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Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001

WINTER SURVIVAL COURSE HANDBOOK TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAP 1 * 3 , 5 0 7 2 9 10 11 1* 13 1, 15 10 17 CO T! T" #!$%&#!M! T" 'O# "%#(&(A) "%#(&(A) +&T WAT!# P#OC%#!M! T !-P!.&! T "H!)T!#" A . '&#!" CO#! (A)%!" A . MO% TA& )!A.!#"H&P CHA))! /!" "%#(&(A) "&/ A)& / A . #!CO(!#1 "%#(&(A) A(&/AT&O T#AP" A . " A#!" %"!" 'O# /AM! "%#(&(A) '&"H& / '&!). !-P!.&! T TOO)", W!APO ", A . !$%&PM! T !-P!.&! T " OW"HO!" W& T!# T#AC+& / "%#(&(A) M!.&C& ! W!ATH!# & T#O TO !(A"&O A(A)A CH! A . &C! HA3A#."

APP! .&A B C . ! ' !(A"&O P)A O' ACT&O 'O#MAT 4TH! !./!5 /%&.!. .&"C%""&O "%#(&(A) $%&C+ #!'!#! C! CH!C+)&"T A &MA) HAB&T" TACT&CA) CO "&.!#AT&O " /#A.& / "TA .A#."


Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 WSVX 02 01 02!0"!05 STUDENT HANDOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR SURVIVAL TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE #n a $old %eat&er 'ountainou( en)iron'ent, appl* t&e re+uire'ent( for (ur)i)al, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e( (WSVX.02.01) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES ,1- Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e( and gi)en t&e a$ron*' .S/0V#V123, de($ri4e in %riting t&e a$ron*' .S/0V#V123, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e( (WSVX.02.01a) ,2- Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting t&e (ur)i)al (tre((or(, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e( (WSVX.02.01 ) ,3- Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting t&e prioritie( of %or5 in a (ur)i)al (ituation, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e( (WSVX.02.01!) OUTLINE 1 REQUIREMENTS FOR SURVIVAL a T&i( 'ental .'ind-(et3 i( i'portant in 'an* %a*( We u(uall* $all it t&e .%ill to (ur)i)e3 alt&oug& *ou 'ig&t $all it .attitude3 6u(t a( %ell T&i( 4a(i$all* 'ean( t&at, if *ou do not &a)e t&e rig&t attitude, *ou 'a* (till not (ur)i)e 4 1 guideline t&at $an a((i(t *ou i( t&e a$ron*' . S/0V#V123 ,WSVX.02.01a,1- Si7e up ,a- Si7e up t&e (ituation 1 Con$eal *our(elf fro' t&e ene'* 2 /(e *our (en(e( to &ear, ('ell, and (ee to deter'ine and $on(ider %&at i( de)eloping on t&e 4attlefield 4efore *ou 'a5e *our (ur)i)al plan

,4- Si7e up *our (urrounding(

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1 8eter'ine t&e r&*t&' or pattern of t&e area 2 9ote ani'al and 4ird noi(e( and t&eir 'o)e'ent 3 9ote ene'* traffi$ and $i)ilian 'o)e'ent ,$- Si7e up *our p&*(i$al $ondition 1 C&e$5 *our %ound( and gi)e *our(elf fir(t aid 2 Ta5e $are to pre)ent furt&er 4odil* &ar' 3 :)aluate $ondition of (elf and unit prior to de)eloping (ur)i)al plan ,d- Si7e up *our e+uip'ent 1 Con(ider &o% a)aila4le e+uip'ent 'a* affe$t (ur)i)al (en(e(; tailor a$$ordingl* ,2- Undue &a(te 'a5e( %a(te ,a- <lan *our 'o)e( (o t&at *ou $an 'o)e out +ui$5l* %it&out endangering *our(elf if t&e ene'* i( near ,3- Re'e'4er %&ere *ou are ,a- #f *ou &a)e a 'ap, (pot *our lo$ation and relate it to t&e (urrounding terrain ,4- <a* $lo(e attention to %&ere *ou are and %&ere *ou are going C"#$%a#%&' "()*#% '"+($*&, ,$- Tr* to deter'ine, at a 'ini'u', &o% *our lo$ation relate( to t&e follo%ing= 1 T&e lo$ation of ene'* unit( and $ontrolled area( 2 T&e lo$ation of friendl* unit( and $ontrolled area( 3 T&e lo$ation of lo$al %ater (our$e( > 1rea( t&at %ill pro)ide good $o)er and $on$eal'ent ,>- Van+ui(& fear and pani$

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,a- 0eali(ti$ and $&allenging training 4uild( (elf-$onfiden$e and $onfiden$e for a unit?( leader(&ip ,4- T&e feeling of fear and pani$ %ill 4e pre(ent T&e (ur)i)or 'u(t $ontrol t&e(e feeling( ,5- I'pro)i(e and #'pro)e ,a- /(e tool( de(igned for one purpo(e for ot&er appli$ation( ,4- /(e o46e$t( around *ou for different need( ,i e u(e a ro$5 for a &a''er,"- Value li)ing ,a- <la$e a &ig& )alue on li)ing ,4- 0efu(e to gi)e into t&e pro4le' and o4(ta$le( t&at fa$e *ou ,$- 8ra% (trengt& fro' indi)idual( t&at ri(e to t&e o$$a(ion ,7- A$t li5e t&e nati)e( ,a- @4(er)e t&e people in t&e area to deter'ine t&eir dail* eating, (leeping, and drin5ing routine( ,4- @4(er)e ani'al life in t&e area to &elp *ou find (our$e( of food and %ater NOTES- 0e'e'4er t&at ani'al rea$tion( $an re)eal *our pre(en$e to t&e ene'* 1ni'al( $annot (er)e a( an a4(olute guide to %&at *ou $an eat and drin5 ,A- Li)e 4* *our %it(, +% ,"( #"., learn 4a(i$ (5ill( ,a- <ra$ti$e 4a(i$ (ur)i)al (5ill( during all training progra'( and eBer$i(e( 2 STRESS Stre(( &a( 'an* po(iti)e 4enefit( Stre(( pro)ide( u( %it& $&allenge(= it gi)e( u( $&an$e( to learn a4out our )alue( and (trengt&( Too 'u$& (tre(( lead( to di(tre(( W&ile 'an* of t&e(e (ign( 'a* not 4e (elf-identified, it re'ain( $riti$al t&at all (ur)i)or( re'ain attenti)e to ea$& ot&er?( (ign( of di(tre(( 2i(ted are a fe% $o''on (ign( of di(tre(( found %&en fa$ed %it& too 'u$& (tre((= a 8iffi$ult* in 'a5ing de$i(ion( ,/" #"% !"#,+$* %0)$ $)1# ,"( a $'23%"2 ", 0'3"%0*(2)a4 1ngr* out4ur(t( $ Corgetfulne((

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d 2o% energ* le)el e Con(tant %orr*ing f <ropen(it* for 'i(ta5e( g T&oug&t( a4out deat& or (ui$ide & Trou4le getting along %it& ot&er( i Wit&dra%ing fro' ot&er( 6 Diding fro' re(pon(i4ilitie( 5 Carele((ne(( 3 SURVIVAL STRESSORS (WSVX.02.01 ) 1n* e)ent $an lead to (tre(( @ften, (tre((ful e)ent( o$$ur (i'ultaneou(l* T&e(e e)ent( are not (tre((, 4ut t&e* produ$e it and are $alled .(tre((or(3 #n re(pon(e to a (tre((or, t&e 4od* prepare( eit&er to .fig&t or flee3 Stre((or( add up 1nti$ipating (tre((or( and de)eloping (trategie( to $ope %it& t&e' are t&e t%o ingredient( in t&e effe$ti)e 'anage'ent of (tre(( #t i( e((ential t&at t&e (ur)i)or 4e a%are of t&e t*pe( of (tre((or( &e %ill en$ounter a #n6ur*, #llne((, or 8eat& #n6ur*, illne((, and deat& are real po((i4ilitie( a (ur)i)or &a( to fa$e <er&ap( not&ing i( 'ore (tre((ful t&an 4eing alone in an unfa'iliar en)iron'ent %&ere *ou $ould die fro' &o(tile a$tion, an a$$ident, or fro' eating (o'et&ing let&al 4 /n$ertaint* and 2a$5 of Control T&e onl* guarantee in a (ur)i)al (ituation i( t&at not&ing i( guaranteed T&i( un$ertaint* and la$5 of $ontrol al(o add to t&e (tre(( of 4eing ill, in6ured, or 5illed $ :n)iron'ent 1 (ur)i)or %ill &a)e to $ontend %it& t&e (tre((or( of %eat&er, terrain, and t&e )ariet* of $reature( in&a4iting an area Deat, $old, rain, %ind(, (no%, 'ountain(, in(e$t(, and ani'al( are 6u(t a fe% of t&e $&allenge( a%aiting t&e Marine %or5ing to (ur)i)e d Dunger and T&ir(t Wit&out food and %ater a per(on %ill %ea5en and e)entuall* die Eetting and pre(er)ing food and %ater ta5e( on in$rea(ing i'portan$e a( t&e lengt& of ti'e in a (ur)i)al (etting in$rea(e( Wit& t&e in$rea(ed li5eli&ood of diarr&ea, repleni(&ing ele$trol*te( 4e$o'e( $riti$al Cor a Marine u(ed to &a)ing &i( pro)i(ion( i((ued, foraging $an 4e a 4ig (our$e of (tre(( e Catigue #t i( e((ential t&at (ur)i)or( e'plo* all a)aila4le 'ean( to pre(er)e 'ental and p&*(i$al (trengt& W&ile food, %ater, and ot&er energ* 4uilder( 'a* 4e in (&ort (uppl*, 'aBi'i7ing (leep to a)oid depri)ation i( a )er* $ontrolla4le fa$tor Curt&er, (leep depri)ation dire$tl* $orrelate( %it& in$rea(ed fear

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f #(olation Being in $onta$t %it& ot&er( pro)ide( a greater (en(e of (e$urit* and a feeling (o'eone i( a)aila4le to &elp if pro4le'( o$$ur > NATURAL REACTIONS Man &a( 4een a4le to (ur)i)e 'an* (&ift( in &i( en)iron'ent t&roug&out t&e $enturie( Di( a4ilit* to adapt p&*(i$all* and 'entall* to a $&anging %orld 5ept &i' ali)e T&e a)erage per(on %ill &a)e (o'e p(*$&ologi$al rea$tion( in a (ur)i)al (ituation T&e(e are (o'e of t&e 'a6or internal rea$tion( *ou 'ig&t eBperien$e %it& t&e (ur)i)al (tre((or( a Cear Cear i( our e'otional re(pon(e to dangerou( $ir$u'(tan$e( t&at %e 4elie)e &a)e t&e potential to $au(e deat&, in6ur*, or illne(( Cear $an &a)e a po(iti)e fun$tion if it en$ourage( u( to 4e $autiou( in (ituation( %&ere re$5le((ne(( $ould re(ult in in6ur* 1nBiet* 1nBiet* $an 4e an unea(*, appre&en(i)e feeling %e get %&en fa$ed %it& dangerou( (ituation( 1 (ur)i)or redu$e( &i( anBiet* 4* perfor'ing t&o(e ta(5( t&at %ill en(ure &i( $o'ing t&roug& t&e ordeal 1nger and Cru(tration Cru(tration ari(e( %&en a per(on i( $ontinuall* t&%arted in &i( atte'pt( to rea$& a goal @ne outgro%t& of fru(tration i( anger Eetting lo(t, da'aged or forgotten e+uip'ent, t&e %eat&er, in&o(pita4le terrain, ene'* patrol(, and p&*(i$al li'itation( are 6u(t a fe% (our$e( of fru(tration and anger Cru(tration and anger en$ourage, irrational 4e&a)ior, poorl* t&oug&t-out de$i(ion(, and, in (o'e in(tan$e(, an .# +uit3 attitude 8epre((ion 8epre((ion i( $lo(el* lin5ed %it& fru(tration and anger %&en fa$ed %it& t&e pri)ation( of (ur)i)al 1 de(tru$ti)e $*$le 4et%een anger and fru(tration $ontinue( until t&e per(on 4e$o'e( %orn do%n-p&*(i$all*, e'otionall*, and 'entall* 1t t&i( point, &e (tart( to gi)e up, and &i( fo$u( (&ift( fro' .W&at $an # do3 to .T&ere i( not&ing # $an do 3 2oneline(( and Boredo' Man i( a (o$ial ani'al and en6o*( t&e $o'pan* of ot&er( 2oneline(( and 4oredo' $an 4e anot&er (our$e of depre((ion Marine( 'u(t find %a*( to 5eep t&eir 'ind( produ$ti)el* o$$upied Euilt T&e $ir$u'(tan$e( leading to *our (ur)i)al (etting are (o'eti'e( dra'ati$ and tragi$ #t 'a* 4e t&e re(ult of an a$$ident or 'ilitar* 'i((ion %&ere t&ere %a( a lo(( of life <er&ap( *ou %ere t&e onl*, or one of a fe%, (ur)i)or( W&ile naturall* relie)ed to 4e ali)e, *ou (i'ultaneou(l* 'a* 4e 'ourning t&e deat&( of ot&er( t&at %ere le(( fortunate 8o not let guilt feeling( pre)ent *ou fro' li)ing

5 PRIORITIES OF WOR4 IN A SURVIVAL SITUATION. (WSVX.02.01!) :a$& (ur)i)al (ituation %ill &a)e $on(idera4le a(pe$t( t&at %ill alter t&e order in %&i$& ta(5( need to 4e a$$o'pli(&ed 1 general guideline i( to t&in5 in 4lo$5( of ti'e a Cir(t 2> &our( T&e fir(t 2> &our( are $riti$al in a (ur)i)al (ituation Fou 'u(t 'a5e an initial e(ti'ate of t&e (ituation :ne'*, %eat&er, terrain, ti'e of da*, and a)aila4le re(our$e( %ill deter'ine %&i$& ta(5( need to 4e a$$o'pli(&ed fir(t T&e* (&ould 4e follo%ing ,1- S&elter ,2- Cire

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,3- Water ,>- Signaling 4 Se$ond 2> &our( 1fter t&e fir(t 2> &our( &a)e pa((ed, *ou %ill no% 5no% *ou $an (ur)i)e T&i( ti'e period need( to 4e (pent on eBpanding *our 5no%ledge of t&e area B* $o'pleting t&e follo%ing ta(5(, *ou %ill 4e a4le to gain )alua4le 5no%ledge ,1- Tool( and %eapon( B* tra)eling a (&ort di(tan$e fro' *our (&elter to lo$ate t&e ne$e((ar* re(our$e(, *ou %ill noti$e edi4le food (our$e( and ga'e trail( ,2- Trap( and (nare( Mo)ing furt&er a%a* fro' *our (&elter to e'plo* trap( and (nare(, *ou %ill 4e a4le to lo$ate *our (&elter area for' )ariou( )antage point( T&i( %ill ena4le *ou to identif* li5el* a)enue( of approa$& into *our (&elter area ,3- <at&guard( Gno%ing t&e li5el* a)enue( of approa$&e(, *ou $an effe$ti)el* pla$e noi(e and $au(alit* produ$ing pat&guard( to en(ure t&e (e$urit* of *our (&elter area $ 0e'ainder of *our (ur)i)al (ituation T&i( ti'e i( (pent on $ontinuou(l* i'pro)ing *our (ur)i)al (ituation until *our re($ue

" GROUP SURVIVAL. #n group (ur)i)al, t&e group?( (ur)i)al depend( largel* on it( a4ilit* to organi7e a$ti)it* 1n e'ergen$* (ituation doe( not 4ring people toget&er for a $o''on goal; rat&er, t&e 'ore diffi$ult and di(ordered t&e (ituation, t&e greater are t&e di(organi7ed group?( pro4le'( a Eroup( Morale Dig& 'orale 'u(t $o'e fro' internal $o&e(i)ene(( and not 'erel* t&roug& eBternal pre((ure T&e 'ood( and attitude( $an 4e$o'e %ildl* $ontagiou( Con($iou( %ellplanned organi7ation and leader(&ip on t&e 4a(i( of delegated or (&ared re(pon(i4ilit* often $an pre)ent pani$ Dig& group 'orale &a( 'an* ad)antage( ,1- #ndi)idual feel( (trengt&ened and prote$ted (in$e &e reali7e( t&at &i( (ur)i)al depend( on ot&er( %&o' &e tru(t( ,2- T&e group $an 'eet failure %it& greater per(i(ten$* ,3- T&e group $an for'ulate goal( to &elp ea$& ot&er fa$e t&e future 4 Ca$tor( t&at #nfluen$e Eroup Sur)i)al T&ere are nu'erou( fa$tor( t&at %ill influen$e %&et&er a group $an (u$$e((full* (ur)i)e ,1- @rgani7ation of Manpo%er - @rgani7ed a$tion i( i'portant to 5eep all 'e'4er( of t&e group 4riefed; t&i( %a* t&e 'e'4er( of t&e group %ill 5no% %&at to do and %&en to do it, 4ot& under ordinar* $ir$u'(tan$e( and in e'ergen$ie( ,2- Sele$ti)e /(e of <er(onnel - #n %ell-organi7ed group(, t&e per(on often doe( t&e 6o4 t&at 'o(t $lo(el* fit( t&eir per(onal +ualifi$ation(

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,3- 1$$eptan$e of Sugge(tion and Criti$i('( - T&e (enior 'an 'u(t a$$ept re(pon(i4ilit* for t&e final de$i(ion, 4ut 'u(t 4e a4le to ta5e (ugge(tion and $riti$i('( fro' ot&er( ,>- Con(ideration of Ti'e - @n-t&e-(pot de$i(ion( t&at 'u(t 4e a$ted upon i''ediatel* u(uall* deter'ine( (ur)i)al (u$$e(( ,5- C&e$5 :+uip'ent - Cailure to $&e$5 e+uip'ent $an re(ult in failure to (ur)i)e ,"- Sur)i)al Gno%ledge and S5ill( - Confiden$e in one?( a4ilit* to (ur)i)e i( in$rea(ed 4* a$+uiring (ur)i)al 5no%ledge and (5ill(

REFERENCE1 2 3 > 5 Barr* 8a)ie( BM:, S1S :($ape, :)a(ion, and Sur)i)al Manual, 199" CM 21-7", Sur)i)al, 1992 Ho&n Wi(e'an, S1S Sur)i)al Euide, 19A" 1CM ">-5, Sear$& and 0e($ue Sur)i)al, 19"9 B-E1-217-001!<T-001, 8o%n 4ut not @ut

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Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 WSVX 02 02 2!"!05 STUDENT HANDOUT SURVIVAL KIT TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE #n a $old %eat&er 'ountainou( en)iron'ent, $on(tru$t a (ur)i)al *it, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e( (WSVX.02.02) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES +1, Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting t&e $o'ponent( for a (ur)i)al *it, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e( (WSVX.02.02a) +2, Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting one e-a'ple of ea$& $o'ponent for a (ur)i)al *it, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e( (WSVX.02.02b) OUTLINE 1 COMPONENTS FOR A SURVIVAL KIT a T&e en)iron'ent i( t&e *e. to t&e of ite'( .ou %ill need in .our (ur)i)al *it /o% 'u$& e0uip'ent .ou put in .our *it depend( on &o% .ou %ill $arr. t&e *it 1 *it on .our 2od. %ill &a)e to 2e 'u$& ('aller t&an one $arried in a )e&i$le 1l%a.( .our (ur)i)al *it, *eeping t&e 'o(t i'portant ite'( on .our 2od. #n preparing .our (ur)i)al *it, (ele$t ite'( t&at $an 2e u(ed for 'ore t&an one purpo(e 3our (ur)i)al *it doe( not need to 2e ela2orate 3ou onl. need fun$tional ite'( t&at %ill 'eet .our need( and a $a(e to &old t&e' T&e $a(e 'ig&t 2e a fir(t aid $a(e, an a''unition pou$&, or anot&er (uita2le $a(e T&i( $a(e (&ould 2e+1, Water repellent or %aterproof +2, 4a(. to $arr. or atta$& to .our 2od. +3, Suita2le to a$$ept )ariou( (i5ed ite'( +6, 7ura2le

2 $ d

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e W&en $on(tru$ting a (ur)i)al *it, .ou (&ould &a)e t&e follo%ing $o'ponent(8 (WSVX.02.02a) +1, 9ire (tarting ite'( +2, Water pro$ure'ent ite'( +3, 9ood pro$ure'ent ite'( +6, Signaling ite'( +5, 9ir(t aid ite'( +", S&elter ite'( 2 ITEMS CONTAINED WITHIN EACH COMPONTENT (WSVX.02.02b) a 9ire Starting 40uip'ent +1, Mat$&e( +2, gla(( +3, 9lint and Steel +6, :ig&ter +5, ;ota((iu' ;er'anganate, %it& $ontainer of (ugar or anti-free5e +", ;repa$*aged Tinder -Co''er$iall. Manufa$tured -Cotton Ball( and ;etroleu' <ell. 2 Water ;ro$ure'ent #te' +1, Water 7i(infe$ting C&e'i$al( -#odine Ta2let( -Betadine Solution -#odine Solution -Blea$& +2, Metal Container +Ser)e( for 2oiling %ater,

-Canteen Cup -Sur)i)al =it Container -1n. Suita2le $an t&at $ontained no petroleu' produ$t(

+3, Water #te'( -Canteen -;la(ti$ Bag -;la(ti$!Metal!>la(( Container %&i$& $ontained no petroleu' produ$t( $ 9ood ;ro$ure'ent #te'( +1, 9i(& -Variou( (i5ed &oo*( -Variou( (i5ed (in*er(!%eig&t( -Metal leader( and (%i)el( -S'all %eig&ted ?ig( -9i(&ing line -T&in* a2out t&e (i5e of fi(& for t&at en)iron'ent %&en (ele$ting %eig&t( and (i5e( +2, >a'e -Snare( @Co''er$iall. Manufa$tured @1ir$raft Ca2le @Tie Wire! Co'' Wire -Bait @MA4 C&ee(e Spread, <ell., or ;eanut Butter ;a$*age @9i(&ing Bait -550 Cord for >ill Bet and Trap Con(tru$tion -4ngineer!Mar*ing Tape -Sling (&ot ru22er and pou$& -:arge tre2le &oo*( d Signaling #te'( +1, 7a. -Mirror -W&i(tle -;.rote$&ni$( +S'o*e, ;en 9lare(, -1ir ;anel(! Brig&tl. $olored 'aterial

+2, Big&t -;.rote$&ni$( +;en 9lare(, Star Clu(ter(, -:ig&t( +9la(&lig&t, Stro2e, C&e'lig&t, -W&i(tle -Bu55 Sa% 02-3
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e S&elter #te'( +1, Cordage - 550 Cord - Wire -Co''uni$ation %ire -Tie %ire +2, 9inger Sa% +3, Se%ing =it %it& Beedle( for $on(tru$tion!repair of $lot&ing +6, Tentage -pon$&o -(pa$e 2lan*et +5, Candle f 9ir(t 1id #te'( +1, Band-1id( -Steri(trip( -1d&e(i)e Tape -Bon-(ti$* pad(, 6-6C(, >au5e, Battle 7re((ing( -Mu(lin Bandage -Butter flie( %! Super glue +2, Dint'ent( -Burn -1nti-(epti$ +3, Mi($ellaneou( -Salt -Sugar -4.e Wa(& -1l$o&ol prep pad( -Suture =it -S$alpel -Vile of 3arro% g Mi($ellaneou( ite'( +1, 9ingernail $lipper(

+2, Co'pa(( +3, Bote2oo* %it& pen or pen$il +6, Wood e.e ($re%( and nail( +5, Surgi$al tu2ing N !"# I! $% a%%&'"( !)a! !)" Ma*$+" $% a,-a.% /a**.$+0 a )$0) 1&a,$!. 2$3"( b,a("( 4+$2"5 a '&,!$6! , 4+$2"5 a+( a %)a*7"+$+0 %! +". REFERENCE8 1 2 3 Barr. 7a)ie( BM4, S1S 4($ape, 4)a(ion, and Sur)i)al Manual, 199" 9M 21-7", Sur)i)al, 1992 <o&n Wi(e'an, S1S Sur)i)al >uide, 19E"

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Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 WSVX.0 .03 !"!05 STUDENT HANDOUT WATER PROCUREMENT TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE #n a $old %eat&er 'ountainou( en)iron'ent, and gi)en %ater pro$ure'ent 'aterial(, o*tain pota*le %ater, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.03) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES (1) Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, de($ri*e in %riting %&+ i$e i( 'ore prefera*le t&an (no% for 'elting into drin,ing %ater, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.03a) (2) Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting t&e &a-ardou( fluid( to a)oid (u*(tituting for pota*le %ater, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.03b) (3) Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting t&e 'et&od( for di(infe$ting %ater, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.03 ) (!) Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, and gi)en a 'ilitar+ *ottle of %ater purifi$ation ta*let(, (tate in %riting it( (elf-life, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.03") (#) Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, and gi)en t&e %ater te'perature and $&e'i$al $on$entration, (tate in %riting t&e $onta$t ti'e to di(infe$t %ater, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.03$) (%) Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, $on(tru$t a %ater generator, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.03&) OUTLINE 1. WATER INTA'E a. T&ir(t i( not a (trong enoug& indi$ator. *. T&e *e(t plan i( to drin, utili-ing t&e .V/0 10#23 'et&od. 1rin, plent+ of %ater %&en it i( a)aila*le e(pe$iall+ %&en eating.

WSVX.0 .03


$. 1e&+dration i( a 'a4or t&reat. 5 lo(( of onl+ 5 6 of +our *od+ fluid( $au(e( t&ir(t, irrita*ilit+, nau(ea, and %ea,ne((7 a 106 lo(( $au(e( di--ine((, &eada$&e, ina*ilit+ to %al,, and a tingling (en(ation in li'*(7 a 156 lo(( $au(e( di' )i(ion, painful urination, (%ollen tongue, deafne((, and a feeling of nu'*ne(( in t&e (,in7 al(o a lo(( of 'ore t&an 156 *od+ fluid( $ould re(ult in deat&. d. 8our %ater re9uire'ent( %ill *e in$rea(ed if: ;1< 8ou &a)e a fe)er. ; < 8ou are e=perien$ing fear or an=iet+. ;3< 8ou e)aporate 'ore *od+ fluid t&an ne$e((ar+. ;i.e., not u(ing t&e proper (&elter to +our ad)antage< ;>< 8ou &a)e i'proper $lot&ing. ;5< 8ou ration %ater. ;"< 8ou o)er%or,. . LOCATING WATER. a. T&e en)iron'ent 'a+ (o'eti'e( pro)ide +ou %it& opportunitie( to a$9uire %ater. #n a $old %eat&er 'ountainou( region %ater $an generall+ *e lo$ated in t&e follo%ing: ;1< Sno%. Sno% $an *e 'elted for pota*le %ater. Melting (no% %ill re(ult in a &ig&er fuel u(age. ?n$onta'inated (no% doe( not need to *e di(infe$ted. ; < #$e. (WSVX.02.03a) #$e $an *e 'elted for pota*le %ater. Melting i$e i( prefera*le to 'elting (no% due to t&e &ig&er $on$entration of %ater per )olu'e. @o%e)er, (in$e i$e i( fro-en %ater it need( to *e di(infe$ted. ;3< Strea'( and 0i)er(. Strea'( and ri)er( $an generall+ *e found in a 'ountainou( region. /=tre'e $aution 'u(t *e u(ed %&en approa$&ing t&e edge to a)oid a$$idental $old-%ater (u*'er(ion. ;>< Sea #$e. #n ti'e, (ea i$e lo(e( it( (alinit+. 8ou $an identif+ t&i( i$e *+ it( rounded $orner( and *lui(& $olor. Ara+ i$e &a( not +et lo(t it( (alt $ontent. *. T&e follo%ing are (o'e general $on(ideration( %&en u(ing (no% and i$e for %ater. ;1< 2e)er 'elt (no% or i$e in(ide +our 'out&. T&i( re'o)e( *od+ &eat and in$rea(e( t&e $&an$e of $old %eat&er in4urie(.


WSVX.0 .03

; < W&en on t&e 'o)e, u(e *od+ &eat to 'elt (no%. Bla$e (no% or i$e in a %ater *ag and pla$e t&e *ag *et%een +our la+er( of $lot&ing, not dire$tl+ on t&e (,in. ;3< 1o not %a(te fuel to 'elt (no% or i$e %&en drin,a*le %ater ;i.e., (trea'< i( a)aila*le. ;>< #f 'elting (no% in a $ontainer *+ a fire, utili-e a &ot ro$, to (peed up t&e pro$e(( and $on(er)ing fuel. 3. HA(ARDOUS )LUIDS (WSVX.02.03b) a. Sur)i)or( &a)e o$$a(ionall+ atte'pted to aug'ent t&eir %ater (uppl+ %it& ot&er fluid( (u$& a(7 al$o&oli$ *e)erage(, urine, *lood, or (ea%ater. W&ile it i( true t&at ea$& of t&e(e fluid( &a)e &ig& %ater $ontent, t&e i'puritie( t&e+ $ontain re9uire t&e *od+ to e=pend 'ore fluid to purif+ t&e'. ;1< Sea%ater. Sea%ater in 'ore t&an 'ini'al 9uantitie( i( a$tuall+ to=i$. T&e $on$entration of (odiu' and 'agne(iu' (alt( in it i( (o &ig& t&at fluid 'u(t *e dra%n fro' t&e *od+ to eli'inate t&e (alt( and e)entuall+ t&e ,idne+( $ea(e to fun$tion. ; < 5l$o&ol. 1rin,ing al$o&oli$ li9uid( %ill de&+drate t&e *od+, redu$e *od+ &eat, and $loud 4udg'ent. #nge(ting a (uper-$ooled li9uid $an $au(e i''ediate fro(t*ite of t&e t&roat and po((i*le deat&. ;3< Blood. Blood i( $on(idered a food. 1rin,ing *lood %ill re9uire +our *od+ to e=pend additional fluid in order to dige(t it. ;>< ?rine. 1rin,ing urine i( fooli(&. ?rine i( not&ing 'ore t&an *od+ %a(te. 1rin,ing urine return( %a(te into +our *od+ and re9uire( 'ore fluid to e=pel it. >. WATER *UALIT+. Water $ontain( 'ineral(, to=in(, and pat&ogen(. #f $on(u'ed in large enoug& 9uantitie( t&e(e 'a+ *e &ar'ful to &u'an &ealt&. Bat&ogen( are our pri'ar+ $on$ern. Bat&ogen( are di)ided into Viru(, C+(t(, Ba$teria, and Bara(ite(. Certain pat&ogen( are 'ore re(i(tant to $&e'i$al( and ('all enoug& to 'o)e t&roug& 'i$ro($opi$ &ole( in e9uip'ent ;i.e., T(&irt, para$&ute<. Certain pat&ogen( al(o &a)e t&e a*ilit+ to (ur)i)e in e=tre'el+ $old %ater te'perature(. Water 9ualit+ i( di)ided into t&ree le)el( of (afet+. 1i(infe$tion a( t&e 'o(t de(ired le)el follo%ed *+ purified t&en pota*le. a. 1i(infe$tion. Water di(infe$tion re'o)e( or de(tro+( &ar'ful 'i$roorgani('(. Aiardia $+(t( are an e)er-pre(ent danger in $lear appearing 'ountain %ater t&roug&out t&e %orld. B+ drin,ing non-pota*le %ater +ou 'a+ $ontra$t di(ea(e( or (%allo% organi('( t&at $ould &ar' +ou. /=a'ple( of (u$& di(ea(e( or organi('( are: 1+(enter+, C&olera, T+p&oid, Clu,e(, and Dee$&e(.

WSVX.0 .03


*. #'pure %ater, no 'atter &o% o)erpo%ering +our t&ir(t, i( one of t&e %or(t &a-ard( in a (ur)i)al (ituation. $. T&e fir(t (tep in di(infe$ting i( to (ele$t a treat'ent 'et&od. T&e t%o 'et&od( %e %ill di($u(( are a( follo%(: (WSVX.02.03 ) ;1< @eat. T&e Manual of 2a)al Bre)enti)e Medi$ine ;B-5010< (tate( t&at +ou 'u(t *ring t&e %ater to a rolling *oil *efore it i( $on(idered (afe for &u'an $on(u'ption. T&i( i( t&e 'o(t preferred 'et&od. ;a< Bringing %ater to t&e *oiling point %ill ,ill 99.96 of all Aiardia $+(t(. T&e Aiardia $+(t die( at "0.C and Cr+pto(poridiu' die( at "5C. Water %ill *oil at 1>,000 ft at E".C and at 10,000F at 90C. Wit& t&i( in 'ind +ou (&ould note t&at altitude doe( not 'a,e a differen$e unle(( +ou are e=tre'el+ &ig&. ; < C&e'i$al(. T&ere are nu'erou( t+pe( of $&e'i$al( t&at $an di(infe$t %ater. T&e(e $&e'i$al( are $alled &alogen(. #n a (ur)i)al (ituation, +ou %ill u(e %&ate)er +ou &a)e a)aila*le. ;a< #odine Ta*let(. ;*< C&lorine Blea$&. ;$< #odine Solution. ;d< Betadine Solution. ;e< Militar+ %ater purifi$ation ta*let(. (WSVX.02.03") T&e(e ta*let( are (tandard i((ue for all 1.1 agen$ie(. T&e(e ta*let( &a)e a (&elf life of four +ear( fro' t&e date of 'anufa$ture unle(( opened. .n$e t&e (eal i( *ro,en, t&e (&elf life i( one +ear not to e=$eed t&e initial e=piration date of four +ear(. !,-03 Mont& ! 8ear ! Bat$& 2u'*er

;3< Water 1i(infe$tion Te$&ni9ue( and @alogen 1o(e(.


WSVX.0 .03

I."/0a1/.0 1$ 20/34$5 5dded to 1 liter or 9uart of %ater #odine ta*let( Tetragl$ine &+droperiodide /1WAT Bota*le 59ua Alo*aline 6 iodine (olution ;tin$ture< 106 po)idone-iodine (olutionH

5'ount for > pp' G ta*let 0. 'l 5 gtt( 0.35 'l E gtt( 5'ount for 5 pp' 'l gtt(

5'ount for E pp' 1 ta*let 0.> 'l 10 gtt( 0.70 'l 1" gtt( 5'ount for 10 pp' 'l > gtt( 1 ta*let E pp' 1 ta*let

C26.7/0a1/.0 1$ 20/34$5 @ou(e&old *lea$& 56 Sodiu' &+po$&lorie 59uaClear Sodiu' di$&loroi(o$+anurate 59uaCure, 59uaBure, C&lor-flo$ C&lorine plu( flo$$ulating agent

HBro)idone-iodine (olution( relea(e free iodine in le)el( ade9uate for di(infe$tion, *ut ($ant data i( a)aila*le. Mea(ure %it& dropper ;1 dropI0.05 'l< or tu*er$ulin (+ringe Bp'-part per 'illion gtt(-drop( 'l-'illiliter

C.0 $017a1/.0 .& 2a6.<$0 pp' > pp' E pp'

C.01a 1 1/8$ /0 8/041$5 a1 9a7/.45 :a1$7 1$8;$7a147$5 (WSVX.2.3$) 5 C ! >0 C >0 1E0 "0 15 C ! "0 C 1E0 50 30 30 C ! E5 C "0 >5 15

N.1$= T&e(e $onta$t ti'e( &a)e *een e=tended fro' t&e u(ual re$o''endation( to a$$ount for re$ent data t&at prolonged $onta$t ti'e i( needed in )er+ $old %ater to ,ill Giardia $+(t(. N.1$= $&e'i$al( 'a+ not de(tro+ Cr+pto(poridiu' due to it( e=tre'el+ toug& 'e'*rane. d. Burifi$ation. Water purifi$ation i( t&e re'o)al of organi$ and inorgani$ $&e'i$al( and parti$ulate 'atter, in$luding radioa$ti)e parti$le(. W&ile purifi$ation $an

WSVX.0 .03


eli'inate offen(i)e $olor, ta(te, and odor, it 'a+ not re'o)e or ,ill all 'i$roorgani('(. ;1< Co''er$ial Water Cilter(. Co''er$ial %ater filter( are generall+ a)aila*le in 'o(t retail (tore( and 'a+ *e %it& +ou. ?nder(tanding %&at t&e filter $an do i( t&e fir(t (tep in (afeguarding again(t future illne((e(. ;a< 5 filter %it& greater t&an a .03 'i$ron opening %ill not (top Cr+pto(poridiu'. ;*< 5 filter (+(te' t&at doe( not relea(e a $&e'i$al ;i.e., iodine< 'a+ not ,ill all pat&ogen(. ;$< 5 filter t&at &a( *een o)eru(ed 'a+ *e $logged. ?(age 'a+ re(ult in e=$e((i)e pu'ping pre((ure t&at $an 'o)e &ar'ful pat&ogen( t&roug& t&e opening. Cilter $&a'*er( 'a+ *e$o'e plugged $au(ing t&e pat&ogen to 'utate. e. Bota*le. Bota*le onl+ indi$ate( a %ater (our$e, on a)erage o)er a period of ti'e, $ontain( a J'ini'al 'i$ro*ial &a-ard,J (o t&e (tati(ti$al li,eli&ood of illne(( i( a$$epta*le. ;1< Sedi'entation. Sedi'entation i( t&e (eparation of (u(pended parti$le( large enoug& to (ettle rapidl+ *+ gra)it+. T&e ti'e re9uired depend( on t&e (i-e of t&e parti$le. Aenerall+, 1 &our i( ade9uate if t&e %ater i( allo%ed to (it %it&out agitation. 5fter (edi'ent &a( for'ed on t&e *otto' of t&e $ontainer, t&e $lear %ater i( de$anted or filtered fro' t&e top. Mi$roorgani('(, e(pe$iall+ $+(t(, e)entuall+ (ettle, *ut t&i( ta,e( longer and t&e organi('( are ea(il+ di(tur*ed during pouring or filtering. Sedi'entation (&ould not *e $on(idered a 'ean( of di(infe$tion and (&ould *e u(ed onl+ a( a la(t re(ort or in an e=tre'e ta$ti$al (ituation.

5. WATER GENERATOR. (WSVX.02.03&) a. Aeneral. #$e i( a *etter (our$e for o*taining %ater t&an (no% *e$au(e of &ig&er %ater $ontent. #t ta,e( appro=i'atel+ 3-> $up( of (no% for ea$& $up of %ater. ;1< 2e)er let t&e generator $o'pletel+ run out of (no% or i$e. ; < .n$e (tarted t&e generator %ill (uppl+ 'ore t&an enoug& %ater for people.

*. Con(tru$tion. Material %ill *e deter'ined *+ %&at +ou are $arr+ing: para$&ute, pla(ti$ *ag, T-(&irt, or *ar,.


WSVX.0 .03

;1< #f %ood i( a)aila*le, gat&er t&ree pole(, appro=i'atel+ (i= feet long and t&ree in$&e( in dia'eter. Tie t&e' toget&er for'ing a tripod. ; < Cill t&e 'aterial ;T-(&irt, para$&ute, or pla(ti$ *ag< %it& (no% and tie $o'pletel+ (&ut. Con(tantl+ *ang it on t&e ground to $o'pa$t t&e (no%, 'a,ing it den(e. 5dd 'ore (no% and repeat t&e pro$e(( until t&e 'aterial i( $o'pletel+ full. ;3< Tie t&e 'aterial of (no% to t&e tripod and pla$e near t&e fire. /n(ure t&e 'aterial i( (afe fro' *eing *urnt fro' t&e fire. ;>< #n a*out 1! &our, t&e generator %ill (tart to drip fro' one (pot. Bla$e an+ ,ind of $ontainer under t&i( drip. ;5< 5dd (no% a( ne$e((ar+. ;"< #f %ood i( not readil+ a)aila*le to $on(tru$t a tripod, a )ariation $an *e $on(tru$ted *+ (e$uring a (ingle pole to a tree. Tie t&e *ag of (no% to t&i( (ingle pole. Sno% $an *e pla$ed on *ar,. T&e *ar, $an *e pla$ed near t&e fire at a (lig&t angle and t&e 'elted %ater $olle$ted.

WSVX.0 .03


WATER GENERATOR RE)ERENCE= CM 1-7", Sur)i)al, 199 . Baul 5uer*a$&, Wilderne(( Medi$ine, 3rd /dition, 1995 @o%ard Ba$,er M1, MB@, Cield Water 1i(infe$tion, 1999 /ri$ Cudno&o(,e, Wi($on(in B&ar'a$al Co'pan+, 1999


WSVX.0 .03


Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 WSVX.0 .0! WSVX.0 .05 0 "0#"05 STUDENT HANDOUT EXPEDIENT SHELTERS AND FIRES TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE (1) $n a %old &eat'er (ountainou) en*iron(ent, %on)tru%t )'elter), in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.04) (2) $n a %old &eat'er (ountainou) en*iron(ent, %on)tru%t fire), in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.05) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES +1, Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e, li)t in &riting t'e %'ara%teri)ti%) of a )afe e-pedient )'elter, in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.04 ) + , Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e), li)t in &riting t'e 'a.ard) to a*oid &'en u)ing natural )'elter), in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.04!) +3, Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e), li)t in &riting (an-(ade )no& )ur*i*al )'elter), in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.04", +!, $n a %old &eat'er (ountainou) en*iron(ent, li)t in &riting t'e ta%ti%al fire la/, in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.05 ) +5, $n a %old &eat'er (ountainou) en*iron(ent, )tart a fire u)ing a pri(iti*e (et'od, in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.05!, OUTLINE 1. BASIC CRITERIA FOR SHELTER. (WSVX.02.04 ) 0n/ t/pe of )'elter, &'et'er it i) a per(anent 1uilding, tentage, or a )ur*i*al )'elter (u)t (eet )i- 1a)i% %riteria to 1e )afe and effe%ti*e. T'e goal i) /ou (u)t Prepare For So(e V#r/ Hard Da/). a. 2rote%tion 3ro( t'e 4le(ent). T'e )'elter (u)t pro*ide prote%tion fro( rain, )no&, &ind, )un, et%.

WSVX.0 .0! 0!-1

1. 3ree fro( 5atural 6a.ard). S'elter) )'ould not 1e 1uilt in area) of a*alan%'e 'a.ard), under ro%7 fall or 8)tanding dead9 tree), &'i%' 'a*e t'e potential to fall on /our )'elter. %. Sta1le. S'elter) (u)t 1e %on)tru%ted to &it')tand t'e pre))ure) e-erted 1/ )e*ere &eat'er. d. Ventilation. Ventilation (u)t 1e (aintained, e)pe%iall/ if 1urning fuel for 'eat. T'i) pre*ent) t'e a%%u(ulation of %ar1on (ono-ide. Ventilation i) al)o needed for %ar1on dio-ide gi*en off &'en 1reat'ing. e. 6eat :etention. $t (u)t 'a*e )o(e t/pe of in)ulation to retain 'eat, t'u) pre*enting t'e &a)te of fuel. f. ;r/ing 3a%ilit/. 0 dr/ing fa%ilit/ (u)t 1e %on)tru%ted to dr/ &et %lot'e). . NATURAL SHELTERS. 5atural )'elter) re<uire le)) &or7 or ti(e. a. Ca*e) or :o%7 =*er'ang). Can 1e (odified 1/ la/ing &all) of ro%7), log) or 1ran%'e) a%ro)) t'e open )ide). 1. 6ollo& >og). Can 1e %leaned or dug out, t'en en'an%ed &it' pon%'o), tarp) or para%'ute) 'ung a%ro)) t'e opening). %. 6a.ard) of 5atural S'elter). (WSVX.02.04!) +1, 0ni(al). 5atural )'elter) (a/ alread/ 1e in'a1ited +i.e. 1ear), %o/ote), lion), rat), )na7e), et%.,. =t'er %on%ern) fro( ani(al) (a/ 1e di)ea)e fro( )%at or de%a/ing %ar%a))e). + , >a%7 of Ventilation. 5atural )'elter) (a/ not 'a*e ade<uate *entilation. 3ire) (a/ 1e 1uilt in)ide for 'eating or %oo7ing 1ut (a/ 1e un%o(forta1le or e*en dangerou) 1e%au)e of t'e )(o7e 1uild up. +3, ?a) 2o%7et). Man/ %a*e) in a (ountainou) region (a/ 'a*e natural ga) po%7et) in t'e(. +!, $n)ta1ilit/. 5atural )'elter) (a/ appear )ta1le, 1ut in realit/ (a/ 1e a trap &aiting to %ollap)e.

