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Page 1 of 13

CHAPTER

1
Basics of Geometry
APPLICATION HIGHLIGHTS

CHAPTER STUDY GUIDE

2 3 10 17

Airport Runways 1, 32 Bacteria Growth 8 Two-Point Perspective 15 Long-Distance Rates 23 Playing Darts 31 Kite Design 37 Strike Zone 40 Paper Airplanes 41 Bridges 49 Millennium Dome 56

1.1 Patterns and Inductive Reasoning 1.2 Points, Lines, and Planes 1.3 Segments and Their Measures
QUIZ 1, 25

1.4 Angles and Their Measures 1.5 Segment and Angle Bisectors CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Folding Bisectors, 33
QUIZ 2, 42

26 34

MATH & HISTORY

Geometric Constructions 25

INTERNET CONNECTIONS

1.6 Angle Pair Relationships TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Angles and Intersecting Lines, 43 1.7 Introduction to Perimeter, Circumference, and Area
QUIZ 3, 58

44

www.mcdougallittell.com Application Links 1, 25, 49, 56 Student Help 7, 12, 22, 28, 39, 40, 41, 45, 56 Career Links 8, 30 Extra Challenge 9, 16, 24, 32, 41

51

ASSESSMENT

R EADING, W RITING, AND


N OTETAKING Reading 2, 10, 11, 17, 18, 19, 26, 27, 28, 34, 36, 44, 46 Writing 41, 50 Notetaking 2, 1720, 27, 35, 51, 53, 59 Vocabulary 2, 6, 13, 21, 29, 38, 47, 55, 60

Skill Review, 2 Quizzes, 25, 42, 58 Test Preparation Questions, 9, 16, 24, 31, 41, 50, 57 Chapter Summary, Review, and Test, 59 Chapter Standardized Test, 64 Project, Chapter 1, 66

vi

Contents

Page 2 of 13

CHAPTER

2
Reasoning and Proof
APPLICATION HIGHLIGHTS

CHAPTER STUDY GUIDE

70 71 79 87

Robotics 69, 93 Advertising 77 Research Buggy 77 Winds at Sea 84 Zoology 90 Fitness 97 Auto Racing 98 Wind-Chill Factor 99 Pay Raises 100 Optical Illusion 106 Wall Trim 115

2.1 Conditional Statements 2.2 Definitions and Biconditional Statements 2.3 Deductive Reasoning CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Logic Puzzle, 86
QUIZ 1, 95

2.4 Reasoning with Properties from Algebra 2.5 Proving Statements about Segments 2.6 Proving Statements about Angles CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Investigating Complementary Angles, 108
QUIZ 2, 116

96 102 109

MATH & HISTORY

Recreational Logic Puzzles 95

INTERNET CONNECTIONS

www.mcdougallittell.com Application Links 69, 84, 95 Student Help 72, 76, 88, 93, 97, 114 Career Links 77, 90, 106 Extra Challenge 78, 85, 94, 101, 107

ASSESSMENT

R EADING, W RITING, AND


N OTETAKING Reading 71, 72, 74, 79, 80, 87, 88, 103 Writing 76, 77, 84, 91, 93, 94, 101, 115 Notetaking 70, 73, 96, 98, 102, 109112, 117 Vocabulary 70, 75, 82, 91, 99, 104, 112, 118

Skill Review, 70 Quizzes, 95, 116 Test Preparation Questions, 78, 85, 94, 101, 107, 115 Chapter Summary, Review, and Test, 117 Chapter Standardized Test, 122 Algebra Review, 124

Contents

vii

Page 3 of 13

CHAPTER

3
Perpendicular and Parallel Lines
APPLICATION HIGHLIGHTS

CHAPTER STUDY GUIDE

128 129 136

Sailing 127, 152 Escalators 133 Circuit Boards 140 Botany 144 Earths Circumference 145 Rainbows 148 Snow Making 156 Zip Line 170 Ray Tracing 174 Needlepoint 176 Sculpture 177

3.1 Lines and Angles 3.2 Proof and Perpendicular Lines CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Forming a Flow Proof, 135 3.3 Parallel Lines and Transversals TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Parallel Lines and Angles, 142
QUIZ 1, 149

