Notes of Lecture Course in

Adaptive Control
for the 4th Class of Control Engineering in the Control and Systems Engineering Department at the University of Technology CCE-CN445

Prepared By: Dr. Mohammed Y. Hassan, Ph. D.

Adaptive Control Syllabus Fourth Year-Control Eng. Practical aspects and Implementation: 7. Introduction and General Aspects: • • • What is Adaptive Control? (4 Hrs) Relationship between Non-Adaptive. Relation to other topics: • Expert Systems. 2. Performance objectives and design constraints for the control engineers. Types of Adaptive Control strategies: • Gain Scheduling Regulators • Self-Tuning Regulators. Model Reference Adaptive Control: 6. 3. Gain Scheduling Regulator: 4. CCE-CN445 Theoretical: 3 Hr. • Genetic Auto-Tuners. • Model Reference Adaptive Control. robust and Adaptive Control. • Neuro Controller. (2 Hrs) (2 Hrs) (8 Hrs) (6 Hrs) (2 Hrs) (6 Hrs) Total: 30 Hrs 2 . Self Tuning Regulator: • Pole-Assignment by output Feedback. 5. • Fuzzy Controller./ Week (Semester) 1.

Adaptive Control References: 1. ÅstrÖm and B. “Adaptive Control” By: K. “Self Tuning Systems” By: P. B. Zarrop. Wittenmark. J. Wellstead and M. 3 . E. 2.

Adaptive Control ADAPTIVE CONTROL 1-Introduction 1. Adaptive system: Is any physical system that has been designed with an adaptive view point. which could work well over a wide range of operating conditions was therefore needed. 1.1-Definitions: Adaptive controller: Is a controller that can modify its behavior in response to changes in the dynamics of the process and the disturbances. there was extensive research on adaptive control. but that changed operating conditions led to difficulties. It was found that ordinary constant-gain. Such aircraft operate over a wide range of speeds and altitudes. linear feedback control could work well in one operating condition. There were also important results in stochastic control theory. Dynamic programming introduced by Bellman. increased the understanding of 4 . In the 1960s many contributions to control theory were important for the development of adaptive control.2 Historical background: In the early 1950. in connection with the design of autopilots for high performance aircraft. State space and stability theory were introduced. A more sophisticated regulator.

some of which are illustrated in figure bellow: 5 .Adaptive Control adaptive processes. process control. There were also major developments in system identification and in parameter estimation. The reason for this is that virtually all adaptive systems are implemented using digital computers. However. robotics and other industrial control systems. who showed that many schemes for learning and adaptive control could be described in a common framework as recursive equations of a special type. In the late 1970s and early 1980s correct proofs for stability of adaptive systems appeared. adaptive control has links in many directions. A great number of industrial control loops are under adaptive control. Vigorous development of the field is now taking place. To works with adaptive control one must have a background in conventional feedback control and also sampled data systems. Several commercial adaptive regulators based on different ideas are appearing on the market. Rapid and revolutionary progress in microelectronics has made it possible to implement adaptive regulators simply and cheaply. ship steering. Fundamental contributions were also made by Tsypkin. both on universities and industry. These include a wide range of applications in aerospace.

6 .3 Adaptation and tuning: It is customary to separate the tuning and adaptation problems.Adaptive Control Fig. 1. There are strong ties to nonlinear system theory. In the tuning problem it is assumed that the process to be controlled has constant but unknown parameters. Links with adaptive control. because adaptive systems are inherently nonlinear. in the adaptation problem it is assumed that the parameters are changing.

it is possible to re- parameterize the process model such that it is possible to use either a direct or indirect controller. we use the term indirect algorithms. direct and indirect. 7 . If the controller parameters are obtained indirectly via a design procedure. However. the adaptive controllers can be divided into two algorithms. since the process parameters have been estimated. 1.Adaptive Control Many issues are much easier to handle in the tuning problem. In direct algorithms. Sometimes. because true values are changing. The convergence problem is to investigate where the parameters converge to their true values.4 Direct and Indirect adaptive controllers: In general. the parameters are updated directly. Direct updating of the regulator parameters has been called implicit self tuning control. The corresponding problem is much more difficult in the adaptive case. the indirect methods have sometimes been called explicit selftuning control.

If there are bounds on the uncertainties of the process parameters.Engineering efficiency. Through feedback it is possible to decrease the sensitivity to parameter variations by increasing the loop gain of the system. The main drawbacks of high-gain controllers are the magnitude of the control signal and the problem of stability of the closed loop system.Adaptive schemes: There are three main adaptive schemes: a-Gain scheduling. and nonsatisfactory disturbances acting on the process. The key factors are: a-Variations in process dynamics. However. b-Self-tuning regulator (STR). To use this approach. 8 . b. it is possible to design robust controllers by increasing the complexity of the controller. Parameters may vary due to nonlinear actuators.Adaptive Control 2-Why adaptive control: There are many reasons for adaptive control. the most common regulators is a feedback controller with fixed parameters. c-Model-reference adaptive control (MRAC). 3.Variations in the character of the disturbances. changes in the operating conditions of the process. c. it is necessary to know the structure of the process fairly accurately and to have bounds on the variations of the parameters.