WSVX.0 .0! 0!-

3. MAN$MADE SHELTERS. (WSV.02.04") a. Sno& Wall. 1. Sno& Ca*e. %. Tree-pit Sno& S'elter. d. Sno& Tren%'. e. 0-fra(e S'elter. f. 3allen Tree Bi*oua%. g. Sno& Coffin !. CONSTRUCTION OF MAN$MADE SHELTERS. a. Con)ideration). +1, ?roup )i.e. + , 0 lo& )il'ouette and redu%ed li*ing area &ill i(pro*e 'eat retention. +3, 0*oid e-po)ed 'illtop), *alle/ floor), (oi)t ground, and a*alan%'e pat'). +!, Create a t'er(al )'elter 1/ appl/ing )no&, if a*aila1le, to roof and )ide) of )'elter. +5, >o%ate in *i%init/ of fire &ood, &ater, and )ignaling, if ne%e))ar/. +#, 6o& (u%' ti(e and effort i) needed to 1uild t'e )'elter@ +7, Can t'e )'elter ade<uatel/ prote%t /ou fro( t'e ele(ent)@ +A, W'en in a ta%ti%al en*iron(ent, /ou (u)t %on)ider t'e follo&ingB +a, 2ro*ide %on%eal(ent fro( ene(/ o1)er*ation. +1, 2lan e)%ape route). 1. Sno& Wall. T'e )no& &all i) an e-tre(el/ e-pedient )'elter for one or t&o (en. T'i) )'elter i) %on)tru%ted &'en t'e ele(ent) &ill not afford ti(e to %on)tru%t a 1etter )'elter. +1, Ba)i% prin%iple) for %on)tru%tion.
WSVX.0 .0! 0!-3

+a, ;eter(ine &ind dire%tion. +1, Con)tru%t a &all of %o(pa%ted )no& in t'e )'ape of a 'or)e)'oe to )'ield /ou fro( t'e &ind. T'e &all )'ould 1e at lea)t 3 feet 'ig' and a) long a) /our 1od/. +%, 0 pon%'o or tarp %an 1e atta%'ed to t'e top of t'e &all &it' t'e ot'er end )e%ured to t'e ground for added prote%tion. S7i), pole), 1ran%'e), and e<uip(ent %an 1e u)ed for added )ta1ilit/.

SNOW WALL %. Sno& Ca*e. 0 )no& %a*e i) u)ed to )'elter 1-1# (en for e-tended period) of ti(e. T'ere (u)t 1e a &ell-%o(pa%ted )no& 1a)e of at lea)t # feet to %on)tru%t. +1, Ba)i% prin%iple) for %on)tru%tion. +a, ;ig do&n into t'e )no& until t'e de)ired tunnel entran%e 'a) 1een rea%'ed. 2la%e all e-%a*ated )no& on top of t'e )'elter for added )trengt'. +1, Cut an entran%e opening into t'e )no& appro-i(atel/ 3 feet 1/ 3 feet. +%, Continue to dig out %a*e &'ile re(o*ing e-%e)) )no& out of t'e entran%e. S'ape t'e roof into a do(e. $f a 1lui)' %olor appear) t'roug' t'e )no& in t'e roof, )top, t'ere i) not enoug' )no& to )upport t'e roof.

WSVX.0 .0! 0!-!

+d, Create a %oo7ing"&or7ing )elf and a )leeping 1en%' in)ide t'e )'elter. +e, 0 *entilation 'ole )'ould 1e dug t'roug' t'e roof at a !5-degree angle a1o*e t'e entran%e. 0 )7i pole or 1ran%' i) left in t'e 'ole to (ar7 t'e 'ole and allo& %learing )'ould t'e *entilation 'ole 1e%o(e %logged. 0 pine 1oug' 1ran%' %an 1e pla%ed into t'e out)ide of t'e roof a1o*e t'e 'ole to aid in 7eeping t'e 'ole %lear during falling )no&. ;uring t'e da/ and at nig't t'ere )'ould 1e an 0r%ti% %entur/ po)ted for )afet/ in %a)e t'e %a*e %ollap)e). +f, 2er)onnel &'o are digging &ill 1e%o(e &et fro( per)piration &'ile digging in)ide t'e %a*e. 2er)onnel t'at are digging )'ould &ear a (ini(u( a(ount of %lot'ing &it' a prote%ti*e la/er. +g, =n%e t'e %a*e 'a) 1een dug, %o(pletel/ fill in t'e entran%e 'ole &it' )no& 1lo%7. 2a%7 in loo)e )no& 1et&een t'e %ra%7) and allo& it to 'arden for appro-i(atel/ -3 'our), &eat'er dependant. 0fter it 'a) 'ardened, %ut out a )(all entran%e 'ole. +', Sno& %a*e) %an 1e 'eated 1/ a %andle, &'i%' &ill rai)e t'e in)ide te(perature, appro-i(atel/ degree). $f a %andle i) left 1urning &'ile indi*idual) )leep, a fire &at%' (u)t re(ain po)ted to redu%e t'e danger of a)p'/-iation. Burning )to*e) to 'eat a %a*e &ill %au)e )no& to (elt and )'ould 1e a*oided. +i, 2a%7), pon%'o, or )no& 1lo%7) %an 1e u)ed to 1lo%7 t'e entran%e to t'e %a*e.


WSVX.0 .0! 0!-5

d. Tree-pit Sno& S'elter. 0 tree-pit )no& )'elter i) de)igned for 1-3 (en for )'ort period) of ti(e. $t pro*ide) e-%ellent o*er'ead %o*er and %on%eal(ent and )'ould 1e u)ed for >2"=p). +1, Ba)i% prin%iple) for %on)tru%tion. +a, >o%ate a tree &it' 1u)'/ 1ran%'e) t'at pro*ide) o*er'ead %o*er. +1, ;ig out t'e )no& around t'e tree trun7 until /ou rea%' t'e dept' and dia(eter de)ired, or until /ou rea%' t'e ground. +%, 3ind and %ut ot'er e*ergreen 1oug'). 2la%e t'e( o*er t'e top of t'e pit for additional %on%eal(ent. ;o not utili.e 1oug' fro( t'e tree /ou are under. +d, 2la%e e*ergreen 1oug') in t'e 1otto( of t'e pit for in)ulation.

TREE$PIT SHELTER e. 3allen Tree Bi*oua%. T'e fallen tree 1i*oua% i) an e-%ellent )'elter 1e%au)e (o)t of t'e &or7 'a) alread/ 1een done. +1, 4n)ure t'e tree i) )ta1le prior to %on)tru%ting. + , Bran%'e) on t'e under)ide are %ut a&a/ (a7ing a 'ollo& underneat'. +3, 2la%e additional in)ulating (aterial to t'e top and )ide) of t'e tree.

WSVX.0 .0! 0!-#

+!, 0 )(all fire i) 1uilt out)ide of t'e )'elter.

FALLEN TREE BIVOUAC f. 0-3ra(e S'elter. 0n 0-3ra(e )'elter i) %on)tru%ted for 1-3 indi*idual). 0fter t'e fra(e&or7 i) %on)tru%ted, pine 1oug'"tentage i) inter&o*en onto t'e fra(e and )no& i) pa%7ed onto t'e out)ide for in)ulation.

A$FRAME g. Sno& Tren%'. 0 )no& tren%' i) a )'ort-ter( )'elter u)ed on e-tre(el/ 'ard pa%7 )no& and &'en tree) or 1uilding (aterial) are not a*aila1le, +i.e., alpine and gla%ier en*iron(ent),. Blo%7) of )no& or i%e are %ut and pla%ed to 1uild t'i) )'elter.

WSVX.0 .0! 0!-7


WSVX.0 .0! 0!-A


WSVX.0 .0! 0!-9

'. Sno& Coffin. 0 )no& %offin i) 1uilt for 1-! (en for e-tended period) of ti(e. $t i) a *ariation of t'e )no& tren%' and 0-fra(e, &'i%' re<uire) at lea)t ! feet of %o(pa%ted )no&. +1, Ba)i% prin%iple) for %on)tru%tion. +a, ;ig a tren%' into t'e )no& appro-i(atel/ 3 feet &ide, A-1 feet long, and ! feet deep. +1, ;ig a %old 'ole into t'e floor of t'e tren%' and )leeping platfor() +%offin), off t'e )ide) of t'e tren%'. +%, Co*er t'e top of t'e tren%' for added prote%tion &it' eit'er an 0-fra(e or pon%'o"tarp.


WSVX.0 .0! 0!-10

i. T'i) ta1le %an 1e u)ed a) a general guideline to deter(ine &'i%' )'elter to %on)tru%t. S5=W 20CC >==S4 C=M20CT4; C=M20CT4; $C4; 5"0 5"0 5"0 S5=W ;42T6 E 344T !-# 344T F # 344T 5"0 5"0 F ! 344T F 344T 4ST. 6:S. T= :4C=MM45;4; C=5ST:DCT S64>T4: 0-3:0M4 -3 S5=W C=33$5 3 S5=W C0V4 -3 S5=W T:45C6 130>>45 T:44 1T:44-2$T 30 M$5 S5=W W0>>

5. FIRES. 3ire) fall into t&o (ain %ategorie)B t'o)e 1uilt for %oo7ing and t'o)e 1uilt for &ar(t' and )ignaling. T'e 1a)i% )tep) are t'e )a(e for 1ot'B preparing t'e fire la/, gat'ering fuel, 1uilding t'e fire, and properl/ e-tingui)'ing t'e fire. a. 2reparing t'e fire la/. T'ere are t&o t/pe) of fire la/)B fire pit and ;a7ota 'ole. 3ire pit) are pro1a1l/ t'e (o)t %o((on. +1, Wit'out a platfor( in t'e )no&, t'e fire &ill )in7. Create a platfor( a) follo&)B +a, >a/ )e*eral green log) )ide 1/ )ide for t'e )i.e of /our fire. +1, Build /our fire on top of t'e platfor( or, +%, ;ig do&n to t'e eart' and )tart fire. +d, Create a &ind1rea7 if po))i1le. +e, 0*oid u)ing &et ro%7). 6eat a%ting on t'e da(pne)) in )and)tone, )'ale, and )tone) fro( )trea() (a/ %au)e t'e( to e-plode. + , ;a7ota 6ole. (WSV.02.05 ) T'e ;a7ota 6ole i) a ta%ti%al fire la/. 0lt'oug' no fire i) 100G ta%ti%al. +a, :edu%e) t'e )ignature of t'e fire 1/ pla%ing it 1elo& ground. +1, B/ %reating a large air draft, t'e fire &ill 1urn &it' le)) )(o7e t'an t'e fire pit. +%, $t i) ea)ier to lig't in 'ig' &ind).

WSVX.0 .0! 0!-11


1. ?at'er 3uel. Man/ Marine) ta7e )'ort%ut) &'en gat'ering fire&ood. Ta7ing a fe& e-tra (inute) %an (ean t'e differen%e 1et&een ea)e and fru)tration &'en 1uilding a fire. +1, Tinder. Tinder i) t'e initial fuel. $t )'ould 1e fine and dr/. ?at'er a dou1le 'andful of tinder for t'e fire to 1e 1uilt and an e-tra dou1le 'andful to 1e )tored in a dr/ pla%e for t'e follo&ing (orning. ;e& %an (oi)ten tinder enoug' to (a7e lig'ting t'e fire diffi%ult. So(e e-a(ple) of tinder areB +a, S'redded %edar"Huniper 1ar7, pine needle). +1, Sli*er) )'a*ed fro( a dr/ )ti%7. +%, 5atural fi1er) fro( e<uip(ent )upple(ented &it' pine pit%' +i.e., %otton 1attle dre))ing,. +d, Cotton 1all) and petroleu( Hell/ or C'ar-%lot'.

WSVX.0 .0! 0!-1

+ , Cindling. T'i) i) t'e (aterial t'at i) ignited 1/ t'e tinder t'at &ill 1urn long enoug' to ignite t'e fuel. +a, S(all )ti%7)"t&ig) pen%il-t'i%7 up to t'e t'i%7ne)) of t'e t'u(1. 4n)ure t'at t'e/ are dr/. +1, ;ue to a t/pi%all/ large re)in %ontent, e*ergreen li(1) often (a7e t'e 1e)t 7indling. T'e/ 1urn 'ot and fa)t, 1ut t/pi%all/ do not la)t long. +3, 3uel Wood. 3uel Wood i) u)ed to 7eep t'e 1la.e going long enoug' to fulfill it) purpo)e. $deall/, it )'ould 1urn )lo& enoug' to %on)er*e t'e &oodpile, (a7e plent/ of 'eat, and lea*e an a(ple )uppl/ of long-la)ting %oal). +a, 3ire&ood 1ro7en fro( t'e dead li(1) of )tanding tree) or &indfall) 'eld off t'e ground &ill 'a*e a1)or1ed le)) (oi)ture and t'erefore )'ould 1urn ea)il/. +1, :efrain fro( %utting do&n li*e, green tree). +%, Soft&ood) +e*ergreen) and %onifer), &ill 1urn 'ot and fa)t &it' lot) of )(o7e and )par7, lea*ing little in t'e &a/ of %oal). 6ard&ood) +1road leaf tree), &ill 1urn )lo&er &it' le)) )(o7e and lea*e a good 1ed of %oal). +d, >earn t'e &ood) indigenou) to t'e area. Bir%', dog&ood, and (aple are e-%ellent fuel). =)age orange, iron&ood, and (an.anita, t'oug' diffi%ult to 1rea7 up, (a7e terrifi% %oal). 0)pen and %otton&ood 1urn %lean 1ut lea*e little %oal). +e, Sta%7 /our &ood )uppl/ %lo)e enoug' to 1e 'and/, 1ut far enoug' fro( t'e fla(e) to 1e )afe. 2rote%t /our )uppl/ fro( additional pre%ipitation. +f, $f /ou 'appen to go do&n in an air%raft t'at 'a) re(ained inta%t, a (i-ture of ga) and oil (a/ 1e u)ed. D)e %aution &'en igniting t'i) (i-ture. %. Building t'e 3ire. T'e t/pe of fire 1uilt &ill 1e dependent upon it) intended u)e, eit'er %oo7ing, 'eating, or )ignaling. +1, Coo7ing 3ire). Coo7ing fire) are u)ed to %oo7 food and 1oil &ater. +a, Teepee 3ire. T'e teepee fire i) u)ed to produ%e a %on%entrated 'eat )our%e, pri(aril/ for %oo7ing. =n%e a good )uppl/ of %oal) %an 1e )een, %ollap)e t'e teepee and pu)' e(1er) into a %o(pa%t 1ed.

WSVX.0 .0! 0!-13

+ , 6eating 3ire). 6eating fire) are u)ed to dr/ %lot'ing and pro*ide a (ean) of )ignaling. +a, 2/ra(id 3ire. 2/ra(id fire) are u)ed to produ%e large a(ount) of lig't and 'eat, to dr/ out &et &ood, and pro*ide %oal) for %oo7ing.



d. Starting 3ire). >ig'ting fire) fall) into t&o %ategorie)B (odern (et'od) and pri(iti*e (et'od). +1, Modern Met'od). Modern igniter) u)e (odern de*i%e) &e nor(all/ t'in7 of to )tart a fire. :elian%e upon t'e)e (et'od) (a/ re)ult in failure during a )ur*i*al )ituation. T'e)e ite() (a/ fail &'en re<uired to )er*e t'eir purpo)e. +a, Mat%'e) and >ig'ter). 4n)ure /ou &aterproof t'e)e ite(). +1, Con*e- >en). Bino%ular, %a(era, tele)%opi% )ig't), or (agnif/ing len) are u)ed on 1rig't, )unn/ da/) to ignite tender. +%, 3lint and Steel. So(e t/pe) of flint I )teel de)ign) &ill 'a*e a 1lo%7 of (agne)iu( atta%'ed to t'e de*i%e, &'i%' %an 1e )'a*ed onto t'e tinder prior to igniting. =t'er de)ign) (a/ 'a*e (agne)iu( (i-ed into t'e flint to produ%e a 'ig'er <ualit/ of )par7. + , 2ri(iti*e Met'od). 2ri(iti*e fire (et'od) are t'o)e de*eloped 1/ earl/ (an. T'ere are nu(erou) te%'ni<ue) t'at fall into t'i) %ategor/. T'e onl/ (et'od t'at &ill 1e taug't at MCMWTC i) t'e Bo& I ;rill.

WSVX.0 .0! 0!-1!

+3, Bo& I ;rill. (WSV.02.05!) T'e te%'ni<ue of )tarting a fire &it' a 1o& I drill i) a true field e-pedient fire )tarting (et'od, &'i%' re<uire) a pie%e of %ord and 7nife fro( /our )ur*i*al 7it to %on)tru%t. T'e %o(ponent) of t'e 1o& I drill are 1o&, drill, )o%7et, fire 1oard, e(1er pat%', and 1irdJ) ne)t. +a, Bo&. T'e 1o& i) a re)ilient, green )ti%7 a1out 3"! of an in%' in dia(eter and 30-3# in%'e) in lengt'. T'e 1o&)tring %an 1e an/ t/pe of %ord, 'o&e*er, 550 %ord &or7) 1e)t. Tie t'e )tring fro( one end of t'e 1o& to t'e ot'er, &it'out an/ )la%7. +1, ;rill. T'e drill )'ould 1e a )traig't, )ea)oned 'ard&ood )ti%7 a1out 1" to 3"! of an in%' in dia(eter and A to 1 in%'e) in lengt'. T'e top end i) tapered to a 1lunt point to redu%e fri%tion generated in t'e )o%7et. T'e 1otto( end i) )lig'tl/ rounded to fit )nugl/ into t'e depre))ion on t'e fire1oard. +%, So%7et. T'e )o%7et i) an ea)il/ gra)ped )tone or pie%e of 'ard&ood or 1one &it' a )lig't depre))ion on one )ide. D)e it to 'old t'e drill in pla%e and to appl/ do&n&ard pre))ure. +d, 3ire 1oard. T'e fire1oard i) a )ea)oned )oft&ood &'i%' )'ould 1e 3"! of an in%' t'i%7. Cut a depre))ion 3"! of an in%' fro( t'e edge on one )ide of t'e fire1oard. Cut a V-)'ape not%' fro( t'e edge of t'e fire1oard into t'e %enter of t'e depre))ion. T'i) not%' i) de)igned to %olle%t and for( an e(1er, &'i%' &ill 1e u)ed to ignite t'e tinder. +e, 4(1er 2at%'. T'e e(1er pat%' i) (ade fro( an/ t/pe of )uita1le (aterial +i.e., leat'er, alu(inu( foil, or 1ar7,. $t i) u)ed to %at%' and tran)fer t'e e(1er fro( t'e fire1oard to t'e 1irdJ) ne)t. +f, Bird) 5e)t. T'e 1irdJ) ne)t i) a dou1le 'andful of tinder, &'i%' &ill 1e (ade into t'e )'ape of a ne)t. Tinder (u)t 1e dr/ and finel/ )'redded (aterial +i.e., outer 1ar7 fro( Huniper"%edar")age 1ru)' or inner 1ar7 fro( %otton&ood"a)pen or dr/ gra))"(o)),. >a/ /our tinder out in t&o e<ual ro&) a1out ! in%'e) &ide and A-1 in%'e) long. >oo)el/ roll t'e fir)t ro& into a 1all and 7nead t'e tinder to furt'er 1rea7 do&n t'e fi1er). 2la%e t'i) 1all perpendi%ular onto t'e )e%ond ro& of tinder and &rap. Cnead t'e tinder until all fi1er) of t'e 1all are inter&o*en. $n)ert t'e drill 'alf &a/ into t'e 1all to for( a partial %/linder. T'i) i) &'ere t'e e(1er &ill 1e pla%ed. +!, 2rodu%ing a fire u)ing t'e 1o& I drill. +a, 2la%e t'e e(1er pat%' under t'e V-)'aped not%'. +1, 0))u(e t'e 7neeling po)ition, &it' t'e left foot on t'e fire1oard near t'e depre))ion.
WSVX.0 .0! 0!-15

+%, >oad t'e 1o& &it' t'e drill. 4n)ure t'e drill i) 1et&een t'e &ood of t'e 1o& and 1o& )tring. 2la%e t'e drill into t'e depre))ion on t'e fire1oard. 2la%e t'e )o%7et on t'e tapered end of t'e drill. +d, D)e t'e left 'and to 'old t'e )o%7et &'ile appl/ing do&n&ard pre))ure. +e, D)e t'e rig't 'and to gra)p t'e 1o&. Wit' a )(oot' )a&ing (otion, (o*e t'e 1o& 1a%7 and fort' to t&irl t'e drill. +f, =n%e /ou 'a*e e)ta1li)'ed a )(oot' (otion, )(o7e &ill appear. =n%e )(o7e appear), appl/ (ore do&n&ard pre))ure and )a& t'e 1o& fa)ter. +g, W'en a t'i%7 la/er of )(o7e 'a) a%%u(ulated around t'e depre))ion, )top all (o*e(ent. :e(o*e t'e 1o&, drill, and )o%7et fro( t'e fire1oard, &it'out (o*ing t'e fire1oard. Carefull/ re(o*e /our left foot off t'e fire1oard. +', ?entl/ tap t'e fire1oard to en)ure all of t'e e(1er 'a) fallen out of t'e V-)'aped not%' and i) l/ing on t'e e(1er pat%'. :e(o*e t'e fire1oard. +i, Slo&l/ fan t'e 1la%7 po&der to )olidif/ it into a glo&ing e(1er. ?ra)ping t'e e(1er pat%', %arefull/ drop t'e e(1er into t'e %/linder of t'e 1irdJ) ne)t. +H, ?ra)p t'e 1irdJ) ne)t &it' t'e %/linder fa%ing to&ard) /ou and parallel to t'e ground. ?entl/ 1lo& air into t'e %/linder. 0) )(o7e fro( t'e ne)t 1e%o(e) t'i%7er, %ontinue to 1lo& air into t'e %/linder until fire appear). +5, Trou1le S'ooting t'e Bo& I ;rill. +a, T'e drill &ill not )ta/ in depre))ion- 0ppl/ (ore do&n&ard pre))ure and"or in%rea)e &idt'"dept' of depre))ion. +1, T'e drill &ill not t&irl- >e))en t'e a(ount of do&n&ard pre))ure and"or tig'ten 1o&)tring. +%, So%7et )(o7ing- de%rea)e t'e a(ount of do&n&ard pre))ure. Wood too )oft &'en %o(pared to 'ardne)) of drill. 0dd )o(e lu1ri%ationB ani(al fat, oil, or grea)e.

WSVX.0 .0! 0!-1#

+d, 5o )(o7e- Wood (a/ not 1e )ea)oned. C'e%7 drill to en)ure t'at it i) )traig't. Ceep left 'and lo%7ed again)t left )'in &'ile )a&ing. +e, S(o7e 1ut no e(1er- V-)'aped not%' not %ut into %enter of t'e depre))ion or not enoug' 'eat generated. +f, Bo&)tring run) up and do&n drill- D)e a lo%7ed rig't ar( &'en )a&ing. C'e%7 drill to en)ure t'at it i) )traig't. 4n)ure 1o&)tring run) o*er t'e top of t'e left 1oot. +g, Bird) ne)t &ill not ignite- Tinder not dr/. 5e)t &o*en too tig't. Tinder not 7neaded enoug'. Blo&ing too 'ard +e(1er &ill fra%ture,. e. E'()*+,)-.)*+ (.# F)/#. T'e fire (u)t 1e properl/ e-tingui)'ed. T'i) i) a%%o(pli)'ed 1/ u)ing t'e dro&n, )tir, and feel (et'od. +1, D/01* t'e fire 1/ pouring at &ater in t'e fire la/. + , S()/ t'e e(1er 1ed to en)ure t'at t'e fire i) %o(pletel/ out. +3, C'e%7 t'e 1ed of /our fire 1/ 2##3)*+ for an/ 'ot )pot). (4) I2 *4 .0( -50(- /# 20,*67 -( /( (.# 5/0"#-- 33 08#/ + )*. REFERENCE9 1. . 3. !. 3M 1-7#, Sur*i*al, 199 . C'ri) Kano&)7i, 0 Manual t'at %ould )a*e /ou life, 199#. Ko'n Wi)e(an, S0S Sur*i*al ?uide, 1993. 032 3#- !#, 0ir%re& Sur*i*al, 199#.

WSVX.0 .0! 0!-17


Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 MSVX.01.0 !"!05 STUDENT HANDOUT CORE VALUES AND MOUNTAIN LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES LESSON PURPOSE# T$e purpo%e of t$i% period of in%tru&tion i% to e'p$a%i(e t$e )ital role of leader%$ip in t$e &ondu&t of %u&&e%%ful operation% and to pro'ote a'ong leader% at all le)el% an under%tanding of t$e pro*le'% &o''on to unit% operating in a %u''er 'ountainou% en)iron'ent. T$i% le%%on relate% to all of t$e training t$at +ou ,ill re&ei)e $ere at MCMWTC. OUTLINE One of the most important tenets of o!" #eather operations is that stron$ an" onsistent !ea"ership is essentia! to s%r&i&a! an" to minimi'e in(%ries)* --M-M 7- 1 .Ta&ti&al -unda'ental% for Cold Weat$er Warfig$ting/ 1. POSITIVE LEADERSHIP AND THE RIGHT ATTITUDE. 0eader%$ip 'u%t *e *+ e1a'ple. 2t fir%t, $ar%$ and unfa'iliar &ondition% tend to *e frig$tening. Marine% ,ill find t$e'%el)e% up again%t 'an+ &$allenge% t$e+ $a)e ne)er 'et *efore and t$e en)iron'ent ,ill &on%tantl+ re'ind t$e' t$at t$e+ &an *e&o'e a &a%ualt+ if t$e+ 'a3e 'i%ta3e%. 2ggre%%i)e leader%$ip, ,$i&$ &on%i%tentl+ 'eet% and o)er&o'e% t$e &$allenge% of t$e en)iron'ent, i% e%%ential to 'i%%ion a&&o'pli%$'ent. T$ere ,ill *e t,o ene'ie% to &ontend ,it$# t$e ene'+ %oldier and t$e en)iron'ent it%elf. T$e fir%t %tep to,ard% defeating t$e%e ene'ie% i% getting +our Marine% in t$e rig$t 'ental attitude. T$e leader 'u%t 'aintain a po%iti)e attitude to,ard% t$e 'i%%ion, $i% Marine%, and t$e e4uip'ent t$e+ $a)e to &arr+ out t$e 5o*. 6ou &an *e defeated p%+&$ologi&all+, if +ou are not a,are of t$e %+'pto'% of a poorl+ 'oti)ated unit. a. Core Value% applied in a %ur)i)al %ituation. Core )alue are )er+ appli&a*le to leader%$ip in a %ur)i)al %ituation. 7n t$e a*%en&e of &on%tant ad$eren&e to our &ore )alue%, %u*ordinate Marine% 'a+ %uffer t$e &on%e4uen&e% of in5ur+ and in e1tre'e &a%e%, 892T:. *. :onor. :onor i% integrit+, re%pon%i*ilit+, and a&&ounta*ilit+. Wit$out $onor in t$i% t+pe of en)iron'ent, de&i%ion% are 'ade ,it$ ina&&urate and!or 'i%leading infor'ation. 8i%$onora*le a&tion% or intention% ulti'atel+ lead to unet$i&al *e$a)ior...tru%t *et,een Marine% ,ill erode, dependa*ilit+ ,ill *e&o'e uni'portant, and t$e re%ulting &on%e4uen&e% to energ+ &on%er)ation ,ill greatl+ affe&t a unit;% &o$e%ion and a*ilit+ to a&&o'pli%$ it% 'i%%ion. &. Courage. Courage i% doing t$e rig$t t$ing for t$e rig$t rea%on. Courage in t$i% t+pe of en)iron'ent for %'all unit leader% to ta3e &$arge of t$eir unit. T$e added %tre%% and pre%%ure indu&ed in 'ountainou% terrain 'a3e% t$e toug$ de&i%ion% e)en toug$er to

05-1 WSVX.01.0

'a3e# o%ra$eo%s !ea"ers ta+e that e,tra step) Tru%t and &onfiden&e in leader%$ip i% *uilt upon t$oroug$ training to en%ure t$eir 'en are &apa*le of o)er&o'ing t$e fear and un&ertaint+ of ene'+ and t$e $ar%$ en)iron'ent. 2 fe, e1a'ple% of &ourage are# <1= 9n%uring Marine% $a)e t$e proper &lot$ing on for t$e ta%3 t$e+ are perfor'ing. < = 9n%uring Marine% are 'aintaining %e&urit+, regardle%% of ,eat$er &ondition%. <3= >re)enting let$arg+ and la(ine%% fro' affe&ting de&i%ion 'a3ing %3ill%. <?= @i%ing to t$e &$allenge% of a $ar%$ en)iron'ent, and *eating t$e &old ,eat$er ,it$ %olid leader%$ip. d. Co''it'ent. Co''it'ent i% de)otion to t$e Corp% and +our fello, Marine%. Wit$out &o''it'ent, unit &o$e%ion ,ill *rea3 do,n. Marine% 'u%t 3no, t$at t$eir %afet+ and ,ell-*eing re%t% upon ot$er%. 0i3e,i%e, Marine% 'u%t pro)ide t$e %a'e %afet+ and ,ell-*eing for t$e'%el)e% and ot$er%. Anl+ t$roug$ t$i% t+pe of &o''it'ent ,ill a unit %u&&e%%full+ a&&o'pli%$ it 'i%%ion. . LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES PECULIAR TO MOUNTAIN OPERATIONS 2lt$oug$ 'o%t leader%$ip &$allenge% in a te'perate en)iron'ent are t$e %a'e in &old ,eat$er, %o'e pro*le'% ,ill ari%e ,$i&$ 'u%t *e 4ui&3l+ &orre&ted. a. Co&oon-li3e 91i%ten&e. Man+ 'en, ,$en *undled up in %u&&e%%i)e la+er% of &lot$ing and ,it$ t$eir $ead &o)ered *+ a $ood, tend to ,it$dra, ,it$in t$e'%el)e% and to a%%u'e a .&o&oon-li3e e1i%ten&e/. W$en %o &lot$ed, t$e indi)idualB% $earing and field of )i%ion are greatl+ re%tri&ted and $e tend% to *e&o'e o*li)iou% to $i% %urrounding%. :i% 'ental fa&ultie% *e&o'e %luggi%$ and alt$oug$ $e loo3%, $e doe% not %ee. 0eader% 'u%t re&ogni(e and o)er&o'e t$e%e %+'pto'%. 2dditionall+, t$e leader need% to ,at&$ for t$e gro,t$ of let$arg+ ,it$in $i'%elf and 'u%t *e alert to pre)ent it. :e 'u%t al,a+% appear alert to $i% 'en and pre)ent t$e' fro' %in3ing into a %tate of &o&oon-li3e e1i%ten&e. <1= 7f +our Marine% ,it$dra, into a %$ell or *e&o'e 'ood+ and depre%%ed, get t$e' in)ol)ed in &on)er%ation% ,it$ ea&$ ot$er. < = 8on;t a&&ept an e1&u%e for not &arr+ing out an order. Cold ,eat$er training all too often *e&o'e% a &a'ping trip. 0eader%$ip 'u%t &$allenge t$eir Marine% to train a% t$e+ ,ould fig$t. <3= 7f Marine% %till di%pla+ a .Co&oon-li3e/ e1i%ten&e, $a)e t$e' engage in p$+%i&al a&ti)it+. *. 7ndi)idual and Croup :i*ernation. T$i% pro*le' i% %i'ilar in 'anife%tation of ,it$dra,al fro' t$e en)iron'ent. 7t i% generall+ re&ogni(ed *+ a tenden&+ of indi)idual% to %ee3 t$e &o'fort of %leeping *ag%, and *+ t$e group re'aining in tent% or ot$er %$elter at t$e negle&t of t$eir dutie%. 7n e1tre'e &a%e%, guard and %e&urit+

WSVX.01.0 05-

'ea%ure% 'a+ *e 5eopardi(ed. Man+ ti'e%, it i% t$e leader%$ip t$at )iolate% t$i%, t$u% de%tro+ing t$e unit;% tru%t and &onfiden&e. <1= T$e leader 'u%t en%ure t$at all per%onnel re'ain alert and a&ti)e. @idged in%i%ten&e upon proper e1e&ution of all 'ilitar+ dutie% and t$e pro'pt and proper perfor'an&e of t$e 'an+ group .&$ore%/ i% e%%ential. < = Be alert for indi)idual% ,$o ,ill pla&e t$eir o,n p$+%i&al &o'fort a$ead of t$eir a%%igned dutie%. @e'ind t$e' t$at t$eir 'i%%ion a% Marine% i% to fig$t, and to do %o %u&&e%%full+ re4uire% t$at ,eapon% and e4uip'ent *e 'aintained in ,or3ing order. &. >er%onal Conta&t and Co''uni&ation%. 7t i% e%%ential t$at ea&$ indi)idual and group *e 3ept infor'ed of ,$at i% $appening. 8ue to t$e deadening of t$e %en%e% t+pi&all+ en&ountered in &old ,eat$er, a 'an left alone 'a+ 4ui&3l+ *e&o'e o*li)iou% to $i% %urrounding%, lo%e $i% %en%e of dire&tion, $i% &on&ern for $i% unit, and in e1tre'e &a%e%, for $i'%elf. :e 'a+ *e&o'e li3e a %$eep and 'erel+ follo,% along, not 3no,ing or &aring ,$et$er $i% unit i% ad)an&ing or ,it$dra,ing. 9a&$ &o''ander 'u%t ta3e %trong 'ea%ure% to en%ure t$at %'all unit leader% 3eep t$eir %u*ordinate% infor'ed. T$i% i% parti&ularl+ true of t$e &o'pan+ &o''ander% 3eeping t$eir platoon &o''ander% infor'ed, of platoon &o''ander% infor'ing t$eir %4uad leader%, and t$e %4uad leader% infor'ing t$eir 'en. Ceneral infor'ation i% of )alue, *ut t$e greate%t i'portan&e 'u%t *e pla&ed on 'atter% of i''ediate &on&ern and intere%t to t$e indi)idual. T$e &$ain of &o''and 'u%t *e rigidl+ follo,ed and leader% 'u%t %ee t$at no 'an i% left uninfor'ed a% to $i% i''ediate %urrounding and %ituation. <1= 7f +our Marine% find it $ard to re'e'*er t$ing% t$e+ $a)e *een taug$t, %$o, patien&e and re)ie, order%, drill% and SA>;%. Deep t$eir 'ind% *u%+. < = Te'per% nor'all+ flare up during t$i% t+pe of training, %o e1pe&t and *e prepared to deal ,it$ it ,$en it &o'e%. Maintain +our %en%e of $u'or, lead *+ e1a'ple, and don;t let unanti&ipated pro*le'% get t$e *e%t of +ou. d. Ti'e!8i%tan&e -a&tor%. Mountain operation% do&trine re&o''end% t$at ta&ti&al &o''ander% *e gi)en e)er+ opportunit+ to e1ploit lo&al %ituation% and ta3e t$e initiati)e ,$en t$e opportunit+ i% pre%ented. Be&au%e of t$e in&rea%ed a'ount of ti'e in)ol)ed in a 'o)e'ent and t$e additional ti'e re4uired to a&&o'pli%$ e)en %i'ple ta%3%, de)iation fro' ta&ti&al plan% i% diffi&ult. Ta&ti&al plan% are de)eloped after a t$oroug$ re&onnai%%an&e and detailed e%ti'ate of t$e %ituation. Suffi&ient fle1i*ilit+ i% allo,ed ea&$ %u*ordinate leader to u%e $i% initiati)e and ingenuit+ in a&&o'pli%$ing $i% 'i%%ion. Ti'e lag% are &o'pen%ated for *+ ti'el+ i%%uan&e of ,arning order%, *+ anti&ipating &$arge% in t$e ta&ti&al %ituation, and t$e earl+ i%%uan&e of frag order%. @e&ognition of ti'e!di%tan&e fa&tor% i% t$e 3e+ to %u&&e%%ful ta&ti&al operation% in &old ,eat$er 'ountainou% region%. <1= Ti'e-8i%tan&e -or'ula <T8-=. T$i% for'ula i% de%igned to *e a guideline and %$ould not *e &on%idered a% t$e e1a&t a'ount of ti'e re4uired for +our 'o)e'ent. -urt$er'ore, t$i% for'ula i% for u%e in ideal &ondition%. T$e T8-

05-3 WSVX.01.0

i% 'ade for troop on foot in t$e %u''erti'e or troop on %3i% in t$e ,interti'e. 7f on foot in deep %no,, 'ultipl+ t$e total ti'e *+ . <a= 3 3'!p$ E 1 $our for e)er+ 300 'eter% a%&entF and!or E1 $our for e)er+ G00 'eter% de%&ent. e. Con%er)ation of 9nerg+. T,o en)iron'ent% 'u%t *e o)er&o'e in 'ountainou% region%F one &reated *+ t$e ene'+ and t$e %e&ond &reated *+ t$e &li'ate and terrain. T$e &li'ati& en)iron'ent 'u%t not *e per'itted to %ap t$e energ+ of t$e unit to a point ,$ere it &an no longer &ope ,it$ t$e ene'+. T$e leader 'u%t *e in %uperior p$+%i&al &ondition. :e &annot e1pend t$e additional energ+ re4uired *+ $i% &on&ern for $i% 'en and %till $a)e t$e ne&e%%ar+ energ+ to lead and dire&t $i% unit in &o'*at. :e 'u%t re'e'*er t$at t$ere are %eldo' an+ tired unit%, 5u%t TIRED COMMANDERS! <1= 7- t$e unit &an effe&ti)el+ fig$t upon rea&$ing t$e o*5e&ti)e, t$en it $a% properl+ &on%er)ed energ+. It has -een repeate"!. "emonstrate" that at temperat%res !o#er than /0123 a!! other pro-!ems !ose si$nifi an e in the persona! -att!e for SURVIVAL* . S%r&i&a! ASPECTS O2 LEADERSHIP. W$en dealing ,it$ leader%$ip &$allenge% in a %ur)i)al %ituation, t$e fore'o%t ,eapon a leader 'u%t e'plo+ i% $i% )igilan&e# a leader;% attention %$ould *e fo&u%ed on en%uring all Marine% of t$e unit are &ontri*uting to t$e o)erall %u&&e%% of t$e %ituation. a. Co$e%ion. 2% a leader, +ou 'u%t en%ure t$at all 'e'*er% of t$e tea' are ,or3ing to,ard% t$e %ur)i)a*ilit+ of t$e unit. 6ou &an not allo, indi)idual% or %'all group% to for'ulate t$eir o,n goal% or plan of a&tion. *. Self-Wort$. 2 Marine ,it$out %elf-,ort$ i% a Marine ,$o doe% not )alue li)ing. 0eader%$ip i% a &riti&alF fa&tor in *uilding %elf-,ort$. Ta%3% 'u%t *e found for ea&$ Marine in ,$i&$ *e%t %uit% t$eir %ituation ,$ile atte'pting to re&ei)e po%iti)e re%ult%. <i.e., 2 'an ,it$ a *ro3en leg &an 'onitor t$e fire, 2 'an ,it$ a *ro3en ar' &an %till pro&ure ,ater for t$e unit=. T$i% ,ill 'a3e ea&$ and e)er+ Marine feel u%eful and not a *urden to t$e ot$er 'e'*er%, regardle%% of t$eir indi)idual %ituation. &. Hatural @ea&tion% to Stre%%. 0eader%$ip 'u%t 4ui&3l+ identif+ natural rea&tion% to %ign% of %tre%% $i% Marine% 'a+ *e di%pla+ing <i.e., -ear, 2n1iet+, Cuilt, 8epre%%ion=. -ailure to re&ogni(e t$e%e %ign% earl+ ,ill re%ult in in5urie%, illne%%, or deat$ ,$i&$ ,ill redu&e t$e unit;% &o'*at effe&ti)ene%%. Corre&ti)e a&tion 'u%t *e ta3en i''ediatel+? d. Will to Sur)i)e. T$e ,ill to %ur)i)e i% a .'ind-%et/ t$at 'u%t *e in%tilled and reinfor&ed ,it$in all Marine%. Wit$out t$e .,ill to %ur)i)e/, Marine% ,ill not %u&&eed. T$e follo,ing tool% &an aid to de)elop t$i% .'ind-%et/.

WSVX.01.0 05-?

