OF MUSIC thetic 309 thought is harmonious light and shadow. color. i^sthetic tastes and pursuits are sometimes looked upon as signs of mental weakness. Bismarck. that they shall be Hke him in solid structure of character. to avoid enfeeblement or perversion. and the the aesthetic. the ethical. as fitting garments of that holiness which is perfect wholeness. And this is his gra- cious will for his intelligent creatures. deserves to be known. The Infinite One is embodiment of sanity and integrity. they are regarded as chiefly fitted to minister to passing enjoyment or still lower ends. the only need is to maintain right proportion of the practical. and music. When Confucius. His sole motive is love. and other men of hke force and leading find in music a source of strength. THE END . and healthful dehght. it is evi- dent that. joy-giving grace of the Beautiful.

.

36. Albrecht. affinities Animism. Argyle.Index Absoluts mosic. Air. musical universe. 39 office . influence of. unreasonable in a 354Arts. . 126. 206 . inspired by faith. outgoing Ahriman. 327. proof of a Creator. of the Creator. Brother. light. effect of music on. Azarias. Duke of. 108. ment from beauty. 21. and sound. of evolution. 76. Association. 213. 221. of early music. Balzac. Animals. 213. anecdote of Jenny Lind. acts through imagination. Ancient cures by music. 160. 234 . Lord. Dr. Anarchism. 265. Hans Christian. gravitation the Air. not the 19. 244. 121. its uplifting power." music in cell of murderess. prescribed music. religious of music. of Greece offspring of music. aesthetic intent in nature. 41. 253.. Andersen. power of music. composition and functions 100-104. 186. final end in of creation. H. 230. Addison. Acoustics. M. Sebastian. ibthetic evidence of Deity. Architecture and music. 147. 203. 44. 304. music an antidote. Augustine. 137. «« Angel of the Tombs. 257. Atheism. positive needless. beauty. thcistic argu- 183. experiin musiod therapy. 263. Bach. 317 in provision of music. Altruism. 206. 231. an of. 18. Aristotle. before art. 140. Agnosticism. Bacon. the higher rhythm. of music. 49. 18.. family mterpretmg God to man. Alden. 295. of music. 311 . Art. 2C7 . 256. Acadtmit ments tUt Sciences. 26. man's spiritual nature. 27 . 19. 306. saying of. 100. 131 . bridge between concrete and ideal. 220. tonality of the universe. aesthetic. function of aesthetic sense. 1 16. one 151.

Carlyle. universal capacity for music. 52. 147. Dr. and vowel Boehme. analogies of spectrum Blumer. 123. Xenas. and music. 225 . scale to holiness. 175. the. Clark.. 219 . 29. 178. gave music 113. Cheney. Beecher. ful. music Capacity for music universal." 51. a mental fact. the soul-interpreting law of music. 21 . A. INDEX Browning. belief. 129. in creation. 56. 24. 28. 114. 157. 229. in. 121. 261. 258. 308 . 47. musical theory of for gravitation. 41 . history of music. 131 . Color. sonnet to. 158. 224. theory of. 46. 222. Beauty. treatment for insane. xi. bird songs. Chladni figures.. on the True and the rests theistic argument Right. H. love of shows akin. 38. in . of 239- . 78. second causes require a First. theory musical healing. 114. 189. on eye and ear. Bushnell. Chopin comforted by music dying hour.312 Beautiful. with tones. 302. 229. 155. sounds. 262.. 309. S. Birds. religion of spiritual song. 36. 307. 275 . history of. color of orchestra. P. Horace. consoled bereaved friend with music. Character needs both strength and beauty. 16. wonders of the unheard. medium and strength make complete character. Christine. the Christianity. 29. Bjerknes. in Christian song. Dr. one of all the universe. not explained by utility. of the beauti303. 17 . ix. the first musicians. Beethoven. Bird songs not " music. Abt Vogler. 121. 55. Bible and music. 9. felt himself but a beginner. the motive force of art. no. 140. 38. 204. 116. one of the strongest theistic evidences. German music helped secure German vnity. from undeveloped.. 255 . 152. 258. in an end nature. creative shown in musical healing. 128. Benevolence. Cause. 72. to men in scheme Hindu Brown. Communism of music. 39. W. Bismarck. 128. 131. Dr. the of feeling. 297. " Charles Auchester. office of to elevate and refine. God and man 257. 266.. G. 289. 260. Bernard of Clairvaux. diatonic scale in bird songs. 50. Chomet. power of. Thomas. Chalmers. 276. music uplifting. Chrysostom. music and moral culture. 304. 285 . 114. ascending 309. influence of music on health. color piano. Robert. on music insane. 202. Brahma. Jacob." 27.