143

3.4 Proving Lines are Parallel


MATH & HISTORY

150 157

3.5 Using Properties of Parallel Lines


QUIZ 2, 164

Measuring Earths Circumference 164

3.6 Parallel Lines in the Coordinate Plane


INTERNET CONNECTIONS

165 172

3.7 Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane


QUIZ 3, 178

www.mcdougallittell.com Application Links 127, 145, 154, 163, 164 Student Help 131, 140, 147, 152, 161, 167, 176 Career Links 144, 170, 174 Extra Challenge 134, 141, 148, 156, 177

ASSESSMENT

R EADING, W RITING, AND


N OTETAKING Reading 128, 129, 131, 165, 167, 174 Writing 134, 148, 155, 160, 163, 177, 178 Notetaking 128, 130, 137138, 143, 150, 157, 166, 172, 179 Vocabulary 128, 132, 138, 146, 153, 168, 175, 180

Skill Review, 128 Quizzes, 149, 164, 178 Test Preparation Questions, 134, 141, 148,156, 163, 171, 177 Chapter Summary, Review, and Test, 179 Chapter Standardized Test, 184 Cumulative Practice, Chapters 13, 186 Project, Chapters 2 and 3, 188

viii

Contents

Page 4 of 13

CHAPTER

4
Congruent Triangles
APPLICATION HIGHLIGHTS

CHAPTER STUDY GUIDE

192 194

Bridges 191, 234 Weaving 195 Wing Deflectors 200 Stamps 204 Crop Circles 207 Origami 208 Structural Support 215 Astronomy 222 Orienteering 225 Color Wheel 241

4.1 Triangles and Angles CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Investigating Angles of Triangles, 193 4.2 Congruence and Triangles
QUIZ 1, 210

202

4.3 Proving Triangles are Congruent: SSS and SAS CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Investigating Congruent Triangles, 211 4.4 Proving Triangles are Congruent: ASA and AAS
QUIZ 2, 227 TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Investigating Triangles and Congruence, 228

212

220

MATH & HISTORY

Triangles in Architecture 210

4.5 Using Congruent Triangles


INTERNET CONNECTIONS

229 236 243

4.6 Isosceles, Equilateral, and Right Triangles 4.7 Triangles and Coordinate Proof
QUIZ 3, 250

www.mcdougallittell.com Application Links 191, 210, 241 Student Help 199, 203, 217, 230, 237, 243, 245 Career Links 200, 234 Extra Challenge 201, 209, 219, 226, 235, 242, 249

ASSESSMENT

R EADING, W RITING, AND


N OTETAKING Reading 192, 195, 196, 202, 229, 236 Writing 209, 218, 226, 250 Notetaking 192, 194197, 203, 205, 212213, 220, 236238, 251 Vocabulary 192, 198, 205, 216, 223, 239, 246, 252

Skill Review, 192 Quizzes, 210, 227, 250 Test Preparation Questions, 201, 209, 219, 226, 235, 242, 249 Chapter Summary, Review, and Test, 251 Chapter Standardized Test, 256 Algebra Review, 258

Contents

ix

Page 5 of 13

CHAPTER

5
Properties of Triangles
APPLICATION HIGHLIGHTS

CHAPTER STUDY GUIDE

262 264

Goalkeeping 261, 270 Roof Truss 267 Early Aircraft 269 Mushroom Rings 277 Center of Population 280 Electrocardiograph 283 Fractals 291 Surveying Land 298 Kitchen Triangle 299 Hiking 308

5.1 Perpendiculars and Bisectors CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Investigating Perpendicular Bisectors, 263 5.2 Bisectors of a Triangle 5.3 Medians and Altitudes of a Triangle
QUIZ 1, 285 TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Investigating Concurrent Lines, 286

272 279

MATH & HISTORY

5.4 Midsegment Theorem 5.5 Inequalities in One Triangle TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Side Lengths and Angle Measures, 294 5.6 Indirect Proof and Inequalities in Two Triangles
QUIZ 2, 308

287 295

Optimization 285

INTERNET CONNECTIONS

302

www.mcdougallittell.com Application Links 261, 291 Student Help 273, 280, 291, 300, 306 Career Links 267, 283, 304 Extra Challenge 271, 278, 284, 293, 301, 307

ASSESSMENT

R EADING, W RITING, AND


N OTETAKING Reading 262, 264, 266, 272, 274, 279, 287, 303 Writing 271, 277, 284, 292, 307 Notetaking 262, 265266, 273274, 279, 281, 288, 295297, 302303, 309 Vocabulary 262, 267, 275, 282, 290, 298, 305, 310