<1= T$e Code of Condu&t. < = >ledge of 2llegian&e. <3= -ait$ in 2'eri&a. <?= >atrioti& Song% <5= Spiritual -ait$. ?. CONCLUSION. >ara'ount to %ur)i)al i% preparation and training t$at ,ill fo%ter tru%t and &onfiden&e in a unit;% &apa*ilit+ to *eat t$e ele'ent% and t$e ene'+. >oorl+ trained unit% ,ill not po%%e%% t$e .Will to Sur)i)e/ a% t$e+ la&3 t$e funda'ental %3ill% to o)er&o'e t$e %ur)i)al %ituation. 7ndi)idual &onfiden&e i% *uilt t$roug$ &$allenging and reali%ti& training t$at tea&$e% a Marine $o, to %ur)i)e and $o, to effe&ti)el+ e'plo+ &old ,eat$er e4uip'ent. Spirit of onfi"en e omes form trainin$ an" tra"ition))) ea h in"i&i"%a! Marine3 -e a%se of the fi$htin$ tra"ition of the Corps an" the to%$hness of trainin$3 is onfi"ent of his o#n a-i!it. an" that of his -%""ies))) This onfi"en e in themse!&es an" one anther &er. often spe!!s the "ifferen e -et#een &i tor. an" SURVIVAL an" "efeat an" annihi!ation)* -M-M 1-0 .0eading Marine%/ RE2ERENCE4 1. 20M2@ ?3919", Core Value% . MC8> 1-0, 0eading Marine% 3. -M-M 7- 1, Ta&ti&al -unda'ental% for Cold Weat$er Warfig$ting

05-5 WSVX.01.0


Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 WSVX02 0! 2"!"05 STUDENT HANDOUT SURVIVAL SIGNALING AND RECOVERY TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE #n a $old %eat&er 'ountainou( en)iron'ent, $ondu$t (ur)i)al re$o)er*, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e( (WSVX.02.06) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES (1) Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, de($ri+e in %riting t&e audio international di(tre(( Signal, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e( (WSVX.02.06a) (2) Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, de($ri+e in %riting t&e )i(ual international di(tre(( (ignal, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e( (WSVX.02.06 ) (!) Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, $on(tru$t an i'pro)i(ed )i(ual (ignaling de)i$e, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e( (WSVX.02.06") (#) Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e, utili,e a &oi(t re$o)er* de)i$e, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e( (WSVX.02.06$OUTLINE 1 SIGNALING DEVICES T&e e.uip'ent li(ted +elo% are ite'( t&at 'a* +e on *our +od* or ite'( in(ide an air$raft /enerall*, t&e(e ite'( are u(ed a( (ignaling de)i$e( during 'o)e'ent T&e* 'u(t +e a$$e((i+le for u(e at an* 'o'ent( noti$e a 0*rote$&ni$( 0*rote$&ni$( in$lude (tar $lu(ter( and ('o1e grenade( W&en u(ing ('o1e grenade( in (no% pa$1, a platfor' 'u(t +e +uilt Wit&out a platfor', t&e ('o1e grenade %ill (in1 into t&e (no% pa$1 and t&e (no% %ill a+(or+ all ('o1e M-12! 0en 3lare T&e M-12! 0en 3lare i( a (ignaling de)i$e $arried in t&e )e(t of all $re% $&ief( and pilot( 4e'e'+er to $o$1 t&e gun prior to ($re%ing in t&e flare Stro+e 5ig&t 6 (tro+e lig&t i( generall* $arried in t&e flig&t )e(t( of all $re% $&ief( and pilot( #t $an +e u(ed at nig&t for (ignaling Care 'u(t +e ta1en +e$au(e a pilot under goggle( $an7t di(tingui(& a fla(&ing (tro+e fro' &o(tile fire

+ $


WSVX 02 0!

d e f

3la(&lig&t B* u(ing fla(&lig&t(, a Mor(e $ode 'e((age $an +e (ent 6n S8S di(tre(( $all $on(i(t( of (ending t&ree dot(, t&ree da(&e(, and t&ree dot( 9eep repeating t&i( (ignal W&i(tle T&e %&i(tle i( u(ed in $on:un$tion %it& t&e audio international di(tre(( (ignal #t i( u(ed to $o''uni$ate %it& for$e( on t&e ground 6;"04C-90 < 6;"04C-112 T&e 6;" 04C 90 (ur)i)al radio i( a part of t&e a)iator7( (ur)i)al )e(t T&e 6;"04C-112 %ill e)entuall* repla$e t&e 6;"04C-90 Bot& radio7( $an tran('it eit&er tone =+ea$on- or )oi$e 3re.uen$* for +ot& are 2%2.% &'( )'*"+, and 2#!.0 &'( +a"', Bot& of t&e(e fre.uen$ie( are on t&e >?3 Band @a*";ig&t 3lare T&e da*"nig&t flare i( a good pea$eti'e (ur)i)al (ignal T&e flare i( for nig&t (ignaling %&ile t&e ('o1e i( for da* T&e older )er(ion flare i( identified +* a red $ap %it& t&ree nu++in( %&ile t&e ne% generation &a( t&ree ring( around t&e +od* for identifi$ation during dar1ne(( T&e flare +urn( for approAi'atel* 20 (e$ond %&ile t&e ('o1e +urn( for approAi'atel* !0 (e$ond(

NOTEB 8n$e one end i( u(ed up, dou(e in %ater to $ool and (a)e t&e ot&er end for future u(e & Signal Mirror 6 'irror or an* (&in* o+:e$t $an +e u(ed a( a (ignaling de)i$e #t $an +e u(ed a( 'an* ti'e( a( needed #t $an +e $on$entrated in one area, 'a1ing it (e$ure fro' ene'* o+(er)ation 6 'irror i( t&e +e(t (ignaling de)i$e for a (ur)i)or ?o%e)er, it i( onl* a( effe$ti)e a( it( u(er 5earn &o% to u(e one no% +efore *ou find *our(elf in a (ur)i)al (ituation =1- Militar* (ignal 'irror( &a)e in(tru$tion( on it( +a$1 (&o%ing &o% to u(e it #t (&ould +e 1ept $o)ered to pre)ent a$$idental fla(&ing t&at 'a* +e (een +* t&e ene'* =2- 6n* (&in* 'etalli$ o+:e$t $an +e (u+(tituted for a (ignal 'irror =3- ?a,e, ground fog, or a 'irage 'a* 'a1e it &ard for a pilot to (pot (ignal( fro' a fla(&ing o+:e$t So, if po((i+le, get to t&e &ig&e(t point in *our area %&en fla(&ing #f *ou $an7t deter'ine t&e air$raft7( lo$ation, fla(& *our (ignal in t&e dire$tion of t&e air$raft noi(e

WSVX 2 ! C2-2

;8TDB 0ilot( &a)e reported (eeing 'irror fla(&e( up to 1!0 1ilo'eter( a%a* under ideal $ondition(

AIMING THE SIGNAL MIRROR 2. METHODS O- COMMUNICATION a 6udio Signaling +* 'ean( of (ound 'a* +e good, +ut it doe( &a)e (o'e di(ad)antage( =1- #t &a( li'ited range unle(( *ou u(e a de)i$e t&at %ill reall* pro:e$t t&e (ound =2- #t 'a* +e &ard to pinpoint one( lo$ation, due to e$&oe( or %ind =3- #nternational @i(tre(( Signal (WSVX.02.06a) T&e (ur)i)or %ill 'a1e (iA +la(t( in one 'inute, returned +* t&ree +la(t( in one 'inute +* t&e re($uer + Vi(ual Vi(ual (ignal are generall* +etter t&an audio (ignal( T&e* %ill pin point *our lo$ation and $an +een (een at a greater di(tan$e( under good %eat&er $ondition( =1- T&e )i(ual international di(tre(( (*'+ol i( re$ogni,ed +* a (erie( of t&ree e)enl* (pa$ed i'pro)i(ed (ignaling de)i$e( (WSVX.02.06 )


WSVX 02 0!

IMPROVISED SIGNALING DEVICES (WSVX.02.06") #'pro)i(ed (ignaling de)i$e( are generall* (tati$ in nature T&e* 'u(t +e pla$ed in a po(ition to +e (een +* re($uer( T&e* are 'ade fro' an* re(our$e( a)aila+le, %&et&er natural or 'an-'ade a S'o1e /enerator T&e ('o1e generator i( an eA$ellent i'pro)i(ed )i(ual (ignaling de)i$e #t gi)e( t&e (ur)i)or t&e fleAi+ilit* to (ignal in eit&er da* or nig&t $ondition( Build t&e' a( (oon a( ti'e and (ituation per'it, and prote$t t&e' until needed =1- Con(tru$t *our fire in a natural $learing or along t&e edge of (trea'( =or 'a1e a $learing- Signal fire( under den(e foliage %ill not +e (een fro' t&e air =2- 3ind t%o log(, ! - 10 in$&e( in dia'eter, and approAi'atel* fi)e feet long 0la$e t&e t%o log( parallel to ea$& ot&er %it& a t%o foot (pa$ing =3- /at&er enoug& (ti$1(, approAi'atel* t%o in$&e( in dia'eter and t%o feet long to lie a$ro(( t&e fir(t t%o log( T&i( (er)e( a( a platfor' for t&e fire =C- /at&er enoug& $o'pletel* dr* 1indling to fill t&e entire fra'e =5- 0la$e *our tinder under t&e platfor' =!- /at&er enoug& pine +oug& to la* on top of t&e p*ra'id fire T&i( (er)e( to prote$t t&e fire and t&e tinder =7- To lig&t, re'o)e t&e pine +oug& and ignite t&e tinder #f a)aila+le, $on(tru$t a tor$& to (peed up t&e lig&ting pro$e((, e(pe$iall* for 'ultiple fire(

WSVX 2 ! C2-C

SMO.E GENERATOR =2- To $reate a ('o1e effe$t during t&e da* lig&t &our(, pla$e t&e pine +oug& on t&e ignited fire =9- 0la$ing a ('o1e grenade or $olored flare under t&e platfor' %ill $&ange t&e $olor of t&e ('o1e generated T&e fire to dra% in t&e $olored ('o1e T&e $olored ('o1e (&ould $ontra(t %it& *our en)iron'ent and in$rea(e *our $&an$e( of re$o)er* =10-#f on loo(e deep (no% pa$1, a platfor' of +oug&( need to +e +uilt under t&e t%o 'ain log( prior to $on(tru$tion + 6rrange'ent or alteration of natural 'aterial( Su$& t&ing( a( t%ig( or +ran$&e( $an +e pla$ed into letter( or (*'+ol( to $ontra(t %it& t&e (no% To attra$t 'ore attention ground (ignal( (&ould +e arranged in +ig geo'etri$ pattern( =1- #nternational (*'+ol( T&e follo%ing (*'+ol( are internationall* 1no%nB

INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLS =2- S&ado%( #f no ot&er 'ean( are a)aila+le, *ou 'a* &a)e to $on(tru$t 'ound( t&at %ill u(e t&e (un to $a(t (&ado%( T&e(e 'ound( (&ould +e $on(tru$ted in one of t&e #nternational @i(tre(( 0attern( 0iled (no% or (no% +lo$1( 'a* +e u(ed to $a(t (&ado%( To +e effe$ti)e, t&e(e (&ado% (ignal( 'u(t +e oriented to t&e (un to produ$e t&e +e(t (&ado%( #n area( $lo(e to t&e e.uator, a ;ort& ESout& line gi)e( a (&ado% an*ti'e eA$ept noon 6rea( furt&er nort& or (out& of t&e e.uator re.uire t&e u(e of Da(tEWe(t line or (o'e point of t&e $o'pa(( in +et%een to gi)e t&e +e(t re(ult


WSVX 02 0!

=3- Si,e T&e letter( (&ould +e large a( po((i+le for a pilot or $re% to (pot =C-

SI/E AND RATIO =5- Contra(t W&en $on(tru$ting letter (*'+ol(, $ontra(t t&e letter fro' t&e (urrounding )egetation and terrain #deall*, +ring 'aterial fro' anot&er lo$ation to +uild t&e letter T&i( $ould +e $lot&ing, air panel(, (pa$e +lan1et, et$ =a- 8n (no%, pile pine +oug& or u(e (ea d*e fro' a life )e(t $an +e utili,ed C AIR TO GROUND COMMUNICATIONS 6ir to ground $o''uni$ation( $an +e a$$o'pli(&ed +* (tandard air$raft a$1no%ledg'ent( a 6ir$raft %ill indi$ate t&at ground (ignal( &a)e +een (een and under(tood +*B =1- 4o$1ing fro' (ide to (ide T&i( $an +e done during t&e da* or in +rig&t 'oonlig&t =2- Ma1ing green fla(&e( T&i( i( done %it& a (ignal la'p during dar1 nig&t( + 6ir$raft %ill indi$ate t&at ground (ignal( &a)e +een (een +ut not under(tood +*B =1- Ma1ing a $o'plete $ir$le to t&e left during t&e da* or in +rig&t 'oonlig&t =2- Ma1ing red fla(&e( T&i( i( done %it& a (ignal la'p during dar1 nig&t(

WSVX 2 ! C2-!

5 RECOVERY Marine( trapped +e&ind ene'* line( in future $onfli$t( 'a* not eAperien$e .ui$1 re$o)er* Marine( 'a* &a)e to 'o)e to a pla$e %&i$& %ill 'ini'i,e ri(1 to t&e re$o)er* for$e 6 Marine 'u(t ta1e re(pon(i+ilit* for t&e (afet* of t&e re$o)er* for$e a 0la$e'ent Con(ideration( #n a &o(tile (ituation, (ignaling de)i$e( (&ould not +e pla$ed near t&e follo%ing area( due to t&e po((i+ilit* of $o'pro'i(eB =1- 8+(ta$le( and +arrier( =2- 4oad( and trail( =3- #n&a+ited area( =C- Water%a*( and +ridge( =5- ;atural line( of drift =!- Man-'ade (tru$ture( =7- 6ll $i)ilian and 'ilitar* per(onnel + Ta$ti$al Con(ideration T&e follo%ing ta$ti$al $on(ideration( (&ould +e ad&ered to prior to e'plo*ing a (ignaling de)i$e =1- >(e t&e (ignal in a 'anner, %&i$& %ill not :eopardi,e t&e (afet* of t&e re$o)er* for$e or *ou =2- 5o$ate a po(ition %it& good e($ape route( and o+(er)ation of a)enue( of approa$& 0o(ition (&ould +e lo$ated relati)el* $lo(e to eAtra$t (ite in order to 'ini'i,e ti'e (pent on ground +* t&e re$o)er* for$e =3- Maintain $ontinuou( (e$urit* %&ile t&e (ignaling de)i$e i( e'plo*ed =C- #f ene'* 'o)e'ent i( dete$ted in t&e area prior to re$o)er*, atte'pt to re$o)er or $on$eal t&e (ignal =5- D'plo* (ignaling de)i$e( onl* during t&e pre($ri+ed ti'e( a( (tated in t&e 'i((ion order $ 4e$o)er* @e)i$e( (WSVX.02.06$) #n 'ountainou( terrain, a &eli$opter landing 'a* +e i'po((i+le due to ground (lope, (no% pa$1, or )egetation T&e (ur)i)or 'u(t +e fa'iliar %it& re$o)er* de)i$e( t&at 'a* +e a+oard t&e air$raft


WSVX 02 0!

WSVX 2 ! C2-2


SLING HOIST d 4e$o)er* +* ot&er t&an air$raft 4e$o)er* +* 'ean( ot&er t&an air$raft 'a* o$$ur >nit S807( (&ould in$lude (ignaling and lin1-up %it& for$e( at t&e follo%ing lo$ation(B =1- Border Cro((ing( T&e e)ader %&o $ro((e( into a neutral $ountr* i( (u+:e$t to detention +* t&at $ountr* for t&e duration of t&e %ar =2-358T =a- Stati$ 4e$o)er* along a (tati$ 358T i( al%a*( diffi$ult >nder t&e(e $ondition(, ene'* and friendl* for$e( $an +e den(el* arra*ed and %ell $a'ouflaged %it& good field( of fire 6tte'pt( to penetrate t&e 358T (&ould +e a)oided =+- 6d)an$ing #ndi)idual( i(olated in front of ad)an$ing friendl* unit( (&ould i''ediatel* ta1e $o)er and %ait for t&e friendl* unit( to o)errun t&eir po(ition =$- 4etreating #ndi)idual( +et%een oppo(ing for$e( (&ould i''ediatel* ta1e $o)er and %ait for ene'* unit( to pa(( o)er t&eir po(ition 6fter 'o(t ene'* unit( &a)e 'o)ed on, e)ader( (&ould tr* to lin1 up %it& ot&er i(olated friendl* ele'ent( and return to friendl* for$e( =3- 5in1-up %it& friendl* patrol( >nit aut&enti$ation nu'+er( and"or lo$all* de)eloped $ode( 'a* a((i(t t&e e)ader( to (afel* 'a1e $onta$t in or around t&e 358T and %&en approa$&ed +* friendl* for$e( #dentif* *our(elf to


WSVX 02 0!

friendl* unit %&ile +e&ind $o)er 8n$e *ou &a)e +een a$1no%ledged follo% an* $o''and( a( *ou 'a1e *our approa$& RE-ERENCE0 1 2 3 C 3M 21-7!, Sur)i)al, 1992 Barr* @a)ie( BDM, T&e S6S D($ape, D)a(ion, and Sur)i)al Manual, 199! 63 !C-C, Sear$& and 4e($ue Sur)i)al Training, 1925 F0 3-50 3, Foint @o$trine for D)a(ion and 4e$o)er*, 199!

WSVX 2 ! C2-10


Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 WSVX.0 .07 !"!05 STUDENT HANDOUT SURVIVAL NAVIGATION TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE. #n $old %eat&er 'ountainou( en)iron'ent, na)igate in a (ur)i)al (ituation, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.07) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES *1+ Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting t&e $on(ideration( for tra)el, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.07a) * + Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, de($ri,e in %riting t&e (ea(onal relation(&ip of t&e (un and it( 'o)e'ent during t&e e-uino. and (ol(ti$e, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.07b) *3+ Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, and gi)en a $ir$ular na)igational $&art and operating latitude, deter'ine t&e ,earing of t&e (un at (unri(e and (un(et, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.07c) */+ Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, $on(tru$t a po$0et na)igator, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.07 ) *5+ Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, de($ri,e in %riting t&e t%o 'et&od( for lo$ating t&e 1ort& Star, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.07!) OUTLINE 1. CONSIDERATIONS "OR STA#ING OR TRAVELLING. (WSVX.02.07a) a. Sta2 %it& t&e air$raft or )e&i$le if po((i,le. More t&an li0el2 (o'e,od2 0no%( %&ere it %a( going. #t i( al(o a read2-'ade (&elter. ,. 3ea)e onl2 %&en4 *1+ Certain of pre(ent lo$ation, &a)e 0no%n de(tination, and t&e a,ilit2 to get t&ere. * + Water, food, (&elter, and!or &elp $an ,e rea$&ed. *3+ Con)in$ed t&at re($ue i( not $o'ing. 07-1 WSVX.0 .07

$. #f t&e de$i(ion i( 'ade to tra)el, t&e follo%ing 'u(t al(o ,e $on(idered4 *1+ W&i$& dire$tion to tra)el and %&2. * + W&at plan i( to ,e follo%ed. *3+ W&at e-uip'ent (&ould ,e ta0en. */+ 5o% to 'ar0 t&e trail. *5+ 6redi$ted %eat&er. d. #f t&e ta$ti$al (ituation per'it( lea)e t&e follo%ing infor'ation at t&e departure point4 *1+ 7eparture ti'e. * + 7e(tination. *3+ 8oute of tra)el!dire$tion. */+ 6er(onal $ondition. *5+ 9)aila,le (upplie(. . DA#TIME SURVIVAL NAVIGATION a. Sun Mo)e'ent. #t i( ta0en for granted t&e (un ri(e( in t&e ea(t and (et( in t&e %e(t. T&i( i( -uite 'i(leading. In fact, depending on an observers latitude and the $!a$%&, the sun could rise and set up to 50 degrees off of true east and west. P%$'('%& %) (*! S+& a( E,+'&%- a& S%.$('c! *1+ Su''er!Winter Sol(ti$e4 * 1 :une! 1 7e$e',er+ T%o ti'e( during t&e 2ear %&en t&e (un &a( no apparent nort&%ard or (out&%ard 'otion. * + Vernal!9utu'nal ;-uino.4 * 0 Mar$&! 3 Septe',er+ T%o ti'e( during t&e 2ear %&en t&e (un $ro((e( t&e $ele(tial e-uator and t&e lengt& of da2 and nig&t are appro.i'atel2 e-ual.

07WSVX.0 .07

SEASONAL RELATIONSHIP ,. Sun<( Mo)e'ent. (WSVX.02.07b) 9( refle$ted in t&e diagra' a,o)e, t&e eart& $ontinuou(l2 'o)e( in a $2$le fro' (ol(ti$e to e-uino.= t&roug&out ea$& da2, &o%e)er, t&e (un appear( to tra)el( in a unifor' ar$ a$ro(( t&e (02 fro' (unri(e to (un(et. ;.a$tl2 &alf-%a2 along it( dail2 >ourne2, t&e (un %ill ,e dire$tl2 (out& of an o,(er)er *or nort& if t&e o,(er)er i( in t&e Sout&ern 5e'i(p&ere+. T&i( rule 'a2 not appl2 to o,(er)er( in t&e tropi$( *,et%een 3.5 degree( nort& and (out& latitude+ or in t&e polar region( *"0 degree( latitude+. #t i( at t&i( point t&at (&ado%( %ill appear t&eir (&orte(t. T&e ti'e at %&i$& t&i( o$$ur( i( referred to a( ?lo$al apparent noon.@ $. Sun<( Bearing. (WSVX.02.07c) Wit& an under(tanding of t&e (un<( dail2 'o)e'ent, a( %ell a( it( (ea(onal pat&(, a te$&ni-ue i( deri)ed t&at %ill deter'ine t&e true ,earing of t&e (un at (unri(e and (un(et. Wit& t&e aid of a $ir$ular na)igational $&art, %e $an a$$uratel2 na)igate ,a(ed on t&e (un<( true ,earing4 *1+ 7eter'ine t&e (un<( 'a.i'u' a'plitude at 2our operating latitude u(ing t&e top portion of t&e $&art. MWTC %/!0a('&1 .a('(+ ! '$ 23 !10!!$. * + S$ale t&e $enter ,a(eline of t&e $&art %&ere 0 appear( a( t&e 'iddle nu',er= %rite in t&e 'a.i'u' a'plitude on t&e &oriAontal nort& ! (out& ,a(eline. *3+ Continue to ($ale t&e ,a(eline= 2ou (&ould di)ide t&e ,a(eline into " to 10 ti$0 'ar0( t&at repre(ent e-ual di)i(ion( of t&e 'a.i'u' a'plitude. */+ Bro' toda2<( date along t&e $ir$u'feren$e, dra% a (traig&t line do%n until it inter(e$t( t&e ,a(eline. *5+ T&e nu',er t&i( line inter(e$t( i( toda2<( (olar a'plitude. #f t&e nu',er i( left of 0, it i( a ?nort&@ a'plitude= if t&e nu',er i( rig&t of 0, it i( a ?(out&@ a'plitude. C(e t&e for'ula at t&e ,otto' of t&e $&art to deter'ine t&e (un<( ,earing at (unri(e or (un (et. 07-3 WSVX.0 .07

WSVX.0 .07

C'0c+.a0 Na4'1a('%&a. C*a0(

07-5 WSVX.0 .07

d. S&ado% Sti$0 Con(tru$tion. T&i( te$&ni-ue %ill a$&ie)e a $ardinal dire$tion %it&in 10 degree( of a$$ura$2 if done %it&in t%o &our( of lo$al apparent noon. Dn$e again, t&i( te$&ni-ue 'a2 ,e i'pra$ti$al near t&e polar region( a( (&ado%( tend to ,e )er2 long= (i'ilarl2, in t&e tropi$( (&ado%( are generall2 )er2 ('all. Ca& %&.5 b! +$! 6'(*'& 2 *%+0$ %) .%ca. a//a0!&( &%%&. *1+ Eet a (traig&t, 3-" foot (ti$0 free of ,ran$&e( and pointed at t&e end( and 3-5 ('all 'ar0er(4 i.e., (ti$0(, ro$0(, or nail(. * + 6la$e t&e (ti$0 uprig&t in t&e ground and 'ar0 t&e (&ado% tip %it& a 'ar0er. *3+ Wait 10-15 'inute( and 'ar0 (&ado% tip again %it& a 'ar0er. */+ 8epeat t&i( until all of t&e 'ar0er( are u(ed.

WSVX.0 .07


*5+ T&e 'ar0er( %ill for' a We(tF;a(t line. *"+ 6ut 2our left foot on t&e fir(t 'ar0er and 2our rig&t foot on t&e la(t 'ar0er, 2ou %ill t&en ,e fa$ing nort&. e. L%ca. A//a0!&( N%%&. W&ene)er u(ing an2 t2pe of (&ado% $a(ting de)i$e to deter'ine dire$tion, ?lo$al apparent noon@ *or t&e (un<( &ig&e(t point during t&e da2+ 'u(t ,e 0no%n. 3o$al apparent noon $an ,e deter'ined ,2 t&e follo%ing 'et&od(. *1+ Gno%ing (unri(e and (un(et fro' 'i((ion order(, i.e., (unri(e 0"30 and (un(et 1930. Ta0e t&e total a'ount of da2lig&t *13 &our(+, di)ide ,2 *" &our( 30 'inute(+, and add to (unri(e *0"30 plu( " &our( 30 'inute(+. Ba(ed on t&i( e.a'ple, lo$al apparent noon %ould ,e 1300. * + C(ing t&e (tring 'et&od. T&e (tring 'et&od i( u(ed to find t%o e-uidi(tant 'ar0( ,efore and after e(ti'ated (olar noon. T&e $enter point ,et%een t&e(e t%o 'ar0( repre(ent( lo$al apparent noon. . POC7ET NAVIGATOR. (WSVX.02.07 + T&e onl2 'aterial re-uired i( a ('all pie$e of $ard,oard or ot&er flat-(urfa$e 'aterial, a %at$&, a pen or pen$il, and a 1 to in$& pin or nail. a. Set t&i( tin2 rod uprig&t on 2our flat pie$e of 'aterial (o t&at t&e (un %ill $au(e it to $a(t a (&ado%. Mar0 t&e po(ition %&ere t&e ,a(e of t&e rod (it( (o it $an ,e returned to t&e (a'e (pot for later reading(. 6la$e t&e na)igator flat on le)el ground. Se$ure t&e na)igator fro' %ind ,2 pla$ing ro$0( on it. Write t&e date and 'ar0 t&e tip of t&e (&ado%. ,. 9( t&e (un 'o)e( t&e (&ado%-tip 'o)e(. Ma0e repeated (&ado%-tip 'ar0ing( e)er2 15 'inute(. 9( 2ou 'a0e t&e 'ar0( on t&e tip of t&e (&ado% en(ure t&at 2ou %rite do%n t&e ti'e. $. 9t t&e end of t&e da2, $onne$t t&e (&ado%-tip 'ar0ing(. T&e re(ult %ill nor'all2 ,e a $ur)ed line. T&e ar$& %ill ,e le(( pronoun$ed $lo(er to t&e )ernal or autu'nal e-uino.e( *Mar$& 0 and Septe',er 3+. #f it i( not $on)enient or t&e ta$ti$al (ituation doe( not per'it to ta0e a full da2H( (&ado%-tip reading(, 2our o,(er)ation $an ,e $ontinued on t&e follo%ing da2 ,2 orienting t&e po$0et na)igator on t&e ground (o t&at t&e (&ado%-tip i( aligned %it& a pre)iou(l2 plotted point(. d. T&e 'ar0ing( 'ade at t&e (unH( &ig&e(t point during t&e da2, or (olar noon, i( t&e nort&F(out& line. T&e dire$tion of nort& (&ould ,e indi$ated %it& an arro% on t&e na)igator a( (oon a( it i( deter'ined. T&i( nort&-(out& line i( dra%n fro' t&e ,a(e of t&e rod to t&e 'ar0 'ade at (olar noon. T&i( line i( t&e (&orte(t line t&at $an ,e dra%n fro' t&e ,a(e of t&e pin to t&e (&ado%-tip $ur)e. e. To u(e 2our po$0et na)igator, &old it (o t&at %it& t&e (&ado%-tip i( aligned %it& a plotted point at t&e (pe$ified point. i.e.= if it i( no% 0900 t&e (&ado%-tip 'u(t ,e aligned %it& t&at point. T&i( %ill en(ure t&at 2our po$0et na)igator i( le)el. T&e dra%n arro% i( no% oriented to true nort&, fro' %&i$& 2ou $an orient 2our(elf to an2 de(ired dire$tion of tra)el.

07-7 WSVX.0 .07

f. T&e po$0et na)igator %ill %or0 all da2 and %ill not ,e out of date for appro.i'atel2 one %ee0. 11W *3 7.5+ 1 *0!3"0+ 1W *315+ W1W * 9 .5+ W * 70+ B#33 BDTTDM 593B TD CDM63;T; C#8C3; 1; */5+ ;1; *"7.5+ ; *90+ 11; * .5+

POC7ET NAVIGATOR /. NIGHTTIME SURVIVAL NAVIGATION a. Mar0 1ort&. To aid 2ou in na)igating at nig&t, it i( ,enefi$ial to %at$& %&ere t&e (un goe( do%n. #f 2ouHre going to (tart 'o)ing after dar0 'ar0 t&e nort&erl2 dire$tion. ,. 3o$ating t&e 1ort& Star. T&ere are t%o 'et&od( u(ed in lo$ating t&e 1ort& Star. (WSVX.02.07!)

WSVX.0 .07

*1+ C(ing t&e Big 7ipper *Ursa Major+. T&e ,e(t indi$tor( are t&e t%o Jdipper( J. T&e 1ort& Star i( t&e la(t (tar in t&e &andle of t&e little dipper, %&i$& i( not t&e ea(ie(t $on(tellation to find. 5o%e)er, t&e Big 7ipper i( one of t&e 'o(t pro'inent $on(tellation( in t&e 1ort&ern 5e'i(p&ere. T&e t%o lo%e(t (tar( of t&e Big 7ipperH( $up a$t a( pointer( to t&e 1ort& Star. #f 2ou line up t&e(e t%o (tar(, t&e2 'a0e a (traig&t line t&at run( dire$tl2 to t&e 1ort& Star. T&e di(tan$e to t&e 1ort& Star along t&i( line i( 5 ti'e( t&at ,et%een t&e t%o pointer (tar(. * + C(ing Ca((iopeia *Big M or W+. 7ra% a line (traig&t out fro' t&e $enter (tar, appro.i'atel2 &alf t&e di(tan$e to t&e Big 7ipper. T&e 1ort& Star %ill ,e lo$ated t&ere.


NOTE4 Be$au(e t&e Big 7ipper and Ca((iopeia rotate around t&e 1ort& Star, t&e2 %ill not al%a2( appear in t&e (a'e po(ition in t&e (02. #n t&e &ig&er latitude(, t&e 1ort& Star i( le(( effe$ti)e for t&e purpo(e of orienting ,e$au(e it appear( &ig&er in t&e (02. 9t t&e $enter of t&e 9r$ti$ $ir$le, it %ould ,e dire$tl2 o)er&ead, and all dire$tion( lead Sout&.

07-9 WSVX.0 .07

$. Sout&ern Cro((. #n t&e Sout&ern 5e'i(p&ere, 6olari( i( not )i(i,le. T&e Sout&ern Cro(( i( t&e 'o(t di(tin$ti)e $on(tellation. 9n i'aginar2 line t&roug& t&e long a.i( of t&e Sout&ern Cro((, or True Cro((, point( to%ard( a dar0 (pot de)oid of (tar( appro.i'atel2 t&ree degree( off(et fro' t&e Sout& 6ole. T&e True Cro(( (&ould not ,e $onfu(ed %it& t&e larger $ro(( near,2 0no%n a( t&e Bal(e Cro((, %&i$& i( le(( ,rig&t, 'ore %idel2 (pa$ed, and &a( fi)e (tar(. T&e True Cro(( $an ,e $onfir'ed ,2 t&e t%o $lo(el2 (pa$ed )er2 ,rig&t (tar( t&at trail ,e&ind t&e $ro((pie$e. T&e(e t%o (tar( are often ea(ier to pi$0 out t&an t&e $ro(( it(elf. 3oo0 for t&e'. T%o of t&e (tar( in t&e True Cro(( are a'ong t&e ,rig&te(t (tar( in t&e &ea)en(= t&e2 are t&e (tar( on t&e (out&ern and ea(tern ar'(. T&e (tar( on t&e nort&ern and %e(tern ar'( are not a( apparent. N%(!8 T&e i'aginar2 point depi$ted in t&e pi$ture i( t&e dar0 (pot de)oid of (tar(.

SOUTHERN CROSS d. Moon 1a)igator. 3i0e t&e (un, t&e 'oon ri(e( in t&e ea(t and (et( in t&e %e(t. C(e t&e (a'e 'et&od of t&e (&ado% (ti$0 a( 2ou did during t&e da2. 5o%e)er, lunar illu'ination i( not $on(i(tent and $an ,e o,($ured ,2 $loud(. 5. IMPROVISED COMPASSES. T&ere are t&ree i'pro)i(ed te$&ni-ue( to $on(tru$t a $o'pa((. We %ill $o)er t&e' in order of 'o(t relia,le to lea(t.

WSVX.0 .07


M9E1;T T;C51#KC;. T&e 'agnet te$&ni-ue %or0( ,e(t. T&e 'agnet( 2ou are 'o(t li0el2 to &a)e a)aila,le to 2ou are t&o(e in a (pea0er or &eadp&one( of a radio. Geep t&e end of t&e needle on t&e ,atter2 for a 'ini'u' of 'inute(. But of $our(e 2ou $ould 0eep t&e needle atta$&ed to t&e ,atter2 a( long a( needed. 1. 9 ('all pie$e of iron or (teel t&at i( long, t&in, and lig&t. 9lu'inu' or 2ello% 'etal( %onHt %or0 *onl2 t&ing( t&at ru(t %ill do+. 9 pin or needle *t&e ('aller t&e ,etter+ i( perfe$t, ,ut a (traig&tened paper $lip, pie$e of (teel ,aling %ire, or ,ar,ed %ire $ould al(o %or0. Bloat t&e 'etal on (till %ater u(ing a pie$e of i(o'at, %ood $&ip, or leaf. Eat&er (o'e %ater in a non-'agneti$ $ontainer or a ($ooped out re$e(( in t&e ground, (u$& a( a puddle. 7o not u(e a Jtin $anJ %&i$& i( 'ade of (teel. *an alu'inu' $an %ould %or0.+ 6la$e t&e float on t&e %ater, t&en t&e 'etal on it. #t %ill (lo%l2 turn to orient it(elf. 8epeat t&e pro$e(( (e)eral ti'e( to $onfir' 2our dire$tion. *a+. Lou $ould al(o &ang 2ou<re needle fro' a t&read. T&ere 'u(t ,e no draft(. T&i( 'et&od i( not )er2 relia,le.

,. M9E1;T#M9T#D1 T58DCE5 9 B9TT;8L. 9 po%er (our$e of )olt( or 'ore fro' a ,atter2 $an ,e u(ed %it& a (&ort lengt& of in(ulated %ire to 'agnetiAe 'etal. Coil t&e %ire around a needle. #f t&e %ire i( non-in(ulated, %rap t&e needle %it& paper or $ard,oard. 9tta$& t&e end( to t&e ,atter2 ter'inal( for 5 'inute(. Lou 'u(t tig&tl2 $oil t&e %ire around t&e needle for it to %or0, and t&e ,atter2 'u(t not ,e %ea0 or 2ou %ill en$ounter t&e (a'e pro,le'( a( t&e (2nt&eti$ te$&ni-ue. $. SL1T5;T#C T;C51#KC;. 7oe( not 'agnetiAe t&e 'etal (trong enoug& to &old a true reading, e(pe$iall2 if t&ere i( an2 %ind. Mig&t gi)e one $orre$t reading out of fi)e and it $ould ,e off up to /5 degree(.

d. 9SSDC#9T;7 68DB3;MS W#T5 #M68DV#S;7 CDM69SS;S. T&e follo%ing are $o''on pro,le'( %it& all i'pro)i(ed $o'pa((e(. *1+ Soft (teel tend( to lo(e it( 'agneti(' fairl2 -ui$0l2, (o 2ou %ill &a)e to re-'agnetiAe 2our needle o$$a(ionall2, t&oug& 2ou (&ould not &a)e to do t&i( 'ore t&an t%o or t&ree ti'e( a da2. * + Te(t 2our $o'pa(( ,2 di(tur,ing it after it (ettle(. 7o t&i( (e)eral ti'e(. #f it return( to t&e (a'e align'ent, 2ouHre DG. #t %ill ,e lined up nort& and (out&, (*%+1* 5%+ 6'.. *a4! (% !(!09'&! b5 %(*!0 9!a&$ 6*'c* !& '$ &%0(*. U$! (*! $+&: $(a0$: %0 a&5 %(*!0 &a(+0a. $'1&$ '& (*! a0!a.

07-11 WSVX.0 .07

". NATURAL NAVIGATION. a. Bind out %&ere t&e pre)ailing %ind( originate. ,. Sun<( pat& in 1ort&ern 5e'i(p&ere i( S;-SW 1. Bend in tree( ,e$au(e of pre)ailing %ind(. . Sapling Coloration4 %&iter on one (ide, dar0er green on t&e ot&er. T&e (unn2 (ide *(out& (ide+ %ill $au(e t&e tree to turn %&iti(& %&i$& i( a natural (un($reen. W&ite %ill ,e on t&e SW to S; (ide of t&e tree. 6i$0 one t&at i( in t&e open, e.po(ed to t&e ele'ent( all da2. 3. 5otte(t (ide of a (lope %ill en&an$e gro%t&4 t&i$0er )egetation t&e SW (ide. . /. Sno% 'elt on one pro'inent (ide of t&e tree4 'elt!freeAe %ill indi$ate t&e (out& (ide. 5. Blea$& 8o$04 t&e (un<( ra2( &a( a ,lea$&ing effe$t, lig&ter (ide %ill ,e to t&e (out&. D,)iou(l2 %&ite ro$0( are >u(t %&ite ro$0(. $. 3oo0 for 'ore t&an one (ign to $onfir' 2our dire$tion. 7. SURVIVAL NAVIGATION TECHNI;UES a. 1a)igator. a *1+ ;'plo2 a na)igation 'et&od. * + Bind t&e $ardinal dire$tion. *3+ 6i$0 a (teering 'ar0 in t&e de(ired dire$tion of tra)el. ,. Maintain a 3og. T&e po((i,ilit2 'a2 ari(e %&en 2ou %ill not &a)e a 'ap of t&e area. 9 log %ill de$rea(e t&e $&an$e of %al0ing in $ir$le(. *1+ Con(tru$tion. *a+ C(e an2 'aterial a)aila,le to 2ou i.e., paper, $lot&ing, M8; ,o., et$. *,+ 7ra% a field (0et$& annotating 1ort&, pro'inent terrain feature( and di(tan$e ! dire$tion tra)eled.

WSVX.0 .07

*$+ Write do%n an2 i'portant infor'ation (een (u$& a(= ene'2 'o)e'ent( or po(ition(, ga'e, )egetation, road(, trail(, et$N * + Maintenan$e. *a+ Maintain and update field (0et$& a( 'o)e'ent progre((e(. *,+ ;n(ure reada,ilit2 of 2our field (0et$&. *i.e.= donHt $lutter t&e (0et$& (o 'u$& it $anHt ,e read.+ Geep it (i'pl2 (o an2one %ould ,e a,le to under(tand it. $. 7uring Mo)e'ent Con(tantl2 8efer To. *1+ 3og. * + Steering 'ar0(. d. 9$tion( #f Lou Be$o'e 3o(t. *1+ #''ediate a$tion. *a+ Drient 2our (0et$&. * + Corre$ti)e a$tion. *a+ Ba$0tra$0 u(ing (teering 'ar0( until 2ou &a)e deter'ined t&e lo$ation of 2our error. *,+ 8e-orient 2our (0et$&. *$+ Sele$t dire$tion of tra)el and $ontinue to 'ar$&. RE"ERENCE8 1. . 3. /. 5. BM 1-7", Sur)i)al, 199 . 9BM "/-5, Sur)i)al, 19"9. 7a)id Seid'ond, T&e ;((ential Wilderne(( 1a)igator, 1995. 9ir$re% Sur)i)al 199". Wilderne(( Wa2 'agaAine, 1atural 1a)igation 6art 1.

07-13 WSVX.0 .07


Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 WSVX.0 .0! "#"05 STUDENT OUTLINE TRAPS AND SNARES TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE $n a %old &eat'er (ountainou) en*iron(ent, ta+e ga(e, in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.08) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES ,1- Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e), li)t in &riting t'e eig't general %on)ideration) to ta+e ga(e, in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.08a) , - Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e), li)t in &riting t'e general te%'ni.ue) to ta+e ga(e, in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.08b) ,3- Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e), li)t in &riting t'e re.uire(ent) for )naring and trapping, in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.08c) ,/- Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e), e(plo0 a )nare, in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.08d) ,5- Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e), li)t in &riting t'e t0pe) of trigger), in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (MSVX.02.08 ) ,#- Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e), e(plo0 a trap, in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.08!) (") Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e), e(plo0 a noi)e produ%ing pat' guard, in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.08#) OUTLINE 1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS TO TA$E GAME (WSVX.02.08a) 1. 2eneral Con)ideration). 3no&ing a fe& general 'int) and tip) &ill (a+e t'e trapping of ani(al) ea)ier and %on)idera4l0 (ore effe%ti*e. T'e eig't general %on)ideration) to ta+e ga(e are5

0!-1 WSVX.0 .0!

,1- 3no& 0our ga(e. 3no&ing t'e 'a4it) of t'e ani(al 0ou &ant to trap or )nare &ill 'elp in%rea)e 0our %'an%e). Su%' t'ing) a) &'en and &'ere t'e0 (o*e, feed, and &ater &ill 'elp 0ou deter(ine &'ere t'e )et %an 4e (o)t effe%ti*el0 pla%ed. , - 3eep t'ing) )i(ple. 6ou don7t 'a*e ti(e in a )ur*i*al )ituation to %on)tru%t ela4orate )et) and t'e0 do not ne%e))aril0 do a 4etter 8o4. ,3- 9la%e )et) in t'e rig't pla%e. 1ni(al) &ill tra*el and )top in %ertain lo%ation). T'at i) &'ere to 4uild )et). ,/- Co*er up 0our )%ent. 1ni(al) &ill a*oid a )et &'i%' )(ell) t'reatening or unu)ual to t'e( ,i.e., 'u(an )%ent or 9.:.;.<) fro( e.uip(ent or %lot'ing-. ,a- Man lea*e) a )%ent t'roug' t'e pore) of t'e )+in 40 t'e )&eat gland). =)e an odorle)) %onta%t glo*e &'en 4uilding a )et. $t (a0 ta+e up to t'ree da0) for 0our )%ent to di))ipate if (ade &it'out glo*e). ,4- Certain 4oot )ole) and %lot'ing (a0 lea*e a )%ent, generall0 t'i) %an 4e dete%ted 40 t'e 'u(an no)e. $f noti%ed, atte(pt to (a)+ t'e )%ent &it' )(o+e fro( 0our fire. ,5- =)e t'e rig't t0pe of )et. Certain )et) &or+ 4etter t'an ot'er) do for a parti%ular ani(al. ,#- =)e t'e %orre%t e.uip(ent. =)ing t'e %orre%t e.uip(ent i) para(ount to )u%%e)). T'i) in%lude) t'e &eig't of t'e lifting de*i%e in proportion to t'e ani(al<) &eig't, t'e %ordage or &ire to 'old t'e ani(al<) )trengt', and trigger ten)ion. ,7- C'e%+ )et). C'e%+ 0our )et) t&i%e dail05 (orning and e*ening. C'e%+ing 0our trap) le)) t'an t&i%e a da0 %an allo& 0our ga(e to e)%ape, rot, or 4e ta+en 40 ot'er predator). ,!- ;ure 0our )et). ;ure) &ill add to 0our %'an%e) of )u%%e)). Certain lure) are appropriate at %ertain ti(e) of t'e 0ear, depending upon t'e ani(al de)ired. ,a- Bait ;ure). -M>? peanut 4utter, %'ee)e )pread, or 8ell0. -@ead %ar%a))e). -@ead rodent). ,4- 2land or Territorial ;ure). -1ni(al =rine (iAed &it' 4ea*er %a)tor) or ani(al gland). ,%- Curio)it0 ;ure). -Single feat'er, 4ird &ing, pie%e of fur tied and )u)pended under a

//WSVX .!

tree li(4, allo&ed to freel0 (o*e &it' t'e 4reeBe. . G % &a' T c(%)*+ , -. /)'' a%)0a',. (WSVX.02.08b) 1 general te%'ni.ue i) t'e (et'od in &'i%' t'e trap i) intended to +ill t'e ani(al. T'e a%ron0( CS$C3C i) u)eful in re(e(4ering t'e)e te%'ni.ue). 1. S- Strangle. T'i) (et'od )trangle) t'e ani(al, )u%' a) a )nare. B. $(pale. T'i) (et'od pu)'e) a )ta+e t'roug' t'e ani(al, )u%' a) a )pi+ed dead fall. C. C- Cru)'. T'i) (et'od %ru)'e) t'e ani(al, )u%' a) a deadfall for a %'ip(un+. @. 3- 3no%+. T'i) (et'od +no%+) a larger ani(al un%on)%iou), )u%' a) a deadfall. 3. SNARE NOMENCLATURE AND IMPROVISED SNARES. 1 )nare in not'ing (ore t'an a pie%e of &ire, rope, or %ord &it' a loop at one end, &'i%' tig'ten) do&n around ani(al<) ne%+. Snare) are (u%' ea)ier and le)) ti(e %on)u(ing to %on)tru%t t'an trap), &'ile produ%ing 4etter re)ult). 1. Wire. 1lt'oug' )nare) %an 4e u)ed &it' rope or %ord, t'e0 are le)) effe%ti*e t'an &ire. Wire )'ould 'a*e (e(or0 and re)i)t +in+ing. 1ir%raft %a4le t0pe 7A7, in )iBe) 1"1# to 3"! in%' )'ould 4e u)ed. T'i) t0pe of &ire pre*ent) ani(al %'e& out and re)i)t) 4rea+age. >e(e(4er t'at 0ou &ant t'e )(alle)t dia(eter %a4le %apa4le of 'olding t'e ani(al. B. ;o%+ing de*i%e. 1 lo%+ing de*i%e i) i(perati*e for a )nare to &or+ properl0. ;o%+ing de*i%e) )e%ure t'e )nare around t'e ani(al<) ne%+. T'ere are )e*eral (et'od) a*aila4le for a lo%+ing de*i%e.



0!-3 WSVX.0 .0!