98. and evolution.. 153. K. an instrument of music. fibres of. 104. 51. illustrated by Correspondence of external with internal. matics of beauty. 289.. of organs and faculties. unfinished. music asylums. Crime and music. 296 . Drum worship. K. J. Consciousness of sound. Development by definite stages. 275. 288. 202 . emblem of sin. 180-182. music demands. 203. Design in history of music. study for atheism. 281 . 235. not opposed to design. 29. Democratic character of music. 52. 89 . answered. 1 1 7.. 198. 38. Charles Crorat. 309 . product of spiritual of resonator. 185. tends to perfection. 41. experiments in musical therapy. 255. in nature. Consecration. People's Choral Union. 75. the 253- dynamic. Dr. 68. 99. spiritual ogy in nature.^ INDEX Confucius.. 90. 101. . Creation. Corti. music grace. 59. Damrosch. 105 . 122. 196. 123. a thought-process. in Irish Cook. proof of creative mind. mathematical laws of universe. music. 150. 232. Charles. of music. Duncan. 1 idea in 17. 66. selective nerve 105. and design.. 305 . L. 168. music a fine art. Evolution. Joseph. force. expectant. 146. Dynamic Age. Drydcn. Ear. J. use of. radiant energy. music the language of spirit. 191. 246. L. belief Eliot. teleol- George. a of. Darwin. Drapes. 196. h 282. 210. 290 . Prof. Corning. 54. 141. Esquirol. medical value of music. 341. 96. filaments. 106. 3«3 direct action of Diman. Correlations of music. and opinion. likened to De Stael. Cunres of musical notes. 47- thought. 326. 220. man the climax of. mathe- Discords. Dr. music. 281 . 35. 37 . 274. 284. 261. 35 . 273 . a cure Earth. product 104. 289. Definitions of music. Conversion of Europe through Christian hymns. intentional. P. 54. resolution of. 196. 195 . 58. Emerson. a symphonic poem. wonders of. 109. 142. 195 .. 44. Emotion. F. Egyptian. musical treatment of nervous invalids. 278. 166. Converse. Diatonic scale ancient. of altruism. J. music on mind. in machine tools and in Ergograph of TarchanoflF. I18.

Haeckel. 17 . 213. John. first social expres- Harmonics. ing power of. instinctive Hastings. idea of beauty.3H INDEX Government. offspring of . the Great Musician. 24. 259. Hauptmann. a Lover of God. art grew out of musical worship. Faber. 201 . Tombs. acute power instinctive of. Haydn. W.. musical and social. music not of In- a product of mathematics. a Lover of music. J. 144. Foster. 204. F. see- Gruber. 262. St. Fables of 39. 116. 258 of music. 296. 107. music dians.. unity of proved by music. Fetichism. beauty. child of Christianity. great composers high-minded and religious. 308. Grace. power of. 305. inspires best music. . of spiritual experiences. . heart of music Gladstone. spiritual force of music. 170. 96. 300 . 129. definition of music. in- Handel. 222. S. Hanslick. the stream of 120. 113. 301 . his deep religious feel.. Alice. modern thought emphasizes. 287. Angel of the in music. Cecilia. Gounod. law of absolute order. good music 146. Fiske. 20. 261 heaven. Fletcher. music. 107. 201 . Haweis. R. 257.. 18. 53. 18. . definition of beauty. E. H. 21. Faith. Guild of life. 220. H. direct power of music. speaks in music. sound and color. spiritual influence of Hearing. 29. 258 120. aids. 169. the law Geometry and Giddings. Hallelujah Chorus spired. 136. 17. 25. 45 . 1435^1? Folk songs. 149. the sunny eye. 299. Harmony. sense of musical tone. Fichte. 133 . complex sensation of musical tone. Guido of Arezzo. 50. completed diatonic scale. music the most religious art. 80. Freedom under law 244. 134. music. religious origin musical wonders. Goethe. " Partials. 108. 62. of creation. best music a gift to." 232. 283. ing. trend of evolution toward perfection.. 243. 254. 301. L. character of. 36. the sole Cause indicated by music. 164. 305. 288 . 263 music and health. sions.. Harris. Gurney. Expression by music. G. of religious music. 222 . 211 . 263 . social summum bonum. Greek. 77. Rebecca. beauty a revelation of God. the resolution of moral discords. 273. 26. 244. Psalms.