Skill Review, 262 Quizzes, 285, 308 Test Preparation Questions, 271, 278, 284,292, 301, 307 Chapter Summary, Review, and Test, 309 Chapter Standardized Test, 314 Project, Chapters 4 and 5, 316

Contents

Page 6 of 13

CHAPTER

6
Quadrilaterals
APPLICATION HIGHLIGHTS

CHAPTER STUDY GUIDE

320 322

Scissors Lift 319, 336 Traffic Signs 326 Plant Shapes 327 Furniture Design 333 Hinged Box 339 Changing Gears 343 Carpentry 350 Layer Cake 361 Gem Cutting 369 Energy Conservation 377
MATH & HISTORY

6.1 Polygons CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Classifying Shapes, 321 6.2 Properties of Parallelograms TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Investigating Parallelograms, 329 6.3 Proving Quadrilaterals are Parallelograms
QUIZ 1, 346

330

338

6.4 Rhombuses, Rectangles, and Squares 6.5 Trapezoids and Kites


QUIZ 2, 363

347 356

History of Finding Area 346


INTERNET CONNECTIONS

6.6 Special Quadrilaterals 6.7 Areas of Triangles and Quadrilaterals CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Areas of Quadrilaterals, 371
QUIZ 3, 380

364 372

www.mcdougallittell.com Application Links 319, 346, 377 Student Help 335, 341, 344, 349, 357, 369 Career Links 333, 361, 369 Extra Challenge 328, 337, 345, 355, 362, 379

ASSESSMENT

R EADING, W RITING, AND


N OTETAKING Reading 320, 322, 323, 324, 330, 347, 356, 364, 372 Writing 328, 335337, 355, 370, 379 Notetaking 320, 324, 330, 338, 340, 348349, 356358, 365, 372, 374, 381 Vocabulary 320, 325, 333, 351, 359, 376, 382

Skill Review, 320 Quizzes, 346, 363, 380 Test Preparation Questions, 328, 337, 345, 355, 362, 370, 379 Chapter Summary, Review, and Test, 381 Chapter Standardized Test, 386 Cumulative Practice, Chapters 16, 388 Algebra Review, 390

Contents

xi

Page 7 of 13

CHAPTER

7
Transformations
APPLICATION HIGHLIGHTS

CHAPTER STUDY GUIDE

394 396

Architecture 393, 435 Construction 398 Machine Embroidery 401 Kaleidoscopes 406 Logo Design 415 Wheel Hubs 418 Pentominoes 432 Stenciling 435 Pet Collars 441 Celtic Knots 443

7.1 Rigid Motion in a Plane CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Motion in a Plane, 395 7.2 Reflections CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Reflections in the Plane, 403 7.3 Rotations TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Investigating Double Reflections, 411
QUIZ 1, 420

404

412

MATH & HISTORY

7.4 Translations and Vectors 7.5 Glide Reflections and Compositions CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Multiple Transformations, 429 7.6 Frieze Patterns
QUIZ 2, 444

421 430

History of Decorative Patterns 420

INTERNET CONNECTIONS

437

www.mcdougallittell.com Application Links 393, 406, 418, 420 Student Help 400, 408, 414, 424, 426, 434, 443 Career Links 409, 415, 435 Extra Challenge 402, 410, 419, 428, 436

ASSESSMENT

R EADING, W RITING, AND


N OTETAKING Reading 394, 396, 397, 404, 405, 412, 415, 421, 423, 430, 438 Writing 401, 419, 434, 442443 Notetaking 394, 404, 412, 414, 421, 431, 438, 445 Vocabulary 394, 399, 407, 416, 425, 433, 440, 446

Skill Review, 394 Quizzes, 420, 444 Test Preparation Questions, 402, 410, 419, 428, 436, 443 Chapter Summary, Review, and Test, 445 Chapter Standardized Test, 450 Project, Chapters 6 and 7, 452

xii

Contents

Page 8 of 13

CHAPTER

8
Similarity
APPLICATION HIGHLIGHTS

CHAPTER STUDY GUIDE

456 457 465 473

Scale Drawing 455, 490 Baseball Sculpture 463 Paper Sizes 466 Model Building 467 Ramp Design 470 Television Screens 477 Aerial Photography 482 Human Vision 487 Pantograph 490 Indirect Distances 494 Shadow Puppets 508

8.1 Ratio and Proportion 8.2 Problem Solving in Geometry with Proportions 8.3 Similar Polygons CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Making Conjectures about Similarity, 472
QUIZ 1, 479