$NOT /. SNARING. $n a &inter en*iron(ent, )naring i) t'e (o)t effe%ti*e (ean) to ta+e ga(e 1. >e.uire(ent) for )naring. (MSVX.02.08c) T'ere are t'ree re.uire(ent) to effe%ti*el0 e(plo0 )nare). T'e0 are lo%ation, pre)entation, and %on)tru%tion. 1- ;o%ation. ;o%ation i) para(ount to )u%%e)). T'e follo&ing guide %an a))i)t 0ou. a- Co0ote), DoAe), and Badger. 1long rarel0 tra*eled road), fire lane), irrigation dit%'e), fen%e line), in )addle), along ridge top), (eado& 4order), 40 %ar%a))e). 4- Bo4%at and ;0nA. 1t 4a)e) of %liff) and large ro%+ fa%e)E on ridge) and )addle %ro))ingE along )trea( 4otto(). Cat) need )e%urit0 )o rarel0 get far fro( tree, 4ru)' or e)%ape %o*er. %- >a%%oon, :po))u(, S+un+, and >ing-tailed Cat). Strea( 4ed) and 4an+)E trail) along )trea( 4ed), pond), ri*er) and ot'er &ater %our)e)E >a%%oon) li+e a %o(4ination of &ater, old (ature tree), 4uilding) and 8un+ pile), and a %on)i)tent food )uppl0 li+e grain or prepared feed. d- Wea)el. Mar)'0, gra))0 (eado&). e- Marten and Di)'er. 1long (eado& edge), ridgeline), and do&nfall). f- Min+. =nder 4ridge)E around %ul*ert), tile) and 8un+ in or near )trea(), ri*er) and la+e), )pring) and )eep), Mu)+rat and Bea*er lodge) and da(). Min+ &ill )top and in*e)tigate nearl0 e*er0 'ole or %a*it0 around a )trea(4ed. g- Bea*er and Mu)+rat. 1round t'e food %a%'e under t'e i%e. '- >a44it). $n t'i%+ &illo& )tand) along run) and trail).

//-/ WSVX .!

- 9re)entation. 9re)entation i) t'e t0pe of )et for t'e intended ani(al. Cu44ie )et) &or+ &ell for 4o4%at, ra%%oon, (arten, fi)'er, opo))u(, and )+un+ &'ile trail )et) &or+ &ell for %o0ote, foA, (in+, and ra44it. 3- Con)tru%tion. Con)tru%tion i) t'e a%tual 4uilding of t'e )et. a- 1 )plit )ti%+ i) utiliBed to )upport t'e )nare and en)ure t'e )nare fire) properl0. T'e )plit )ti%+ %an 4e eit'er green or )ea)oned &ood. Fo&e*er, t'e )nare (u)t not )lip t'roug' t'e )plit. T'e lo%+ing de*i%e (u)t 4e neAt to t'e )plit )ti%+. T'e )plit )ti%+ (u)t 4e )e%urel0 pla%ed in t'e ground. , $f 0ou are utiliBing a &eig'ted )nare t'e lo%+ing de*i%e (a0 4e in t'e 1 o<%lo%+ po)ition.4- T'e )nare (u)t 4e an%'ored or atta%'ed to a drag. %- T'e )nare (u)t 4e '.ad d )o it &ill fire .ui%+l0.

d- ;oop )iBe. 1 %orre%tl0 e(plo0ed )nare &ill 'a*e t'e )nare 'olding t'e ani(al around t'e ne%+. ;oop )iBe i) pla%ed on t'e )nare a%%ording to t'e intended ani(al. Too large &ill re)ult in a 4od0 or leg %at%', re)ulting in po))i4le %'e& out or 4rea+age. Too )(all &ill ena4le t'e ani(al to for%e t'e )nare to t'e )ide, re)ulting in a (i)). 1dditionall0, t'e loop (u)t 4e pla%ed &it' )pe%ifi% ground %learan%e. $deall0, t'e 4otto( of t'e loop )'ould 'it t'e intended ani(al %'e)t 'ig'. T'e )nare trigger i) t'at part of t'e loop &'i%' 'it) t'e ani(al) %'e)t.

0!-5 WSVX.0 .0!

1G$M1; SI=$>>?; >1BB$T >1CC::G D:X C:6:T?S B:BC1T

G::S? S$H? 1" T: 3 $GCF?S / T: 5 1" $GCF?S # $GCF?S 7 T: 10 $GCF?S 1 T: 1/ $GCF?S 9 $GCF?S

2>:=G@ C;?1>1GC? 1" T: 1 1" $GCF?S 1 1" T: 3 $GCF?S 3 T: / $GCF?S ! T: 10 $GCF?S 1 $GCF?S ! $GCF?S

N.- 2 -Goo)e )iBe i) t'e dia(eter of t'e )nare loop. -2round %learan%e i) (ea)ured fro( t'e 4otto( of t'e loop to t'e ground. e- Den%ing. T'e o48e%ti*e of fen%ing i) to 'a*e t'e ani(al (o*e t'roug' t'e Jpat' of lea)t re)i)tan%eK or (ore i(portantl0 t'e )nare. Den%ing (u)t 4e )u4tle and not o*er done.

f- ;ure. $n a )ur*i*al )ituation, 0ou &ill not 4e a4le to e(plo0 nu(erou) )nare). ;uring all )nare) in%rea)e) 0our %'an%e) of )u%%e)). Fo&e*er, it i) not ne%e))ar0 for trail )et).

//-# WSVX .!

5. SNARE SETS. (MSVX.2.8d) 1lt'oug' t'ere are nu(erou) idea) to e(plo0 )nare), 'ere are a fe&.



0!-7 WSVX.0 .0!



//-! WSVX .!


0!-9 WSVX.0 .0!

#. IMPROVISED TRAPS. $(pro*i)ed trap) are (ade fro( a *ariet0 of (aterial). 2enerall0, t'e0 in%orporate a (ean) to +ill t'e ani(al ,i.e., loop or &eig't- 40 t'e u)e of a trigger. 1. T0pe) of Trigger). (WSVX.02.08 ) T'ere are t&o 4a)i% trigger) u)ed for all trap) and pat' guard). @epending on t'e )ituation, *ariation) of t'e)e trigger) %an 4e u)ed. 1- Toggle.

a. Spring 9ole. T'e )pring pole re.uire) a )(all )apling and %ordage to %on)tru%t. T'e trigger for t'e )pring pole i) t'e toggle. $t i) de)igned to lift t'e ani(al off t'e groundE not allo&ing predator0 ani(al) to ta+e 0our ga(e. >e(e(4er, t'e trigger %an not 4e )o tig't t'at t'e intended ga(e %an not )et it off. T( ,3&)%# 3.' ca% !& 4 )% 3.,)-).%.


//-10 WSVX .!

- $n*erted Digure /.

B. Con)tru%tion of i(pro*i)ed trap). (WSVX.2.8!) Trap) are de)igned to 'old or +ill ani(al) 40 u)e of )o(e t0pe of a%tion. T'i) a%tion i) generall0 %au)ed 40 eit'er a &eig't or )pring loaded de*i%e. 1- Weig'ted ;ift 9ole. T'e lift pole re.uire) a )(all )apling and %ordage to %on)tru%t. T'e trigger for t'e C)pringC or CliftC pole i) a *ariation of t'e toggle. $t i) de)igned to lift t'e ani(al off t'e ground, pre*enting predator0 ani(al) fro( ta+ing ga(e. >e(e(4er, t'e trigger %an not 4e )o tig't t'at t'e intended ga(e %an not tip it.

0!-11 WSVX.0 .0!


WEIG1TED LI5T - Baited Tre4le Foo+. Tie a large tre4le 'oo+ onto a tree li(4 'ig' enoug' to %au)e t'e ani(al to 8u(p 4ut not )o 'ig' it %annot rea%' it. Bait t'e tre4le 'oo+. 7. PAT1 GUARDS (WSVX.02.08#) 9at' guard) are de)igned to prote%t and pro*ide )e%urit0 for 0our )'elter area again)t t'e ene(0 and predator0 ani(al). T'e0 are %la))ified a%%ording to noi)e or %a)ualt0 produ%ing pat' guard). 1. Goi)e produ%ing pat' guard). Goi)e produ%ing pat'guard) )er*e a) an alar( for 0our )'elter area. W'en triggered, it )'ould produ%e )o(e t0pe of loud noi)e. 1lt'oug' %on)tru%tion %an *ar0, depending on (aterial) a*aila4le, one eAa(ple i) a) follo&)5 1- Se%ure an in*erted figure / trigger to a tree. - :n t'e &eig'ted end of t'e trigger, atta%' )e*eral pie%e) of (etal to t'e %ord. =)e &'ate*er i) a*aila4le for (etal.

//-1 WSVX .!

3- 1tta%' a trip %ord to t'e trigger )ti%+. >un t'e trip %ord a%ro)) t'e trail and an%'or on t'e far )ide. /- 9la%e a )olid o48e%t ,i.e., &ood, and ro%+)- underneat' t'e )u)pended (etal. W'en triggered, t'e (etal )'ould fall on top of t'e )olid o48e%tE (a+ing an audi4le noi)e. B. Ca)ualt0 produ%ing pat' guard). Ca)ualt0 produ%ing pat' guard) in a &inter en*iron(ent are diffi%ult to %on)tru%t. W'en triggered, t'e0 )'ould %au)e deat' or in8ur0 to t'e ene(0 or predator0 ani(al. 1 large-)%ale deadfall trap %an 4e (odified for a %a)ualt0 produ%ing pat' guard). 1- S'arpen )pi+e) and )e%ure t'e( on t'e under)ide of t'e deadfall. Spi+e) %an 4e poi)oned. - Set up an in*erted figure / trigger &it' trip %ord a) di)%u))ed for t'e noi)e produ%ing pat' guard. 3- Set t'e deadfall to land a%ro)) t'e trip %ord along t'e trail. /- Creati*it0 and ingenuit0 are t'e +e0) to effe%ti*el0 e(plo0ing pat'guard). RE5ERENCE2 1. @r. Ma8or ;. Boddi%+er, Trapping >o%+0 Mountain Dur4earer), 19!0. . >a0(ond T'o(p)on, Snare) and Snaring, 3rd ?dition 199#. 3. C'ri) Lano&)+i, 1 Manual t'at %ould )a*e 0our life, 19!9.

0!-13 WSVX.0 .0!


Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 WSVX.0 .09 0 !0"!05 STUDENT HANDOUT SURVIVAL USES OF GAME TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE #n a $u%%er %ountainou$ en&iron%ent, prepare ga%e, in a''ordan'e (it) t)e referen'e$. (WSVX.02.09) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES (1) Wit)out t)e aid of referen'e$ and gi&en an ani%al, dre$$ and $*in ga%e, in a''ordan'e (it) t)e referen'e$. (WSVX.02.09a) (2) Wit)out t)e aid of referen'e$ and gi&en a green )ide, 'on$tru't a $uita+le produ't, in a''ordan'e (it) t)e referen'e$. (WSVX.02.09 ) (!) Wit)out t)e aid of referen'e$ and gi&en a pie'e of %eat, pre$er&e %eat, in a''ordan'e (it) t)e referen'e$. (WSVX.02.09") (#) Wit)out t)e aid of referen'e$, li$t in (riting t)e a'ron,% -T.M/, in a''ordan'e (it) t)e referen'e$. (WSVX.02.09$) (%) Wit)out t)e aid of referen'e$, li$t in (riting t)e part$ of ga%e t)at 'an +e u$ed for )u%an 'on$u%ption, in a''ordan'e (it) t)e referen'e$. (WSVX.02.09&) OUTLINE0 1. 'ILLING GAME. 1. Bleeding. Sli'ing t)e ani%al2$ t)roat or pier'ing t)e ')e$t 'a&it, a''o%pli$)e$ t)i$ %et)od. B. Bludgeoning. Si%pl, +eat t)e ani%al until it $top$ %o&ing. C. Brea*ing t)e 3e'*. T)e fir$t $tep i$ t)e $a%e a$ t)e no$e tap. 4a,ing t)e 'lu+ a'ro$$ t)e ne'*, pull on t)e rear leg$ until a -$nap/ i$ )eard and relea$e. .n'e t)e ani%al $traig)ten$ it$ )ind leg$, it i$ dead. . PREPARING GAME (WSVX.02.09a) 1. 5re$$ing. .n'e t)e ani%al i$ dead, dre$$ing $)ould o''ur i%%ediatel,. T)i$ allo($ t)e ')e$t 'a&it, to 'ool, t)u$ $lo(ing t)e de'a, and +a'teria rate. 6$e of ')e$t 'a&it, propping $ti'*$ (ill aid in t)i$ pro'e$$.

WSVX.0 .09


17 8a%e a7 6$ing a (ell-$)arpened po'*et *nife, 'ut around anu$. Be 'areful not to pun'ture inte$tine$ or *idne,$. +7 Cut t)e )ide fro% t)e anu$ to(ard$ t)e ')e$t 'a&it,. T)i$ i$ perfor%ed +, fir$t pla'ing t(o finger$ under t)e $*in. 3e9t, pla'e t)e +lade of t)e po'*et *nife in +et(een ,our finger$. T)i$ pre&ent$ rupturing t)e inte$tine$ and 'onta%inating t)e %eat. '7 :ea') in and pull out t)e )eart, lung$, and li&er, *eeping t)e% $eparate fro% t)e gut$. T)e$e organ$ are edi+le. C)e'* t)e li&er for ()ite $pot$. #f ()ite $pot$ appear on t)e li&er, t)e ani%al %a, )a&e tulare%ia. 7 Bird$ a7 ;lu'* feat)er$ ()ile +od, i$ (ar% or t)e +id 'an +e dipped into )ot (ater. +7 1 +ird 'an al$o +e $*inned. <o(e&er, t)i$ pro'e$$ re%o&e$ t)e +ird$ fat la,er and i$ (a$teful in a $ur&i&al $ituation. '7 Ma*e in'i$ion fro% &ent to tail and dra( out inte$tine$. 37 :eptile$!1%p)i+ian$ =a7 Cut off )ead (ell do(n +e)ind poi$on $a'$. =+7 Cut open $*in fro% anu$ to ne'*. ;ull out internal organ$ and di$'ard. N()&* Bo9 turtle$, +rig)tl, 'olored frog$, frog$ (it) >X> %ar* on t)eir +a'*$, and toad$ $)ould +e a&oided. B. S*inning. 1lt)oug), t)e )ide a't$ a$ a prote'ti&e la,er it $)ould +e re%o&ed a$ $oon a$ po$$i+le. T)i$ (ill allo( t)e %eat to 'ool and de&elop a gla?e. Sin'e +lood i$ a food $our'e it $)ould +e 'olle'ted ()en po$$i+le. =17 4arge 8a%e - Caping =a7 @ind t)e 1')ille$ tendon Au$t a+o&e t)e feet and 'ut a $%all )ole +et(een t)e +one and t)e tendon. 3o( ,ou 'an t)read a rope, $tring, et'., t)roug) t)e )ole in order to )ang t)e ani%al up$ide do(n fro% a tree +ran') or a %a*e $)ift ra'*. =+7 Cut 'o%pletel, around t)e )ind leg$, Au$t +elo( ()ere t)e ani%al i$ $u$pended. T)en 'ut to(ard$ t)e anu$ on t)e in$ide of t)e )ind leg$. ='7 ;ull )ide $traig)t do(n to(ard$ t)e )ead. T)e pro'edure u$ed on t)e )ind leg$ (ill +e repeated for t)e fore leg$. Continue pulling t)e )ide until it i$ free of t)e )ead. T)e )ide (ill )a&e to +e 'ut if t)e ani%al )a$ antler$.

= 7 S%all 8a%e - Ca$ing =a7 S%all ga%e 'an +e $*inned li*e large ga%e or it 'an +e 'a$ed. Ca$ing a )ide %ean$ to pull t)e entire $*in off t)e 'ar'a$$ fro% rear for(ard, (it) 'ut$ %ade onl, around t)e feet of t)e ani%al and fro% t)e +a'* leg$ to t)e tail. T)i$ %et)od allo($ t)e $*in to +e %ade into %itten$, +ag$, and ot)er )olding de&i'e$.

HIDE CASING =37 @i$) =a7 T)e $*in of fi$) i$ u$uall, left on. =B7 Bird$ =a7 T)e $*in of +ird$ $)ould +e left on. T)ere i$ a )ea&, la,er of fatt, ti$$ue +et(een $*in and %eat. =57 :eptile$!1%p)i+ian$ =a7 T)e $*in of reptile$ i$ left on. C. But')ering. #$ $i%pl, 'utting t)e %eat into %anagea+le portion$. S%aller ani%al$ are generall, +e$t left ()ole.


WSVX.0 .09


N()&* Animals that were killed by the use of poisons should have a 2" cubic size square of meat removed at the point of contamination. 5. Wa$)ing. Meat $)ould +e rin$ed to re%o&e dirt and e$pe'iall, if an, +ladder or fe'al organ$ (ere ruptured during t)e $*inning pro'e$$. !. COO'ING OF MEATS 1. Coo*ing %eat (ill *ill +a'teria and para$ite$. 1ll ga%e (ill +e 'oo*ed until it i$ t)oroug)l, (ell done. T)ere are no lefto&er$ in $ur&i&al. Coo* onl, ()at ,ou 'an i%%ediatel, 'on$u%e. #deall,, ,ou $)ould eat t)e )eart and li&er fir$t to a&oid $poiling. T)ere are t(o %et)od$ of 'oo*ing. 17 Boiling. T)i$ i$ t)e +e$t %et)od for 'oo*ing. Boiling ena+le$ t)e $ur&i&or to 'on$u%e t)e ani%al fat and nutrient$, ()i') 'olle't in t)e +rot). 7 R(a+),-.. T/,+ 0&)/($ ,+ 1a+)&234 a-$ 1,44 -() & 3),4,5&$ ,- a +367,7a4 +,)3a),(-.

B. TANNING HIDES (WSVX.02.09 ) 1. @le$)ing. @le$)ing i$ t)e a'tual re%o&al of %eat, ti$$ue, and fat fro% t)e )ide. @le$)ing i$ ea$ier ()en done a$ $oon a$ po$$i+le, prefera+l, +efore t)e )ide $tart$ to dr,. 17 Soa* or (et t)e )ide if dr,. 7 4a, t)e )ide on a $olid, $%oot), round o+Ae't =i.e., log or 'anteen7. 37 <olding a +a,onet, +lunt *nife, $)arp $tone or +one tool $'rapper at a 10 degree angle a(a, fro% t)e +od,, pu$) t)e fat and %e%+rane off t)e leat)er. Be 'areful not to %a*e )ole$ in t)e %ore tender part$ of t)e +ell,. @or +ea&er and +adger t)e fat %u$t +e 'ut off t)e )ide. B7 Continue t)i$ until all t)e fat i$ 'o%pletel, re%o&ed. B. Stret')ing. 1 fre$) green or $oa*ed )ide %u$t +e $tret')ed. Cit)er %a*ing a fra%e or u$ing t)e ground a''o%pli$)e$ $tret')ing. 17 @ra%e $tret')ing in&ol&e$ la'ing t)e )ide to a fra%e (it) 'ordage and pulling it tig)t. 7 8round $tret')ing in&ol&e$ $ta*ing t)e )ide tig)t to t)e ground. 37 1 @ra%e 'an al$o +e 'reated +, +ending a $ti'* +a'* on it2$ $elf. B7 T)e le$$ a )ide $)rin*$ and )arden$ t)e $ofter it (ill +e at t)e end of t)e pro'e$$. C. <air.

17 6$ing a $)arp $tone tool $'rapper $'rape off t)e )air. Soa*ing t)e )ide in (ater (ill %a*e t)i$ pro'e$$ ea$ier. 5. Braining. T)e +rain a't$ a$ a lu+ri'ant and pro&ide$ a te%porar, (ater repellant. 17 Soa* t)e )ide on t)e $tret')er. 7 C9tra't t)e +rain fro% t)e ani%al. 37 Mi9 t)e +rain$ (it) (ater to 'reate a pa$t, $olution. B7 .n'e t)e +rain$ are (ar% and t)oroug)l, %i9ed ru+ into t)e )ide. @ir%l, ru+ t)e %i9ture into )ide (it) ,our )and on onl, t)e )airle$$ $ide. C. 8raining. T)i$ $tep for'e$ t)e +rain$ t)oroug)l, into t)e leat)er. 17 Sponge on (ater to furt)er da%pen )ide. 7 6$ing a +lunt end of a pole, appl, pre$$ure o&er e&er, in'), $'rapping and $tret')ing t)e fi+er$ until %o$t of t)e (ater i$ gone fro% t)e $*in. 37 Tig)ten t)e )ide on t)e $tret')er and allo( it to dr,. @. :u++ing. T)e ne9t 'riti'al $tep i$ t)e )ig) fri'tion ru++ing needed to 'reate a little )eat and fini$) t)e dr,ing, $tret')ing, and +rea*ing of t)e grain. Cit)er %et)od 'an +e u$ed. 17 Cut t)e $*in fro% t)e fra%e around t)e peri%eter, lea&ing onl, t)e la'ing )ole$ and )air t)at 'ould not +e re%o&ed. 7 6$e a one )alf-in') rope atta')ed +et(een t(o tree$. 8ra$p t)e $*in at different point$ all around it$ peri%eter and pull, pull, pull. 37 #f rope i$ not a&aila+le, ru+ t)e $*in +, $itting on t)e ground and )oo*ing t)e $*in o&er ,our feet and pulling. 8. S%o*ing. S%o*ing t)e )ide (ill )elp %a*e t)e )ide (ater repellant. 17 1dd (et or green (ood ')ip$ to t)e fire. Sage or (illo( are good (ood$. T)e o+Ae't i$ to get t)e ')ip$ to $%o*e, not +urn. 7 #t onl, ta*e$ a fe( %inute$ to $%o*e, +ut +e 'areful to pre&ent fla%e fro% ruining t)e )ide. <. 1ni%al <ide 6$e$. 1ni%al )ide u$e$ are li%ited onl, +, t)e i%agination. 4i$ted +elo( are a fe( idea$0 5. PRESERVING MEATS (WSVX.02.09")

WSVX.0 .09


1. Botuli$%. (WSVX.02.09$) Botuli$% i$ an often-fatal food poi$oning 'au$ed +, i%properl, pre$er&ed %eat$. Botuli$% gro($ in a 'ontrolled en&iron%ent. T)e a'ron,% >T.M> i$ u$eful in defeating +otuli$%. #f an, one of t)e t)ree ele%ent$ i$ re%o&ed fro% t)e pre$er&ing pro'e$$, +otuli$% 'annot li&e. 17 T - Te%perature, +otuli$% t)ri&e$ +et(een B0-1B0 degree$ @. 7 .- .9,gen, +otuli$% need$ an airtig)t en&iron%ent to li&e. 37 M- Moi$ture, +otuli$% need$ a %oi$t en&iron%ent to li&e. B. @ree?ing. 17 Before free?ing, 'ut t)e %eat into pie'e$ of a $i?e t)at 'an +e u$ed one at a ti%e. 7 Deep it fro?en until read, to u$e. :e%e%+er, %eat (ill $poil if t)a(ed and refro?en. C. Cooling. 17 ;la'e %eat in a %etal or (ooden 'ontainer (it) a lid. T)e 'ontainer $)ould +e &entilated. 7 Set it in (ater or +ur, it in da%p eart), prefera+l, in a $)aded lo'ation. 37 5o not t)ro( %old, %eat a(a,E 'ut or $'rape off t)e %old and 'oo* a$ u$ual. 5. Fer*,. Fer*, allo($ t)e %eat to la$t a 'ouple of (ee*$ ()ile redu'ing t)e (eig)t of %eat +, de),drating it. Fer*, i$ %ade fro% t)e %eat onl,. 17 Cut %eat into t)in $trip$ a+out 1!B in') t)i'*. :e%o&e all t)i'* portion$ of fat. 7 ;la'e %eat +, a fire to lig)tl, $%o*e it. Gou are atte%pting to de&elop a t)in 'ru$t la,er on t)e %eat. T)i$ $er&e$ to deter t)e +ug$ and in$e't$. :e%e%+er to u$e )ard (ood$ and not 'onifer t,pe (ood. Gou (ant to $%o*e it, not 'oo* t)e %eat. 37 .n'e t)e %eat )a$ a 'ru$t la,er, re%o&e t)e %eat and pla'e $trip$ on a )anger for t)e air to dr, it for appro9i%atel, B )our$. .n'e dr,, +rea* do(n fi+er$ +, $lig)tl, pulling apart t)e %eat and allo( it to dr, anot)er B )our$. B7 W)en it +e'o%e$ )ard and +rittle, it i$ ta*en do(n and $tored in +reat)a+le +ag$ or 'lot). #t i$ u$ed in $te($, $oup$, or roa$ted lig)tl, on 'oal$ and eaten. 57 S%all ani%al$, fi$), and +ird$ are dried ()ole. 1fter t)e, are $*inned, t)e +a'* i$ 'ra'*ed +et(een t)e leg$, a $ti'* i$ in$erted to )old t)e +od, 'a&it, open. T)e ani%al i$ lig)tl, $%o*ed and laid out in t)e $un to dr,. W)en t)oroug)l, dried, t)e, are pounded until t)e +one$ are 'ru$)ed. 1not)er da, in t)e air (ill dr, t)e %arro( and en$ure pre$er&ation. C. ;e%%i'an. ;e%%i'an allo($ %eat to la$t for $e&eral %ont)$.


17 5r, +errie$ and pound into a pa$te. 7 5ried Aer*, i$ added to t)e pa$te. 37 Melted $uet =t)e )ard fatt, ti$$ue$ around t)e *idne,$7 i$ %i9ed (it) t)e +errie$ and Aer*,. B7 :oll t)e %i9ture into $%all +all$ and pla'e in t)e 'leaned inte$tine$ of a large ani%al or $o%e t,pe of 'ontainer. T)i$ food 'an +e $tored for a long ti%e. <o(e&er, if ,ou +elie&e it i$ +eginning to $poil t)e %eat 'an +e +oiled prior to eating. 8. SPECIFIC PARTS 1. .t)er t)an t)e a'tual %eat on ga%e t)ere are ot)er part$ of it t)at 'an +e eaten. T)e, are t)e0 (WSVX.02.09&) 17 Brain. 7 C,e$. 37 Tongue. B7 4i&er. 57 <eart. "7 4ung$. 77 Didne,$. H7 8i??ard$. REFERENCE0 1. . 3. B. 5. ". 7. ;aul 1uer+a'), Wilderne$$ Medi'ine, 3rd Cdition, 1995. 4arr, 5ean .l$on, .utdoor Sur&i&al 8uide, 5t) Cdition, 1990. B-81- 17-001!;T-001, 5o(n +ut not .ut, Canadian Sur&i&al 8uide. Wilderne$$ Wa,, Volu%e , #$$ue 1. Fo)n Wi$e%an, S1S Sur&i&al 8uide, 1993. C)ri$ Fano($*i, 1 Manual t)at 'ould $a&e ,our life, 19H9. Willia% :. 5a&id$on, @ield Manual of Wildlife 5i$ea$e$ in t)e Sout)ea$tern 6nited State$, nd Cdition, 1997.

WSVX.0 .09



Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 WSVX.0 .10 !"!05 STUDENT HANDOUT SURVIVAL FISHING TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE. #n a $old %eat&er 'ountainou( en)iron'ent, ta*e fi(&, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.10) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES. +1, Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting %&ere -ait $an -e lo$ated during %inter 'ont&(, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.10a) + , Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting t&e fi(&ing lo$ation(, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.10b) +3, Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting t&e i$e fi(&ing tool(, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (MSVX.02.10 ) +., Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, $on(tru$t i$e-fi(&ing tool(, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.10!) +5, Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, $ondu$t i$e fi(&ing, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.10") +", Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting t&e (et line(, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.10#) +7, Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, $on(u'e a prepared fi(&, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.10$) OUTLINE 1. FISH. #n a 'ountainou( region, fi(& are nor'all/ an a-undant re(our$e. 0ot onl/ are t&e/ a food (our$e, t&e 1left o)er(1 pro)ide an e2$ellent lure for trap( and (nare(. a. Winter 3i(&ing C&allenge(. #n $old %eat&er 'ountainou( region(, fi(&ing &a( (o'e uni4ue $&allenge(.

10-1 WSVX .10

+1, 5e$rea(ed %ater te'perature( and la$* of o2/gen (uppl/ in fro6en la*e( %ill de$rea(e t&e a$ti)it/ of fi(&. + , 7$$e(( to %ater (our$e( for fi(&ing $an -e dangerou( due to (no% dept& and i$e. +3, Modified fi(&ing te$&ni4ue( 'u(t -e applied %&en %inter fi(&ing. +., Bait i( diffi$ult to find during %inter 'ont&(. T&e follo%ing 'a/ aid in pro$ure'ent of -ait. (WSVX.02.10a) +a, 8oo* for gall( in plant(. 7 gall i( t&e a-nor'al (%elling of plant ti((ue $au(ed -/ in(e$t(. +-, #f -ird( are pe$*ing at tree(, in(e$t( 'a/ -e lo$ated t&ere. +$, 7fter t&e fir(t fi(& i( $aug&t, an e/e or t&e fir(t dor(al fin 'a*e( e2$eptional -ait. -. 3i(&ing lo$ation(. (WSVX.02.10b) 3i(&ing in 'ountain (trea'( i( generall/ -e(t done %it& a &and line. W&en fi(&ing 'ountainou( (trea'(, al%a/( loo* for t&e(e pla$e( to fi(& a( (no% and i$e allo%(.

WSVX .1 ."-

FISHING LOCATIONS . FISHING TOOLS. 0ot in e)er/ in(tan$e 'a/ t&e (ur)i)or &a)e e)er/t&ing needed to fi(& %it&. 7t ti'e( it 'a/ -e ne$e((ar/ to -uild $ertain e4uip'ent. a. 92pedient &oo*(. 7lt&oug& &oo*( (&ould -e $arried in a (ur)i)al *it, t&e (ur)i)or (&ould -e a-le to $on(tru$t additional &oo*( if t&e (ituation re4uire(. :ne-pie$e &oo*( generall/ %or* -etter t&an t%o-pie$e &oo*(. 92pedient &oo*( are 'ade to -e$o'e lodged in t&e t&roat of t&e fi(&. Belo% are a fe% e2a'ple(.

10-3 WSVX .10

-. #$e fi(&ing tool(. (WSVX.02.10 ) Man/ fi(& are ali)e and a$ti)e under t&e i$e. T&e a-ilit/ to $&ip a%a/ i$e to gain a$$e(( i( t&e *e/. +1, #$e (pud. 7n i$e (pud i( u(ed to $&ip a &ole into t&e i$e. T&i( (&ould -e t&e onl/ ti'e a fi2ed -lade *nife i( atta$&ed to a pole. 92tre'e $are (&ould -e ta*en in t&e $on(tru$tion to a)oid a$$idental lo(e of t&e *nife into t&e %ater. +a, Cut a (turd/ pole appro2i'atel/ .-5 feet in lengt&. +-, Cut a not$& into t&e &ea)/ end of t&e pole for t&e fi2ed -lade *nife to fit into. +$, 3ire &arden if u(ing green %ood. +d, 8a(& t&e fi2ed -lade *nife into t&e not$&ed end of t&e pole. 5u''/ $ord t&e *nife to t&e top 1!3 portion of t&e pole. +e, 7tta$& a du''/ %ri(t loop into t&e top 1!3 portion of t&e pole.

WSVX .1 ."-.

+f, To u(e, pla$e /our %ri(t into t&e du''/ %ri(t loop. Begin to $&ip a%a/ at t&e i$e until %ater i( rea$&ed. T&e du''/ $ord fro' t&e *nife (er)e( to *eep t&e *nife atta$&ed to /ou in $a(e la(&ing $o'e( off or pole i( -ro*en. T&e du''/ %ri(t loop (er)e( to pre)ent lo(( of pole %&en finall/ t&roug& t&e i$e.

+ , #$e (*i''er. T&e i$e (*i''er i( u(e to *eep i$e $leared fro' t&e fi(&ing &ole. +a, Cut a ('all (apling appro2i'atel/ feet in lengt&. S&a)e all not$&e( and ('oot& out (&aft. +-, Cut a t&in flat pie$e of %ood; appro2i'atel/ 1- in$&e( t&i$*, .-5 in$&e( %ide, and .-5 in$&e( long. +$, Coal -urn t&e flat pie$e of %ood until appro2i'atel/ a 1! in$& of %ood i( re'aining on t&e -otto'. +d, 7%l out (e)eral &ole( t&roug& t&i( $oal--urned pie$e of %ood. T&i( %ill allo% %ater to flo% t&roug&. +e, Bore a &ole t&roug& one end of t&e %ood. Slide t&e ('all (&aft t&roug& t&e &ole.

10-5 WSVX .10

ICE S%IMMER 3. ICE FISHING. (WSVX.02.10") #$e fi(&ing i( an e2$ellent 'et&od to pro$ure fi(& fro' a fro6en la*e or ri)er. 92tre'e $are 'u(t -e ta*en to en(ure t&e (ta-ilit/ of t&e i$e prior 'o)ing onto t&e i$e. a. <(e an i$e (pud to $&ip a &ole in t&e i$e until %ater i( rea$&ed. 9n(ure all $o'ponent( of t&e (pud are (e$urel/ fa(tened. T&e &ole (&ould -e appro2i'atel/ 1 -1. in$&e( in dia'eter. -. <(e an i$e (*i''er to re'o)e floating i$e in t&e &ole. $. #f e'plo/ing a &and line, u(e t%o (ti$*( to reel in line. T&i( pre)ent( &and( and 'itten( fro' prolonged $onta$t %it& i$e, t&u( pre)enting po((i-le fro(t-ite.

WSVX .1 ."-"

.. FISHING SET LINES. (WSVX.02.10#) #n a (ur)i)al (ituation, fi(&ing (et( are 'ean( to $at$& fi(& %&ile %or*ing on ot&er ta(*( or %eat&ering out a (tor'. Set line( are an effe$ti)e 'et&od of fi(&ing %&ile $on(er)ing energ/. =ut t&e' out o)er nig&t %it& (e)eral -aited &oo*( atta$&ed. =la$e t&e' %it& t&e &oo*( eit&er on t&e -otto' or (u(pended off t&e -otto', until /ou &a)e deter'ined %&ere t&e fi(& are feeding. a. Tippet. Multiple &ole( $an -e 'ade to in$rea(e $&an$e( of fi(& pro$ure'ent. =la$e a tippet at ea$& &ole. 7 tippet i( 'ade fro' pine -oug& and pla$ed in a ('all loo(e (no% 'ound. +1, Cut a green -oug& large enoug& (o it $annot -e pulled t&roug& t&e &ole -/ a fi(&. + , 7ll line( (&ould -e dou-le &oo*ed. +3, Botto' &oo* (&ould -e a-out 1 in$&e( off t&e -otto'.

10-7 WSVX .10

TIPPET -. 3ro6en ri)er (et line(. 3or (no% and i$e $o)ered ri)er(, (et line( %ill &a)e to 'odified. +1, 9n(ure t&e (ta-ilit/ of t&e (no%!i$e $o)ering of t&e ri)er. + , Cut a &ole t&roug& t&e (no%!i$e %it& t&e i$e (pud. +3, Cut and (&arpen one end of a long (turd/ pole. +., 7tta$& a line %it& (e)eral -aited &oo*( to t&e pole. +5, Su-'erge t&e line t&roug& t&e &ole and for$e t&e pointed end of t&e pole into t&e ri)er-ed.


WSVX .1 ."->

$. Standard Set 8ine(.

STANDARD SET LINE 5. PREPARING FISH FOR CONSUMPTION. (WSVX.02.10$) =reparing fi(& to eat i( a (i'ple ta(*. a. Cleaning 3i(&. +1, Wit& a po$*et *nife, ($rape t&e ($ale( off t&e fi(&, going -a$* and fort& fro' tail to &ead if t&e fi(& &a( ($ale(. + , Wit& /our *nife, $ut t&e fi(& open (tarting at t&e anu( and %or* to%ard( t&e gill(. +3, Wit& /our finger or t&u'-, pu(& all t&e gut( out and %a(& t&oroug&l/. 8oo* t&roug&out t&e inte(tine( to find out %&at t&e fi(& &a( -een eating. ?ou 'a/ -e a-le to u(e undige(ted food a( -ait for additional fi(&. +., T&e (*in and &ead are u(uall/ left on. $. Coo*ing 3i(&. 3i(& $ontain 'an/ para(ite( %it&in t&e 'eat. 3ortunatel/ t&e/ are de(tro/ed -/ &eat. +1, Cut t&e fi(& in pie$e( to fit in a $anteen $up. + , Boil t&e fi(& in %ater until t&oroug&l/ done. +3, @oa(ting $an -e done, -ut )alua-le fat i( lo(t in t&e fire. REFERENCE' 1. 8arr/ 5ean :l(on, :utdoor Sur)i)al Auide, 5t& 9dition, 1990. . C&ri( Bano%(*i, 7 'anual t&at $ould (a)e /our life, 19>9. 10-9 WSVX .10

3. 73 ".-., Sear$& and @e($ue Sur)i)al Training, 19>5.

WSVX .1 ."-10


Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 WSVX.0 .11 0 !0"!05 STUDENT HANDOUT FIELD EXPEDIENT TOOLS, WEAPONS, AND EQUIPMENT TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE #n a $old %eat&er 'ountainou( en)iron'ent, $on(tru$t field e*pedient tool(, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.11) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES +1, Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting t&e re(our$e( u(ed to $on(tru$t field e*pedient tool(, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.11 ) + , Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting t&e t-pe( of (ur)i)al (ti$.(, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.11!) OUTLINE 1. RESOURCES (WSVX.02.11 ) . T&e 'aterial( u(ed to 'a.e all field e*pedient tool(, %eapon(, and e/uip'ent %ill fall into one of t&e fi)e $ategorie(. a. Stone. Stone %ill 'a.e an e*$ellent (, pun$turing or $&opping tool, 0ut %ill not &old a fine edge. So'e (tone(, (u$& a( $&ert, flint, or o0(idian $an &a)e )erfine edge(. 1ualit- (tone during %inter 'ont&( i( e*tre'el- diffi$ult to lo$ate.

WSVX .11


+1, C&ipping 2 To 'a.e a (&arp-edge pie$e of (tone, a $&ipping tool and tool i( needed. 4 $&ipping tool i( a lig&t, 0lunt-edged tool u(ed to 0rea. off ('all pie$e( of (tone. 4 tool i( a pointed tool u(ed to 0rea. off t&in, flattened pie$e( of (tone. 5ou $an 'a.e a $&ipping tool fro' %ood, 0one, or 'etal and a tool fro' 0one, antler tine(, or (oft iron. + , Weapon &ead(. Certain (tone( %ill (&atter under pre((ure %&en for$e i( deli)ered upon it. W&en (ele$ting a (tone, te(t it( &ardne(( prior to u(e. 0. Bone. Bone &a( 'an- u(e(. 6oo.(, (&aft tip(, ($raper(, a%l(, (o$.et( and &andle( are 7u(t a fe% idea(. +1, 8a% Bone. 8a% 0one 'u(t 0e (&attered %it& a &ea)- o07e$t, (u$& a( a ro$.. + , S&aping 2 S&arpening. 3ro' t&e pie$e( of (&attered 0one, (ele$t a (uita0le pointed (plinter. 5ou $an furt&er (&ape and (&arpen t&i( (plinter 0- ru00ing it in a roug& (urfa$ed ro$. or 'etal file +i.e., fro' -our 'ulti-purpo(e .nife,. $. Wood. Wood u(e( are unli'ited. 4 .nife 0lade $an fa(&ion t&e %ood into an- de(ired (&ape. +1, T-pe(. Wood i( $la((ified into t%o general $ategorie(9 &ard and (oft. 6ard%ood i( preferred for all (ur)i)al u(e(. To te(t t&e %ood (trengt&, pre(( -our fingernail into t&e grain of t&e %ood. #f a print i( )i(i0le, t&e %ood i( generall- (oft. + , S&arpening. 4ll %ood point( are (&arpened to t&e (ide of t&e (&aft. Wood i( %ea.e(t at t&e $enter and %ill not &old a point.

WSVX .11 11-

+3, 3ire &ardening. 4ll green %ood (&ould 0e fire &ardened prior to u(e. :o t&i( 0- &olding t&e point of t&e in(tru'ent a fe% in$&e( a0o)e a 0ed of &ot $oal( %&ile (lo%l- rotating it. ;raduall- t&e %ood %ill 0egin to &i(( and (tea'. 3ire &ardening 'a.e( t&e $ell( (%ell and t&e (ap t&i$.en, %&i$& 'a.e( t&e %ood 'ore re(i(tant to a0ra(ion and $on$u((ion. 4)oid $&arring t&e %ood. 3ire &arden onl- t&e tip until lig&t 0ro%n. +<, Coal 0urning. #t i( )er- diffi$ult to $ar)e depre((ion( in %ood. 4 depre((ion in %ood $an 0e 'ade 0- a pro$e(( $alled $oal-0urning. =(ing a pair of tong(, pla$e a &ot $oal o)er t&e area -ou %ant to &ollo% out, t&en 0lo% on t&e e'0er( %it& a t&in, (tead- (trea' of air to .eep t&e' glo%ing. #f a)aila0le, u(e a t&in reed or lengt& of &ollo% 0one to dire$t t&e (trea' of air. 4fter t&e $oal( &a)e 0urned do%n, ($rape out t&e $&arred %ood %it& a .nife or (&arp ro$.. 8epeat t&i( pro$e(( %it& fre(& (et( of $oal( until t&e depre((ion i( at t&e de(ired dept&. d. Metal. Metal i( t&e 0e(t 'aterial to 'a.e field e*pedient edged %eapon(. W&en properlde(igned, 'etal $an fulfill a .nife>( t&ree u(e(9 pun$ture, (li$e or $&op, and $ut. 3ir(t, (ele$t a (uita0le pie$e of 'etal, one t&at 'o(t re(e'0le( t&e de(ired end produ$t. :epending on t&e (i?e and original (&ape, -ou $an o0tain a point and $utting edge 0- ru00ing t&e 'etal on a roug& (urfa$ed (tone or 'etal file. #f t&e 'etal i( (oft enoug&, -ou $an &a''er out one edge %&ile t&e 'etal i( $old. =(e a (uita0le flat, &ard (urfa$e a( an an)il and a &arder o07e$t of (tone or 'etal a( a &a''er, to &a''er out t&e edge. e. @t&er 'aterial(. @t&er 'aterial( are t&o(e ite'( t&at $an 0e found or 'a- 0e on -our 0od%&i$& $an 0e u(ed in t&e $on(tru$tion of field e*pedient tool(. +1, Aoad 0earing e/uip'ent $lip(. T&e (liding retaining $lip $an 0e re'o)ed and (&arpened to a point. + , Bla(ti$. Bla(ti$, Ble*igla(, and gla(( fro' an air$raft $an 0e (&aped and (&arpened into a point. Bla(ti$ $an al(o 0e 'elted a( an ad&e(i)e. +3, Bara$&ute $ord. Bara$&ute $ord &a( unli'ited u(e( for $on(tru$tion of field e*pedient tool(.

WSVX .11


+<, Bine pit$& glue. Bine pit$& glue, %&en properl- 'ade, i( li.e an epo*-. Ao$ate and re'o)e pit$& fro' a pine tree. T&e &ig&e(t /ualit- pit$& to u(e i( fre(& (ap. T&e older +dr- and &ard, (ap %ill %or., 0ut not a( %ell. Melt t&e pit$& on an ele)ated platfor', (u$& a( a ('oot& ro$.. T&e pit$& %ill run do%n t&e platfor'. =(ing a "-C in$& (ti$., $oat t&e (ti$. in t&e pool of pit$& until it re(e'0le( a large %ooden 'at$&. To u(e t&e pit$& (ti$. a( glue, lig&t t&e pit$& end of t&e (ti$., allo%ing it to drip on t&e area to 0e glued. @n$e (uffi$ientl- $oated %it& pit$&, (prin.le t&e a$ti)ator o)er t&e pit$&. 4n a$ti)ator i( finel- ground egg(&ell or fire %ood a(&. . CLUBS. Clu0( are &eld and not t&ro%n. 4( a field e*pedient %eapon, t&e $lu0 doe( not prote$t -ou fro' ene'- (oldier(. #t $an, &o%e)er, e*tend -our area of defen(e 0e-ond -our fingertip(. #t al(o (er)e( to in$rea(e t&e for$e of a 0lo% %it&out in7uring -our(elf. T&e onl$lu0 %e are going to di($u(( i( t&e (i'ple $lu0. a. Si'ple $lu0. 4 (i'ple $lu0 i( a (taff or 0ran$&. #t 'u(t 0e (&ort enoug& for -ou to (%ing ea(il-, 0ut long and (trong enoug& to da'age %&ate)er -ou &it. #t( dia'eter (&ould fit $o'forta0l- in t&e pal', 0ut not 0e (o t&in a( to 0rea. ea(il- upon i'pa$t. 3. SURVIVAL STIC"S. (WSVX.02.11!) T&ere are t&ree t-pe( of (ur)i)al (ti$.( %&i$& are u(eful in a (ur)i)al (ituation. a. Doo(e (ti$.. 4 noo(e (ti$. i( u(eful for (trangling and $ontrolling i'properl- (nared ani'al( t&at are (till ali)e. +1, 3ind a pole a( long a( -ou $an effe$ti)el- &andle. + , 4tta$& a noo(e of %ire or (tiff $ord at t&e ('all end. +3, To $at$& an ani'al, (lip t&e noo(e o)er t&e ne$. and pull it tig&t.