Gain scheduling was used in special cases: such as autopilots for highperformance air-craft. It has a linear regulator whose parameters are changed as a function of operating conditions in a programmed way. This idea is called gain scheduling. It is then to reduce the effects of parameter variations simply by changing the parameters of the regulator as functions of auxiliary variables as shown in figure below: 9 . It is a nonlinear feedback controller of a special type.Adaptive Control a-Gain scheduling: In many situations it is known how the dynamics of a process change with the operating conditions of the process. The principle: It is sometimes possible to find auxiliary variable that correlate well with the changes in process dynamics. Its principle is to reduce the effects of parameter variations by changing the parameters of the regulator as function of auxiliary variables that correlate well with these changes in process dynamics. One source for the change in dynamics may be nonlinearities that are known. It is then possible to change the parameters of the controller by monitoring the operating conditions of the process.

When the process is known. it is assumed that the regulator parameters are adjusted all the time.Adaptive Control Design of Gain Scheduling regulators: It is difficult to give general rules for designing gain scheduling regulators. The Self.Tuning Regulator (STR) is based on the idea of separating the estimation of unknown parameters from the design of the controller. The basic idea is illustrated in figure bellow: 10 . Nonlinear transformation. since it automatically tunes the controller to the desired performance. a. Time scaling based on production rate. This implies that the regulator parameters follow changes in process. A regulator with this property is called Self-Tuning. It is difficult to analyze the convergence and stability properties of such systems.Self-Tuning regulator: Basic idea: In an adaptive system. To simplify the problem it can assume that the process has constant but unknown parameters. The following general ideas can be useful: 1) 2) 3) 4) Linearization of nonlinear actuators. The key question is to determine the variables that can be used as scheduling variables. The adaptive controller should converge to these parameter values even when the process is known. It is clear that these auxiliary signals must reflect the operating conditions of the plant. the design procedure specifies a set of desired controller parameters. Gain scheduling based on measurements of auxiliary variables.

3.Adaptive Control Fig. three forms of controls can be used: 1. This is called the underlying design problem. Linear quadratic (LQ). Model following.Minimum variance control. In order to form a Self tuning or adaptive control system. The design method is chosen depending on the specifications of the closed loop systems. the design block represents an on-line solution to the design problem for a system with unknown parameters. 2. Block Diagram of Self Tuning Regulator (STR) In the block diagram. Examples of the design methods can be used are: a) b) c) d) Minimum variance. 11 . Different combinations of estimation methods lead to regulators with different properties.Pole placement (assignment) control.Multistage predictive control. Pole placement.

.. Now.. if the desired closed loop pole set is defined by the roots of: T = 1 + t 1 .u(z) With a controller of the form: F....... Z −1 + .u(z)+C.r(z) Where: F = 1 + f1. the closed loop system equation is.. + g ng .Z −1 + ....Z − ng H = h O + h1.H...G)y(z)=B.e(z) Where y(t) is the output.. + h nh .Z −2 + .G (12) Fig.H r( z ) F .y(z)=B..Z − nh Then. + t nt .......... Consider a noise-free system model: A. Z −1 + ...Adaptive Control General Algorithm of pole assignment: Consider a system defined by the equation: A. Closed loop system with controller.u(z)=-G...A + B....Z − nt 12 ..... + fnf ....Z −1 + t 2 . (combining equation 10 and 11): (F.Z − nf (10) (11) G = gO + g1. u(z) is the input and e(z) is the disturbance.y(z)=B..A+B.r(z) y( z ) = B .y(z)+H.....

. Z −1 + . Hence.. + t nt ...Z −1 + ..... + a na .H. foe a unique solution to equation (13).. + a nb ..S are (nf + na) and (ng + nb). then it is possible to generate..G=T (13) Equation (13) can be written as a set of simultaneous equations by equating coefficients of like power of Z − i ....Z −1 + .If the order nf and ng are chosen correctly.Z − ng ) = 1 + t 1 . we require: nf + na= ng + nb= nf + ng +1 or nf = nb-1 ng = nb -1 nt ≤ na+ nb-1 Conditions of the design 13 .Z − nb ) .. (by comparing coefficients of Z − i ). Z −1 + .Z − nf ) . b) There are 1+ nf + ng unknown coefficients of the polynomials F and G... Re-writing equation (13) in terms of the polynomial gives: (1 + f1......... then the set of simultaneous equations will have a unique solution....... ..A+B.Z −1 + t 2 . + g ng ....Z − nt (14) The above equation shows that: a) Because the largest power of Z − i to occur on the L..Z −2 + .... + fnf .Adaptive Control then the controller coefficients which assign the actual pole set to the desired set are given by the solution of: F.. nf + na= ng + nb equations. .......... (1 + a1.+ (b1... (g O + g1...Z − na ) ....

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