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laboratory experiment 2

laboratory experiment 2

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Experiment 2

Date performed: November 19, 2013 Date submitted: November 26, 2013

GO31

B. Objectives:

When an electric current flows through a resistive circuit element, some electric power is dissipated. This is of course the case with a-c current as well as with d-c currents. In this experiment we shall examine the power relationships which arise when an a-c current flows through a purely resistive circuit.

C. Theory

The Power formula indicates that P = IV, the only distinction with DC circuits is that here it must be noted whereas this is a Peak value of power (if the current and voltage are Peak values) or if it is an RMS value for power (in the case that both current and voltage are RMS values). How are the RMS and Peak values of power related then? Well, since Irms = Ip/2 and Vrms = Vp/2; and also since Prms = Irms Vrms , then Prms = Ip/2 Vp/2 = (IpVp)/2 = Pp/2. Hence, the answer is that the RMS value of the power in an AC resistive circuit is one half its peak values. This is the only distinction worth noting between power in AC resistive circuits and in DC circuits.

D. Method of Experiment

1. Drawing of Experimental Setup

R1 220 Vs 20 Vrms 0.998kHz 0 R2 470

2. Outline of Procedure a. Connect the circuit shown in the Figure (see figure on the board). b. Using the VOM, adjust the voltage across the network to 20 volts rms.

c. Calibrate the oscilloscope, and measure and record in Data Table 2 the peakto-peak voltage across the network and across each resistor. d. Using a wattmeter, measure and record the total power dissipated by the network as well as the power dissipated by each resistor. Note: Exert caution to ensure the correct connection of the wattmeter before applying power. e. Compute the rms voltage from each oscilloscope reading and record it. f. Compute the rms current in each case, using the rms voltage and the resistance. Record these values. g. Compute the average power in each case using PAV = I2rmsR and record it. h. Using the original oscilloscope readings, compute the instantaneous power in each case. i. Using the wattmeter reading of average power, compute the peak instantaneous power for each case. j. Compute the percent difference between the two average-power values for each case. k. Compute the percent difference between the two values of peak power for each case. 3. Outline of Calculations a. Compute the rms voltage using the formula : VRMS = (

c. Compute the average power using PAV = I2rmsR. d. Compute instantaneous power using P= e. Compute the percent difference of ave. power

( (

) )

( ( ) ) ( )

E. Equipment List

Oscilloscope VOM Variac Wattmeter 470-ohm resistor 220-ohm resistor

F. Data Section

TABLE 2

P-P Volts (scope) Rms Volts (scope) 6.2225 Rms Current (scope) 28.28mA Ave. Power (scope) 175.95mW Ave. Power (wattmeter) 1.9W Peak Power (scope) 358.83m W 722.11m W 1.081W Peak Power (wattmeter) % Diff Ave. Power % Diff Peak Power

17.6 V

3.9W

90.74%

90.93%

37.1V

13.1168

27.91mA

366.12mW

0.8W

2.1W

54.24%

65.61%

54.1 V

19.1273

27.72mA

530.19mW

0.9W

1.8W

41.09%

39.94%

G. Sample Computations

Given: 220 ohm only P-P Volts (scope): 17.6 V

VRMS = (

Average Power:

) (

Peak Power:

( ( ) ( ) )

( ( ) ( ) )

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