0. Sling (&ot. 4 5-(&aped (ti$. $an ea(il- 0e 'ade into a (ling (&ot. 4 (ling (&ot i( an e*tre'eleffe$ti)e and a$$urate %eapon.

WSVX .11 11-<

+1, Ao$ate a &ard%ood, 5-(&aped (ti$.. + , 3ro' -our (ur)i)al .it, atta$& t&e (ling (&ot ru00er and pou$&. $. T&ro%ing (ti$.. @ne of t&e (i'ple(t %eapon( for (ur)i)al i( t&e t&ro%ing (ti$.. 4( a tool, t&e t&ro%ing (ti$. $an 0e u(ed to .no$. dead 0ran$&e( out of a tree t&at %ould nor'all- 0e too &ig& to rea$&. T&e dead 0ran$&e( $an t&en 0e u(ed a( fire%ood. +1, 3ind a (ti$. (traig&t a( po((i0le, .5-3 feet long, and 1.5- in$&e( in dia'eter. + , 8e'o)e t&e 0ar. fro' t&e (ti$.. +3, Taper ea$& end of t&e (ti$.. +<, 3ire &arden t&e entire (ti$. if u(ing green %ood. +5, T&ere are t%o 'et&od( of e'plo-ing t&e t&ro%ing (ti$.. W&en in fore(ted area, t&e 0e(t 'et&od i( to u(e an o)er&and t&ro%ing 'otion. #n an open area, -ou $an in$rea(e t&e .illing radiu( 0- u(ing a (idear' t&ro%ing 'otion. <. EXPEDIENT PAC"S. T&e &or(e(&oe pa$. i( (i'ple to 'a.e, u(e, and relati)el$o'forta0le to $arr- o)er one (&oulder. a. Aa- a)aila0le (/uare-(&aped 'aterial, (u$& a( a pon$&o or tarp flat on t&e ground. 0. Aa- ite'( on one edge of t&e 'aterial. Bla$e t&o(e ite'( fre/uentl- u(ed +i.e., $anteen(, on t&e out(ide. Bad t&e &ard ite'(. $. 8oll t&e 'aterial +%it& t&e ite'(, to%ard( t&e oppo(ite edge and tie 0ot& end( (e$urel-. d. Tie e*tra line( along t&e lengt& of t&e 0undle. e. 3old t&e 0undle in &alf and (e$ure a long pie$e of rope to t&e ape* of t&e fold.
WSVX .11 11-5

f. 4tta$& pa$. to -our 0od-.

5. UTENSILS. =ten(il( are u(ed for $, eating, and (toring food. a. Bo%l or Container. Bo%l( and $ontainer( $an (er)e to $arr- and (tore food. T&e$an 0e 'ade fro' 0one and %ood. To 'a.e t&e' out of %ood9 +1, Ao$ate or (plit a pie$e of %ood. + , Coal 0urn to t&e de(ired dept&.

COAL#BURNED BOWLS 0. Spor.. 4 (por. i( a u(eful tool to eat %it&. Wit& a .nife, $ar)e a pie$e of %ood into t&e de(ired (&ape.

WSVX .11 11-"

$. Tong(. T&ong( aid to 'o)e &ot ite'(, (u$& a( $oal e'0er(. +1, Cut a pie$e of green (apling. + , Split t&e (apling in &alf and (&a)e off t&e 0ar.. 3latten 0ot& end( of ea$& (e$tion. +3, 3ire &arden ea$& &alf.

REFERENCE$ 3M 1-7", Sur)i)al, 199 . C&ri( Eano%(.i, 4 'anual t&at $ould (a)e -our life, 19C9. To' Bro%n, 3ield ;uide to Wilderne(( Sur)i)al, 19C3.

WSVX .11



Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 WSVX .0 .1 0 !0"!05 STUDENT HANDOUT EXPEDIENT SNOWSHOES TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE #n a $old %eat&er 'ountainou( en)iron'ent, e*e$ute (no%(&oe 'o)e'ent, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.12) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES +1, Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, (tate in %riting t&e purpo(e of e*pedient (no%(&oe(, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.12a) + , Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting t&e $&ara$teri(ti$( for good e*pedient (no%(&oe(, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.12b) +3, Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, $on(tru$t one e*pedient (no%(&oe, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.12c) OUTLINE 1. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES O EXPEDIENT SNOWSHOES a. -d)antage( of .*pedient Sno%(&oe(. +1, Mo/ilit0. (WSVX.02.12a) T&e purpo(e of e*pedient (no%(&oe( i( to gi)e a 'ean( of o)er t&e (no% 'o/ilit0 /0 pro)iding floatation. + , Maintenan$e. 1i'ited 'aintenan$e i( re2uired to 3eep t&e' (er)i$ea/le. +3, 4ea)0 1oad(. Carr0ing and pulling &ea)0 load( on gentle terrain i( relati)el0 ea(0. +5, Confined -rea(. Mo)e'ent in $onfined area( and around e2uip'ent i( relati)el0 ea(0.

/. 6i(ad)antage( of .*pedient Sno%(&oe(. 1 -1 WSVX .0 .1

+1, Material(. Con(tru$ting a pair of e*pedient (no%(&oe( %ill $on(u'e a lot of 'aterial +i.e., it ta3e( appro*i'atel0 70 feet of 550 $ord to /uild one (&oe,. + , Terrain. Mo)e'ent o)er 'oderate to (teep (lope( i( e*tre'el0 diffi$ult. +3, Vegetation. Mo)e'ent t&roug& t&i$3l0 fore(ted area( or terrain %it& /ran$&e( protruding t&roug& t&e (no% i( diffi$ult. +5, 7atural Material. T&e green (ta)e( u(ed in $on(tru$tion %ill (&rin3 during t&e dr0ing pro$e((. T&i( (&rin3age %ill re2uire all la(&ing to /e retied. . NOMENCLATURE O EXPEDIENT SNOWSHOES a. Tip. T&e front portion of t&e (no%(&oe fra'e. /. Tail. T&e rear portion of t&e (no%(&oe fra'e. $. Cro((/ar(. T&ree $ro((/ar( are la(&ed to t&e fra'e for reinfor$e'ent. a. We//ing. We//ing i( de(igned to pro)ided floatation of t&e (&oe and relea(e (no% %&en t&e (&oe i( lifted. #t i( generall0 'ade fro' (o'e t0pe of $ord +i.e., 550, $o'' %ire,. e. Windo%. T&i( i( t&e opening in t&e (no%(&oe, %&i$& allo%( t&e toe of t&e /oot to pi)ot. Wit&out t&e %indo%, t&e /oot %ill $ontinue to for$e t&e tip into t&e (no% during for%ard 'o)e'ent. f. 8ra'e. Made fro' re(ilient green (apling( +i.e., %illo%, a(pen,.

1 WSVX .0 .1

g. Binding. T&e /inding i( u(ed to atta$& t&e /oot to t&e (&oe. #t i( 'ade fro' an 9 to 10 foot pie$e of $ord.


BINDING 3. CHARACTERISTICS O EXPEDIENT SNOWSHOES. (WSVX.02.12b) a. Sta/ilit0. Sta/ilit0 i( t&e 'o(t i'portant $&ara$teri(ti$. Sno%(&oe( 'u(t /e a/le to undergo great (train and pre((ure. Careful $on(ideration 'u(t /e gi)en to t&e (ele$tion of 'aterial( u(ed in $on(tru$tion.

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+1, Material( u(ed $an )ar0. +a, :e(ilient green (apling(. +/, -lu'inu' air$raft (3in and ri//ed fra'ing. +$, Cordage. +d, Wire. +e, Cargo (trapping. +f, #nitiati)e and $reati)it0 are t&e 3e0 to (u$$e((. /. ;ro)ide 8loatation. Wit&out o)er-t&e-(no% 'o/ilit0 'o)e'ent /e$o'e( diffi$ult and!or dangerou(. Clot&ing %ill /e$o'e %et and <po(t &oling= %ill $on(u'e too 'u$& energ0, %&i$& i( )ital in a (ur)i)al (ituation. #n$rea(ing t&e (urfa$e area upon %&i$& 0our /od0 re(t( %ill fa$ilitate 'ore effi$ient 'o)e'ent on t&e (no%. 5. CONSTRUCTION O EXPEDIENT SNOWSHOES. (WSVX.02.12c) T&e(e (no%(&oe( %ill %or3 if (ta)e( are t&i$3 and (uffi$ient 2uantit0 of $ordage i( a)aila/le. >(e t&e(e general $on(tru$tion te$&ni2ue( a( a guide. a. Sele$t t&ree (traig&t, re(ilient, green (ta)e(? 5 feet in lengt& and 1 to 1.5 in$&e( in dia'eter. Cut one of t&e(e (ta)e( into t&ree (e$tion(, 'ea(uring 15 in$&e( for ea$& (e$tion. /. @oin t&e t%o 5 feet (ta)e( at t&e tip( and tail( u(ing a (&ear la(&. T&i( i( t&e (no%(&oe fra'e. $. -tta$& t&e 15 in$& (e$tion( to t&e fra'e? t&e fir(t (e$tion 1 -15 in$&e( fro' t&e tip, t&e (e$ond (e$tion 5-" in$&e( /elo% t&e fir(t (e$tion, and t&e la(t (e$tion 15 in$&e( /elo% t&e (e$ond (e$tion. -ll (e$tion( are (e$ured to t&e fra'e u(ing a (2uare la(&. T&e(e (e$tion( are t&e $ro((/ar(. d. -ffi* t&e latti$e%or3 to t&e fra'e to for' t&e %e//ing, %or3ing fro' t&e fir(t $ro((/ar to%ard( t&e tip. -tta$& a (e$ond latti$e%or3 fro' t&e (e$ond $ro((/ar to%ard( t&e tail. N!"#$ #f $ord or %ire i( li'ited, (pa$e out t&e latti$e%or3. Bran$&e( or /oug& $an /e inter%o)en to in$rea(e floatation.

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S%UARE LASH e. -tta$& t&e /oot to t&e (no%(&oe u(ing t&e $ord /inding (0(te'. N!"#$ -ll pigtail( are (e$ured toget&er /0 a (2uare 3not %it& t%o o)er&and 3not(.

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5. CANADIAN EMERGENC& SNOWSHOES. T&e Canadian e'ergen$0 (&o%(&oe( are an e*$ellent 'et&od if (apling( are a)aila/le and $ordage i( li'ited. a. Sele$t 5 pole(, " feet long +indi)idualA( &eig&t,, B in$& +t&u'/ (iCe, at t&e /a(e, D in$& +little finger (iCe, at t&e tip for one (&oe. /. Cut 5 (ti$3( appro*i'atel0 10 in$&e( long and B in$& %ide for ea$& (&oe and tie t&e' in t&e follo%ing (tep(. +1, 1a(& one (ti$3 to t&e (no%(&oeA( tail +a$ro(( t&e &ea)0 end of t&e 5 pole(,. + , 1a(& (ti$3( a$ro(( t&e pole( %&ere t&e &eel %ill re(t. +3, 1a(& (ti$3( a$ro(( t&e pole( %&ere t&e toe %ill re(t. +5, Se$ure t&e tip( toget&er. $. -tta$& t&e /oot to t&e (no%(&oe u(ing t&e $ord /inding (0(te'..

". SNOW SHOE TECHNI%UE. a. Eeneral. T&ere i( little differen$e in (no% (&oeing $o'pared to nor'al %al3ing, e*$ept t&at t&e (urfa$e /eing %al3ed on i( in$on(i(tent, and (no%(&oe( are longer, %ider, &ea)ier, and $on(e2uentl0 'ore a%3%ard, t&an nor'al foot%ear. Wit& (tandard 'ilitar0 (no%(&oe(, t&e (tride i( (o'e%&at longer t&an in nor'al %al3ing, /ut t&e (&ape of t&e (no%(&oe allo%( t&e (no% (&oerA( (tan$e to /e a nor'al %idt&, t&ere/0 redu$ing 'u$& (train and fatigue on &i( &ip( and leg(. #t( (&ould /e (tre((ed t&at t&e (no%(&oer (&ould %al3 in a rela*ed, and nor'al rolling toe 'anner, and (&ould onl0 lift t&e (no%(&oe &ig& enoug& to $lear t&e (urfa$e of t&e (no%. /. Turning. +1, T&e 3i$3 turn. T&i( i( nor'all0 t&e ea(ie(t %a0 to $&ange dire$tion( on le)el ground. Fne (no%(&oe i( (%ung up to t&e front (o t&at it( tail i( on t&e (no%,

1 -" WSVX .0 .1

t&en it i( allo%ed to pi)ot to%ard( t&e ne% dire$tion. T&e ot&er (no%(&oe i( t&en /roug&t around. +a, Fn (teep terrain. #t i( i'portant to re'e'/er to (tep off %it& t&e up&ill foot, %&en $&anging dire$tion. 8or e*a'ple? if 'a3ing a turn to t&e rig&t, (&ift 0our %eig&t to t&e left foot, fa$e do%n t&e (lope, and (%ing t&e rig&t (no% (&oe around to point in t&e dire$tion of t&e ne*t (%it$&/a$3. T&en (ta'p t&e rig&t (no%(&oe into t&e (no%. Ma3e (ure t&e tail i( not on t&e left (no%(&oe. 7o%, gentl0 (&ift 0our %eig&t to 0our rig&t foot and (%ing t&e left (no%(&oe around (o it i( parallel %it& 0our rig&t (no%(&oe. +/, .a$& (u$$eeding 'an. W&en u(ing t&e 3i$3 turn te$&ni2ue on (teep terrain, tr0 and (ta0 %ell a/o)e 0our pre)iou( trail. T&i( trail &a( under'ined t&e (no% on %&i$& 0ou are no% /uilding t&e turn. -( ea$& (u$$eeding 'an u(e( t&e turn, it %ill tend to (loug& off on t&e (&oulder(, and t&e 'en to%ard t&e end of t&e $olu'n %ill &a)e a &ard ti'e getting around. T&i( $an /e pre)ented if $are i( u(ed /0 ea$& 'an in pla$ing &i( (no%(&oe( pre$i(el0 %&ere t&o(e in front of &i' &a)e pla$ed t&eir(. #f t&ere i( onl0 one %a0 around an o/(ta$le, t&i( $an /e )er0 i'portant. + , T&e (tar turn. T&i( $an al(o /e u(ed to $&ange dire$tion /0 (i'pl0 e*e$uting a (erie( of &alf fa$ing 'o)e'ent(. +3, C&oo(ing a route. W&en $li'/ing, plan to u(e t&e gentle(t pla$e( on a (lope for turn(. 1oo3 a&ead, and pi$3 t&e route, u(ing t&e terrain to 0our ad)antage. -)oid t&e (teep terrain and donAt &e(itate to 'a3e (&ort (%it$&/a$3(. $. Side Step. T&i( i( u(ed %&en t&e (lope i( at a $riti$al angle. d. 4erring/one. T&i( i( u(ed %&en t&e (lope i( at a gradual angle. e. Cro((ing F/(ta$le(. 4ere are a fe% (i'ple rule( to re'e'/er. +1, -l%a0( (tep o)er o/(ta$le(. 6o t&i( to a)oid da'aging (no%(&oe( and lo(ing /alan$e. + , 7e)er /ridge a gap. Bridging a gap i( %&en t&e (no%(&oe tip and tail are (upporting 0our %eig&t, %&ile t&e $enter of t&e (&oe i( (u(pended. +3, S&allo% (no%. #n (&allo% (no%, t&ere i( a danger of $at$&ing, and tearing t&e %e//ing on tree (tu'p(, or (nag, %&i$& are onl0 (lig&tl0 $o)ered. +5, Wet (no%. T&i( %ill fre2uentl0 /all up under t&e feet, interfering %it& $o'forta/le %al3ing. T&i( (no% (&ould /e 3no$3ed off a( (oon a( po((i/le.

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+5, 6eep loo(e (no%. Mo)e'ent in deep loo(e (no% i( )er0 e*&au(ting if not on an e*i(ting trail. Trail /rea3ing re(pon(i/ilitie( (&ould /e rotated fre2uentl0 if in a group. RE ERENCE$ 1. -8 "5-5, Sear$& and :e($ue Sur)i)al Training, 1995.

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UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001

WSVX.0 .13 !"!05 STUDENT HANDOUT WINTER TRACKING TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE #n a $old %eat&er 'ountainou( en)iron'ent, $ondu$t tra$*ing, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.13) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES +1, Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, de($ri-e in %riting t&e of gait(, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.13a) + , Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, de($ri-e in %riting t&e tra$*( of t&e 'a/or ani'al fa'ilie(, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.13 ) +3, Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e( and gi)en an ani'al &ide, identif. t&e ani'al, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.13!) +0, Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, li(t in %riting t&e fa$tor( t&at deter'ine( tra$* age, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.13") +5, #n a $old %eat&er 'ountainou( en)iron'ent and gi)en a de(ignated area %it& tra$*(, e(ti'ate unit (i1e, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.13#) OUTLINE 1. Ba$%! T#&'%()*)+,. 2rior to di($u((ing tra$*ing, (o'e -a(i$ ter'( 'u(t -e under(tood3 a. Trail( and 4un(. #n an. area, t&ere %ill -e 'an. t&oroug&fare( or trail( and run(. So'e 'a. -e (ea(onal, %&ile ot&er( 'a. -e u(ed -. 'an. different (pe$ie(. 4un( are infre5uentl. or inter'ittentl. u(ed t&oroug&fare( t&at $onne$t trail( to (pe$ifi$ feeding, -edding, or %atering area(. #f trail( are li*e &ig&%a.( $onne$ting $itie( and to%n(, run( are li*e (treet( pro)iding a$$e(( to t&e ga( (tation(, (uper'ar*et(, and neig&-or&ood(.

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-. Bed( and 6a.(. Bed( are fre5uentl. u(ed (leeping area( $o''onl. referred to a( den( or -urro%(. T&e(e $an -e found in &ollo% log(, tree(, ro$* pile(, -ru(& pile(, gra((, t&i$*et(, or e)en out in t&e open. 7 la. i( an infre5uentl. u(ed re(ting or (leeping (pot. #t i( rarel. u(ed 'ore t&an on$e. $. 4u-(. So'e ru-( are a$$idental and (o'e are deli-erate. 7$$idental ru-( $an -e in a -urro%, on a trail, or o)er!under a fallen tree a$ro(( a trail. 8eli-erate ru-( $an -e %&en an ani'al ($rat$&e( a &ard-to-rea$& (pot, or %&en a deer ($rape( it( antler( again(t a tree to re'o)e it( )el)et. d. S$rat$&e(. T&e. al(o $an -e a$$idental or deli-erate. 7$$idental ($rat$&e( are left -. ani'al( $li'-ing tree( or on a log %&ere it left a -ell. ru-. 8eli-erate ($rat$&e( $an -e found at t&e -a(e of tree( %&ere t&e. &a)e rea$&ed up and ra*ed t&eir $la%( do%n%ard for an. nu'-er of rea(on(. S$rat$&e( $an al(o -e found in t&e ground %&ere $at( &a)e -uried ($at, (5uirrel( &a)e $a$&ed nut(, or ani'al( are digging at a ($ent. e. Tran(feren$e. Tran(feren$e i( t&e re'o)al of 'aterial fro' one area onto anot&er. Tran(feren$e $an o$$ur %&en %al*ing along a 'udd. (trea' -an* and $ro((ing a log. T&e 'ud left on t&e log i( $on(idered tran(feren$e. f. Co'pre((ion. Co'pre((ion i( t&e a$tual flattening of t&e (oil or (no% pa$*. #t i( $au(ed -. t&e pre((ing do%n or le)eling of (oil, (and, (tone(, t%ig(, or lea)e( -. t&e %eig&t of t&e -od.. Co'pre((ion i( 'ore li*el. to -e found in fro1en, &ard, dr., (and. $ondition( %&ere t&ere i( no 'oi(ture to &old a $lear and la(ting i'print. g. 8i(tur-an$e. 8i(tur-an$e i( t&e e.e-$at$&ing effe$t of unnatural pattern(. T&i( i( )er. $o''on in a (no% $o)ered en)iron'ent, e9a'ple( are3 +1, S&o)eling (no%- %&ile t&e initial to((ed (no% i( tran(feren$e, on$e it 'elt( it %ill di(tur- t&e top of t&e (no% pa$*, lea)ing an unnatural pattern. + , :or%ard 'o)e'ent- all for%ard 'o)e'ent, 'an or ani'al, %ill *i$* (no% for%ard. T&e initial to((ed (no% i( tran(feren$e, -ut -e$o'e( di(tur-an$e on$e t&e (no% &a( 'elted. &. ;ait. (WSVX.02.13a) 7 gait i( generall. t&e %a. an ani'al 'o)e(. ;ait( are )er. $riti$al in t&e identifi$ation of ani'al tra$*(. 7lt&oug& $ertain gait( are 'ore indi$ati)e of $ertain ani'al(, t&e. 'a. +depending on t&e $ir$u'(tan$e(, 'odif. or alter t&eir gait to anot&er (t.le.

13WSVX.0 .13

+1, 8iagonal Wal*er. <or'al pattern for all predator. ani'al(, %&i$& in$lude( all dog(, $at(, &oofed ani'al(, and 'an.

+ , 2a$er(. <or'al pattern for all %ide--odied ani'al( (u$& a( -ear(, ra$$oon, opo((u', (*un*, %ol)erine, -adger, -ea)er, por$upine, 'u(*rat, and 'ar'ot. #n(tead of 'o)ing oppo(ite (ide( of t&e -od. at t&e (a'e ti'e li*e diagonal %al*er(, t&e. find it ea(ier to 'o)e -ot& li'-( on one (ide of t&e -od. at t&e (a'e ti'e.

+3, Bounder(. <or'al pattern for 'o(t of t&e long--odied, (&ort-legged %ea(el fa'il. (u$& a( 'arten, fi(&er, and 'in*. Bounder( %al* -. rea$&ing out %it& t&e front feet and -ringing t&e -a$* feet up /u(t -e&ind t&e'

+0, ;alloper(. <or'al pattern for ra--it(, &are(, and rodent( +e9$ept %ide--od. -ea)er, 'u(*rat, 'ar'ot, and por$upine,. 7( t&e(e ani'al( 'o)e, t&e. pu(& off %it& t&eir -a$* feet, &it %it& t&eir front feet, and -ring t&eir -a$* feet into po(ition. Tree d%elling galloper( %ill land %it& t&eir front feet (ide -. (ide, %&ile ground d%elling galloper( %ill land %it& t&e front feet at a diagonal.

13-3 WSVX.0 .13

i. ;na%ing. 7ll ani'al( %ill $&e% on )egetation3 (o'e a( a food (our$e, %&ile predator( need $ertain )ita'in(. ;na%ing( $an -e on tree( +$a'-iu', or on )egetation.

/. S$at. S$at i( a$tual ani'al dropping(.

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*. Sign. 7n. di(tur-an$e of t&e natural $ondition %&i$& re)eal( t&e pre(en$e or pa((age of ani'al(, per(on(, or t&ing(. =9a'ple( of (ign in$lude (tone( t&at &a)e -een *no$*ed out of t&eir original po(ition, o)erturned lea)e( (&o%ing a dar*er under(ide, (and depo(ited on ro$*(, drag and ($uff 'ar*(, di(pla$ed t%ig(, and ($uff 'ar*( on tree(. l. Spoor. T&e a$tual tra$* or trail of an ani'al, %&i$& $an -e identified a( to (i1e, (&ape, and pattern. T&i( %ord i( generall. inter$&anged %it& tra$*. Spoor i( -ro*en do%n into t%o (eg'ent(3 aerial and ground. . R#a"%(+ S-))&. >nle(( a $learl. )i(i-le ground (poor i( reada-le, interpretation( 'u(t -e 'ade in order to deter'ine ?%&at ani'al 'ade t&i(@A 2rior to e)er atte'pting to read (poor, one 'u(t -e t&oroug&l. *no%ledgea-le a-out %&at ani'al( are in t&e area. a. T&e fir(t (tep i( to loo* at t&e gait. T&i( %ill generall. narro% do%n t&e (pe$ie(. -. T&e ne9t (tep i( deter'ined %&i$& ani'al fa'il. t&e tra$* -elong( to. (WSVX.02.13 ) +1, Cat :a'il.. Bo-$at, 6.n9, and Mountain 6ion +Cougar,. 0 toe pad(, no )i(i-le $la% print. #t 'o)e( %it& a (en(e of purpo(e and dire$t regi(ter( it( pa%(. #t( &eel pad i( 'u$& 'ore defined t&an one fro' a dog.

CAT .AMIL/ + , 8og :a'il.. :o9, Co.ote, and Wol)e(. Vi(i-le $la% print, 0 toe pad(. <o (en(e of purpo(e, e9$ept fo9, %&i$& (tep( li*e a $at and li*e( depre((ion(. Beel pad i( 'u$& rounder.

13-5 WSVX.0 .13

+3, 4a--it :a'il.. T&e 'ain differen$e -et%een ra--it( and &are( +%&i$& in$lude t&e /a$*ra--it, i( t&at ra--it( are -orn al'o(t &airle(( and %it& e.e( $lo(ed, %&ile &are( are -orn %it& a t&i$* $oat of fur, open e.e(, and an a-ilit. to run )er. (oon after%ard(. T&e. &a)e four toe( %it& relati)el. enor'ou( &ind feet a( $o'pared to t&eir front.

RABBIT .AMIL/ +0, 4odent :a'il.. Vole(, Mi$e, 4at(, C&ip'un*(, S5uirrel(, Wood$&u$*(, Mu(*rat(, C Bea)er. Tra$* (i1e )arie( greatl. -e$au(e of t&e different (pe$ie(, -ut one fa$t re'ain(, all &a)e 5 toe print( on t&eir rear feet, %&ile &a)ing 0 toe print( on t&eir front feet.

RODENT .AMIL/ +5, Wea(el :a'il.. Wea(el, Min*, Marten, :i(&er, S*un*(, Dtter, Badger, 2or$upine, C Wol)erine. 7ll &a)e 5 toe print(.

WEASEL .AMIL/ +5, 4a$$oon, Dpo((u'(, C Bear. 7ll &a)e 5 toe print( %&ile loo*ing li*e a -a-.E( &and print.
13-" WSVX.0 .13

RACCOON0 OPOSSUM0 1 BEAR $. 7fter t&e fa'il. i( *no%n, u(ing )ariou( $lue( %ill &elp identif. t&e (pe$ie(. (WSVX.02.13!) +1, #f t&e tra$*er i( edu$ated on t&e -e&a)ior and &a-it( of ani'al(, &e $an deter'ine t&e indi)idual (pe$ie(. T&i( infor'ation $an -e u(ed for -etter e'plo.'ent of trap( and (nare(. T&e follo%ing i( an e9a'ple. +a, Wal*ing along a $ree* -an*, .ou noti$e a (et of tra$*( t&at &a)e fi)e toe print( for -ot& front and -a$* feet %it& )i(i-le $la% print(. T&i( infor'ation tell( .ou t&e print( -elong to t&e %ea(el fa'il.. T&e tra$*( &a)e a -ounding gait pattern, %&i$& eli'inate( %ide--odied ani'al( (u$& a( -adger, (*un*, por$upine, and %ol)erine. Be$au(e t&e tra$*( are appro9i'atel. t&e (i1e of a di'e, .ou &a)e eli'inated 'arten and fi(&er. T&e tra$*( are follo%ing t&e (trea' -an* for (o'e di(tan$e, (topping at ('all &ole( along t&e -an*E( edge. Fno%ing t&at %ea(el( li*e gra((. 'eado%(, .ou $an deter'ine t&at t&e tra$* i( pro-a-l. 'ade -. a 'in*. 3. A+# D#2#&'%(a2%)(. (WSVX.02.13") #t i( )er. $riti$al to -e a-le to deter'ine tra$* age. =a$& area and $li'ate %ill )ar. in t&e effe$t( of aging tra$*(, (o pra$ti$e, e9peri'entation, and e9perien$e i( )ital in t&at area. T&e follo%ing fa$tor( deteriorate all tra$*( and 'u(t -e fa$tored. a. Weat&er - 6a(t (no% or rain, fog, and de%. -. Sun. $. Wind. d. Soil $ontent - &ard, (and., fir', or 'oi(t.

13-7 WSVX.0 .13

e. Tra$* =ro(ion. 7ll tra$*( %ill erode o)er a gi)en period of ti'e. T&e *e. to (no% tra$* ero(ion i( t&e a'ount of (unlig&t and te'perature t&e tra$* &a( -een e9po(ed to. T&e follo%ing ti'eta-le $an -e u(ed a( a general guideline. +1, Minute( to an &our Tran(feren$e i( noti$ed around t&e outer edge( on top of t&e (no% pa$*. Tra$* edge( are (&arp and $lean + , 1-3 &our( Tran(ferred (no% &a( 'elted, lea)ing ('all po$* 'ar*( on top of t&e (no%. Tra$* edge( are (lig&tl. rounded +3, 0- 0 &our( 2o$* 'ar*( on top of (no% pa$* &a)e di(appeared. Tra$* edge( are rounded, in(ide tra$* %all( are fir'. +0, 0-7 Top of (no% pa$* i( angling do%n to%ard( tra$*. Tra$* i( -eginning to fill in and %ill &a)e a ?SA $ur)e. f. 7ging S$at. 7ll ($at drie( on t&e in(ide fir(t. T&erefore, relati)el. %et ($at on t&e out(ide $ould -e old. T&e onl. %a. to deter'ine t&e age i( -. anal.1ing t&e in(ide. W&en a((e((ing ($at, $are 'u(t -e ta*en to a)oid t&e po((i-ilit. of $ontra$ting di(ea(e. 0. S%3# E$2%'a2%)(. (WSVX.02.13#) 7lt&oug& t&ere i( no e9a$t 'et&od to deter'ine a$tual unit (i1e, an appro9i'ation $an -e 'ade. a. >p to a S5uad. #t i( po((i-le to $ount -a(*et 'ar*(, if on (*i(. T&e tra$* i( generall. $lean and (traig&t. #t i( po((i-le to identif. 'ultiple (*i and!or (no% (&oe tra$*(. -. S5uad to 2latoon Si1e. #f on (*i(, -a(*et 'ar*( are diffi$ult to di(tingui(& fro' ea$& ot&er and 'a. loo* li*e a ('all dit$&. T&e tra$* i( (o'e%&at $lean and (traig&t, -ut 'a.-e a &alf-a-%idt& %ider t&an nor'al +i.e., 3 (*i tra$*( or 3 (no% (&oe( tra$*( %ide,. $. 2latoon to Co'pan. Si1e. T&e tra$* i( (lopp. and %ide, po((i-l. -3 ti'e( %ider t&an nor'al. T&e edge( of t&e tra$* are de(tro.ed at -end( and $ur)e(. 5. T&a!4%(+. a. T&e -e(t ti'e to tra$* i( earl. in t&e 'orning or late in t&e afternoon due to t&e &eig&t of t&e (un to $a(t (&ado%(. W&en reading (poor, al%a.( pla$e it -et%een .our(elf and t&e (un.
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-. 8o not 'o)e pa(t t&e la(t (ign until .ou &a)e found t&e ne9t (ign, t&i( i( $alled ?(ign $uttingA and %ill -e di($u((ed later. #n training, al%a.( tr. to find e)er. tra$*. $. Dn$e t&e initial tra$* i( found, $o'pletel. do$u'ent and (*et$& it for future referen$e. T&i( (*et$& %ill pre)ent .ou fro' follo%ing t&e %rong tra$* later on. 4e$ord t&e follo%ing infor'ation. d. 8eter'ining 8ire$tion. T&i( generall. i( not a pro-le' %it& ani'al(. ManE( o)ert&e-(no% e5uip'ent 'a. $onfu(e a tra$*er. 7ll for%ard 'o)e'ent %ill di(pla$e (no% for%ard, or referred to a( ?fluffingA. T&i( fluffing i( t&e *e.. 7( it -egin( to 'elt, po$*'ar*( %ill -e left on t&e le)el (no% pa$*. +1, :luffing.

+ , Ba$*%ard Sno% S&oe(. #ne9perien$ed per(onnel 'a. -elie)e t&at %al*ing -a$*%ard( in (no% (&oe( %ill fool (o'eone. T&i( of a$ti)it. i( e9tre'el. e9&au(ting and %ill not $onfu(e an e9perien$ed tra$*er.


13-9 WSVX.0 .13

+3, S*ier. 7( t&e (*i pole i( planted and t&e (*i 'o)e( for%ard, t&e -a(*et %ill al(o angle for%ard, $au(ing t&e -a(*et to dig into t&e (no%, lea)ing an indent on t&e for%ard edge indi$ating dire$tion. T&e point of t&e (*i pole %ill al(o $onta$t t&e (no% -efore t&e pole i( planted, 'a*ing a line pointing a%a. fro' t&e dire$tion.

SKIING DIRECTION +0, Sno%'o-ile and tra$*ed )e&i$le(. :luffing and dire$tion deter'ination i( diffi$ult to deter'ine %it& (no%'o-ile and tra$*ed )e&i$le(. T&e tra$*( %ill $o'pre(( (no% in(ide t&e tra$*, for'ing plate(. T&e(e plate( are t&e *e.( to deter'ining dire$tion. 7t ground le)el, t&e )a(t 'a/orit. of plate( %ill fa$e t&e dire$tion of tra)el, alt&oug& a ('all a'ount %ill fa$e in t&e oppo(ite dire$tion.

DETERMING TRACKED VEHICLE DIRECTION e. Tra$*ing Tea'(. #f tra$*ing tea'( are a)aila-le, ?(ign $uttingA $an (peed up t&e tra$*ing pro$e((. +1, 7ll tra$*ing tea'( +'ini'u' of t%o, 'u(t do$u'ent and (*et$& t&e initial tra$*. + , T&e initial tea' $ontinue( to tra$* until anot&er tra$*ing tea' &a( po(iti)el. found t&e (a'e tra$* furt&er a&ead on t&e trail. T&e la(t tra$* i( 'ar*ed for future referen$e.

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+3, T&e (e$ond tea' a((u'e( t&e re(pon(i-ilit. of lo$ating ea$& tra$* until t&e. &a)e -een radioed -. t&e fir(t tea' t&at ?t&e. &a)e found t&e tra$*A. T&i( i( ?(ign $uttingA. +0, ?Sign $uttingA i( a$$o'pli(&ed -. 'a*ing large (%eeping ar$( a&ead of t&e pri'ar. tra$*ing tea' until t&e tra$* i( lo$ated at %&i$& ti'e t&e tea'( $&ange role( -. ?leap froggingA. +5, #f t&e tra$* i( lo(t or 'i(identified, t&e tea'( %ill 'o)e -a$* to t&e la(t 'ar*ed tra$*.

H/POTHETICAL SEARCH f. a tra$*er or tra$*ing tea'(. #f .ou are -eing tra$*ed, .our pri'ar. $on$ern i( to gain a( 'u$& di(tan$e -et%een .our(elf and t&e tra$*er. T&e 'ore di(tan$e .ou gain, t&e 'ore ti'e to ena-le .ou to $reate de)i$e( to di($ourage a tra$*er. +1, Create (i'ple pat&guard( along .our trail. 7n e9perien$ed tra$*er %ill not pi$* up t&ing( along t&e trail -e$au(e of t&e po((i-ilit. of -eing ?-oo-. trappedA. #f &e noti$e( po((i-le trap(, &e %ill u(e 'ore $aution and (lo% &i( pa$e. + , >(e $aution %&en 'o)ing along t&e trail. W&en tra)eling, 'a*e it diffi$ult for t&e tra$*er to find .our tra$*(.

13-11 WSVX.0 .13

+a, 7lt&oug& t&i( i( diffi$ult in (no%, ( in t&e tree line %ill redu$e t&e po((i-ilit. of -eing di($o)ered -. air$raft. +-, 8o not -ru(& up again(t (no% $o)ered (apling( and large -ran$&e(. W&en t&e (no% i( 'i((ing, t&e green foliage i( li*e a -ill-oard. +3, Ba$*fill all tra$*( leading to%ard( .our -i)oua$. W&en in a ('all unit, or t&e ta$ti$al (ituation di$tate(, -a$*fill .our /u'p off point %it& (no%. T&i( i( a$$o'pli(&ed -. filling (o'e of -ag %it& (no% fro' .our -i)oua$ (ite and $o'pletel. filling in all &ole( fro' t&e 'ain tra$* until no longer (een fro' t&e 'ain tra$*. Ma*e (ure t&at t&e filler (no% i( $o'pletel. -lended in %it& t&e top of t&e (no% pa$*. RE.ERENCE5 1. 8a)id S$ott 8onelan, Ta$ti$al Tra$*ing Dperation, 199G . To' Bro%n, :ield ;uide to <ature D-(er)ation and Tra$*ing, 19G3

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UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 WSVX.0 .1! "#"05 STUDENT HANDOUT SURVIVAL MEDICINE TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE $n a %old &eat'er (ountainou) en*iron(ent, e+e%ute )ur*i*al (edi%ine te%'ni,ue), in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e). (WSVX.02.14) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES -1. Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e), li)t in &riting t'e re,uire(ent) for (aintenan%e of 'ealt', in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e. (WSVX.02.14a) - . Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e), li)t t'e in &riting t'e en*iron(ental in/urie), in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e. (WSVX.02.14b) -3. Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e), define in &riting t'e definition of '0pot'er(ia, in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e. (WSVX.02.14 ) -!. Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e), li)t in &riting t'e general %on)ideration) for (ede*a% pro%edure), in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e. (WSVX.02.14!) -5. Wit'out t'e aid of referen%e), e+e%ute pre*enti*e (ea)ure) again)t &ildlife di)ea)e), in a%%ordan%e &it' t'e referen%e. (WSVX.02.14") OUTLINE 1. RE#UIREMENTS TO MAINTAIN HEALTH. Maintenan%e of 'ealt' i) t'e fir)t )tep in pre*enting in/urie). T'e t'ree re,uire(ent) are1 (WSVX.02.14a) 2. W2T34 -1. 2 per)on %an not )ur*i*e &it'out &ater for (ore t'an a fe& da0). 5our 6od0 lo)e) &ater t'roug' nor(al 6od0 pro%e))e) -)&eating, urinating, and 6reat'ing.. 7uring nor(al a%ti*it0 t'e 8idne0) e+%rete 1 to ,uart) of &ater per da0 and a per)on e*aporate) . 5 to ,uart per da0. 9t'er fa%tor), )u%' a) 'eat e+po)ure, %old e+po)ure, inten)e a%ti*it0, 'ig' altitude, 6urn), or illne)), %an %au)e 0our 6od0 to lo)e (ore &ater. Water inta8e i) %riti%al in pre*enting illne)).

1!-1 WSVX.0 .1!

B. :997 -1. T'e 6od0 %an li*e )e*eral &ee8) &it'out food. ;o&e*er, &it'out an ade,uate )uppl0 to )ta0 'ealt'0 0our (ental and p'0)i%al %apa6ilitie) &ill deteriorate rapidl0. :ood )upplie) t'e 6od0 &it' t'e ne%e))ar0 nutrient) and energ0 to )ur*i*e. - . :ood )our%e) are plant), ani(al), and fi)'. -a. :i6er. :i6er pre*ent) irrita6le 6o&el )0ndro(e. $n t'e :al8land) %a(paign t'e Briti)' 'ad a (a/or %on)tipation and diarr'ea pro6le(. T'i) &a) largel0 %au)ed 60 de'0dration and a lo& fi6er diet. <ra))e) and pine needle) are a good )our%e of dietar0 fi6er. -6. Vita(in). Vita(in) are e))ential to (eta6oli% fun%tioning of t'e 6od0 and %old &eat'er %o(pound) t'i) fun%tion. 9ur 6odie) %annot (a8e *ita(in) )o &e (u)t pro*ide t'e( in our diet. Mo)t edi6le plant life %ontain) (an0 different *ita(in). 2))o%iated illne))e) fro( long ter( defi%ien%0 are S%ur*0 -*ita(in C. a p'0)i%al di)ea)e and Beri6eri -*ita(in B1. a (ental di)ea)e. Vita(in) %an 6e found in t'e %a(6iu( la0er of tree), pine needle), and )tinging nettle. -%. Mineral). T'e (ineral t'at &e are pri(aril0 %on%erned &it' i) $ron. $ron defi%ien%0 %au)e) a 9= de%rea)e in 'eat energ0 produ%tion. $ron a%t) a) a t'er(o regulator. Con)u(ing onl0 1"3 472 of iron re)ult) in a 9= greater 'eat lo)) during %old e+po)ure. 2ni(al 6lood, dandelion), )tinging nettle, and (arro& pro*ide t'e (a/or )our%e of iron. 3n)ure t'e)e food) are properl0 prepared. -d. Calorie). To produ%e energ0, t'e 6od0 u)e) %alorie). >rotein), fat), or %ar6o'0drate) produ%e %alorie). 9f t'e)e t'ree, %ertain one) produ%e 6etter energ0 t'an ot'er) do. 2ni(al (eat i) an e+%ellent )our%e for %alori% inta8e, alt'oug' nut) fro( pine%one) %an )upple(ent it. 1. >rotein. >rotein) are a reparati*e food of %o(pli%ated (ole%ule) %o(po)ed of %'ain) of a(ino a%id). T'ere are nu(erou) 8ind) of a(ino a%id) &'i%' %annot 6e )0nt'e)i?ed 60 t'e 6od0 and t'u) (u)t 6e %on)u(ed in t'e diet. 2 pure protein diet %an %au)e fatalitie) in 3-@ &ee8) fro( Rabbit Starvation, a ter( u)ed for li*ing on a relati*el0 fat free ra66it diet. >rotein %an 6e found in dandelion), nut), and (eat).

1!WSVX.0 .1!

. :at. :at) )er*e a) t'e (ain )torage for( of energ0. :at) produ%e energ0 and 'eat. :at) are 6e)t o6tained fro( 6one (arro&, li*er, or t'e )to(a%' portion of fi)' 3. Car6o'0drate). Car6o'0drate) are 8no&n a) t'e ,ui%8 energ0 food. T'e0 produ%e lot) of 'eat. T'e0 are )tored in t'e li*er and (u)%le). T'e)e organ) are not large and %an 6e (ar8edl0 depleted 60 fa)ting for a) )'ort a) ! 'our). Cattail), nut) are a )our%e for %ar6o'0drate). C. >34S9A2B ;5<$3A3 -1. Cleanline)) i) an i(portant fa%tor in pre*enting infe%tion and di)ea)e. $t 6e%o(e) e*en (ore i(portant in a )ur*i*al )ituation. - . T'e area) to pa0 )pe%ial attention to are t'e feet, 'and), ar(pit), %rot%', and 'air. Vi)ual and p'0)i%al in)pe%tion) )'ould 6e %ondu%ted dail0. ;and and finger nail) )'ould 6e 8ept a) %lean a) po))i6le to pre*ent infe%tion of (u%ou) (e(6rane. -a. Soap -l0e. %an 6e (ade fro( ani(al fat and a)'e). -6. Sun 6at' -3. Teet' are anot'er i(portant area to 8eep %lean. Bru)' 0our teet' ea%' da0 eit'er &it' a toot'6ru)', or if 0ou donCt 'a*e one, (a8e a %'e&ing )ti%8. -a. 2 %'e&ing )ti%8 i) (ade out of a t&ig a6out # to @ in%'e) long. C'e& one end of t'e )ti%8 to )eparate t'e fi6er). Ao& 0ou %an 6ru)' 0our teet'. 2. $IVE WA%S THE BOD% LOSES HEAT

4adiation1 i) dire%t 'eat lo)) fro( t'e 6od0 to it) )urrounding). $f t'e )urrounding) are %older t'an t'e 6od0, t'e net re)ult i) 'eat lo)). 2 nude (an lo)e) a6out #0= of 'i) total 6od0 'eat 60 radiation. Spe%ifi%all0, 'eat i) lo)t in t'e for( of infrared radiation. $nfrared targeting de*i%e) &or8 60 dete%ting radiant 'eat lo)). Condu%tion1 i) t'e dire%t tran)fer of 'eat fro( one o6/e%t in %onta%t &it' a %older o6/e%t. -1. Mo)t %o((onl0 %ondu%tion o%%ur) &'en an indi*idual )it) or re)t) dire%tl0 upon a %old o6/e%t, )u%' a) )no&, t'e ground, or a ro%8. Wit'out an in)ulating la0er 6et&een t'e Marine and t'e o6/e%t -)u%' a) an i)opor (at., one ,ui%8l0 6egin) to lo)e 'eat. T'i) i) &'0 itC) i(portant to not )it or )leep dire%tl0 on %old ground or )no& &it'out a (at or a pa%8 a%ting a) in)ulation.