8.4 Similar Triangles 8.5 Proving Triangles are Similar


QUIZ 2, 496

480 488

MATH & HISTORY

Golden Rectangle 496

INTERNET CONNECTIONS

8.6 Proportions and Similar Triangles TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Investigating Proportional Segments, 497 8.7 Dilations
QUIZ 3, 513 TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Exploring Dilations, 514

498

www.mcdougallittell.com Application Links 455, 462, 469, 496 Student Help 463, 466, 477, 482, 485, 491, 504, 511 Career Links 482, 503, 512 Extra Challenge 471, 478, 487, 495

506

ASSESSMENT

R EADING, W RITING, AND


N OTETAKING Reading 456, 457, 459, 473, 506 Writing 470, 505, 512 Notetaking 456, 459, 465, 475, 481, 488, 498499, 515 Vocabulary 456, 461, 468, 475, 483, 492, 502, 509, 516

Skill Review, 456 Quizzes, 479, 496, 513 Test Preparation Questions, 464, 471, 478,487, 495, 505, 512 Chapter Summary, Review, and Test, 515 Chapter Standardized Test, 520 Algebra Review, 522

Contents

xiii

Page 9 of 13

CHAPTER

9
Right Triangles and Trigonometry
APPLICATION HIGHLIGHTS

CHAPTER STUDY GUIDE

526 527 535 543

Support Beam 525, 537 Monorail 530 Rock Climbing 532 Construction 545 Moon Craters 564 Parade Balloon 565 Space Shuttle 569 Tug of War 577 Skydiving 578 Bumper Cars 579
MATH & HISTORY

9.1 Similar Right Triangles 9.2 The Pythagorean Theorem 9.3 The Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Investigating Sides and Angles of Triangles, 542
QUIZ 1,

549
551

9.4 Special Right Triangles CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Investigating Special Right Triangles, 550 9.5 Trigonometric Ratios
QUIZ 2, 566

Pythagorean Theorem Proofs 557


INTERNET CONNECTIONS

558

9.6 Solving Right Triangles 9.7 Vectors


QUIZ 3, 580

567 573

www.mcdougallittell.com Application Links 525, 557 Student Help 532, 540, 547, 552, 559, 569 Career Links 540, 561, 569 Extra Challenge 534, 541, 548, 556, 565, 572, 579

ASSESSMENT

R EADING, W RITING, AND


N OTETAKING Reading 530, 558, 568, 573, 575 Writing 534, 541, 564, 571572, 579 Notetaking 526, 527, 529, 535, 543544, 551, 558, 575, 581 Vocabulary 526, 531, 538, 545, 554, 562, 570, 576, 582

Skill Review, 526 Quizzes, 549, 566, 580 Test Preparation Questions, 534, 541, 548, 556, 565, 572, 579 Chapter Summary, Review, and Test, 581 Chapter Standardized Test, 586 Cumulative Practice, Chapters 19, 588 Project, Chapters 8 and 9, 590

xiv

Contents

Page 10 of 13

CHAPTER

10
Circles
APPLICATION HIGHLIGHTS

CHAPTER STUDY GUIDE

594 595 603 613

Fireworks 593, 625 Pick Ax 606 Time Zone Wheel 609 Avalanche Rescue Beacon 609 Theater Design 614 Carpenters Square 619 Aquarium Tank 631 Global Positioning System 634 Cellular Phones 639 Earthquake Epicenter 644

10.1 Tangents to Circles 10.2 Arcs and Chords 10.3 Inscribed Angles CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Investigating Inscribed Angles, 612
QUIZ 1, 620

10.4 Other Angle Relationships in Circles 10.5 Segment Lengths in Circles TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Investigating Segment Lengths, 628
QUIZ 2, 635

621 629

MATH & HISTORY

History of Timekeeping 648

10.6 Equations of Circles


INTERNET CONNECTIONS

636 642

www.mcdougallittell.com Application Links 593, 625, 631, 634, 639, 648 Student Help 596, 610, 622, 633 Career Links 609, 644 Extra Challenge 602, 611, 619, 627, 634, 640

10.7 Locus TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Investigating Points Equidistant


from a Point and a Line, 641 QUIZ 3, 648

ASSESSMENT

R EADING, W RITING, AND


N OTETAKING Reading 595, 596, 603, 622, 630, 636, 644 Writing 602, 611, 634 Notetaking 594, 597598, 604606, 613615, 621622, 629630, 642, 649 Vocabulary 594, 599, 607, 616, 632, 638, 645, 650