Imagination. analogies o( spectrum with musical tones. Keller. 38. 136 . 300. healing by music. 166. 274 . 384 . 3CO. Hindu. harmony of. 191. 340. cures wrought by music. demanded Immortality. musical mission in.. Intemationahsm of music. 3 10. 31. 370. 16. 152. 76. 146. 370. 388. rate of Keynote. good effect of music on. Lord. successive 380 impressions of sound. Huxley. Indian music. definition of 208. " Charles Auchester. 36l . by music. Thomas. Insane. Infidelity and music. theology and music. music its possible language. Herzian waves. 3o8. composite beauty of 304 . 188 . Dr. 139. 86. the. Laws law. music a type of heaven. musical sun-dial. of music. Knight. the beautiful a Lanier. 175. Law. 105. the mediator of 354. aoi . 3<5 music excels all . earth. of . 137. 53. 179. 230. 112. 48 . of hymnody. benevolence of. 341. Hill. 358. in musical therapeutics. musical treatment in. a theistic evidence. 355. wings. and sound. music a type its on James. 37 1 . 48 . in gratuity the art386. Lichtenthal. 363. Holiness. theory of atoms. Kingsley. prove a moral . creabon. 149. London." Hospitals. theory of beauty. 131. Helmholtz. 323. 153. Helen. color. form of idea T. see spirit. design in music. religious mus'c. 157 . final cause defined. 44. 34. Hegel. Language and music. benefited by music. idea of music. 243 . music versus pessimism.. Lev^ue. the goal of development. music. 39 belief in power of music.INDEX Heaven. History. 170. sound propagation. what hearing would do for her. 133. 117. 34. the Great Mysticism.. 170. preestablished harmony. 68. Ideal. 216. 87 of music. Light. Andrew. Law in music. 184. universal. Imbeciles. Humanity. Pres. 1 14. Charles. of nature. 395. Lind. Jenny. Leibnitz. Jenner. Sidney. of buildings. William. . I02. of. not chains. religious importance of music. 151. 96. 86 . Willum. Lancet. 373. 1 10. voice of art. Kelvin. 194- Lathrop. 64. visible curves of musical notes. argument for. of religion and music inseparable. expressive of will.

