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1. 2. 3. 4.

rusting of iron combustion (burning) of wood metabolism of food in the body mixing an acid and a base, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 5. cooking an egg 6. digesting sugar with the amylase in saliva 7. mixing baking soda and vinegar to produce carbon dioxide gas 8. baking a cake 9. electroplating a metal 10. using a chemical battery


1. crushing a can 2. melting an ice cube 3. boiling water 4. mixing sand and water 5. breaking a glass 6. dissolving sugar and water 7. shredding paper 8. chopping wood 9. mixing red and green marbles 10.sublimating dry ice

is the amount of water vapor in the air. Water vapor is the gas phase of water and is invisible.[1] Humidity indicates the likelihood of precipitation, dew, orfog. Higher humidity reduces the effectiveness of sweating in cooling the body by reducing the rate of evaporation of moisture from the skin. This effect is calculated in a heat index table, used during summer weather. There are three main measurements of humidity: absolute, relative and specific. Absolute humidity is the water content of air.[2] Relative humidity, expressed as a percent, measures the current absolute humidity relative to the maximum for that temperature. Specific humidity is a ratio of the water vapor content of the mixture to the total air content on a mass basis.

Matter can also be classified by its chemical composition.

An element is a pure substance made up of atoms with the same number of protons. As of 2011, 118 elements have been observed, 92 of which occur naturally. Carbon (C), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H) are examples of elements. The periodic table is a tabular representation of the known elements.

A compound consists of two or more chemical elements that are chemically bonded together. Water (H2O) and table sugar (C12H22O11) are examples of chemical compounds. The ratio of the elements in a compound is always the same. For example in water, the number of H atoms is always twice the number of O atoms.

A mixture consists of two or more substances (element or compound) mixed together without any chemical bond. Salad is a good example. A mixture can be separated into its individual components by mechanical means.

Types of Mixtures
There are many kinds of mixtures. They are classified by the behavior of the phases, or substances that have been mixed.

Homogeneous Mixtures
A homogeneous mixture is uniform, which means that any given sample of the mixture will have the same composition. Air, sea water, and carbonation dissolved in soda are all examples of homogeneous mixtures, or solutions. No matter what sample you take from the mixture, it will always be composed of the same combination of phases. Chocolate chip ice cream is not homogeneousone spoonful taken might have two chips, and then another spoonful might have several chips. An example for a homogeneous mixture is a solution. The substance that gets dissolved is the solute. The substance that does the dissolving is the solvent. Together they make a solution. If you stir a spoonful of salt into a glass of water, salt is the solute that gets dissolved. Water is the solvent. The salty water is now a solution, or homogeneous mixture, of salt and water. When different gases are mixed, they always form a solution. The gas molecules quickly spread out into a uniform composition.

Heterogeneous Mixtures
A heterogeneous mixture is not uniform. Different samples may have different compositions, like the example of chocolate chip ice cream. Concrete, soil, blood, and salad are all examples of heterogeneous mixtures.

When sand gets kicked up in a pond, it clouds the water. Soon the sand settles down, and is no longer mixed into the water. This is an example of a suspension. Suspensions are heterogeneous mixtures that will eventually settle. They are usually, but not necessarily, composed of phases in different states of matter. Italian salad dressing has three phases: the water, the oil, and the small pieces of seasoning. The seasonings are solids that will sink to the bottom, and the oil and water are liquids that will separate.

What exactly is toothpaste? We can't exactly classify it by its state of matter. It has a definite shape and volume, like a solid. But then you squeeze the tube, and it flows almost like a liquid. And then there's jelly, shaving cream, smoke, dough, and Silly Putty... These are examples of colloids. A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture of two substances of different phases. Shaving cream and other foams are gas dispersed in liquid. Jello, toothpaste, and other gels are liquid dispersed in solid. Dough is a solid dispersed in a liquid. Smoke is a solid dispersed in a gas. Colloids consist of two phases: a dispersed phase inside of a continuous medium.

The Tyndall Effect

The Tyndall effect distinguishes colloids from solutions. In a solution, the particles are so fine that they will not scatter light. This is not true for a colloid. If you shine light through a solution, the beam of light will not be visible. It will be visible in a colloid. For instance, if you have ever played with a laser pointer, you have seen the Tyndall effect. You cannot see the laser beam in air (a solution), but if you shine it into a mist (a colloid, or suspension, actually), the beam is visible. Clouds look white (or gray), as opposed to blue, because of the Tyndall effect - the light is scattered by the small droplets of suspended water.