Con*e%tion1 i) 'eat lo)) to t'e at(o)p'ere or a li,uid. 2ir and &ater %an 6ot' 6e t'oug't of a) Dli,uid)D running o*er t'e )urfa%e of t'e 6od0. Water or air, &'i%' i) in %onta%t &it' t'e 6od0, atte(pt) to a6)or6 'eat fro( t'e 6od0 until t'e 6od0 and air or &ater i) 6ot' t'e )a(e te(perature). ;o&e*er,

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if t'e air or &ater i) %ontinuou)l0 (o*ing o*er t'e 6od0, t'e te(perature) %an ne*er e,uali?e and t'e 6od0 8eep) lo)ing 'eat. 7. 3*aporation . ;eat lo)) fro( e*aporation o%%ur) &'en &ater -)&eat. on t'e )urfa%e of t'e )8in i) turned into &ater *apor. T'i) pro%e)) re,uire) energ0 in t'e for( of 'eat and t'i) 'eat %o(e) fro( t'e 6od0. -1. T'i) i) t'e (a/or (et'od t'e 6od0 u)e) to %ool it)elf do&n. T'i) i) &'0 0ou )&eat &'en 0ou &or8 'ard or >T. 9ne ,uart of )&eat, &'i%' 0ou %an ea)il0 produ%e in an 'our of 'ard >T, &ill ta8e a6out #00 %alorie) of 'eat a&a0 fro( t'e 6od0 &'en it e*aporate).

4e)piration. W'en 0ou in'ale, t'e air 0ou 6reat'e in i) &ar(ed 60 t'e 6od0 and )aturated &it' &ater *apor. T'en &'en 0ou e+'ale, t'at 'eat i) lo)t. T'at i) &'0 6reat' %an 6e )een in %old air. 4e)piration i) reall0 a %o(6ination of %on*e%tion -'eat 6eing tran)ferred to (o*ing air 60 t'e lung). and e*aporation, &it' 6ot' pro%e))e) o%%urring in)ide t'e 6od0.


PH%SICAL RESPONSES TO HEAT. W'en t'e 6od0 6egin) to %reate e+%e)) 'eat, it re)pond) in )e*eral &a0) to rid it)elf of t'at 'eat. 2. $nitiall0, t'e 6lood *e))el) in t'e )8in e+pand, or dilate. T'i) dilation allo&) (ore 6lood to t'e )urfa%e &'ere t'e 'eat %an (ore ea)il0 6e tran)ferred to t'e )urrounding). B. Soon after&ard), )&eating 6egin). T'i) %ontri6ute) to 'eat lo)) t'roug' %on*e%tion and e*aporation.


PH%SICAL RESPONSES TO COLD. 2l(o)t t'e oppo)ite o%%ur) a) &it' 'eat. 2. :ir)t, 6lood *e))el) at t'e )8in )urfa%e %lo)e do&n, or %on)tri%t. T'i) doe) t&o t'ing)1 -1. Be)) 6lood goe) near t'e )urfa%e of t'e 6od0 )o t'at le)) 'eat i) lo)t to t'e out)ide. - . More 6lood goe) to t'e D%oreD or t'e %enter of t'e 6od0, to 8eep t'e 6rain, 'eart,lung), li*er, and 8idne0) &ar(. T'i) (ean) finger) and toe) tend to get %old. B. $f t'at i) not enoug' to 8eep t'e 6od0 &ar(, t'e ne+t )tep i) )'i*ering. S'i*ering i) refle+i*e regular (u)%ular %ontra%tion), t'i) (u)%ular a%ti*it0 %au)e) 'eat produ%tion. 2) (entioned 6efore, )'i*ering %an onl0 la)t for a )'ort ti(e 6efore e+'au)tion o%%ur). Wit' )'i*ering 0ou &ill eit'er &ar( up, a) u)uall0 o%%ur), or

1!-! WSVX.0 .1!

%ontinue to get %older and )tart to 6e%o(e '0pot'er(i%. ;0pot'er(ia &ill 6e di)%u))ed later. '. ENVIRONMENTAL INJURIES (WSVX.02.14b) are %old &eat'er in/urie), de'0dration, and altitude related illne))e).



H()*+,"-./a (MSVX.02.14 ) i) t'e )tate &'en t'e 6od0E) %ore te(perature fall) to 95 degree) :a'ren'eit or le)). I+ /0 +," 12.b"- *1" 3/44"- *5 )"*)4" /1 a 02-6/6a4 0/+2a+/*1. 2 %o((on 6elief t'at e+tre(el0 %old te(perature) are needed for '0pot'er(ia to o%%ur i) not true. Mo)t %a)e) o%%ur &'en t'e te(perature i) 6et&een 30 and 50 degree) :a'ren'eit. T'i) i) t'e nor(al te(perature range at MWTC, e+%ept during t'e 'ar)'e)t of &inter.

Cau)e) of ;0pot'er(ia. T'e &a0) in &'i%' t'e 6od0 generate) and lo)e) 'eat 'a) 6een di)%u))ed earlier. Fuite )i(pl0, '0pot'er(ia o%%ur) &'en 'eat lo)) fro( t'e 6od0 e+%eed) t'e 6od0C) a6ilit0 to produ%e 'eat. Contri6uting fa%tor) in%lude1 2(6ient te(perature. 9ut)ide air te(perature. Wind %'ill. T'i) onl0 affe%t) i(properl0 %lot'ed indi*idual). Wet %lot'ing. Cold &ater i((er)ion. $(proper %lot'ing. 3+'au)tion. 2l%o'ol into+i%ation, ni%otine and drug) )u%' a) 6ar6iturate) and tran,uili?er). $n/urie). T'o)e %au)ing i((o6ilit0 or (a/or 6leeding, (a/or 6urn and 'ead trau(a.

6. Sign) and )0(pto() of ;0pot'er(ia

T'e nu(6er one )ign to loo8 for i) altered (ental )tatu)G t'at i), t'e 6rain i) literall0 getting %old. T'e)e )ign) (ig't in%lude %onfu)ion, )lurred )pee%', )trange 6e'a*ior, irrita6ilit0, i(paired /udg(ent, 'allu%ination), or fatigue. 2) '0pot'er(ia &or)en), *i%ti() &ill lo)e %on)%iou)ne)) and e*entuall0 )lip into a %o(a.

1!-5 WSVX.0 .1!

S'i*ering. 4e(e(6er t'at )'i*ering i) a (a/or &a0 t'e 6od0 trie) to &ar( it)elf earl0 on, a) it fir)t 6egin) to get %old. S'i*ering )top) for rea)on)1 T'e 6od0 'a) &ar(ed 6a%8 up to a nor(al te(perature range. T'e 6od0 'a) %ontinued to %ool. Belo& 95: )'i*ering 6egin) to de%rea)e and 60 90: it %ea)e) %o(pletel0. 96*iou)l0, %ontinued %ooling i) 6ad. So if a Marine &it' &'o( 0ou are &or8ing, &'o &a) )'i*ering, )top) )'i*ering, 0ou (u)t deter(ine if t'at i) 6e%au)e 'e 'a) &ar(ed up or %ontinued to %ool. 2 *i%ti( &it' )e*ere '0pot'er(ia (a0 a%tuall0 appear to 6e ,uite dead, &it'out 6reat'ing or a pul)e. ;o&e*er, people &'o 'a*e 6een found t'i) &a0 'a*e 6een )u%%e))full0 D6roug't 6a%8 to lifeD &it' no per(anent da(age. So re(e(6er, you are not dead until you are warm and dead.


>re*ention of ;0pot'er(ia 96*iou)l0, pre*ention i) al&a0) 6etter -and (u%' ea)ier. t'an treat(ent. Cold &eat'er %lot'ing (u)t 6e properl0 &ar( and %ared for. Heep 0our %lot'ing a) dr0 a) po))i6le. $f 0our feet are %old, &ear a 'at. Ip to @0= of t'e 6od0C) 'eat %an e)%ape fro( t'e 'ead. 2*oid de'0dration. 7rin8 # - @ ,uart) per da0. 3at ade,uatel0. 2*oid fatigue and e+'au)tion. $n%rea)e le*el) of a%ti*it0 a) t'e te(perature drop). 7o not re(ain )tationar0 &'en t'e te(perature i) *er0 lo&. $f t'e ta%ti%al )ituation doe) not per(it (o*ing a6out, perfor( i)o(etri% e+er%i)e) of )u%%e))i*e (u)%le).
I)e t'e 6udd0 )0)te( to %'e%8 ea%' ot'er for )ign)")0(pto() of '0pot'er(ia.


Treat(ent of ;0pot'er(ia.

1!-# WSVX.0 .1!

Ma8e t'e diagno)i). >re*ent furt'er 'eat lo)). 4e(o*e t'e *i%ti( fro( t'e en*iron(ent -i.e., into a )'elter or )no& %a*e.. $n)ulate t'e *i%ti(. 4e&ar( t'e *i%ti( 601 JKip t&o )leeping 6ag) toget'er. J>re-&ar( t'e 6ag 60 a )tripped Marine. J>la%e t'e *i%ti( in t'e 6ag &it' )tripped Marine) in)ide on 6ot' )ide) of t'e *i%ti(. Mede*a% if po))i6le.

e. 9t'er >oint) to 4e(e(6er.

:luid). $f t'e *i%ti( i) (ildl0 '0pot'er(i%, 'e (a0 6e gi*en 'ot &et). 9t'er&i)e gi*e 'i( not'ing 60 (out'. 2*oid, if po))i6le, e+%e))i*e (o*e(ent of t'e *i%ti(, a) 'i) 'eart (a0 )top 6eating if it i) /arred. Ma/or Wound). 2ppl0 fir)t aid to (a/or &ound) fir)t, 6efore atte(pting to re-&ar( t'e *i%ti(. 4e-&ar(ing a *i%ti( &'o 'a) 6led to deat' doe) little good. Ae*er gi*e al%o'ol to '0pot'er(ia *i%ti(). 3*en after 0ou 'a*e )tarted re-&ar(ing a *i%ti(, 'e (u)t 6e %on)tantl0 (onitored. 7onCt forget a6out 'i(.

$ROSTBITE :ro)t6ite i) t'e a%tual free?ing of ti))ue). W'en in a )ur*i*al )ituation, re&ar(ing a )e*ere fro)t6itten area &ill not 'elp. $t i) 6e)t to &ait for re)%ue and (edi%al attention. a. >re*ention of :ro)t6ite. :ro)t6ite i) an entirel0 pre*enta6le in/ur0. 7re)) in la0er). Heep %o(forta6l0 %ool. $f 0ou 6egin to 6e%o(e un%o(forta6le, add la0er). Heep %lot'e) dr0. $f %lot'ing -e)pe%iall0 )o%8) and glo*e). 6e%o(e &et, %'ange t'e(. T'i) (a0 (ean 0ou 'a*e to %'ange )o%8 !-5 ti(e) a da0. 7re)) properl0. $f t'e &ind i) 6lo&ing, &ear t'e %orre%t prote%ti*e la0er. 2*oid de'0dration. W'en de'0drated, t'e a(ount of 6lood a*aila6le to &ar( 0our finger) and toe) goe) do&n, in%rea)ing t'e ri)8 of fro)t6ite. 2*oid Star*ation. 4e(e(6er - :ood i) :uel - and t'e 6od0 u)e) t'at fuel to (a8e 'eat. L"a!"-0,/) .20+ "102-" +,a+ )-"6"1+/6" ."a02-"0 a-" +a3"1.

1!-7 WSVX.0 .1!

6. Sign) and S0(pto() of :ro)t6ite. 3ar), no)e, finger) and toe) are affe%ted fir)t. 2rea) &ill feel %old and (a0 tingle leading to.... Au(6ne)) &'i%' progre))e) to... Wa+0 appearan%e &it' )8in )tiff and una6le to glide freel0 o*er a /oint.

%. Treat(ent of :ro)t6ite. :ro)t6ite i) %la))ified into t'ree different degree)1 :ro)ting, Superfi%ial :ro)t6ite, and 7eep :ro)t6ite. :ro)ting &ill re*ert to nor(al after u)ing t'e te%'ni,ue of 6od0 'eat re&ar(ing. ;old t'e affe%ted area, )8in to )8in for 15 (inute). J4e&ar( fa%e, no)e, and ear) &it' 'and). J4e&ar( 'and) in ar(pit), groin or 6ell0. J4e&ar( feet &it' (ountain 6udd0E) ar(pit) or 6ell0. $f affe%ted area %annot 6e re&ar(ed in 15 (inute), Superfi%ial :ro)t6ite or 7eep :ro)t6ite i) )u)pe%ted. D* 1*+ a++".)+ +* 52-+,"- -"7a-. Splint t'e affe%ted area. >rote%t t'e affe%ted area fro( furt'er in/ur0. Mede*a% a) )oon a) po))i6le. DO NOT RUB AN% COLD INJUR% WITH SNOW. 7o not (a))age t'e affe%ted area. 7o not re&ar( &it' )to*e or fire1 a 6urn in/ur0 (a0 re)ult. Boo)en %on)tri%ting %lot'ing. 2*oid to6a%%o produ%t).

Treat(ent of Superfi%ial or 7eep fro)t6ite. 2n0 fro)t6ite in/ur0, regardle)) of )e*erit0, i) treated t'e )a(e L e*a%uate t'e %a)ualt0 and re-&ar(ing in t'e rear. Inle)) t'e ta%ti%al )ituation pro'i6it) e*a%uation or 0ou are in a )ur*i*al )ituation, no consideration should be given to re-warming frostbite in the field. T'e rea)on i) )o(et'ing-%alled free?e L t'a& L re-free?e in/ur0. :ree?e L T'a& L 4e-free?e in/ur0 o%%ur) &'en a fro)t6itten e+tre(it0 i) t'a&ed out, t'en 6efore it %an 'eal -&'i%' ta8e) &ee8) and (a06e (ont'). it free?e) again. T'i) 'a) de*a)tating effe%t) and greatl0 &or)en) t'e initial in/ur0. $n an e+tre(e e(ergen%0 it i) 6etter to &al8 out on a fro)t6itten foot t'an to &ar( it up and t'en 'a*e it free?e again. Treat fro?en e+tre(itie) a) fra%ture) - %arefull0 pad and )plint.

1!-@ WSVX.0 .1!

Treat fro?en feet a) litter %a)e). >re*ent furt'er free?ing in/ur0. 7o not forget a6out '0pot'er(ia. Heep t'e *i%ti( &ar( and dr0. 9n%e in t'e rear, a fro)t6itten e+tre(it0 i) re-&ar(ed in a &ater 6at', &it' t'e te(perature )tri%tl0 (aintained at 101: - 10@:.


a. 6.

7efinition. Sun6urn of t'e %ornea. Cau)e) of Sno& Blindne)). T'ere are t&o rea)on) Marine) in a &inter (ountainou) en*iron(ent are at in%rea)ed ri)8 for )no& 6lindne)). ;ig' altitude. Be)) ultra*iolet -ITV. ra0) are filtered out, IV ra0) are &'at %au)e )no& 6lindne)) -a) &ell a) )un6urn.. So at altitude, (ore IV ra0) are a*aila6le to %au)e da(age. Sno&. T'e &'ite %olor of )no& refle%t) (u%' (ore BTV ra0) off of t'e ground and 6a%8 into 0our fa%e.


Sign) and S0(pto() of Sno& Blindne)). >ainful e0e). ;ot, )ti%80, or gritt0 )en)ation in t'e e0e), li8e )and in t'e e0e). Blurred *i)ion. ;eada%'e (a0 6e )e*ere. 3+%e))i*e tearing. 30e (u)%le )pa)(. Blood)'ot e0e).


>re*ention of Sno& Blindne)). >re*ention i) *er0 )i(ple. 2l&a0) &ear )ungla))e), &it' IV prote%tion. $f )ungla))e) are not a*aila6le, t'en field e+pedient )ungla))e) %an 6e (ade fro( a )trip of %ard6oard &it' 'ori?ontal )lit), and %'ar%oal %an 6e applied under t'e e0e) to %ut do&n on refle%tion of t'e )un off t'e )no&. Treat(ent of Sno& Blindne)). 3*a%uation, &'en po))i6le. 1!-9 WSVX.0 .1!


>at%' t'e e0e) to pre*ent an0 (ore lig't rea%'ing t'e(. Wet %o(pre))e), if it i) not too %old, (a0 'elp relie*e )o(e of t'e di)%o(fort. ;ealing nor(all0 ta8e) t&o da0) for (ild %a)e) or up to a &ee8 for (ore )e*ere %a)e).



7efinition. T'i) i) a %old - &et in/ur0 to t'e feet or 'and) fro( prolonged -generall0 7 - 10 'our). e+po)ure to &ater at te(perature) a6o*e free?ing. Cau)e) of Tren%' foot"$((er)ion :oot. T'e (a/or ri)8 fa%tor) are &et, %old and i((o6ilit0.


%. Sign) and S0(pto() of Tren%' foot"$((er)ion :oot. T'e (a/or )0(pto( &ill 6e pain. Tren%' foot i) an e+tre(el0 painful in/ur0. Tren%' foot and fro)t6ite are often *er0 diffi%ult to tell apart /u)t fro( loo8ing at it. 9ften t'e0 (a0 6ot' 6e pre)ent at t'e )a(e ti(e. Sign) in%lude1 4ed and purple (ottled )8in. >at%'e) of &'ite )8in. Ver0 &rin8led )8in. Se*ere %a)e) (a0 lea*e gangrene and 6li)ter). S&elling. Bo&ered or e*en a6)ent pul)e. Tren%' foot i) %la))ified fro( (ild to )e*ere.


>re*ention of Tren%' foot"$((er)ion :oot i) ai(ed )i(pl0 at pre*enting %old, &et and i((o6ile feet -or 'and).. Heep feet &ar( and dr0.

1!-10 WSVX.0 .1!

C'ange )o%8) at lea)t on%e a da0. Bet 0our feet dr0 6riefl0 during t'e %'ange, and &ipe out t'e in)ide of t'e 6oot. So%8 %'ange) (a0 6e re,uired (ore often. 3+er%i)e. Con)tant e+er%i)ing of t'e feet &'ene*er t'e 6od0 i) ot'er&i)e i((o6ile &ill 'elp t'e 6lood flo&.


Treat(ent of Tren%' foot"$((er)ion :oot. 2ll %a)e) of tren%' foot (u)t 6e e*a%uated. $t %annot 6e treated effe%ti*el0 in t'e field. W'ile a&aiting e*a%uation1 T'e feet )'ould 6e dried, &ar(ed, and ele*ated. T'e pain i) often )e*ere, e*en t'oug' t'e in/ur0 (a0 appear (ildG it (a0 re,uire (edi%ation )u%' a) (orp'ine. $n t'e rear, t'e 'ealing of tren%' foot u)uall0 ta8e) at lea)t t&o (ont'), and (a0 ta8e al(o)t a 0ear. Se*ere %a)e) (a0 re,uire a(putation. Trench foot is not to be taken lightly.

B. DEH%DRATION 1. D",(!-a+/*1 i) a defi%it of total 6od0 &ater. 7e'0dration &ill %o(pound t'e pro6le() fa%ed in a )ur*i*al )ituation. 7e'0dration i) t'e 0" *1! 4"a!/19 a20" *5 a44 !"a+,0 /1 a 02-6/6a4 0/+2a+/*1. a. S0(pto(). W'en de'0drated, t'e follo&ing )ign) and )0(pto() &ill appear1 ;eada%'e and nau)ea. 7i??ine)) and fainting. Cra(p), 6ot' a6do(inal and e+tre(it0. Wea8ne)) and let'arg0. 7ar8 urine &it' a *er0 )trong odor.

6. >re*ention. >re*ention i) t'e 8e0 to pre*ent de'0dration. T'e follo&ing are 6a)i% guideline) for t'e pre*ention of de'0dration1 2l&a0) drin8 &ater &'en eating. Water i) u)ed and %on)u(ed a) a part of t'e dige)tion pro%e)). $f 0ou 'a*e plent0 of food 6ut no &ater L 7o not eat until a )our%e of &ater %an 6e found. Con)er*e energ0. >a%e 0our)elf.

1!-11 WSVX.0 .1!

7rin8 #-@ ,uart) of &ater per da0 &'en a*aila6le. $n ot'er &ord), %ontinuall0 drin8 t'roug' out t'e da0. 7onEt &ait until 0ou are de'0drated. Monitor t'e %olor of 0our urine. 7onCt rel0 on t'ir)t a) an indi%ator.

. H"a+ -"4a+"! /441"00"0. T'e follo&ing illne))e) &ill appear fro( de'0dration1 1. ;eat )0n%ope. ;eat )0n%ope i) feinting due to *a)o-dilation fro( t'e 'eat. . ;eat e+'au)tion. ;eat e+'au)tion o%%ur) &'en 6od0 )alt lo))e) and de'0dration fro( )&eating are )o )e*ere t'at a per)on %an no longer (aintain ade,uate 6lood pre))ure. ;eat e+'au)tion %an lead to 'eat )tro8e. a. S0(pto() in%ludeG 'eada%'e), nau)ea, di??ine)), fatigue, and fainting. 3. ;eat )tro8e. ;eat )tro8e i) a failure of t'e 6od0C) %ooling (e%'ani)() t'at rid t'e 6od0 of e+%e))i*e 'eat 6uild up. a. Sign) and )0(pto() S0(pto() are t'e )a(e a) 'eat e+'au)tion . T'e )ign) in%lude deliriou) or %o(a, pinpoint pupil), flu)'ed )8in, )&eating (a0 or (a0 not 6e pre)ent. 6. ;eat %ra(p). ;eat %ra(p) are painful )pa)() of )8eletal (u)%le a) a re)ult of 6od0 )alt. %. 2ll of t'e)e illne))e) %an 6e detri(ental to 0our )ur*i*al. 7re)) properl0, re)t and a!":2a+" 7a+"- /1+a3" %an 'elp pre*ent t'e)e illne))e). C. ALTITUDE RELATED ILLNESSES; 1. 2%ute Mountain Si%8ne)). 2%ute Mountain Si%8ne)) -2MS. i) a )elf-li(iting illne)) due to t'e rapid e+po)ure of an una%%li(ati?ed indi*idual to 'ig' altitude -i.e., 'eli%opter %ra)' on a (ountain.. 2ppro+i(atel0 5= of indi*idual) &'o a)%end rapidl0 to @,000 L 9,000 feet &ill de*elop 2MS. Virtuall0, all una%%li(ati?ed per)on) &'o rapidl0 a)%end to 11,00 L 1 ,000 feet &ill de*elop 2MS. -a. Sign) and )0(pto() in%ludeG apat'0, di??ine)), ea)il0 fatigued, nau)ea, de%rea)ed appetite, 'eada%'e. Can 6e (i)diagno)ed a) de'0dration. $f

1!-1 WSVX.0 .1!

ade,uate fluid inta8e i) (aintained and 'eada%'e )till per)i)t) rule out de'0dration. . ;2C3. ;2C3 or ;ig' 2ltitude Cere6ral 3de(a i) )&elling of t'e 6rain -a. Sign and )0(pto() are )i(ilar to 2MS and a%%o(panied 60 6i?arre 6e'a*ior, 'allu%ination), %onfu)ion, and )e*ere %a)e) L %o(a. 3. ;2>3. ;ig' 2ltitude >ul(onar0 3de(a i) t'e filling of t'e lung) &it' fluid.

-a. Sign) and )0(pto() in%ludeG per)i)tent %oug' &it' pin8 frot'0 )putu(, )'ortne)) of 6reat', di)orientation, fainting, %ool and %la((0 )8in, 6lue lip) -1. Treat(ent D"0 "1!< D"0 "1!< a1! D"0 "1!. ;2C3 and ;2>3 %an re)ult in deat'. - . >re*ention <ain ele*ation )lo&l0. 10,000 feet (o*e 1000 feet per da0 o*er 1!,000 (o*e no fa)ter t'an 500 L 1,000 feet per da0. 4e)t and a%%li(ati?e 0our 6od0. A. CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING

7efinition. Car6on Mono+ide -C9. i) a 'ea*0, odorle)), %olorle)), ta)tele)) ga) re)ulting fro( in%o(plete %o(6u)tion of fo))il fuel). C9 8ill) t'roug' a)p'0+ia e*en in t'e pre)en%e of ade,uate o+0gen, 6e%au)e o+0gen-tran)porting 'e(oglo6in 'a) a 10 ti(e) greater affinit0 for C9 t'an for o+0gen. W'at t'i) (ean) i) t'at C9 repla%e) and ta8e) t'e pla%e of t'e o+0gen in t'e 6od0 %au)ing Car6on Mono+ide poi)oning. Sign)"S0(pto(). T'e )ign) and )0(pto() depend on t'e a(ount of C9 t'e *i%ti( 'a) in'aled. $n (ild %a)e), t'e *i%ti( (a0 'a*e onl0 di??ine)), 'eada%'e, and %onfu)ionG )e*ere %a)e) %an %au)e a deep %o(a. Sudden re)pirator0 arre)t (a0 o%%ur. T'e %la))i% )ign of C9 poi)oning i) %'err0-red lip %olor, 6ut t'i) i) u)uall0 a *er0 late and )e*ere )ign, a%tuall0 t'e )8in i) nor(all0 found to 6e pale or 6lue. C9 poi)oning )'ould 6e )u)pe%ted &'ene*er a per)on in a poorl0 *entilated area )uddenl0 %ollap)e). 4e%ogni?ing t'i) %ondition (a0 6e diffi%ult &'en all (e(6er) of t'e part0 are affe%ted.


Treat(ent. T'e fir)t )tep i) to i((ediatel0 re(o*e t'e *i%ti( fro( t'e %onta(inated area. a. Vi%ti() &it' (ild C9 poi)oning &'o 'a*e not lo)t %on)%iou)ne)) need fre)' air and lig't dut0 for a (ini(u( of four 'our). $f o+0gen i) a*aila6le ad(ini)ter it. More )e*erel0 affe%ted *i%ti() (a0 re,uire re)%ue 6reat'ing. 6. :ortunatel0, t'e lung) e+%rete C9 &it'in a fe& 'our).

1!-13 WSVX.0 .1!


>re*ention. 3n)ure t'ere i) ade,uate *entilation &'en utili?ing a fire near 0our )'elter.

#. MEDICAL AID. Infortunatel0, during a )ur*i*al )ituation, a %orp)(an (a0 not al&a0) 6e a*aila6le to render a))i)tan%e. T'erefore, t'e )ur*i*or (u)t 6e 8no&ledgea6le in 6a)i% fir)t aid a) taug't in t'e Marine Battle S8ill) Training ;and6oo8.

2 $*2- L/5" Sa6/19 S+")0 1. . 3. !. Start t'e 6reat'ing. Stop t'e 6leeding. Treat t'e &ound. C'e%8 for )'o%8.

B. W*21!0. Wound) are a%tual 6rea8) in t'e integrit0 of t'e )8in. Wound) %an 6e %au)ed 60 a%%ident or 60 ani(al). T'e)e &ound) are (o)t )eriou) in a )ur*i*al )ituation, not onl0 6e%au)e of ti))ue da(age and 6lood lo)), 6ut al)o 6e%au)e of infe%tion. B0 ta8ing proper %are of t'e &ound 0ou %an redu%e t'e %'an%e of a de6ilitating infe%tion. C. A1/.a40. P-"6"1+/*1 of an ani(al 6ite i) 6e)t a%%o(pli)'ed t'roug' 8no&ledge of 6e'a*ior, per)onalitie), and pattern). 1. 2ni(al) generall0 gi*e a(ple &arning of t'eir intention), &'i%' are to repel t'e intruder or per(it it) e)%ape. 2ni(al) t'at a%t out of %'ara%ter and approa%' 'u(an) )'ould 6e %on)idered ra6id and a*oided. . Tearing, %utting, and %ru)'ing in/urie) are %o(6ined in ani(al 6ite). 2l&a0) loo8 for )e%ondar0 in/urie). B. 7. $/-0+ A/!. W'et'er t'e &ound &a) %au)ed 60 a%%ident or 60 ani(al, t'e treat(ent re(ain) t'e )a(e. 1. 3arl0 %lean)ing of t'e &ound redu%e) t'e %'an%e of 6a%terial infe%tion and i) e+tre(el0 effe%ti*e in re(o*ing ra6ie) and ot'er *iru)e). Clean)e 60 irrigation. Bleeding &ound) al)o 'elp) t'e irrigation pro%e)) initiall0. . 9pen &ound (anage(ent i) 6e)t de)%ri6ed 60 t'e Dopen treat(entD (et'od. 7o not tr0 to )uture or %lo)e t'e &ound. T'i) &ill )eal an0 dirt or infe%tion into t'e &ound. 2) long a) t'e &ound %an drain it &ill u)uall0 not 6e%o(e life t'reatening. a. Maggot) 6. Super glue

1!-1! WSVX.0 .1!

%. S'unt 3. T*2-1/:2"+ /1 a 02-6/6a4 0/+2a+/*1. $f no re)%ue or (edi%al aid i) li8el0 for o*er 'our), an atte(pt to SLOWL% loo)en t'e tourni,uet (a0 6e (ade 0 (inute) after it i) applied1 a. 3n)ure pre))ure dre))ing i) in pla%e. 6. 3n)ure 6leeding 'a) )topped. %. Boo)en tourni,uet SB9WB5 to re)tore %ir%ulation. d. Bea*e loo)ened tourni,uet in po)ition in %a)e 6leeding re)u(e). e. Bandaging i) (eant to prote%t t'e &ound fro( foreign o6/e%t) -i.e., dirt.. f. 2) &it' an0 in/ur0 to t'e 6od0 0ou (u)t in%rea)e &ater inta8e, (ore )o &it' an open &ound. 3. H"-ba4 M"!/ /1"0 1. Con)ider u)ing 'er6al (edi%ine) onl0 after proper training and &'en 0ou la%8 or 'a*e li(ited (edi%al )upplie). . WARNING S*." ,"-ba4 ."!/ /1"0 a-" !a19"-*20 a1! .a( a20" 52-+,"- !a.a9" *- "6"1 !"a+,. 7. CASUALT% EVACUATION. Ca)ualt0 e*a%uation in a %old &eat'er (ountainou) en*iron(ent &ill re,uire a &ell t'oug't out plan prior to %ondu%ting. >oorl0 planned e*a%uation) &ill po))i6l0 re)ult in additional %a)ualtie), lo)t ti(e, and e,uip(ent da(age. $n a group )ur*i*al )ituation e+pedient litter &ill 'a*e to 6e %on)tru%ted in order to tran)port t'e patient effe%ti*el0. 2. G"1"-a4 C*10/!"-a+/*10. (WSVX.02.14!) T'e follo&ing %on)ideration) are %riti%al for planning a )u%%e))ful e*a%uation. 2 u)eful a%ron0( to u)e i) M2>2SSA<<N. 1. 2ppl0 3))ential :ir)t 2id. -i.e., )plint), pre))ure 6andage, et%.. . >rote%t t'e >atient for( t'e 3le(ent). >ro*ide t'e %a)ualt0 &it' proper in)ulation and en)ure t'at 'e i) &ar( and dr0. 3. 2*oid Inne%e))ar0 ;andling of t'e >atient. !. Sele%t t'e 3a)ie)t 4oute. Send )%out) a'ead if po))i6le, to 6rea8 trail). 5. Set Ip 4ela0 >oint) and War(ing Station). $f t'e route i) long and arduou), )et up rela0 point) and &ar(ing )tation) to )&it%' )tret%'er-6earer) and a))e)) t'e %a)ualt0. #. Aor(al litter tea() (u)t 6e aug(ented in 2rduou) Terrain. 1!-15 WSVX.0 .1!

7. <i*e Bitter Tea() Spe%ifi% <oal) to &or8 to&ard). T'i) /o6 i) e+tre(el0 tiring, 6ot' p'0)i%all0 and (entall0. @. <ear. 3n)ure all of t'e patientE) gear i) 8ept &it' 'i( t'roug'out t'e e*a%uation.

@. WILDLI$E DISEASES. (WSVX.02.14") W'en 'andling ani(al), &'et'er dead or ali*e, indi*idual) (u)t u)e pre*enti*e (ea)ure) again)t po))i6le e+po)ure to &ildlife di)ea)e). 2lt'oug' t'e po))i6ilit0 of di)ea)e i) re(ote, %ertain )ign) (a0 indi%ate t'at an ani(al (a0 6e di)ea)ed. T'e follo&ing are )o(e of t'e (ore %o((on di)ea)e) found in t'e Inited State) and t'roug'out t'e &orld. 2. ;anta*iru) >ul(onar0 S0ndro(e. ;anta*iru), or ;>S, i) a )eriou) re)pirator0 illne)) t'at &a) fir)t re%ogni?ed in 1993 in an out6rea8 in Ae& Me+i%o and 2ri?ona. $t i) %au)ed 60 a *iru) t'at i) %arried 60 a %o((on field rodent %alled t'e deer (ou)e. 1. Met'od of Tran)(i))ion. T'e *iru) i) )'ed in t'e dropping), urine, and )ali*a of t'e deer (ou)e. T'e *iru) i) tran)(itted to 'u(an) &'en t'e (aterial drie), 6e%o(e) air6orne and i) in'aled. . Sign) O S0(pto(). T'e di)ea)e 6egin) &it' flu-li8e )0(pto() 3 to !5 da0) after e+po)ure. T'e di)ea)e %an rapidl0 progre)) into a life-t'reatening lo&er re)pirator0 illne)) %'ara%teri?ed 60 t'e flooding of t'e lung) &it' fluid. 3. Treat(ent. Ao %ure or *a%%ine i) 0et a*aila6le again)t infe%tion. T'e )ooner after infe%tion (edi%al treat(ent i) )oug't, t'e 6etter t'e %'an%e of re%o*er0. !. >re*ention. Mi%e )'ould not 6e 'andledG rodent den) )'ould not 6e di)tur6ed. >a%8age food )o t'at rodent) do not %ra&l all o*er it. 7o not o%%up0 )'elter) t'at (a0 'a*e %ontained rodent). B. >lague. T'e %au)e of plague i) Yersinia pestis, a 6a%teriu( t'at i) (aintained in nature t'roug' a %o(ple+ flea-rodent %0%le. 1. Met'od of Tran)(i))ion. $nfe%tion in 'u(an) re)ult) 60 flea 6ite), dire%t %onta%t &it' plague-infe%ted rodent), or dire%t %onta%t &it' affe%ted non-rodent 'o)t) )u%' a) ra66it), 'are), %at), and o%%a)ionall0 ot'er ani(al). . Sign) O S0(pto(). $nfe%tion in 'u(an) re)ult) in )e*ere di)ea)e, &it' a fatalit0 rate of o*er 50= in untreated %a)e). 2n a6nor(al )&elling in t'e l0(p' node) i) u)uall0 pre)ent.

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3. Treat(ent. $nfe%ted people (u)t )ee8 (edi%al treat(ent. !. >re*ention. 2ni(al noted &it' flea) )'ould 6e a*oided. $n a )ur*i*al )ituation, a 8illed ani(al )'ould 6e i((ediatel0 )u6(erged into a %ool &ater )our%e until all t'e flea) are re(o*e 60 &ater or 'a*e died. C. Ti%8 Borne 7i)ea)e). 1. B0(e 7i)ea)e. $nfe%tion o%%ur) (o)t often 6et&een Ma0 and Septe(6er. $n )o(e %a)e), a %'ara%teri)ti% )8in ra)' (a0 de*elop at t'e )ite of t'e ti%8 6ite. T'e ra)' (a0 e+pand to a dia(eter of 5 in%'e) or (ore, and t'ere (a0 6e an a%%o(pan0ing flu-li8e illne)). $f left untreated, infe%tion %an lead to %'roni% di)ea)e %'ara%teri?ed 60 neurologi% i(pair(ent, %ardia% pro6le(), or art'riti). . 4o%80 Mountain Spotted :e*er. T'e in%u6ation period in 'u(an) i) -1! da0). $nitial )0(pto() are flu-li8e and %o((onl0 in%lude fe*er, 'eada%'e, (u)%le and /oint pain, nau)ea, and *o(iting. 2 ra)' (a0 appear. T'e fatalit0 rate in %a)e) t'at are treated &it' anti6ioti%) i) a6out 5= and up to 5= t'at are untreated. 3. Treat(ent. $nfe%ted people (u)t )ee8 (edi%al treat(ent. !. >re*ention. 7ail0 6od0 in)pe%tion) )'ould 6e %ondu%ted to re(o*e all ti%8). 7. :ood Borne 7i)ea)e). :ood 6orne illne)), fre,uentl0 %alled Mfood poi)oning,N i) a%,uired 60 eating food t'at i) %onta(inated &it' (i%ro6e) or t'eir to+in). Bi*e ani(al) (a0 %arr0 t'e agent, or %onta(ination (a0 o%%ur fro( anot'er )our%e during pro%e))ing or preparation of t'e food. 1. Botuli)(. Botuli)( pro6a6l0 i) t'e (o)t &idel0 8no&n and i) generall0 %au)ed 60 i(proper )torage of (eat). S0(pto() (a0 6egin &it' *o(iting and diarr'ea 6ut pro%eed to t'e %'ara%teri)ti% i(paired *i)ion and de)%ending paral0)i). Botuli)( %an 6e fatal. . Sal(onella. T'e 6a%teria are found in t'e inte)tinal tra%t) and fe%e) of a &ide range of ani(al) in%luding poultr0, )&ine, %attle, and 'ou)e'old pet). Sal(onella (a06e fatal. 3. Tri%'ino)i). Tri%'ino)i) i) %au)ed 60 a para)ite %ontained &it'in t'e (u)%le ti))ue. Mo)t %o((on %arrier) are &ild )&ine and 6ear. T'oroug' %oo8ing of (eat) &ill de)tro0 t'e para)ite. !. Tulare(ia. 7i)%o*ered in Tulare Count0, California. Tulare(ia 'a) 6een reported in o*er !5 )pe%ie) of *erte6rate)G 'o&e*er, t'e di)ea)e (o)t often in*ol*e) ti%8). $t i) al)o %o((onl0 found in ra66it) and rodent). $t i) tran)(itta6le 60 un%oo8ed (eat) or 'andling %onta(inated (eat) &it' open )ore). Tulare(ia i) a lifet'reatening di)ea)e found t'roug'out t'e &orld and %an onl0 6e treated &it' anti6ioti%).

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5. Treat(ent. Con)u(ing %'ar%oal &ill aid in redu%ing t'e 6od0E) a6)orption rate. Medi%al treat(ent )'ould 6e )oug't if a*aila6le. #. >re*ention. >re*ention of food 6orne di)ea)e) %an 6e a%%o(pli)'ed 601 a. >ro(ptl0 dre)) ga(e. 6. 2*oid or (ini(i?e %onta(ination 60 ga)trointe)tinal %ontent). %. C**3 5**! +,*-*29,4(. $nternal %oo8ing te(perature) )'ould 6e 1#5 degree) : or (ore. d. 3at %oo8ed food) i((ediatel0. e. Store pre)er*ed food) properl0. 3. 2ni(al S%at. Certain para)ite) found on )%at %an infe%t 'u(an), if t'e )%at i) 'andled unprote%ted. 4a%%oon 4ound&or( %an 6e found in t'e )%at for at lea)t 30 da0), &'ile :o+ 4ound&or( &ill la)t onl0 appro+i(atel0 7 da0) on t'eir )%at. Bot' of t'e)e para)ite) %an po))i6l0 infe%t 'u(an, &'i%' i) al(o)t fatal. RE$ERENCE; 1. :M 1-7#, Sur*i*al, 199#. . >aul S. 2uer6a%', Wilderne)) Medi%ine, 3rd 3dition, 1995. 3. Willia( 4. 7a*id)on, :ield Manual of Wildlife 7i)ea)e) in t'e Inited State), 1997



1!-1@ WSVX.0 .1!


Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 WSVX.0 .15 !"!05 STUDENT HANDOUT MOUNTAIN WEATHER

TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE #n a $old %eat&er 'ountainou( en)iron'ent, $ondu$t %eat&er fore$a(ting, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e. (WSVX.02.15) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES (1) Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, de($ri*e in %riting ea$& t+pe of $loud, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.15a) (2) Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, (tate in %riting t&e $loud progre((ion for *ot& a $old and %ar' front, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.15b) ( ) Wit&out t&e aid of referen$e(, (tate in %riting fi)e (ign( of nature, in a$$ordan$e %it& t&e referen$e(. (WSVX.02.15!) OUTLINE 1. GENERAL ,. T&e eart& i( (urrounded *+ t&e at'o(p&ere, %&i$& i( di)ided into (e)eral la+er(. T&e %orld-( %eat&er (+(te'( are in t&e tropo(p&ere, t&e lo%er of t&e(e la+er(. T&i( la+er rea$&e( a( &ig& a( .0,000 feet. B. /u(t and $loud( in t&e at'o(p&ere a*(or* or *oun$e *a$0 'u$& of t&e energ+ t&at t&e (un *ea'( do%n upon t&e eart&. 1e(( t&an one &alf of t&e (un-( energ+ a$tuall+ %ar'( t&e eart&-( (urfa$e and lo%er at'o(p&ere. C. War'ed air, $o'*ined %it& t&e (pinning 2rotation3 of t&e eart&, produ$e( %ind( t&at (pread &eat and 'oi(ture 'ore e)enl+ around t&e %orld. T&i( i( )er+ i'portant *e$au(e t&e (un &eat( t&e 45uator 'u$& 'ore t&an t&e pole( and %it&out %ind( to &elp re(tore t&e *alan$e, 'u$& of t&e eart& %ould *e i'po((i*le to li)e on. W&en t&e air-$ool(6 $loud(, rain, (no%, &ail, fog and fro(t 'a+ de)elop.


/. T&e %eat&er t&at +ou find in an+ pla$e depend( on 'an+ t&ing(, i.e. &o% &ot t&e air i(, &o% 'oi(t t&e air i(, &o% it i( *eing 'o)ed *+ t&e %ind, and e(pe$iall+, i( it *eing lifted or not7 2. PRESSURE ,. ,ll of t&e(e fa$tor( are related to air pre((ure, %&i$& i( t&e %eig&t of t&e at'o(p&ere at an+ gi)en pla$e. T&e lo%er t&e pre((ure, t&e 'ore li0el+ are rain and (trong %ind(. B. #n order to under(tand t&i( %e $an (a+ t&at t&e air in our at'o(p&ere a$t( )er+ 'u$& li0e a li5uid. C. ,rea( %it& a &ig& le)el of t&i( li5uid %ould e8ert 'ore pre((ure on t&e 4art& and *e $alled a 9&ig& pre((ure area:. /. ,rea( %it& a lo%er le)el %ould *e $alled a 9lo% pre((ure area:. 4. #n order to e5uali;e t&e area( of &ig& pre((ure it %ould &a)e to pu(& out to t&e area( of lo% pre((ure. <. T&e $&ara$teri(ti$( of t&e(e t%o pre((ure area( are a( follo%(= 213 >ig&-pre((ure area. <lo%( out to e5uali;e pre((ure. 2 3 1o%-pre((ure area. <lo%( in to e5uali;e pre((ure. ?. T&e air fro' t&e &ig&-pre((ure area i( *a(i$all+ @u(t tr+ing to graduall+ flo% out to e5uali;e it( pre((ure %it& t&e (urrounding air6 %&ile t&e lo% pre((ure i( *eginning to *uild )erti$all+. An$e t&e lo% &a( a$&ie)ed e5ual pre((ure, it $an-t (top and $ontinue( to *uild )erti$all+6 $au(ing tur*ulen$e, %&i$& re(ult( in *ad %eat&er. NOTE= When looking on the weather map, you will notice that these resemble contour lines. They are called isobars and are translated to mean, equal pressure area. >. #(o*ar(. Bre((ure i( 'ea(ured in 'illi*ar( or anot&er 'ore $o''on 'ea(ure'ent 9in$&e( 'er$ur+:. #. <itting enoug&, area( of &ig& pre((ure are $alled 9ridge(: and area( of lo% pre((ure are $alled 9troug&(:. NOTE= T&e a)erage air pre((ure at (ea le)el i(= 9.9 in$&e( 'er$ur+. 1,013 'illi*ar(.