of the Ideal. music a direct path to God. language. Lewis. 30. 37 . music a distinct origin necessary. S. Medical value of music. philosophy de- 25 . 20. 235. . Mazzini. G. mands a God. Musicians. Materialism. Lucretius. 140. B. 39. in- ration. . T. Mendelssohn. W. 304. a symbol of final harmony. 165-191. of Longfellow. 279. expression of emotion. of heaven. 20 a fine art. first learned. 239 . Lyon. Napoleon. 264. 298. Maxwell. 284. 34 .. Luther. 243. A. music for sick soldiers. 177. law in music. music for sane. 238. spiritual . 247.. music. 216.. 278 . 40 a spiritual product. 20 a cosmic fact. Dr. the crown of evolution. Markham. of. motion of pitch. 27. Miiller. rise of idea of immortality. 261. of the spheres. exalted Mozart. 22. 301. 33. and inspi- Max. 32 essence. Mazzini's advice to. 158. 134. an example of universal law. 20 a universal language. defini- Mathematics and music. M. 300 theology of. 20. free under law. subject to strict law. rhythmical spiritual in origin of. emblem of ideal society. 256. 84. 263. 52. evidence of Deity. Clerk. 257. melody an 156. voice Man. high music. 261. 34 whence. 216. 290 .. 91. T. spiritual origin of. influence feeling Livermore. 256. 224 . 38. 47. 17 . 92. Modern thought emphasizes expression. 301 . 26. 271. opinion of . 280. Music. Mrs. 50 . 263. 24 . 150153. 262. 40 . 197. 202. hymns music. James. music an antidote. 264 . akin to God. in nature. 30. Lotze. indicates inspiration. 229. love the key of cosmic music. 35 . Matheson. Munger. social mission of music. 288. 18. and mathematics. 263. munism tions of. in vernacular. . 45 . a self revelation of Deity. advice to young musicians. representative of modern thought. an altruistic art. 218. 20 com. given as a potentiality. 147. religious hope. benevolent. Edwin. and language. Matter. a law abiding class. Melody. 224. .3i6 INDEX Morris. music a social symbol. . 132. 115. 250. should be high minded. 34 . 20. 283. 299 .. 189. fleeting nature of. . 91. culture through music. 147. Missionary work helped by music. H. Moral condition of art and im- mortality. 84. Martineau. 87. 262 . 230. 52.

Parry. H. 139. a thought- process. Order of nature. benefit of musical 140 . C. 232. Pierce. Benjamin. unrealized possibilities of nature.INDEX National National 148. music of. 92. purpose sic. 59. Dr. law of contrasts. order of. theistic evidence in.. 59 . 376. 65. influence of. 155. countries. 66 . source of mu- sical impressions. Pisa. 170. 243- 29 75 . benefit Palestrina. Popular choral classes. 213. keynote in. Pythagoras. Ohm. traming. music of 39.. music in future. Polytheism. 62. 150. Psalms. 21. Organism. CL. . H. 56. Possibilities of music limitless. office of. 45 . 146 . law of. musical tones of sand on Sinai. Numbers. musical harthe soul of the cosmos. Pitch. C. 178. heart music of. 156. 66. opinions of musical treatment. Capt. prohibitory of science. 171. 309. \V. Overtones. Pole. 297. 373. 225.. 73. 29.. 47. Palmer. H. 363. .. selective power of ear. see Partials. H. 62.. ab«olute beauty. 160. music in process. Physicians. Niagara. Newman. echo in Baptistery. 377 . Pilgrim. vision of divine beauty. the skeleton of music. a thought J. bird music. 309. Oldys. 272. hospitals. Dr. origin of scale. nature organized according to harmony. Propagation of sound in 102. music " development immortality. W. of religious sic. S. 54. theory of beauty. established tonality. life. " 48 . loi. taught by music. aroused by national lyrics. signifies Nature. W.. 74 . 16. 297. 167. their schools of music. design in mu- 275. tendency to in universe. 277- Power of music on unculti- 200 . Nicolas of Cusa. 135 . purpose of music. of. music in quadrivium.. of music. persistence of in air. H. hymn-tune lyrics. Prophets. 292. 260. discord inevitable. 90 . air. 396. Perfection. no nature. 24a. Petersen. Patriotism. diatonic scale potential in. 149. music an imitation of 26. Partials. 148. 9i- Plato. with finer ays- 209. of three of. J. music as a therapeutic ag^ent. 204. the mony Obkoiknck. 49 . diatonic scale in senses. theory of musical healing. 259. vated. 46. Persian music. mu- Progress of 278.