Methods for Separating Mixtures[

Filtration is one way to separate a mixture Because there is no chemical bonding in a mixture, the phases can be separated by mechanical means. In a heterogeneous mixture like a salad, the pieces can easily be picked out and separated. It is as simple as sifting through the salad

and picking out all the tomatoes and radishes, for example. However, many mixtures contain particles that are too small, liquids, or too many particles to be separated manually. We must use more sophisticated methods to separate the mixture.

Imagine you have a sandbox, but there are bits of broken glass in it. All you would need is some sort of filter. The sand particles are much smaller than the glass chips, so a mesh filter would let sand pass but stop the glass. Filtration is used in all sorts of purification methods. Some filters, like dialysis tubing, are such fine filters that water can pass, but dissolved glucose cannot.

A distillation apparatus has a boiling flask, a place to cool the vapor down, and a collecting flask.If you were given a glass of saltwater, could you drink it? Sure, if you distill it first. Distillation is the boiling of a mixture to separate its phases. Salt is a solid at room temperature, and water is a liquid. Water will boil far before salt even begins to melt. So separating the two is as simple as boiling the water until all that remains is the solid salt. If desired, the water vapor can be collected, condensed, and used as a source of pure water. Distillation can also be used if two liquids are mixed but have different boiling points. Separation of several liquids with similar boiling points can be achieved using fractionation.

Centrifugation and Sedimentation

Sedimentation is used to purify waste water, by letting it settle and removing the settled material (sludge, in this case).These processes rely on differences in density. In a medical lab, blood often goes into a centrifuge. A centrifuge is a machine that spins a sample at fairly high rates of speed. Red blood cells are much denser than the watery substance (called plasma, but it's not the plasma state of matter) that makes up blood. As a result of the spinning, the denser phases move outward and the less dense phases move inward, towards the axis of rotation. Then, the red blood cells can be separated from the plasma. Sedimentation is similar, but it happens when particles of different densities have settled within a liquid. If a jar of muddy water is left to settle, the heaviest particles sink to the bottom first. The lightest particles sink last and form a layer on top the heavier particles. You may have seen this effect in a bottle of salad dressing. The seasonings sink to the bottom, the water forms a lower layer, and the oil forms an upper layer. The separate phases can be skimmed out. To return it to a mixture, simply shake it up to disturb the layers.

Unique Properties
Chromatography separates things dissolved in liquid.The differences in substances' properties can be exploited to allow separation. Consider these examples:

A mixture of sand and iron filings can be separated by magnet. Salt and sand can be separated by solution (sand will not dissolve in water, salt will) Helium can be separated from a mixture with hydrogen by combustion (this is a very dangerous operation, since hydrogen in the presence of oxygen is highly explosive). Hydrogen is flammable, but helium is not.

PURE SUBSTANCES have constant composition and can only be separated by chemical reactions Elements and compounds are pure substances. ELEMENTS - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or physical means COMPOUNDS substance with constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes Pure substances get broken down in the process of chemical changes. Chemical changes involve a change in color, change in temperature, change in odor, or a gas is given off. Homogeneous and heterogeneous: it's a matter of phases

Homogeneous matter (from the Greek homo = same) can be thought of as being uniform and continuous, whereas heterogeneous matter (hetero = different) implies nonuniformity and discontinuity. To take this further, we first need to define "uniformity" in a more precise way, and this takes us to the concept of phases. A phase is a region of matter that possesses uniform intensive properties throughout its volume. A volume of water, a chunk of ice, a grain of sand, a piece of copper each of these constitutes a single phase, and by the above definition, is said to be homogeneous.

A sample of matter can contain more than a single phase; a cool drink with ice floating in it consists of at least two phases, the liquid and the ice. If it is a carbonated beverage, you can probably see gas bubbles in it that make up a third phase.
Phase boundaries

Each phase in a multiphase system is separated from its neighbors by a phase boundary, a thin region in which the intensive properties change discontinuously. Have you ever wondered why you can easily see the ice floating in a glass of water although both the water and the ice are transparent? The answer is that when light crosses a phase boundary, its direction of travel is slightly bent, and a portion of the light gets reflected back; it is these reflected and distorted light rays emerging from that reveal the chunks of ice floating in the liquid. If, instead of visible chunks of material, the second phase is broken into tiny particles, the light rays usually bounce off the surfaces of many of these particles in random directions before they emerge from the medium and are detected by the eye. This phenomenon, known as scattering, gives multiphase systems of this kind a cloudy appearance, rendering them translucent instead of transparent. Two very common examples are ordinary fog, in which water droplets are suspended in the air, and milk, which consists of butterfat globules suspended in an aqueous solution. Getting back to our classification, we can say that

Homogeneous matter consists of a single phase throughout its volume; heterogeneous matter contains two or more phases.