C. ,( %e go up in ele)ation, t&e pre((ure 2or %eig&t3 of t&e at'o(p&ere de$rea(e(.

E !"#$E= ,t 1D,000 feet in ele)ation it %ould *e 500 'illi*ar( )i$e 1,013 'illi*ar( at (ea le)el. 3. HUMIDIT". >u'idit+ i( t&e a'ount of 'oi(ture in t&e air. ,ll air &old( %ater )apor, alt&oug& it i( 5uite in)i(i*le. ,. ,ir $an &old onl+ (o 'u$& %ater )apor, *ut t&e %ar'er t&e air, t&e 'ore 'oi(ture it $an &old. W&en t&e air &a( all t&e %ater )apor t&at it $an &old, t&e air i( (aid to *e (aturated 2100E relati)e &u'idit+3. B. #f t&e air i( t&en $ooled, an+ e8$e(( %ater )apor $onden(e(6 t&at i(, it-( 'ole$ule( @oin to *uild t&e %ater droplet( %e $an (ee. C. T&e te'perature at %&i$& t&i( &appen( i( $alled t&e 9$onden(ation point:. T&e $onden(ation point )arie( depending on t&e a'ount of %ater )apor and t&e te'perature of t&e air. /. #f t&e air $ontain( a great deal of %ater )apor, $onden(ation %ill for' at a te'perature of 0AC 2"DA<3. But if t&e air i( rat&er dr+ and doe( not &old 'u$& 'oi(ture, $onden(ation 'a+ not for' until t&e te'perature drop( to 0AC 23 A<3 or e)en *elo% free;ing. 4. ,dia*ati$ 1ap(e Fate. T&e adia*ati$ lap(e rate i( t&e rate t&at air %ill $ool on a($ent and %ar' on de($ent. T&e rate al(o )arie( depending on t&e 'oi(ture $ontent of t&e air. 213 Saturated ,ir G . A< per 1,000 feet. 2 3 /r+ ,ir G 5.5A< per 1,000 feet.


.. WINDS. ,( %e (tated earlier, t&e une)en &eating of t&e air *+ t&e (un and rotation of t&e eart& $au(e( %ind(. Mu$& of t&e %orld-( %eat&er depend( on a (+(te' of %ind( t&at *lo% in a (et dire$tion. T&i( pattern depend( on t&e different a'ount( of (un 2&eat3 t&at t&e different region( get and al(o on t&e rotation of t&e eart&. ,. ,*o)e &ot (urfa$e( ri(ing air $reate( a )oid. Cool air 'o)e( into and (ettle( into t&e )oid. T&e $ool air i( eit&er %ar'ed up and *egin( to ri(e or it (ettle(. T&i( i( dependent upon t&e (un-( t&er'al energ+. T&e at'o(p&ere i( al%a+( tr+ing to e5uali;e *et%een &ig& pre((ure and lo% pre((ure. An a large ($ale, t&i( for'( a $ir$ulation of air fro' t&e pole( along t&e (urfa$e or t&e eart& to t&e e5uator, %&ere it ri(e( and 'o)e( to%ard( t&e pole( again. B. An$e t&e rotation of t&e eart& i( added to t&i(, t&e pattern of t&e $ir$ulation *e$o'e( $onfu(ing. C. Be$au(e of t&e &eating and $ooling, along %it& t&e rotation of t&e eart&, %e &a)e t&e(e (urfa$e( %ind(. ,ll %ind( are na'ed fro' t&e dire$tion t&e+ originated fro'= 213 Bolar 4a(terlie(. T&e(e are %ind( fro' t&e polar region 'o)ing fro' t&e ea(t. T&i( i( air t&at &a( $ooled and (ettled at t&e pole(. 2 3 Bre)ailing We(terlie(. T&e(e %ind( originate fro' appro8i'atel+ 30 degree( Hort& 1atitude fro' t&e %e(t. T&i( i( an area %&ere pre'aturel+ $ooled air, due to t&e eart&-( rotation, &a( (ettled *a$0 to t&e (urfa$e. 233 Hort&ea(t Trade%ind(. T&e(e are %ind( t&at originate fro' appro8i'atel+ 30 degree( Hort& fro' t&e Hort&ea(t. ,l(o pre'aturel+ $ooled air. /. Cet Strea'. , @et (trea' $an *e defined a( a long, 'eandering $urrent of &ig& (peed %ind( near t&e tropopau(e 2tran(ition ;one *et%een t&e tropo(p&ere and t&e (trato(p&ere3 *lo%ing fro' generall+ a %e(terl+ dire$tion and often e8$eeding 50 'ile( per &our. T&e @et (trea' re(ult( fro'= 213 Cir$ulation of air around t&e pole( and 45uator. 2 3 T&e dire$tion of air flo% a*o)e t&e 'id latitude(. 233 T&e a$tual pat& of t&e @et (trea' $o'e( fro' t&e %e(t, dipping do%n and pi$0ing up air 'a((e( fro' t&e tropi$al region( and going nort& and *ringing do%n air 'a((e( fro' t&e polar region(. NOTE= The a%erage number o& long wa%es in the 'et stream is between three and &i%e depending on the season. Temperature di&&erences between polar and tropical regions in&luence this. The long wa%es in&luence day to week changes in the weather( there are also short wa%es that in&luence hourly changes in the weather. 4. >ere are (o'e ot&er t+pe( of %ind( t&at are pe$uliar to 'ountain en)iron'ent( *ut don-t ne$e((aril+ affe$t t&e %eat&er=

213 ,na*ati$ %ind. T&e(e are %ind( t&at *lo% up 'ountain )alle+( to repla$e %ar' ri(ing air and are u(uall+ lig&t %ind(.

2 3 Iata*ati$ %ind. T&e(e are %ind( t&at *lo% do%n 'ountain )alle+ (lope( $au(ed *+ t&e $ooling of air and are o$$a(ionall+ (trong %ind(.

5. AIR MASSES. ,( %e 0no%, all of t&e(e pattern( 'o)e air. T&i( air $o'e( in par$el( 0no%n a( 9air 'a((e(:. T&e(e air 'a((e( $an )ar+ in (i;e fro' a( ('all a( a to%n to a( large a( a $ountr+. T&e(e air 'a((e( are na'ed for %&ere t&e+ originate= ,. Mariti'e. A)er %ater. B. Continental. A)er land. C. Bolar. ,*o)e "0 degree( Hort&. /. Tropi$al. Belo% "0 degree( Hort&. 4. Co'*ining t&e(e gi)e u( t&e na'e( and de($ription of t&e four t+pe( of air 'a((e(= 213 Continental Bolar. Cold, dr+ air 'a((.


2 3 Mariti'e Bolar. Cold, %et air 'a((. 233 Continental Tropi$al. /r+, %ar' air 'a((. 2.3 Mariti'e Tropi$al. Wet, %ar' air 'a((. <. T&e t&ing to under(tand a*out air 'a((e(, t&e+ %ill not 'i8 %it& anot&er air 'a(( of a different te'perature and 'oi(ture $ontent. W&en t%o different air 'a((e( $ollide, %e &a)e a front %&i$& %ill *e $o)ered in 'ore detail later in t&i( period of in(tru$tion. ". LI#TING$COOLING. ,( %e 0no%, air $an onl+ &old (o 'u$& 'oi(ture depending on it-( te'perature. #f %e $ool t&i( air *e+ond it( (aturation point, it 'u(t relea(e t&i( 'oi(ture in one for' or anot&er, i.e. rain, (no%, fog, de%, et$. T&ere are t&ree %a+( t&at air $an *e lifted and $ooled *e+ond it( (aturation point. ,. Arograp&i$ uplift. T&i( &appen( %&en an air 'a(( i( pu(&ed up and o)er a 'a(( of &ig&er ground (u$& a( a 'ountain. /ue to t&e adia*ati$ lap(e rate, t&e air i( $ooled %it& altitude and if it rea$&e( it( (aturation point %e %ill re$ei)e pre$ipitation.


B. Con)ention effe$t(. T&i( i( nor'all+ a (u''er effe$t due to t&e (un-( &eat radiating off of t&e (urfa$e and $au(ing t&e air $urrent( to pu(& (traig&t up and lift air to a point of (aturation.



C. <rontal lifting. ,( %e 0no% %&en t%o air 'a((e( of different 'oi(ture and te'perature $ontent $ollide, %e &a)e a front. Sin$e t&e air 'a((e( %ill not 'i8, t&e %ar'er air i( for$ed aloft, fro' t&ere it i( $ooled and t&en rea$&e( it( (aturation point. <rontal lifting i( %&ere %e re$ei)e t&e 'a@orit+ of our pre$ipitation. , $o'*ination of t&e different t+pe( of lifting i( not un$o''on. 7. CLOUDS. (WSVX.02.15a) ,n+ti'e air i( lifted or $ooled *e+ond it( (aturation point 2100E relati)e &u'idit+3, $loud( are for'ed. Cloud( are one of our (ign po(t( to %&at i( &appening. Cloud( $an *e de($ri*ed in 'an+ different %a+(, t&e+ $an al(o *e $la((ified *+ &eig&t or appearan$e, or e)en *+ t&e a'ount of area $o)ered, )erti$all+ or &ori;ontall+. ,. Cirru(. T&e(e $loud( are for'ed of i$e $r+(tal( at )er+ &ig& altitude( 2u(uall+ 0,000 to 35,000 feet3 in t&e 'id-latitude( and are t&in, feat&er+ t+pe $loud(. T&e(e $loud( $an gi)e +ou up to . &our( %arning of approa$&ing *ad %eat&er, &undred( of 'ile( in ad)an$e of a %ar' front. <rail, ($attered t+pe(, (u$& a( 9'are-tail(: or den(e $irru( la+er(, tuft( are a (ign of fair %eat&er *ut predi$ti)e 'a+ *e a prelude to approa$&ing lo%er $loud(, t&e arri)al of pre$ipitation and t&e front. B. Cu'ulu(. T&e(e $loud( are for'ed due to ri(ing air $urrent( and are pre)alent in un(ta*le air t&at fa)or( )erti$al de)elop'ent. T&e(e $urrent( of air $reate $u'ilifor' $loud( t&at gi)e t&e' a piled or *un$&ed up appearan$e, loo0ing (i'ilar to $otton *all(. Wit&in t&e $u'ulu( fa'il+ t&ere are t&ree different t+pe( to &elp u( to fore$a(t t&e %eat&er= 213 Cotton puff( of $u'ulu( are <air Weat&er Cloud( *ut (&ould *e o*(er)ed for po((i*le gro%t& into to%ering $u'ulu( and $u'uloni'*u(. 2 3 To%ering $u'ulu( are $&ara$teri;ed *+ )erti$al de)elop'ent. T&eir )erti$al lifting i( $au(ed *+ (o'e t+pe of lifting a$tion, (u$& a( $on)e$ti)e $urrent( found on &ot (u''er afternoon( or %&en %ind i( for$ed to ri(e up t&e (lope of a 'ountain or po((i*l+ t&e lifting a$tion t&at 'a+ *e pre(ent in a frontal (+(te'. T&e to%ering $u'ulu( &a( a puff+ and 9$auliflo%er-(&aped: appearan$e.


233 Cu'uloni'*u( $loud( are $&ara$teri;ed in t&e (a'e 'anner a( t&e to%ering $u'ulu(, for' t&e fa'iliar 9t&under&ead: and produ$e t&under(tor' a$ti)it+. T&e(e $loud( are $&ara$teri;ed *+ )iolent updraft( %&i$& $arr+ t&e top( of t&e $loud( to e8tre'e ele)ation(. Tornadoe(, &ail and (e)ere rain(tor'( are all produ$t( of t&i( t+pe of $loud. ,t t&e top of t&e $loud, a flat an)il (&aped for' appear( a( t&e t&under(tor' *egin( to di((ipate. C. Stratu(. Stratu( $loud( are for'ed %&en a la+er of 'oi(t air i( $ooled *elo% it( (aturation point. Stratifor', $loud( lie 'o(tl+ in &ori;ontal la+er( or (&eet(, re(i(ting )erti$al de)elop'ent. T&e %ord (tratu( i( deri)ed fro' t&e 1atin %ord 9la+er:. T&e (tratu( $loud i( 5uite unifor' and re(e'*le( fog. #t &a( a fairl+ unifor' *a(e and a dull, gra+ appearan$e. Stratu( $loud( 'a0e t&e (0+ appear &ea)+ and %ill o$$a(ionall+ produ$e fine dri;;le or )er+ lig&t (no% %it& fog. >o%e)er, *e$au(e t&ere i( little or no )erti$al 'o)e'ent in t&e (tratu( $loud(, t&e+ u(uall+ do not produ$e pre$ipitation in t&e for' of &ea)+ rain or (no%. D. #RONTS. (WSVX.02.15b) ,( %e 0no%, front( often &appen %&en t%o air 'a((e( of different 'oi(ture and te'perature $ontent intera$t. Ane of t&e %a+( %e $an identif+ t&at t&i( i( &appening i( *+ t&e progre((ion of t&e $loud(. ,. War' <ront. , %ar' front o$$ur( %&en %ar' air 'o)e( into and o)er a (lo%er 2or (tationar+3 $old air 'a((. Sin$e %ar' air i( le(( den(e, it %ill ri(e naturall+ (o t&at it %ill pu(& t&e $ooler air do%n and ri(e a*o)e it. T&e $loud +ou %ill (ee at t&i( (tage i( $irru(. <ro' t&e point %&ere it a$tuall+ (tart( ri(ing, +ou %ill (ee (tratu(. ,( it $ontinue( to ri(e, t&i( %ar' air $ool( *+ t&e $old air and, t&i(, re$ei)ing 'oi(ture at t&e (a'e ti'e. ,( it *uild( in 'oi(ture, it dar0en( *e$o'ing 9ni'*u(-(tratu(:, %&i$& 'ean( rain of t&under$loud(. ,t t&at point (o'e t+pe of 'oi(ture %ill generall+ fall.

B. Cold <ront. , $old front o$$ur( %&en a $old air 'a(( 2$older t&an t&e ground t&at it i( tra)eling o)er3 o)erta0e( a %ar' air 'a(( t&at i( (tationar+ or 'o)ing (lo%l+. T&i( $old air, *eing den(er, %ill go underneat& t&e %ar' air, pu(&ing it &ig&er. Af $our(e, no one $an (ee t&i(, *ut t&e+ $an (ee $loud( and t&e $loud( t&e'(el)e( $an tell u( %&at i(

&appening. T&e $loud progre((ion to loo0 for i( $irru( to $irro$u'ulu( to $u'ulu( and, finall+, to $u'uloni'*u(.

C. A$$luded <ront. Cold front( 'o)e fa(ter t&an %ar' one( (o t&at e)entuall+ a $old front o)erta0e( a %ar' one and t&e %ar' air *e$o'e( progre((i)el+ lifted fro' t&e (urfa$e. T&e ;one of di)i(ion *et%een $old air a&ead and $old air *e&ind i( $alled a 9$old o$$lu(ion:. #f t&e air *e&ind t&e front i( %ar'er t&an a&ead, it i( a %ar' o$$lu(ion. Mo(t land area( e8perien$e 'ore o$$lu(ion( t&an ot&er t+pe( of front(. #n t&e progre((ion of $loud( leading to front(, orograp&i$ uplift $an pla+ part in de$ei)ing +ou of t&e a$tual t+pe of front, i.e. progre((ion of $loud( leading to a %ar' front %it& orograp&i$ $u'ulu( $loud( added to t&e(e. T&e progre((ion of $loud( in an o$$lu(ion i( a $o'*ination of *ot& progre((ion( fro' a %ar' and $old front. 9. USING SIGNS #ROM NATURE. (WSVX.02.15!) T&e(e (ign( %ill gi)e +ou a general predi$tion of t&e in$o'ing %eat&er $ondition(. Tr+ to utili;e a( 'an+ (ign( toget&er a( po((i*le, %&i$& %ill i'pro)e +our predi$tion. ,ll of t&e(e (ign( &a)e *een te(ted %it& relati)e a$$ura$+, *ut (&ouldn-t *e depended on 100E. But in an+ $a(e +ou %ill *e rig&t 'ore ti'e( t&an %rong in predi$ting t&e %eat&er. <ro' t&i( %e $an gat&er a( 'u$& infor'ation a( needed and $o'pile it along %it& our o%n e8perien$e of t&e area %e are %or0ing in to &elp u( for' a predi$tion of in$o'ing %eat&er. T&e (ign( are a( follo%(=


,. Contrail 1ine(. , *a(i$ %a+ of identif+ing a lo%-pre((ure area i( to note t&e $ontrail line( fro' @et air$raft. #f t&e+ don-t di((ipate %it&in t%o &our(, t&at indi$ate( a lo% pre((ure area in +our area. T&i( u(uall+ o$$ur( a*out . &our( prior to an on$o'ing front. B. 1enti$ular(. T&e(e are opti$al, len(-(&aped $u'ulu( $loud( t&at &a)e *een ($ulpted *+ t&e %ind(. T&i( indi$ate( 'oi(ture in t&e air and &ig& %ind( aloft. W&en pre$eding a $old front, %ind( and $loud( %ill *egin to lo%er. C. ,n alti'eter and 'ap or a *aro'eter $an *e utili;ed to fore$a(t %eat&er in t&e field. >o%e)er, t&e u(er 'u(t &a)e operational 0no%ledge of t&e gear. /. , (pider-( &a*it( are )er+ good indi$ator( of %&at %eat&er $ondition( %ill *e %it&in t&e ne8t fe% &our(. W&en t&e da+ i( to *e fair and relati)el+ %indle((, t&e+ %ill (pin long fila'ent( o)er %&i$& t&e+ ($out per(i(tentl+. W&en pre$ipitation i( i''inent, t&e+ (&orten and tig&ten t&eir (nare( and dro%(e dull+ in t&eir $enter(. 4. #n(e$t( are e(pe$iall+ anno+ing t%o to four &our( *efore a (tor'. <. #f *ee( are (%ar'ing, fair %eat&er %ill $ontinue for at lea(t t&e ne8t &alf da+. ?. 1arge ga'e (u$& a( deer, el0, et$., %ill *e feeding unu(uall+ &ea)+ four to (i8 &our( *efore a (tor'. >. W&en t&e ('o0e fro' a $a'pfire, after lifting a (&ort di(tan$e %it& t&e &eated air, *eat( do%n%ard, a (tor' i( approa$&ing. Steadil+ ri(ing ('o0e indi$ate( fair %eat&er. #. , gra+, o)er$a(t e)ening (0+ indi$ate( t&at 'oi(ture $arr+ing du(t parti$le( in t&e at'o(p&ere &a)e *e$o'e o)erloaded %it& %ater6 t&i( $ondition fa)or( rain. C. , gra+ 'orning (0+ indi$ate( dr+ air a*o)e t&e &a;e $au(ed *+ t&e $olle$ting of 'oi(ture on t&e du(t in t&e lo%er at'o(p&ere6 +ou $an rea(ona*l+ e8pe$t a fair da+. I. W&en t&e (etting (un (&o%( a green tint at t&e top a( it (in0( *e&ind $lear &ori;on, fair %eat&er i( pro*a*le for 'o(t of t&e ne8t . &our(. 1. , rain*o% in t&e late afternoon indi$ate( fair %eat&er a&ead. >o%e)er, a rain*o% in t&e 'orning i( a (ign of prolonged *ad %eat&er. M. , $orona i( t&e $ir$le t&at appear( around t&e (un or t&e 'oon. W&en t&i( $ir$le gro%( larger and larger, it indi$ate( t&at t&e drop( of %ater in t&e at'o(p&ere are e)aporating and t&at t&e %eat&er %ill pro*a*l+ *e $lear. W&en t&i( $ir$le (&rin0( *+ t&e &our, it indi$ate( t&at t&e %ater drop( in t&e at'o(p&ere are *e$o'ing larger, for'ing into $loud(, rain i( al'o(t (ure to fall. H. #n t&e nort&ern &e'i(p&ere %ind( for' t&e (out& u(uall+ indi$ate a lo%-pre((ure (+(te'. T&e(e (+(te'( are fre5uentl+ a((o$iated %it& rain(tor'(. 9Wind( fro' t&e (out& *ring ( rain in it-( 'out&.:


A. #t i( (o 5uiet *efore a (tor', t&at di(tant noi(e( $an *e &eard 'ore $learl+. T&i( i( due to t&e ina$ti)it+ of %ildlife a $ouple of &our( *efore a (tor'. B. Hatural (pring( tend to flo% at a &ig&er rate %&en a (tor' i( approa$&ing. T&i( i( due to lo%er *aro'etri$ pre((ure. T&i( %ill $au(e pond(, %it& a lot of )egetati)e de$a+ at t&e *otto', to *e$o'e 'o'entaril+ polluted. J. , &ea)+ de% or fro(t in t&e 'orning i( a (ign of fair %eat&er for t&e re(t of t&e da+. T&i( i( due to t&e 'oi(ture in t&e at'o(p&ere (ettling on t&e ground )i$e in t&e for' of pre$ipitation and up to 1 &our( of $ontinued good %eat&er $an *e e8pe$ted.


UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 9 !"#$!%%" WS&'(%)("* )+*+%! STUDENT HANDOUT INTRODUCTION TO EVASION TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE In a ,old /ountainou0 en1iron/ent, de/on0trate 2a0i, e1a0ion te,.ni3ue0, in a,,ordan,e -it. t.e referen,e0( (WSVX.2.16) ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES 4"5 Wit.out t.e aid of referen,e, li0t in -riting t.e planning and preparation ,on0ideration0 for e1a0ion, in a,,ordan,e -it. t.e referen,e0( (WSVX.2.16a) 4)5 Wit.out t.e aid of referen,e, de0,ri2e in -riting t.e definition of a Sele,ted Area 6or E1a0ion 4SA6E5, in a,,ordan,e -it. t.e referen,e0( (WSVX.2.16b) 4 5 Wit.out t.e aid of referen,e, li0t in -riting t.e 0tep0 ta7en during t.e o,,upation of a SA6E, in a,,ordan,e -it. t.e referen,e0( (WSVX.2.16c) OUTLINE "( PREPARING OR A POTENTIAL EVASION SITUATION. T.e Code of Condu,t pro1ide0 guiding prin,iple0 to Marine0 in1ol1ed in an8 /ilitar8 operation pea,e7eeping, ,o/2at, or 0ur1i1al( An operation deteriorate0 0o 0e1erel8 a Marine unit i0 for,ed to e/plo8 0ur1i1al 07ill0 /a8 re3uire unit to 9e1ade: .o0tile ene/8 unit0( ;P $!%( define0 e1a0ion a0 t.e pro,e00 -.ere28 indi1idual0 -.o are i0olated in .o0tile or unfriendl8 territor8 a1oid ,apture -it. t.e goal of 0u,,e00full8 returning to area0 under friendl8 ,ontrol( S.ould a 0ur1i1al 0ituation re3uire e1ading t.e ene/8, 0u,,e00 -ill depend on prior planning( a( Planning and Preparation( (MSVX.12.16a) T.e re0pon0i2ilit8 for proper preparation and planning for e1a0ion ulti/atel8 re0t0 -it. t.e indi1idual0 ,on,erned( All Marine0 -.o are ta07ed to e<e,ute an8 /i00ion 0.ould re,ei1e t.e follo-ing= 4"5 Intelligen,e Briefing0( Infor/ation on t.e /i00ion route, ene/8 troop di0po0ition0, i/pa,t of ene/8 operation0 on friendl8 or /ultinational /ilitar8 for,e0, 0tatu0 of t.e US or /ultinational /ilitar8 0ituation, or ,.anging attitude0 of t.e ene/8 popula,e( 4)5 E1a0ion Plan of A,tion 4EPA5( T.e EPA i0 one of t.e ,riti,al do,u/ent0 for 0u,,e00ful re,o1er8 planning( It i0 t.e 1e.i,le 28 -.i,. potential e1ader0, prior to t.eir i0olation in .o0tile territor8, rela8 t.eir after$i0olation intention0 to t.e re,o1er8 for,e0( See Appendi< D, 9E1a0ion Plan of A,tion 6or/at,: for detail0 on t.e ,ontent of an EPA( "*$" MS&'()("*

4 5 Sele,ted Area0 for E1a0ion 4SA6E5 Area Intelligen,e De0,ription0( (WSVX.!2.16b) A SA6E i0 a 9de0ignated area in .o0tile territor8 offer0 i0olated per0onnel a rea0ona2le ,.an,e of a1oiding ,apture and of 0ur1i1ing until t.e8 ,an 2e re,o1ered(: 4a5 T.e8 are de0ignated 28 t.e Defen0e Intelligen,e Agen,8 4DIA5 and are ,la00ified( 425 De0igned to fa,ilitate e<tended e1a0ion, -.i,. /u0t /eet ,ertain re3uire/ent0 for appro1al( 4>5 E?R 4E1a0ion and Re,o1er85 Area Studie0( E?R area0 /a8 2e 0ele,ted in an8 geograp.i, region 2a0ed on operational or ,ontingen,8 planning re3uire/ent0( Alt.oug. 0i/ilar to SA6E area0 in /o0t re0pe,t0, t.e8 differ in not all ,on1entional 0ele,tion ,riteria for SA6E area0 ,an 2e /et 2e,au0e of ,urrent politi,al, /ilitar8, or en1iron/ental fa,tor0 pre1ailing in t.e ,ountr8( 4!5 Sur1i1al, E1a0ion, Re0i0tan,e, and E0,ape @uide0 and Bulletin0( T.e8 ,ontain t.e 2a0i, infor/ation to .elp an indi1idual 0ur1i1e, 0u,,e00full8 e1ade and, if ,aptured, re0i0t ene/8 e<ploitation( T.e0e 2ulletin0 ,o1er infor/ation on topograp.8 and .8drograp.8, food and -ater 0our,e0, 0afe and dangerou0 plant0 and ani/al0, ,u0to/0 and ,ulture0( 4*5 I0olated Per0onnel Report 4ISOPREP5( W.en filled in, t.e DD 6or/ "A ,la00ified CON6IDENTIAB( It ena2le0 a re,o1er8 for,e to aut.enti,ate e1ader0( i0

)( EXECUTING AN EVASION PLAN O ACTION (EPA)( Unfore0een ,ir,u/0tan,e0 /a8 re3uire Marine0 to e<e,ute t.eir EPA( a( Initial Planning( I//ediatel8 upon 2rea7ing ,onta,t, atte/pt to gain /a<i/u/ di0tan,e 2et-een 8our0elf and t.e ene/8( 4"5 Carefull8 ,on0ider METT$T during all planning and e<e,ution( 4)5 Deter/ine unitC0 ,o/2at effe,ti1ene00( 4 5 De1elop a ,our0e of a,tion( 2( Mo1e/ent te,.ni3ue0( If po00i2le, t.e entire /o1e/ent to friendl8 or neutral area0, a0 -ell a0 to de0ignated SA6E area0 or E?R area0 0.ould 2e ,o/pleted -it.out 2eing o20er1ed(, an appre,iation of t.e /et.od0 28 -.i,. a .o0tile for,e /a8 atte/pt to dete,t 8ou -ill a00i0t in te,.ni3ue0 to /a<i/iDe 8our ,on,eal/ent( 4"5 Met.od0 to a1oid ene/8 dete,tion(

"*$) MS&'()("*

4a5 Appl8 0tandard patrolling /o1e/ent te,.ni3ue0( 425 A1oid natural line0 of drift and Main Suppl8 Route0 4MSR5( 4,5 A1oid all rural area0, 0/all to-n0, and far/0( $Dog0 and do/e0ti, poultr8 are 1er8 ,o//on and -ill pro1ide a 9fir0t alert: needed to initiate a .o0tile 0ear,.( 4)5 Met.od0 of dete,ting t.e e1ader( 4a5 Dire,t O20er1ation( 425 Dete,tion E3uip/ent( $ i/aging $A,ti1e Infrared 4IR5, 0u,. a0 N&@0 $A,ou0ti, dete,tor0+0en0or0 $Dire,tion finding e3uip/ent for radio0 4,5 Sear,. tea/0( $Militar8 and+or ,i1ilian $Tra,7er0 4d5 Dog0( $Atta,7 or tra,7ing dog0 $Diffi,ult to deter/ine if 2eing tra,7ed 28 dog0 $Atte/pt to di0,ourage t.e dog fro/ doing it0 Eo2 ,( O,,upation of a SA6E or E?R( (WSVX.!2.16c) Prior to /o1e/ent to, and o,,upation of a SA6E or E?R area, ,on0ider t.e follo-ing= 4"5 Condu,t a re,onnai00an,e of t.e entire area for ene/8 t.reat( T.i0 /a8 /e a p.80i,al or 1i0ual re,onnai00an,e( 4)5 Sele,t an o,,upation 0ite -.i,. afford0= 4a5 Con,ealed e0,ape route0 if dete,ted 28 ene/8( 425 Clo0e pro<i/it8 to a potential e<tra,tion 0ite( 4,5 O20er1ation of t.e area and a1enue0 of approa,.( 4 5 Appl8 t.e re3uire/ent0 for 0ur1i1al( 4>5 E<e,ute t.e ,o//uni,ation and 0ignaling plan a0 ordered( "*$ MS&'()("*

RE ERENCE( "( ;P $!%( , ;oint Do,trine for E1a0ion and Re,o1er8, "99*(

"*$> MS&'()("*


Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001

WSVX.01.01 !"!05 STUDENT HANDOUT AVALANCHE AND ICE HAZARDS LESSON PURPOSE. T#e purpo$e of t#i$ period of in$tru%tion i$ to introdu%e t#e $tudent to a&alan%#e and i%e #a'ard$, t#eir %#ara%teri$ti%$, danger$, and #o( to prote%t )our$elf fro* t#e*. OUTLINE 1. TYPES OF AVALANCHE: T#ere are four t)pe$ of a&alan%#e$+ ,oo$e-$no(, Sla-, %orni%e %ollap$e and .%e. a. ,oo$e-$no( /&alan%#e$. So*eti*e$ %alled point relea$e $lide$, t#e) $tart (#en a $*all a*ount of %o#e$ion le$$ $no( -rea0$ a(a) and $tart$ to de$%end do(n t#e $lope. /t a di$tan%e it (ill appear to loo0 li0e t#e) $tart fro* a point and fan out a$ t#e) de$%end. T#e) (ill $tart out $*all and u$uall) in&ol&e onl) t#e top la)er$. T#i$ a&alan%#e i$ %apa-le of -eing 1uite large and de$tru%ti&e depending on t#e a*ount of *aterial it (ill entrain during it$ de$%ent. 213 T#e $tre$$ t#i$ a&alan%#e %reate$ during it$ de$%ent *a) -e enoug# to trigger larger and deeper $la- relea$e$ 2 3 .t o%%ur$ *ore often on $teep $lope angle$ of 35 degree$ or #ig#er. 233 .t (ill range in $peed$ up to 00 *p#. -. Sla- /&alan%#e$. T#e$e a&alan%#e$ o%%ur (#en one or *ore la)er$ of %o#e$i&e $no( -rea0 a(a) fro* a $loped $no(field at t#e %ro(n $urfa%e. /$ t#e $la-$ tra&el do(n $lope, t#e) -rea0 up into $*aller -lo%0$ or %lod$. 213 Sla- a&alan%#e$ -egin (#en t#e for%e of gra&it) pulling a la)er or la)er$ of $no( do(n#ill e4%eed$ t#e $trengt# of t#e (ea0e$t la)er in t#e $no( pa%0. 2 3 Sla-$ &ar) in $i'e fro* 5u$t a fe( in%#e$ to *an) feet t#i%0, and range in (idt# fro* a fe( )ard$ to o&er a *ile. Sla- *aterial i$ al$o #ig#l) &aria-le6 $la-$ *a) -e #ard or $oft, (et or dr).

233 Will range in $peed$ up to 150 *p#. 17-1


273 8eature$ of a $la- a&alan%#e. 2a3 Cro(n 8a%e ! 8ra%ture ,ine. T#i$ i$ t#e upper -oundar) of t#e $la-. 2-3 Cro(n. T#i$ area i$ i**ediatel) a-o&e t#e %ro(n fa%e!fra%ture line. 2%3 8lan0$. T#i$ i$ t#e outer -oundarie$ of t#e $la-. 2d3 Stau%#(all. T#i$ i$ t#e -otto* -oundar) of t#e $la-. 2e3 Bed Surfa%e. T#e $liding $urfa%e for t#e a&alan%#e. 253 Slope angle. Sla- a&alan%#e$ originate on a (ide &ariet) of terrain. T#e *ain re1uire*ent i$ $lope angle. Mo$t $la-$ fra%ture on $lope angle$ -et(een 35-70 degree$. 2a3 Slope$ le$$ t#an 30 degree$ are le$$ li0el) to #a&e $la- a&alan%#e$ -e%au$e t#ere i$n9t enoug# ten$ion of on t#e $la- area. 2-3 Slope$ greater t#an 75 degree$ u$uall) $luff -efore $la-$ %an for*. %. Corni%e Collap$e$. /n o&er#ang of $no( for*$ (#en (ind-lo(n $no( -uild$ out #ori'ontall) at $#arp terrain--rea0$ $u%# a$ ridge %re$t$ and t#e $ide$ of gullie$. T#e) %an -rea0 off (ell -a%0 fro* t#e edge, and often trigger -igger $lide$ (#en t#e) #it t#e (ind--lo(n pillo(ed area of t#e $lope. d. .%e /&alan%#e$. T#e$e are %au$ed -) t#e %ollap$e of un$ta-le i%e -lo%0$ 2$era%$3 fro* $teep or o&er#anging part$ of a gla%ier. .%e a&alan%#e$ %an entrain a large a*ount of ro%0, i%e, and $no( and tra&el long di$tan%e$. T#e$e a&alan%#e$ are not predi%ta-le and %annot -e dete%ted. . AVALANCHE TRIGGERS. T#ere are t(o t)pe$+ natural and artifi%ial. a. :atural Trigger$. T#e$e are not triggered dire%tl) -) *an or #i$ e1uip*ent. / falling %orni%e, $luffing $no(, $tre$$ %#ange due to *eta*orp#i$*, a&alan%#e, et%., %an all trigger a&alan%#e$. -. /rtifi%ial Trigger$. Man or #i$ e1uip*ent trigger$ t#e$e. / $0i pa$$, a *ountaineer;$ (eig#t, an e4plo$i&e -la$t, a $oni% -oo*, et%., %o**onl) $et off a&alan%#e$. 3. PARTS OF AN AVALANCHE a. Starting 'one. .t i$ u$uall) $teeper t#an 30 degree$ and re%ei&e$ large a*ount$ of $no(. T#i$ i$ (#ere t#e un$ta-le $no( -rea0$ loo$e and $tart$ to $lide.

-. /&alan%#e Tra%0. <efer$ to t#e pat# under t#e $tarting 'one and a-o&e t#e run out 'one. T#e) %an -e %#anneled or un%#anneled. T#e tra%0 i$ t#e $lope or %#annel do(n (#i%# $no( *o&e$. 213 C#anneled tra%0$ are %onfined area$ $u%# a$ gullie$ and %ouloir$. =n%onfined tra%0$ are on open $lope$. So*e *a) #a&e tree$ pre$ent. 2 3 /n a&alan%#e tra%0 *a) #a&e $e&eral -ran%#e$ or $e&eral $*all tra%0$ #a&ing $eparate $tarting 'one$ t#at *a) feed into one -ig tra%0. .t i$ i*portant to re*e*-er t#at *ulti--ran%# tra%0$ *a) run $e&eral ti*e$ in 1ui%0 $u%%e$$ion. / nu*-er of re$%uer$ #a&e -een 0illed (#en (or0ing a run out 'one and a $e%ond a&alan%#e ran do(n (it#in #our$ of t#e fir$t a&alan%#e. 233 Wet $no( a&alan%#e$ tend to follo( t#e tra%0 -oundar), (#erea$ dr) $no( a&alan%#e$ %an ea$il) 5u*p terrain -arrier$. %. <un out 'one$. T#i$ i$ t#e area at t#e -otto* of t#e pat# (#ere de-ri$ pile$-up. Variation in (eat#er pattern$ fro* one )ear to t#e ne4t (ill influen%e t#e po$ition of t#e run out 'one. T#i$ i$ (#ere t#e $no( and de-ri$ $lo($ do(n and %o*e$ to re$t 7. AVALANCHE HAZARD EVALUATION PROCESS. T#e e&aluation pro%e$$ i$ t#e intera%tion of four %riti%al &aria-le$, (#i%# #elp$ deter*ine (#et#er or not, an a&alan%#e i$ po$$i-le. T#e) are $no( pa%0, (eat#er, terrain, and t#e #u*an fa%tor. a. T#e Sno( >a%0. .$ t#e $no( %apa-le of $liding? /$ ea%# $tor* pa$$e$, a ne( la)er of $no( i$ added, $o*e -) t#e (ind $o*e not, and e&er) la)er of $no( #a$ it9$ o(n te4ture and $trengt#. So*e la)er$ (ill -e $trong (#ile $o*e (ill -e (ea0. So*e (ill -ond (ell, and $o*e (on9t. /lt#oug# t#e $tud) of $no( *eta*orp#i$* i$ a $%ien%e, Marine$ *u$t deter*ine if a (ea0 -ond in t#e $no( pa%0 e4i$t$. /dditionall), one *u$t atte*pt to e$ti*ate t#e a*ount of $no( t#at %ould -e potentiall) relea$ed, if triggered. -. T#e Weat#er. .$ t#e (eat#er %ontri-uting to in$ta-ilit)? .t i$ an o-$er&ed fa%t t#at all natural a&alan%#e$ o%%ur during or $#ortl) after a $tor*. W#)? T#e $no( pa%0 %an9t #andle t#e ne( (eig#t -eing added. T#i$ ne( (eig#t alter$ t#e -alan%e in $trengt# and $tre$$. T#e t#ree *ain %ontri-uting fa%tor$ are t#e pre%ipitation, (ind, and te*perature. 213 Sign$ of .n$ta-ilit). 2a3 <e%ent a&alan%#e a%ti&it) on $i*ilar $lope$ and $*all a&alan%#e$ underfoot. 2-3 Boo*ing. T#e audi-le %ollap$e of $no( la)er$. 2%3 Vi$i-le %ra%0$ $#ooting out fro* underfoot. 2d3 Sluffing de-ri$, (#i%# i$ e&iden%e of a&alan%#e a%ti&it) o%%urring.


2e3 Sun-alling, (#i%# i$ %au$ed -) rapid (ar*ing of t#e $no( $urfa%e. 2f3 Weat#er pattern$. 1. @ea&) a*ount of $no( loading in a $#ort period of ti*e. 21 in!#r for 7 #r period3. . @ea&) rain$ (#i%# (ar*$ and (ea0en$ t#e $no( pa%0. 3. Signifi%ant (ind loading %au$ing lee(ard $lope$ to po$$i-l) -e%o*e o&erloaded. 7. ,ong, %old, %lear, %al* period follo(ed -) #ea&) pre%ipitation or (ind loading. 5. <apid te*perature ri$e$ to a-o&e free'ing after long a %old period. ". >rolonged period$ 2e.g. *ore t#an 7 #r$3 of a-o&e-free'ing te*perature$. 7. Cold $no( te*perature$ 2e1ual to or le$$ t#an 583 $lo( do(n t#e $ettle*ent or $trengt#ening pro%e$$, t#u$ allo(ing un$ta-le $no( %ondition$ to per$i$t longer. 2 3 Sign$ of Sta-ilit). 2a3 Sno( %one$ or $ettle*ent %one$ for* around tree$ and ot#er o-$ta%le$ and indi%ate t#e $no( around t#e o-5e%t i$ $ettling. 2-3 Creep and Alide. Creep i$ t#e internal defor*ation of t#e $no( pa%0. Alide i$ $lippage of t#e $no( la)er (it# re$pe%t to t#e ground. B&iden%e of t#e$e t(o propertie$ on t#e $no( pa%0 i$ a ripple effe%t at t#e -otto* of a $lope. .t i$ an indi%ation t#at t#e $no( i$ gaining e1uili-riu* and $trengt# t#roug# t#i$ t)pe of $ettle*ent pro%e$$. 2%3 /-$en%e of (ind during $tor*$ (#i%# i$ indi%ated -) $no( a%%u*ulation in t#e tree$. 2d3 Sno( te*perature$ re*aining -et(een 5 C 3 8 ordinaril) $ettle$ $no( rapidl), %reating a den$er and $tronger $no( pa%0. %. T#e Terrain. Being a-le to re%ogni'e a&alan%#e terrain i$ a %riti%al $tep in t#e e&aluation pro%e$$. /$$u*ing t#at a&alan%#e$ o%%ur on onl) -ig $lope$ i$ a &er) %o**on *i$ta0e. /&alan%#e$ %an o%%ur on an) $lope. 213 Slope /ngle. Slope angle $#ould al(a)$ -e fa%tored (#en planning *o&e*ent$ in $no( %o&ered *ountainou$ terrain.

2a3 /$ t#e $lope angle in%rea$e$, $o doe$ t#e $tre$$ on t#e -oundar) region$ of a $la-. 2-3 Mo$t $la- a&alan%#e$ relea$e on $lope$ (it# angle$ -et(een 35-70 degree$. 2%3 ,oo$e $no( a&alan%#e$ o%%ur on #ig# angle $lope$ "0 degree$ and a-o&e. 2 3 Slope Drientation. 2a3 ,ee(ard, (ind-loaded $lope$ tend to in%rea$e t#e $tre$$ on t#e $no( pa%0. 2-3 Sno( pa%0$ *oderatel) #it -) t#e $un %an $trengt#en and $ta-ili'e t#e $no( pa%0. 2%3 Eire%t $unlig#t #a$ t#e oppo$ite effe%t -) (ea0ening and lu-ri%ating t#e -ond$ -et(een grain$. 2d3 Wea0 la)er$ are often (ell de&eloped or per$i$t on $#aded $lope$ due to t#e %older %ondition$ and a-$en%e of $olar (ar*ing during t#e (inter. Su$pe%t in$ta-ilit) on t#e$e $lope$. 233 Terrain <oug#ne$$ 2/n%#oring3. Slope$ (it# an%#or$ are le$$ li0el) to a&alan%#e t#an open $lope$. 273 Vegetation. T#e *o$t %on&in%ing e&iden%e of pa$t a&alan%#e a%ti&it) i$ a pat# of fallen tree$, aligned in t#e $a*e dire%tion and $#eared at t#e #eig#t a-o&e t#e ground. 2a3 Tree$ &oid of -ran%#e$ on t#e up#ill $ide, (#i%# are %alled FflaggedG tree$. 2-3 Cleared $trip$ of tree$ in a den$e fore$t.