Skill Review, 594 Quizzes, 620, 635, 648 Test Preparation Questions, 602, 611, 619, 627, 634, 640, 647 Chapter Summary, Review, and Test, 649 Chapter Standardized Test, 654 Algebra Review, 656

Contents

xv

Page 11 of 13

CHAPTER

11
Area of Polygons and Circles
APPLICATION HIGHLIGHTS

CHAPTER STUDY GUIDE

660 661 669 677

Basaltic Columns 659, 673 Foucault Pendulums 671 Tiling 674 Fort Jefferson 680 Track 685 Boomerangs 694 Viking Longships 697 Ship Salvage 703 Archery Target 703 Balloon Race 704

11.1 Angle Measures in Polygons 11.2 Areas of Regular Polygons 11.3 Perimeters and Areas of Similar Figures CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Area Relationships in Similar Figures, 676
QUIZ 1, 682

MATH & HISTORY

11.4 Circumference and Arc Length TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Perimeters of Regular Polygons, 690 11.5 Areas of Circles and Sectors 11.6 Geometric Probability
QUIZ 2, 705 TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Investigating Experimental Probability, 706

683

Approximating Pi 682

691 699

INTERNET CONNECTIONS

www.mcdougallittell.com Application Links 659, 671, 678, 682, 697 Student Help 662, 674, 680, 684, 692, 700 Career Links 674, 703 Extra Challenge 675, 681, 689, 698, 704

ASSESSMENT

R EADING, W RITING, AND


N OTETAKING Reading 661, 663, 669, 670, 677, 683, 684, 691, 692 Writing 666, 673, 681, 697, 704 Notetaking 660, 662663, 669670, 677, 683, 691692, 699, 707 Vocabulary 660, 665, 672, 679, 686, 695, 701, 708

Skill Review, 660 Quizzes, 682, 705 Test Preparation Questions, 668, 675, 681, 689, 698, 704 Chapter Summary, Review, and Test, 707 Chapter Standardized Test, 712 Project, Chapters 10 and 11, 714

xvi

Contents

Page 12 of 13

CHAPTER

12
Surface Area and Volume
APPLICATION HIGHLIGHTS

CHAPTER STUDY GUIDE

718 719 728

Spherical Buildings 717, 764 Soccer Ball 722 Wax Cylinder Records 733 Pyramids 740 Candles 748 Nautical Prism 754 Automatic Pet Feeder 756 Baseball 760 Ball Bearings 761 Model Car 770

12.1 Exploring Solids 12.2 Surface Area of Prisms and Cylinders CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Investigating Surface Area, 727 12.3 Surface Area of Pyramids and Cones
QUIZ 1, 742

735

12.4 Volume of Prisms and Cylinders TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY: Minimizing Surface Area, 750 12.5 Volume of Pyramids and Cones CONCEPT ACTIVITY: Investigating Volume, 751
QUIZ 2, 758

743

MATH & HISTORY

752

History of Containers 742

INTERNET CONNECTIONS

12.6 Surface Area and Volume of Spheres 12.7 Similar Solids


QUIZ 3, 772

759 766

www.mcdougallittell.com Application Links 717, 722, 742, 763 Student Help 725, 730, 739, 747, 756, 760, 764 Career Links 725, 757, 768 Extra Challenge 726, 734, 741, 749, 765, 771

ASSESSMENT

R EADING, W RITING, AND


N OTETAKING Reading 719, 720, 721, 728, 730, 735, 737, 753, 759, 760, 766 Writing 734, 757 Notetaking 718, 721, 729730, 736737, 743744, 752, 759, 761, 767, 773 Vocabulary 718, 723, 731, 738, 746, 755, 762, 769, 774

Skill Review, 718 Quizzes, 742, 758, 772 Test Preparation Questions, 726, 734, 741, 749, 757, 765, 771 Chapter Summary, Review, and Test, 773 Chapter Standardized Test, 778 Cumulative Practice, Chapters 112, 780

Contents

xvii

Page 13 of 13

xviii

Student Resources
SKILLS REVIEW HANDBOOK EXTRA PRACTICE FOR CHAPTERS 112 POSTULATES AND THEOREMS ADDITIONAL PROOFS SYMBOLS, FORMULAS, AND TABLES MIXED PROBLEM SOLVING APPENDICES GLOSSARY ENGLISH-TO-SPANISH GLOSSARY INDEX SELECTED ANSWERS
783

803

827

833

841

846

858

876

888

901

SA1

Contents