its claim on music... origin of music in Greece. 244. Symonds.. Goldwin. demanded by music. 127. 152. Herbert. 79. Sabatier. Prof. 251 . importance of music. J. fier of time. 125. 75 . music characterized by. beauty a mental fact. Storrs. Greek feeling Schelling. beauty needs Sauveur. Syntony. 34. Hildegarde's reverence for music. tonic. 274. C. L. of beauty. 89 240. sic. spiritual. 181. spread by Shakespeare. Rice. Spencer. and consciousness. like 66. INDEX 96. tongue. Smith. 32. Rameau. Rhythmical origin of music. 132. 191. of universe. Refining influence of music. Rhythm. 35. Ribot. consecration of sound. 157. of music. 120. Schopenhauer. of music 77. 252-267 a definition of. Rational origin of human mu- beauty common to God and man. Santayana. S. 238. and European. 216. love of 67. W. of development. Swinburne. Tarchanoff. Sound. 62. influence of singing on criminals. 244 . 90. H. 307. summum bonum the development of personality. 224 . . N. 281. 244. music a medi- cine for the soul. keynote in musical therapeutics. 287. Sympathy. ofiice of. mental effect of music. 304. an exact. 247. 106 . 84. A. power of. 28. 298. Spiritual essence of music. 245.. Prof. music "the beautiJ. . hymns. social law Social." 127. 27. 57-. mission of music.. gave name Asiatic. beauty not accounted for by evolution. 309 . Science. 76. music an antidote anarchy. 216. S. Spohr.. 25. 211. Reformation. Stratton. I. 245 . Shaler. 191. 137. argument for immortality.. Religious music.. 267. music a test of character. symphony of divine perfection. Newman. Religion and music. response in mind to beauty. to . 28. Searing. Royce. no explanation. experiments in musical therapeutics. 191. rhythm a fact of all motion. Smyth. S. A. 155 . Oriental see Dia- R. 59 .3i8 Radiant energy. bond found in music. geometry and mu116.. J. 147. crime and music. 25. 185. Scales. Schumann. to acoustics. inspired by music. St. hymns in popular 261 . 89 . S. 38. with —power rate of propagation. unknown words. 258. value of music. sic. Sensation of tone complex. 102. 292.

Therapeutics. Thayer. *S7- Wounds. Van Dykk. 253. Tomlins. principle of art. A. Henry. Zola. his hymns conquered opposers. . of J. 203. 183 . hearing of partials. 196. in Darwin's theory. cured by music. disinterestedness Unity." 16. Requiem an expression of faith. 305. 319 Verdi. the self-expression of God. 188. to music. Wesley. 280. 102. of nature implies unitary cause. Thaxter. Visible curves of musical notes. Izaak. 212. composed. 327.. lington. Walton. i^i. 199. 296. Eugene. Shckinah came with its praises. 294 . 165.232. in variety. 1 10. of God proved by music. 158." 270. Tonality. musical. 263. Teniple. rates and ratios. Universe. 39. 68. of art. motive power of creation. of wounds. 65. music an example. 250.. working-cbss concerts. 97 : universal. seeing power of faith. and associated colors. Bayard. 186. Tyndall. Wundt. 90. Vowel sounds. ao. harbinger of heaven. Zahm. Windelband. . by music. unheard music. 16. Vibration. Celia. Theology. Worship. accord of internal and external laws. 228. 26. 234. acoustics proof a Creator. W. theoretically 113. 78. 17. language of design. 3a. the acoustic centre of Vocal culture good for body and mind. and music. rhythmical. unselfish selfishness of musician. 117. nightingale a gravity. Vibratory treatment of neurot- Tennyson. 65. inaudible sound. 32. 187. 234. regularity of.INDEX Taylor. 105 . Will. 72. Teleology. music of Niagara. necessary 88 . ics. 270. musical instruction for poorchildren. 25 . sonnet to Beethoven. M." " In Memoriam. of nature. •' Ode to Duke of Wel164 '• 156. universe a product of. Working-class concerts. 29. 130. The Two Voices.

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] REC.14 DAY USE RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED MUS:C LIERARY This book due on the last date stamped below.. or on the date to which renewed. CIR- MAR '-5 a 19// SooW on* iwwr LD 21-50m-8. is 1959 I ^^ RECEIVJ D gV L FEDU ^g^7 DEPT. Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. lUkCUlATlON n£iV2_MiSl 1BY241963 MAY 2 1967 OLC 2 6 1974 jij.'57 (C8481sl0)476 General Library University of California Berkeley .

THE UNIVERSITY OF CAUFORNIA UBRARY .

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