253 Sea$onal. Dn%e an a&alan%#e pat# #a$ -egun to $lide in a $ea$on, ot#er a&alan%#e$ *a) o%%ur a long t#e $a*e pat#. 2"3 Ble&ation. Te*perature, (ind and pre%ipitation often &ar) $ignifi%antl) (it# ele&ation. Co**on differen%e$ in%lude rain at lo(er ele&ation$ or differen%e$ in pre%ipitation a*ount$, or (ind $peed (it# ele&ation. :e&er a$$u*e t#at %ondition$ on a $lope at a parti%ular ele&ation refle%t t#o$e of a $lope at a different ele&ation. 273 ,o%al >opulation. / good $our%e of infor*ation -ut -e(are of $#ort-ter* o-$er&ation$, i.e., 10 )ear$. 17-5

d. T#e @u*an 8a%tor. W#at are )our alternati&e$ and t#eir po$$i-le %on$e1uen%e$? e. @a'ard B&aluation. T#i$ $#ould -e an on going pro%e$$, and $#ould $tart -efore t#e *i$$ion e&en -egin$. 213 Before. Aat#er infor*ation on t#e (eat#er $u%# a$ ne( $no(fall, #ig# (ind$, $no( ad&i$orie$, and topograp#) of t#e terrain. 8ind out an) pa$t #i$tor) of t#e area and re%ent or pa$t a&alan%#e a%ti&it). 2 3 Euring. Euring )our *o&e*ent, tr) and fine-tune an) infor*ation t#at *a) #elp in )our de%i$ion-*a0ing pro%e$$ and $upport t#e fa%t t#at t#ere *a) -e an a&alan%#e #a'ard. 233 Be D-5e%ti&e. We don9t #a&e option$ (#en a$$igned *i$$ion$. Hou #a&e to loo0 at t#e o&erall *i$$ion (it# t#e pre$ent a&alan%#e #a'ard to deter*ine (#et#er )ou $#ould %ontinue on or %#oo$e an alternate route. 5. ROUTE CONSIDERATIONS. a. Eeter*ine $tarting 'one$ of pro-a-le a&alan%#e prone $lope$ and %ro$$ a$ #ig# a$ po$$i-le, prefera-l) a-o&e natural an%#or$. -. Tra&el on #ig# point$ and ridge$, e$pe%iall) (ind(ard $ide$. %. W#en a$%ending or de$%ending an a&alan%#e prone $lope, $ta) to t#e $ide of t#e $tart 'one and tra%0. d. /&oid (ind-loaded, lee $lope$. e. 8a&or terrain (it# an%#or$, i.e. tree-%o&ered area$ o&er open $lope$. f. >i%0 area$ (it# flat, open run-out$ $o t#at de-ri$ -urial dept# i$ de%rea$ed. /&oid area$ t#at feed into %re&a$$e$ and %liff$. g. Hou %an generall) find a $afe route $o*e(#ere in a (ide =-$#aped &alle), -ut narro( V-$#aped one$ $#ould -e a&oided. .n V-$#aped &alle)$, a&alan%#e$ %ould run fro* eit#er $ide and %ontinue up t#e oppo$ite $ide, $o t#ere *a) -e little or no $afe ground. ". CROSSING AVALANCHE PRONE SLOPES. Certain re1uire*ent$ *a) *a0e it ne%e$$ar) to %ro$$ a $u$pe%ted $lope. T#i$ $#ould -e done onl) AFTER all alternati&e$ #a&e -een e4#au$ted. a. .ndi&idual >reparation. 213 ,oo$en $0i -inding$6 re*o&e #and$ fro* $0i pole $trap$. 2 3 ,ea&e )our pa%0 on and $e%ure t#e pa%0 $trap$.

233 Se%ure BCWCS #ood tig#tl) %o&ering fa%e, trail an a&alan%#e %ord if a&aila-le. 273 Ao $traig#t do(n#ill on foot rat#er t#an $0i and loo0 for po$$i-le e$%ape route$. 253 Ao $traig#t do(n, do not tra&er$e. 2"3 .f po$$i-le %ro$$ a$ #ig# a$ po$$i-le on %on%a&e $lope$. 273 Cro$$ one at a ti*e and if one %ro$$e$ $afel), it doe$ not *ean t#at it i$ $afe pa$$age for t#e re$t. .f po$$i-le, -ela) e&er)one a%ro$$. -. /%tion$ if Caug#t. 213 /tte*pt to re*o&e $0i$ or $no($#oe$. 2 3 /$$e$$ -e$t line of e$%ape. 233 Eela) )our departure, i.e., let a$ *u%# of t#e a&alan%#e pa$$ )ou a$ po$$i-le. 273 Tr) and (or0 to t#e $ide. T#ere (ill -e le$$ for%e of t#e a&alan%#e at t#e edge of t#e flo(. 253 Tr) to $(i* out u$ing a dou-le a%tion -a%0$tro0e or tr) to roll a(a) at a 75degree angle. 2"3 / $upre*e effort $#ould -e *ade to get to t#e $urfa%e a$ t#e a&alan%#e $ettle$. 273 Ma0e an air $pa%e to -reat#. 2I3 Mo&e to po$ition near t#e $urfa%e if po$$i-le. 293 B$ta-li$# orientation. 2103 Eon9t pani%. %. /&alan%#e <e$%ue. Stati$ti%all), after a-out 1! #our of -urial, t#e %#an%e of $ur&i&al i$ appro4i*atel) 50J. /fter an #our t#e %#an%e$ of $ur&i&al drop to 0J. Speed i$ t#erefore e$$ential for re%o&ering a li&e &i%ti*. Cold and $uffo%ation i$ t#e *ain %au$e$ of deat#. 213 Ma0e a %areful note of (#ere #e (a$ la$t $een and *ar0 t#e $pot. /l$o *ar0 an) po$ition (#ere #e reappeared during #i$ *o&e*ent. 2 3 Ma0e a 1ui%0 &i$ual $ear%# of t#e area, loo0ing for an) $ign 2i.e., a&alan%#e %ord, -od) part$, or e1uip*ent3. 233 .f not#ing i$ apparent at fir$t t#en *a0e a 1ui%0 $urfa%e $ear%#. 17-7

273 .f not#ing i$ found, a *ore $)$te*ati% $ear%# $#ould -e *ade fro* t#e -otto* (or0ing up. 253 .f )ou again fail to find an)t#ing, )our ne4t $tep i$ to pro-e. 2"3 Mo$t ,i0el) Spot$ to 8ind an /&alan%#e Vi%ti*. 2a3 Start at t#e la$t $een lo%ation and (or0 do(n t#e $lope. ,oo0 for %lue$ of t#e &i%ti* $u%# a$ $0i$, %lot#ing, a&alan%#e %ord, et%. 2-3 /t t#e out$ide$ of -end$ of t#e a&alan%#e pat# (#ere de-ri$ a%%u*ulate$. 2%3 ,oo0 on t#e up#ill $ide of o-$ta%le$, $u%# a$ tree$ and -oulder$, (#ere de-ri$ -uild$ up. 2d3 .n t#e run out 'one, de-ri$ *a) -e &er) large and #ard to $ear%#. 273 T)pe$ of Sear%#e$. T#i$ (ill depend on *anpo(er a&aila-le and ti*e. 2a3 @a$t) $ear%#. B) far t#e *o$t i*portant $ear%# for -a%0%ountr) tra&el. Speed i$ e$$ential and t#e deter*ination (#et#er or not to go for #elp i$ a diffi%ult one. 2-3 Coar$e pro-e. T#e idea -e#ind t#i$ t)pe of pro-e i$ to $a%rifi%e $o*e t#oroug#ne$$ for $peed. 2%3 8ine pro-e. Ta0e$ 7-5 ti*e$ longer t#an t#e %oar$e pro-e. C#an%e$ are, t#e &i%ti* (ill not -e re%o&ered ali&e. 7. ICE HAZARDS. 8ro'en (ater(a)$ 2la0e$, $trea*$, and -a)$3 %an -e life t#reatening o-$ta%le$ (#en %ro$$ing. .%e i$ %la$$ified in t#ree general t)pe$+ $alt (ater, fre$# (ater, and land. a. 8re$# Water .%e. 8re$# (ater i%e -egin$ to for* on la0e$ and ri&er$ under nor*al %ondition$, fro* 3-5 (ee0$ after t#e dail) te*perature drop$ -elo( 3 8. -. ,a0e .%e i$ generall) (ea0 in t#e area$ of $trea*$, inlet$, $pring$, or outlet$. Ee%a)ing &egetation on t#e -otto* of a la0e *a) gi&e off air -u--le$, (#i%# $lo( i%e for*ation and %reate (ea0 i%e. %. <i&er .%e for*ed -) (ar* (eat#er and (ind *a) %reate a roug# $urfa%e, (#i%# (ill re*ain ruff t#roug#out t#e (inter. T#i$ i%e i$ filled (it# air -u--le$. d. :or*all), fre$# (ater doe$ not free'e to a t#i%0ne$$ greater t#an I feet in a $ingle $ea$on. .n la0e$, t#e nor*al i%e dept# -) late Mar%# i$ -et(een 3 1! feet and " feet, depending on (inter te*perature$.

213 T#e follo(ing %ondition$ (ill $peed up free'ing+ 2a3 ,o( $ta-le te*perature$. 2-3 @ig# (ind-%#ill fa%tor. 2%3 :o $no( %o&er. 2d3 :o %urrent. 2 3 T#e follo(ing %ondition$ (ill retard free'ing+ 2a3 8lu%tuating te*perature. 2-3 8a$t %urrent. 2%3 Sno( %o&er. 2d3 Salt (ater and ot#er i*puritie$. NOTE: T#e $trengt# of i%e depend$ upon i%e $tru%ture, purit) of (ater, free'ing pro%e$$, %)%le$ of free'ing and t#a(ing, %r)$tal orientation, te*perature, i%e t#i%0ne$$, $no( %o&er, (ater %urrent, under$ide $upport, and age. e. Spe%ial Con$ideration$. 213 .**ediatel) ad5a%ent to t#e $#ore, t#e i%e for*ation i$ t#in and (ea0 and *ore li0el) to de&elop %ra%0$ t#an i%e in t#e %enter of a fro'en $trea*. Eepending upon t#e gradient of t#e ri&er-ed and t#e t#i%0ne$$ of t#e i%e near t#e $#ore, it i$ generall) $afer to *aintain a route near t#e $#ore if t#e i%e re$t$ upon t#e ri&er -otto*. 2 3 W#ere an under-i%e %urrent of (ater flo($ under a large i%e area, t#e i%e in %onta%t (it# t#e %urrent i$ $u-5e%t to a greater &ariation in te*perature o&er a gi&en ti*e, and t#erefore t#i%0er t#an t#e i%e in ad5a%ent area$. 233 S#allo( (ater i%e i$ u$uall) t#inner t#an deep (ater i%e. 273 Aood 1ualit) i%e i$ %lear and free fro* -u--le$ and %ra%0$. .n a -od) of (ater %ontaining %lear and %loud) i%e. T#e %lear i%e (ill fre1uentl) -e t#inner t#en t#e %loud) i%e. 253 ,a0e$ %ontaining a great deal of &egetation (#o$e de%o*po$ition retard$ free'ing, re$ult$ in (ea0 i%e. 2"3 8looded $no( (#en fro'en produ%e$ K$lu$# i%eK (#i%# i$ (#ite and *a) %ontain air -u--le$. Slu$# i%e #a$ a load %arr)ing %apa%it) appro4i*atel) 1!7 le$$ t#an t#at of pri*e natural i%e.


273 .%e t#at re*ain$ un$upported after a drop in t#e (ater -eneat# it #a$ little $trengt#. <e$er&oir$ and la0e$ (it# runoff$ are e4a*ple$. I. ICE CROSSING. a. Safet) >re%aution$. T#ere are $i4 $afet) pre%aution$ to ta0e prior to %ro$$ing an i%e%o&ered -od) of (ater. 213 ,oo$en -inding$ on $0i$ or $no($#oe$, if $o e1uipped. 2 3 <e*o&e (ri$t loop$ of $0i pole$, if $o e1uipped. .f $0i pole$ are not a&aila-le, atta%# a (ri$t loop to a fi4ed -lade 0nife 2i.e., -a)onet3 and fa$ten to t#e ar*. 233 Clot#ing $#ould -e (orn $nugl). /ll tie$ tied $e%urel) 2(ri$t $trap$, (ai$t $trap$, %ollar$, trou$er %uff$, et%.3 T#i$ gi&e$ -uo)an%) if -rea0 t#roug# o%%ur$, and redu%e$ %old $#o%0. 273 Sling pa%0 and (eapon$ onto one $#oulder. 253 Dnl) e4po$e one *an to t#e danger at a ti*e or until (eig#t fa%tor i$ deter*ined. 2"3 <ope$ $#ould -ela) t#e fir$t group of indi&idual$, if a&aila-le. -. Self-<e$%ue Te%#ni1ue$. .f an indi&idual or group -rea0$ t#roug# t#e i%e, %arr) out t#e follo(ing te%#ni1ue$. 213 <e*o&e unne%e$$ar) gear 2pa%0$, (eapon$, $no($#oe$, et%.3 and atte*pt to t#ro( t#e* onto t#e i%e. 2 3 =$e )our fi4ed -lade 0nife or $0i pole 2if e1uipped3 to drag!pu$# )our$elf out of t#e (ater. 233 Eo not $tand up near t#e #ole. <e*ain flat and %ontinue to pu$#!drag )our$elf a(a) fro* t#e #ole until %lear of t#e danger. 273 REWARM IMMEDIATELY. Cold-(ater i**er$ion (ill re$ult in $#o%0 and #)pot#er*ia. Strip all (et %lot#ing off and atte*pt to re(ar* -od) (it# a dr) $leeping -ag or a$ *an) fire$ a$ po$$i-le, $urrounding t#e -od). %. Aroup-<e$%ue Te%#ni1ue$. .f per$onnel are a&aila-le to a$$i$t in t#e re$%ue, %arr) out t#e follo(ing te%#ni1ue$. 213 Eo not allo( Marine$ to *o&e near t#e #ole (it#out $o*e t)pe of $afet) 2i.e., rope, #u*an %#ain3. 2 3 .f rope i$ a&aila-le, tie a large fi4ed loop on t#e end. T#ro( t#e loop to t#e &i%ti* and #a&e #i* pla%e t#e loop o&er t#e -od).

233 .f rope i$ not a&aila-le, lo%ate a long $ti%0 and %reate a #u*an %#ain. Wit# all Marine$ l)ing prone, *o&e t#e %#ain to a$ %lo$e a$ po$$i-le until t#e &i%ti* %an gra$p t#e $ti%0. 273 .f t#e &i%ti* %annot gra$p t#e $ti%0, %ontinue to edge t#e %#ain to t#e #ole until t#e end *an %an rea%# t#e &i%ti* -) #and. 253 Dn%e t#e &i%ti* #a$ -een re%o&ered, REWARM IMMEDIATELY. REFERENCE: 1. Lill 8red$ton, Sno( Sen$e, 1997. . C<<B, Te%#ni%al >u-li%ation, .%e E)na*i%$ M> 15I5, 1975. 3. C<<B, Te%#ni%al >u-li%ation, .%e <e%onnai$$an%e S< 91-30, 1990.


UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 93517-5001 EVASION PLAN OF ACTION FORMAT 1. Individuals o!pleting "#$s s%ould not une t%e state!ent &#"' ($' (#I)( *(pe ial Instru tions+ as a su,stitute for t%is do u!ent. (u % a state!ent fails to provide re overfor es .it% t%e infor!ation re/uired and provides no on rete data .it% .%i % to plan a re over- operation. 0. "#$s s%ould ontain t%e !ini!u! infor!ation. In lusion of t%is pres ri,ed infor!ation into one do u!ent en%an es operational effe tiveness and pre ludes t%e possi,ilit- t%at riti al infor!ation !ig%t not ,e availa,le in a ti!e-sensitive situation. T%ese do u!ents !ust ,e lassified to at least t%e level of t%e operation order for t%e !ission t%esupport. #aragrap%s !ust ,e individuall- lassified to t%e appropriate level. a. Indentifi ation *1+ )a!e and ran1 of ea % individual. *0+ Mission nu!,er, air raft, or all sign. ,. #lanned 'oute of 2lig%t or Travel. *1+ 'oute points !ust ,e des ri,e in t%e "#$ for ,ot% ingress and egress. *0+ 3es ri,e inflig%t e!ergen - plans for ea % leg of t%e !ission. . I!!ediate "vasion $ tions and4or Intentions for t%e 2irst 56 %ours, 7nin8ured *for e9a!ple+: *1+ ;ide near air raft site or area of separation fro! unit *distan e and %eading+. *0+ "vade alone or lin1-up .it% ot%ers at rall- point. *3+ Travel plans *distan e, duration or ti!e, speed, and ot%er su % details+. *5+ Intended a tions and4or lengt% of sta- at initial %iding lo ation. d. I!!ediate "vasion $ tions and4or Intentions, If In8ured. *1+ #rovide %iding intentions if in8ured. *0+ #rovide evasion intentions if in8ured. *3+ #rovide travel intentions if in8ured. $-1 $ppendi9 $

*5+ #rovide intended a tions at %iding lo ations if in8ured. e. "9tended "vasion $ tions and4or Intentions $fter 56 %ours. *1+ 3estination *($2", !ountain range, oast, ,order, 2"B$+. *0+ Travel routes, plans, and4or te %ni/ues *eit%er .ritten and4or s1et %ed+. *3+ $ tions and4or intentions at potential onta t or re over- lo ations. *5+ 'e over-4 onta t point signals, signs, and4or pro edures *.ritten out and4or s1et %ed+. *5+ Ba 1-up plans, if an-, for t%e a,ove. 3. T%e infor!ation s%ould ,e o!pleted ,- appropriate o!!uni ations and4or signal, intelligen e personnel and atta %ed to t%e "#$. a. Co!!uni ations and $ut%enti ation. *1+ Code.ords. *0+ $vaila,le o!!uni ations and signaling devi es. *3+ #ri!ar- o!!uni ation s %edule, pro edures, and4or fre/uen ies *first 56 %ours and after 56 %ours+. *5+ Ba 1-up o!!uni ation s %edule, pro edures, and4or fre/uen ies. ,. In addition to t%e a,ove !ini!u! re/uired infor!ation, units !a- .is% to in lude t%e optional infor!ation: *1+ Weapons and a!!unition arried. *0+ #ersonal evasion 1it ite!s. *3+ <isting of issue survival and evasion 1it ite!s. *5+ Mission evasion preparation %e 1list *5+ (ignature of offi ial.

$-0 $ppendi9 $


BREAK AT THE FLIGHT TO FIND THE INDIAN 1. Discuss the bear threat, emphasize bi !uac r!uti"e a"# $!!# st!ra%e. &. Discuss am!u"t !$ a ai'ab'e su"'i%ht i" "!rther" 'atitu#es ()i"ter*summer+. ,. Discuss b!!- -"!)'e#%e s. s-i''s. .. E/p'ai" the Tai%a Ec!s0stem a"# )here it ra"%es i" the )!r'#. BREAK AFTER THE FIR1T DA2 1. Discuss their 3mi"#4set*attitu#e5 at the cabi" 4 chi'#ish 6 u"prepare# )ith "! sur i a' -it. &. 7hat sh!u'# their $irst c!"cer" be a$ter the c!'# )ater immersi!"8 ,. 3A"0 !"e %!t matches85 4 H!) #i# the0 sta0 #r08 .. 7hat ti"#er #i# the0 ha e $!r their $ire8 7itches hair sh!u'# ha e bee" use#. 9. 7hat pri!rities !$ )!r- #i# the0 acc!mp'ish8 BREAK AT THE NIGHT FIRE 1. 3Die !$ shame5, )hat "atura' reacti!" t! stress #!es it re'ate t!8 &. 7atch meth!#*impr! ise# c!mpass 4 pr!b'ems $!r sur i a' "a i%ati!". ,. 7h0 )as it a %!!# #ecisi!" t! tra e'8 .. 7hat sh!u'# the0 ha e #!"e pri!r t! tra e'i"%8 9. Gr!up sur i a' 4 :!i"t !ut h!) as a %r!up, the )ea- became str!"% )he" the0 $!rmu'ate# a p'a" t!%ether 6 h!) the )ea- became str!"% )he" tas-e#. BREAK AT THE HELO FL2ING O;ER B41 Appe"#i/ B

1. Discuss the thatchi"% <!b !" their she'ter. &. Discuss c!mmitme"t*c!ura%e ab!ut the b'!!#0 ba"#a%es. 37hat #i$$ere"ce #!es it ma-e85 ,. Discuss s"!) st!rms i" m!u"tai"s at a"0 time. .. Discuss sur i a' si%"a'i"% 4 be prepare#. BREAK AFTER THE BEAR KILL 1. Discuss h!) the0 passe# up e"!rm!us $!!# s!urces. 4Rei"#eer m!ss 4Fish &. Discuss h!) the0 sh!u'# be thi"-i"% !$ '!"% term sur i a' pri!r t! the !"set !$ )i"ter. ,. :!i"t !ut h!) bears ru" strai%ht thr!u%h the )!!#s. .. :!i"t !ut )he" a bear )i'' char%e= pa)i"% bac- 6 $!rth )ith hea# s)a0i"% si#e t! si#e. 9. :!i"t !ut that ma" )i'' "!t !ut ru" a bear. >. E/p'ai" that a mau'e# sur i !r )as !"'0 #iscip'i"e# b0 the bear. DI1?@11 AT THE END OF THE AO;IE 1. H!) t!!'s became imp!rta"t. &. The $easibi'it0 !$ #i%%i"% 'ar%e pit traps. ,. H!) A"th!"0 H!p-i"s sat 6 th!u%ht pri!r t! ma-i"% a #ecisi!" 4 3@"#ue haste ma-es )aste5. .. H!) rea'istic the am!u"t !$ b!u%h )!u'# create the am!u"t !$ sm!-e %e"erate#. 9. Discuss $i"a''0 h!) -"!)'e#%e c!mes $irst, but -"!)'e#%e )ith!ut s-i''s is use'essB

B4& Appe"#i/ B


S - Size up the situation, surroundings, physical condition, 7 e uipment. U - %ndue haste makes #aste. R - Remember #here you are. V - Van uish fear and panic. I - Impro!ise 7 $mpro!e. V - Value li!ing. A - Act like the nati!es. L - Li!e by your #its, but for now, *earn Basic Skills.

1. IMMEDIATE ACTIONS a. Assess immediate situation...THINK BEFORE YOU ACT! b. Take action to protect yourself from NBC hazards. c. Seek concealment. d. Assess medical condition; treat as necessary. e. Sanitize uniform of potentially compromising information. f. Sanitize area, hide e uipment you are lea!ing. g. Apply camouflage. h. "o!e a#ay from initial site using patrolling techni ues. $. %se terrain to ad!antage; co!er, concealment, and communication ad!antage. &. 'ind a rally point #ith the follo#ing( )Co!er and concealment. )Safe distance from enemy positions and *ines of Communication +*,Cs-. )"ultiple a!enues of concealed escape routes. ).as locations for */s and ,/s. )/rotection from the elements. )Near a reliable #ater and fuel source. )*ocation for possible communication0signaling opportunities. 2. RALLY POINT a. 1stablish security( treat in&uries, in!entory e uipment, impro!e camouflage. b. Assess Commanders $ntent $A2 ability to e3ecute mission. c. 4etermine le!el of combat effecti!eness. d. 4e!elop a course of action using "1TT)TS*; establish priorities. e. 13ecute course of action...stay fle3ible5 3. MOVEMENT a. Tra!el slo#ly and deliberately. b. 4o not lea!e e!idence of tra!el, use noise and light discipline. c. Stay a#ay from *,Cs. d. %se standard patrolling techni ues.

C)6 Appendi3 C

4. CHANCE CONTACT a. ,nly engage the enemy #ith reasonable chance of success. b. %se "1TT)TS* for all engagements. c. Break contact for all unfa!orable engagements. 5. COMMUNICATION AND SIGNALING a. Communicate per theater communication procedures, particularly #hen considering transmitting in the 8blind9. b. Be prepared to use signaling de!ices on short notice. c. 13ecute signaling per mission order. . RECOVERY OPERATIONS a. Select site+s- $A2 mission order. b. 1nsure site is free of hazards and enemy. c. Select best area for communications and signaling de!ices. d. ,bser!e site for pro3imity to enemy acti!ity and *,Cs. e. 'ollo# reco!ery force instructions.

C): Appendi3 C

ANIMAL HABITS (1) Coyote and Wolf. Coyotes and wolves often run in family groups, especially in the early part of the season. When a littermate is caught, normally other coyotes will return to the set site, so reset traps in the same area. They are inquisitive, so you want them to smell and see. Generally they run !"# square mile territories, even larger during periods of rough weather. They will move and congregate around a good food source until it has $een eaten. %ome years, natural food a$undance will have them wor&ing one species and showing little interest for other foods and $aits. 'oo& at fresh scat and select $aits on what they are eating. Coyotes are found at every elevation and ha$itat type in (orth )merica while wolves are restricted to northwestern states. )t higher elevations during deep winter snows, coyotes will move to lower elevations with the deer, el&, and livestoc&, although some will tough it out in the deep snow. *o+. Gray, ,ed, -rairie %wift, and .esert /it fo+es are found throughout the 0.%. Grays are found in pinion!1uniper, cedar, oa& $rush, canyon $ottoms and hog$ac&s, cottonwood draws and edges where these meet. The ,ed *o+ is found in irrigated agricultural lands along the $ases of mountain ranges and prairie rivers, in the high mountain par&s and alpine. The -rairie %wift *o+ is found in the prairie states of this country. The desert &it fo+ is found in the southwestern corner states. 2oth of these species are vary curious. *o+ ha$its are very much li&e the coyote. 2o$cat and 'yn+. 2o$cats are generally found in the west while 'yn+ are found in the northwestern states. They compete with coyotes and sometimes are preyed on $y coyotes. Their territory is generally two square miles. They den in roc& caves, deadfalls, hollow trees and logs. They are sight hunters and use their eyes and ears more than the sense of smell. They prefer to &ill their own food and avoid rotten carrion. 2o$cat can $e 3pulled4 to an area $y curiosity lures. They often avoid large open space. ,accoon and 6possum. They are located throughout the 0.%. They li&e a com$ination of water, old mature trees, $uildings and 1un& piles, and a consistent food supply li&e grain or prepared feed. ,ing!tailed Cat. They inha$it watercourses where roc&y canyons or $ro&en roc&, erosion holes and rough terrain occurs. They are found in the western states. 6ld timers tal& of ringtails $eing fairly a$undant prior to the e+pansion of the raccoon range and densities during and after WW77. 7t is possi$le that raccoons have replaced the ringtail in much of its former ha$itat.


( )





2adger. They are found from a$ove the tim$erline to the lowest elevation in the west. They apparently do not tolerate high densities and generally there are only !5 per square mile while running 1! square miles. They prefer rodents $ut ta&e carrion, fruit, insects, roots and grain. They hole up for long periods during e+tremely cold weather, moving 1ust $efore and after severe weather systems. These animals can $e trac&ed to dens and snared in the den. They often inha$it prairie dog towns. %&un&. Three species are found in the west: striped, spotted, and hognose. %&un&s are located 1ust a$out everywhere. Their mus& is a pri;ed ingredient for lures. Weasel. Two species of weasels occur in most of the west: the ermine or short!tailed, and the long!tailed. They prefer meat and $lood, although sometimes they are caught on peanut $utter. Their $ody shape is adapted for living and pursuing their prey on the prey=s own territory, $urrows, tunnels, and runways. They have ferocious appetites and will tac&le grouse, ra$$its, duc&s, and squirrels. They are inquisitive and can=t pass up e+amining cavities, &not holes, and $urrow entrances. ?arten. ?arten are found in the upper montane and su$alpine ;ones a$ove <,@@@ feet. They generally don=t venture far from the escape cover of trees. They live on squirrels, ra$$its, voles, deer mice, grouse and other small $irds and mammals. There may $e as many as !# per square mile. They li&e fresh &idney, heart, liver, and spleen for $aits.




(1@)?in&. They are found in suita$le water ha$itat or marshy ground with good $an& development and undistur$ed wetlands vegetation. They feed on fish, crustaceans, clams, and small mammals and $irds. They will general travel along the stream $an&. (11)2eaver. They are found in almost all water with cottonwood, aspen, or willow trees. -ea& activity of $eaver is from %eptem$er to free;e!up when they are repairing dams, lodges and $uilding food caches. There will usually $e slides from the water to cutting areas of trees. Their castor is an e+cellent additive to lure. (1")?us&rat. They are found in springs, dugouts, dams, and permanent pools on intermittent streams, rivers, and irrigation ditches, mountain la&es and $eaver ponds. Their dens are usually $elow the water line and into the $an&. (1 )2lac& 2ear. They are found throughout (orth )merica. The female generally has one or two cu$s during the winter hi$ernation. %urvival of the cu$s is good since they $enefit from at least a year of parental
)ppendi+!. "

care. %ows have litters every other year and will not produce cu$s until " or years of age. They are omnivorous in their feeding, ta&ing what is availa$le such as insects, rodents, $erries, roots, fish, and carrion. They are inquisitive. Their color can range from $lac&, $rown, cinnamon, to golden. (15)?ountain 'ion. 7n colonial )merica the mountain lion, painter, panther, catamount, or cougar was found throughout the 0.%. ?uch of their disappearance was due to the clearing of forests and land!use changes as development progressed. They have litters of 1!8 &ittens, averaging "! normally. These are generally $orn in late winter and early spring. .ens are generally caves in roc&y country, hollow logs, windfall trees and various cavities that provide protection from weather. ?ales can weigh up to "98 pounds and 19# pounds for females. They have tremendous strength with reports of mature lions carrying full!grown deer up cliffs, moving 8#@!pound cattle, and carrying adult el& for long distances. They prefer to &ill their own food and disdain soured and decaying carrion. /ills are deep scratches and gouges on the nec& and shoulders, $ites and scratches around the nec&, face and eyes. The s&in is peeled $ac& and the $lood rich liver, spleen, &idneys, and lungs are eaten first. The muscle tissue is gnawed from the $ones. The lion will normally scratch dirt and plant material over the &ill, leave it and return for a future meal. (1#),a$$its and Aares. There are numerous species located throughout (orth )merica with the Cottontail, 2lac&!Tailed Bac&, and the white! tailed Bac& $eing located in our training area. .uring winter months, they will feed on aspen and willow twigs.


UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 9 !"#$!%%" TACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS If t&e need ari'e' to i(ple(ent 'ur)i)al '*ill' in a 'e(i$per(i''i)e or non$per(i''i)e en)iron(ent t&e Marine (u't +e a+le to utili,e +a'i- '*ill', a' referen-ed in t&e Marine Battle S*ill' .and+oo* P)t / 0-pl, in order to a)oid (a*ing -onta-t 1it& &o'tile per'onnel2 Unfortunatel3, t&e ene(3 1ill not -on'ider 3our MOS 1&en de-iding 1&et&er or not 3ou '&ould +e captured or killed2 It i' i(perati)e t&at e)er3 Marine li)e up to 'tate(ent / every Marine is a basic rifle an!" To di'-u'' e)er3 po''i+le 'ur)i)al '-enario and ene(3 'ituation 1ould +e pointle''2 T&e follo1ing outline i' to +e utili,ed a' a guide2 Co((on 'en'e and 'ur)i)al '*ill', along 1it& t&e'e -on'ideration', 1ill in-rea'e 3our -&an-e' of a)oiding -apture or po''i+le deat&2 A! Apply t#e key $%rd survival &IC'T ( )*!*+, &-.T/!+0!+1, "2 Si2e up t#e situati%n3 Missi%n W&at 1a' t&e (i''ion4 Can t&e (i''ion 'till +e a--o(pli'&ed4 Ene y W&at i' t&e ene(3 'ituation4 Tr%%ps and 4ire Supp%rt available Do 3ou &a)e -o((uni-ation' 1it& &ig&er4 I' an3one in5ured4 .o1 1ill t&e3 +e tran'ported4 .o1 1ill 3ou -o((uni-ate 1it& ot&er Marine' in 3our group4 Ar( and .and 'ignal'4 Terrain and 5eat#er Do 3ou &a)e a (ap4 Doe' t&e terrain offer -o)er and -on-eal(ent4 W&ere i' t&e 1ater4 Do 3ou &a)e prote-tion fro( t&e ele(ent'4 I' it ad)antageou' to (o)e in -urrent 1eat&er4 Will 3ou (o)e in da3ti(e or e)ening te(perature'4 .o1 (u-& illu(ination i' a)aila+le at nig&t4 Ti e6 Space6 and L%7istics I' it da3 or nig&t4 Ti(e Di'tan-e 6or(ula W&at *ind of 'upplie' and e7uip(ent are a)aila+le4 82 8ndue #aste akes $aste3 S&ould 3ou 'ta3 or (o)e fro( 3our -urrent po'ition2

E$" Appendi9 E

:Slo1 i' S(oot& / S(oot& i' 6a't; i2e2 I' t&ere a need to run to t&e SA6E or '&ould t&e re7uire(ent' of 'ur)i)al +e i(ple(ented in route4 Se-urit3 i' para(ount $i' it +eing 'a-rifi-ed for 'peed4 e ber $#ere y%u are3 Are 3ou in a non$per(i''i)e en)iron(ent4 W&at i' t&e terrain li*e4 Can 3ou utili,e land na)igation '*ill'4

2 Re

<2 .an9uis# fear and panic3 Are good de-i'ion' +eing (ade4 I' t&e group -o(pletel3 lo't and leaderle''4 'AMCIS !2 I pr%vise and i pr%ve3 Do 3ou &a)e 3our 'ur)i)al *it4 Are litter' a)aila+le or do 3ou &a)e to i(pro)i'e4 Do 3ou &a)e t&e re'our-e' to o+tain food and 1ater4 Will 3our 'upplie' and e7uip(ent prote-t 3ou fro( t&e ele(ent'4 Will 3our 'upplie' and e7uip(ent prote-t 3ou fro( t&e ene(34 =2 .alue livin73 Do 3ou 1ant to la3 on 3our +a-* and put 3our leg' in t&e air li*e a dead -o-*roa-&4 #2 Act like t#e natives3 O+'er)e nati)e &a+it'2 >2 Live by y%ur $its6 but f%r n%$ learn basic skills3 Utili,e -o((on 'en'e and +a'i- Marine Corp' training2 Pra-ti-e '*ill' learned at MWTC2 -ri%r plannin7 prevents p%%r perf%r ance! E'ta+li'& E and R plan, +rief per'onnel of -ontingen-ie'2 B2 Additi%nal Individual Trainin7 Standards? E(plo3 'ignaling de)i-e' &IC'T ( )*!*:, Con'tru-t and (aintain a fire &IC'T ( )*!*0@ W&at i' t&e ta-ti-al 'ituation4 Prepare a 'ur)i)al *it &IC'T )*!*;, &-.T/!+0!+;@ Maintain t&e M"=A8 'er)i-e rifle2 &-.T/!++!+, Prepare indi)idual e7uip(ent for ta-ti-al operation'2 &-.T/!+0!+, Ca(ouflage 'elf and indi)idual e7uip(ent2 &-.T/!+0!<, Tran'port -a'ualtie' u'ing (anual -arrie' and i(pro)i'ed 'tret-&er'2 &-.T/!+<!0, Maintain p&3'i-al fitne''2 &-.T/!)*!+, Perfor( indi)idual (o)e(ent2 &-.T/!+0!), Parti-ipate in a 'e-urit3 patrol2 &-.T/!+:!+,
E$8 Appendi9 E

Ar( and &and 'ignal'2 C&allenge and pa'' A near and far re-ognition2 Rall3 point'2 A-tion' on ene(3 -onta-t Se-urit3 &alt'2 Re-onnai''an-e of o+5e-ti)e'2 ! Point Contingen-3 Plan2 BCOTWA@ Coing B1&ere@ Ot&er' B1&o i' going 1it& 3ou@ Ti(e a1a32 W&at &appen' B3ou and t&e(@ A-tion' ta*en on ene(3 -onta-t B3ou and t&e(@ Rea-t to ene(3 indire-t fire2 &-.T/!+0!:, Rea-t to ene(3 dire-t fire2 &-.T/!)*!+,

C! Additi%nal C%nsiderati%ns3 W&en 'i,ing up t&e 'ituation 3ou 1ill deter(ine 1&et&er t&e Mi''ion or C(drD' Intent -an +e a--o(pli'&ed2 O+)iou'l3, e)er3 effort (u't +e (ade to a--o(pli'& t&e (i''ion2 If it -an not +e a--o(pli'&ed a 'eparate (i''ion order (u't +e e'ta+li'&ed for t&e group2 Bi2e2 At %9%% t&e group 1ill i(ple(ent t&e re7uire(ent' for 'ur)i)al in order to (o)e to t&e SA6E for re-o)er32@ In order to ta-ti-all3 (o)e and o--up3 t&e SA6E, t&e group (u't +e ta'* organi,ed into tea('2 T&e tea(' are a''igned additional ta'*'2 Tea( ta'*' 1ill u'uall3 +e a--o(pli'&ed during o--upation of t&e patrol +a'e2 In addition, indi)idual' 1it&in t&e group are a''igned ta'*'2 +! Tea s3 Se-urit32 All patrol (e(+er' '&ould +e a''igned 'e-tor' of fire to in-lude air 'entr32 Re-onnai''an-e2 A''ault2 B(a3 not +e i(ple(ented@ Support2 B(a3 not +e i(ple(ented@ )! Tea Tasks3 Water pro-ure(ent2 6ood gat&ering2 Wood gat&ering2 B-on'tru-tion (aterial', 'ignal, and fire 1ood2@ S&elter -on'tru-tion2 Pat&guard'2 Signaling :! Individual Tasks3 Point (an2 Na)igator2 Patrol leader and a''i'tant2
E$ Appendi9 E

6lan* Bleft and rig&t@ 'e-urit32 T1o pa-e (en2 Tail end -&arlie2

In a 'ur)i)al 'ituation it i' pro+a+l3 1i'er to o--up3 t&e patrol +a'e t&roug& re-onnai''an-e in'tead of +3 for-e2 Upon initial o--upation t&e a-ron3( SA6E BSe-urit3, Auto(ati- 1eapon', 6ield' of fire, Entren-&(ent@ (u't +e enfor-ed2 T&e patrol +a'e '&ould onl3 +e entered Bor e9ited@ fro( one lo-ation2 Co((uni-ation 1it&in t&e group i' e''ential2 E)er3one (u't +e 1ell infor(ed2 Bi2e2 -urrent plan', alternate patrol +a'e' or rall3 point', &o1 (an3 Marine' &a)e departed t&e patrol +a'e and 1&en are t&e3 e9pe-ted to return, -urrent -&allenge and pa'', and near and far re-ognition 'ignal'2@ No Marine 1ill e9er-i'e t&eir 5udge(ent and lea)e t&e patrol +a'e or perfor( a ta'* 1it&out per(i''ion fro( t&e patrol leader2 T&e patrol +a'e i' not a pla-e for loll3gagging2 It i' a pla-e 1&ere noi'e and lig&t di'-ipline i' enfor-ed and 'e-urit3 i' (aintained -ontinuou'l32 Prioritie' of 1or* 1ill +e e'ta+li'&ed after o--upation2 Bi2e2 1eapon (aintenan-e, &3giene, -&o1, and re't plan'@ Se-urit3 or re-onnai''an-e tea(' -an +e 'ent out to deter(ine ene(3 t&reat or gat&er infor(ation for route 'ele-tion2 T&e'e patrol' -an al'o +e ta'*ed 1it& gat&ering fire1ood or 'o(e ot&er routine ta'*2 .o1e)er, 'e-urit3 (u't +e (aintained 1&ile t&e fire1ood i' +eing -olle-ted2 Sin-e 3ou are pro+a+l3 e)ading t&e ene(3, a-ti)it3 in and around t&e patrol +a'e (u't +e li(ited2 O--upation of t&e patrol +a'e (u't not e9-eed 8< &our'2 Depending on t&e ta-ti-al 'ituation t&e u'e of fire (a3 or (a3 not +e appropriate2 D! C%nclusi%n3 T&e a+o)e infor(ation 'er)er' a' a guideline2 Sur)i)al i' a t&in*ing per'onD' -&allenge +et1een life and deat&2 A' t&e 'ituation -&ange' a Marine (u't adapt, 'i,e up t&e 'ituation, and i(ple(ent a ne1 plan in order to 'ur)i)e2 If 3ou are la-*ing in an3 of t&e Indi)idual Training Standard' it i' 3our re'pon'i+le to ta*e -orre-ti)e a-tion2 Re e ber t#at every Marine is a basic rifle an!

E$< Appendi9 E

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS Mountain Warfare Training Center Bridgeport, California 9 !"#$!%%" WINTER MOUNTAIN SUR&I&A' COURSE

"* T+e ,tudent -u,t ,ati,fa.toril/ a.+ie0e an 1%2 or +ig+er grade on eit+er t+e 3ritten te,t or t+e 3ritten rete,t* 4* T+e ,tudent -u,t ,ati,fa.toril/ -a,ter "% out of t+e "4 perfor-an.e e0aluation ta,5,* * A 6rea.+ of integrit/, .ondu.t un6e.o-ing of a ,tudent or t+e ina6ilit/ to a6ide 6/ Sur0i0al .our,e guideline,, 3ill re,ult in t+e i--ediate di,-i,,al fro- t+e Mountain Sur0i0al Cour,e* 7* All of t+e a6o0e -u,t 6e a..o-pli,+ed prior to ,u..e,,ful graduation fro- t+e Mountain Sur0i0al Cour,e* !* (ailure to a..o-pli,+ an/ one t+e,e 3ill re,ult in a Profi.ien./ Board, 3+i.+ -a/ re,ult in di,-i,,al fro- t+e .our,e* 8* T+ere 3ill 6e no tal5ing to an/ ,tudent during i,olation unle,, an e-ergen./* No ,tudent 3ill .o-e 3it+ in !% -eter, of anot+er ,tudent*




All criteria listed below each task, m st be accom!lished i" order to master those tasks# "* SUR&I&A' 9IT :MS&*4*4; M < NM (ire ,tarting ite-, Water pro.ure-ent ite-, (ood pro.ure-ent ite-, Signaling ite-, (ir,t Aid ite-, S+elter ite-, 4* SUR&I&A' NA&I=ATION :MS&*4*#; M < NM Can find .ardinal dire.tion, Prepare, and -aintain, a log 6oo5 U,e, ,teering -ar5, Appropriate pla.e

($" Appendi> (

* BOW ? DRI'' :MS&*4*" a; M < NM Bo3 Drill So.5et (ire Board E-6er Pat.+ Bird, Ne,t 9indling (uel Wood 7* SUR&I&A' S)E'TERS :MS&*4*7; M < NM Prote.tion fro- t+e ele-ent, )eat retention &entilation Dr/ing fa.ilit/ (ree fro- +a@ard, S+elter ,ta6le !* REAUIREMENTS (OR SUR&I&A' :MS&*4*"; M < NM ",t 47)r,* S+elter (ire Water Signaling 4nd 47)r,* Tool, ? Weapon, Trap, ? Snare, Pat+ guard, 8* IMPRO&ISED SI=NA' DE&ICE :MS&B*4*8; M < NM S-o5e =enerator Appropriate Si@e Tinder 9indling Pla.e-ent Afla-e 3it+in 9% ,e.ond, International S/-6ol S+ado3, Si@e Pla.e-ent Contra,t

($4 Appendi> (

#* TOO'S ? WEAPONS :MS&*4*""; M < NM $owl Wood ,plit Bar5 ,tripped Coal 6urned 7in.+ deep, 7 in.+ dia-eter Doe, not lea5 Sim!le Cl b )ard3ood u,ed Bar5 ,tripped (ire +ardened :if reCuired; Clu6 fun.tional Rounded end, 1* TOO' OR WEAPON :MS&*4*""; M < NM )ard3ood u,ed Bar5 ,tripped (ire +ardened :if reCuired; (un.tional a6le One of t+e t+ree follo3ing 3ill 6e -adeD I.e ,pud, I.e ,5i--er, Sling,+ot 9* (IS) ? =AME :MS&*4*"%; M < NM Dre,, and<or ,5in ga-e Prepared ga-e for .on,u-ption Con,u-ed ga-e )ide fle,+ed, 6rained, and ,-o5ed )ide ,e3n and ,uita6le for intended u,e, "%* TRAPS ? SNARES :MS&*4*9; M < NM E-plo/-ent te.+* appropriate for intended ani-al a* 'o.ation 6* Pre,entation .* Con,tru.tion 'oop ,i@e and ground .learan.e .orre.t Bait u,ed Split ,ti.5 if reCuired ""* EBPIDIENT SNOWS)OE :WS&B; M < NM Properl/ .on,tru.ted Properl/ atta.+ed E>e.ute -o0e-ent te.+* Binding doe, not fail : ti-e,; Sno3,+oe doe, not 6rea5

($ Appendi> (

"4* PAT)=UARD :MS&*4*9; M < NM 'i5el/ a0enue of approa.+ Produ.e, noi,e Con.ealed Appropriate di,tan.e fro- t+e ,+elter

($7 Appendi> (

($! Appendi> (

($8 Appendi> (

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