Iranian Studies

Journal of The Society for Iranian Studies

Volume 1 (1968)

Ali Banuazizi, Editor Roy Mottahedeh, Associate Editor

Published by The Society for Iranian Studies, P. 0. Box 89, Village Station, New York, New York 10014, U.S.A.

The Society for Iranian Studies
COUNCIL Ervand Abrahamian Ali Banuazizi, Executive Secretary Hormoz Hekmat Abbas Heydari-Darafshian Farhad Kazemi, Treasurer Manoucher Parvin, President Majid Tehranian

IRANIAN STUJDIES Journal of 7he Society for Iranian Studies Contents: Volume 1 (1968)
ARTICLES Al-i Ahmad, Jalal. Someone Else's Child (translated by Theodore S. Gochenour). . . . . . .155-162 Alessandro. Theism and Pantheism in Rumi. 8-24

Bausani, Bulliet,

Richard W. City Histories Iran . . . . . . .

in Medieval .104-109

Chubak, Sadeq. Two Short Stories (translated by John Limbert). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113-121 Cottam, Richard in Iran. W. Political Party Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three Poems (translated by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Farrokhzad, Forough. Anita Spertus) Fatemi,


Ali M. S. Economic Development of Petroleum Exporting Countries . . . . . . . . . .110-112 John. The Origin Kurds in Pre-Islamic and Appearance of the Iran. . . . . . . . . . 41-51



Sidney W. Social Science Research by North Americans Abroad: Some Reflections. Roy. Sources for the Study of Iran


34-40 4-7

Mottahedeh, Parvin,


Manoucher. A Forgotten

Military Expenditure in Iran: Question . . . . . . . . . ..



..122-125 Recent Wulff. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1500A Developing Nation in World Affairs: 1914 (reviewed by Shaul Bakhash) . By Way of Introduction. . . . 163-165 in Iran: and Rebellion Keddie Nikke R. . . . . . . Acknowledgment. . 166-167 . Bibliography . . . OPEC Oil (reviewed by Majid Teh. . . Tanya. . . . . Russia Kazemzadeh. 96-103 132-148 Educational Ambivalence in Iran BOOKREVIEWS A ColThe Lifted Veil: Farmanfarmaian. Marvin. . . of Current Research on Iran. . . 165 MISCELLANEOUS . . M.Savory. . . . . . Studies on Oil (reviewed by Majid Tehranian). The Bitter Loss. . . . Roger. . ranian). . . . . . Keddie). . . . . . . . . Keddie) . . . . Lutfi. 1864-1914 (reviewed in Persia and Britain by Nikki R. . . 1966-67 (reviewed by lection Majid Tehranian) . . The Traditional Technology and Influence Their Development. . . . Religion of 1891-1982 (reviewed The Tobacco Protest by Farhad Kazemi). 121 80 2-3 52-53 25-26 128-131 iv .T. . . . . . Second Annual Business Report of the Society's Meeting. . Notes on the Safavid State. Majid Tehranian . . . . 76-79 Crafts of Persia: Hans E. . . Forough Farrokhzad: Recent Books on Iran. . . Rouhollah. . . . . . . . . . Firuz. . . . Ashraf. . .27-30. . Zonis. . . of Poems. . . . 31-32 168-175 The Foreign Policy of Iran: Ramazani. (reon Eastern and Western Civilizations viewed by Nikki R. . .

Bulletin rheSocCleu oF anutn nlt Socdl Stube Uolunwe Ir. lUtnWr I Wlonter 1965 .

U. Secretary Hormoz Hekmat Abbas Heydari-Darafshian Farhad Kazemi. Box 3384. Yale Station.I RA N IAN ST BULLETINOF UD IE S THE SOCIETYFOR IRANIANCULTURAL AND SOCIAL STUDIES COUNCIL Ervand Abrahamian All Banuaziz'i. Editor Roy Mottahedeh. All communications concerning IRANIANSTUDIES or the Society's affairs should be addressed to: The Society for Iranian Cultural and Social Studies New Haven.A. The price of single for non-members is $1. Articles may be submitted in English or Persian to the Editor for publication.00 per issue. Pres'ident Maj id Tehraniian IRANIANSTUDIES Ali Banuazizi. P. cover design by Tina Kazemi . (SICSS).O. Associate Editor IRANIANSTUDIES is published quarterly by The Society for Iranian Cultural and Social Studies.S. Treasurer Manoucher Parvin. by the The opinions expressed contributors are those of the individual authors and not necessarily those of the Society or the editors of IRANIANSTUDIES. Connecticut 06520. to members of the It is distributed copies Society as a part of their membership.


problems of Iran. are manifold. In a meeting held at Yale University on September 2nd. the Society needs the participation of all 2 comnunicathose non- . It is the hope agent. literature. particularly in its mystical philosophic and poetic has also something to contribute to the view of literature. But to provide such a forum for cross-cultural tion. social. to encourage further research In the field. man as a free and self-transending of this Society. and finally to generate greater Interest in Iranian studies In the academi'c conununiti'es.BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION The main objective of The Society for Iranian Cultural and Social Studies. that Persian In brInging them together. together had been felt for sometime. however. The purposes of the Society. The present members of the Society are mostly young Iranian students and scholars who have been educated at home in social sciences and humanities. to provide academic forums for current research in Iranian studies. prelimInary plans for the formal establishment of the Soclet? finally came to fruition. economic Including history. as its main objective. therefore. 1967." The need for a forum and political that could bring all students of Iranian society and of social science culture. to focus the attention of the researchers on the gaps. and foreign universities and social life to relate The need In their own intellectual to the study of Iranian the findings of their disciplines society and culture has been an important motivating factor We believe. dispersed in various disciplines and humanities. to po+nt out some of the fundamental problems that contemporary Iran faces. to enhance a better conmunication and understandIng between Iranian and non-Iranian scholars and students. Is "to encourage the study of Iranian culture and society. culture. language. as set forth by its Constitution. to help to bring the analytic Insights of western social science and the integrating powers of the Persian cultural tradition to a conmon meeting ground.

In these activities. To achieve its purpose. Iranian Studies. will be published on a quarterly basis as the bulletin of Tne Society for It is designed to serve Iranian Cultural and Social Stvlies. The safeguard of freedom of inquiry and expression for its members will be. It will also report on current research on Iran and the Society's activities. the Society's sole commitment. we would welcome the participation and contributions of institutions and individuals who share our objectives. STUDIES IRANIAN 3 . The Society hopes to provide in its meetiungs and publications a forum. The present journal. as a medium for the publication of scholarly articles on Iranian culture and society.Iranians who are also engaged in the study of Iranian culture and society. the Society hopes to sponsor seminars on Iranian studies to be held at least once a year. and would enable Its members to communicate their views to each other on matters of conmnon interest. to encourage. publish research conducted on all facets of Iranian life and history. therefore. and whenever possible. free of all restraints of commitment to any particular political group. language. for the discussion and analysis of the cultural and social problems facing Iran. publitc policy or ideological position. literature. And the maintenance of high standards of scholarship and intellectual integrity will be its sole criterion In selection of materials to be presented to its public. We would welcome their membership and contributions. economic and political problems of Iran. as well as the social. and history.

like the anatomy of an earlier century.). Fortunately. and names many classics which students now A Guide to Iranian Area Study by L. until he came to the sphenoid bone. Soghdian. the student now has several guides through Walter B. lists and describes several hundred useful books and articles. He is supposed to have picked up the sphenoid and said in annoyance. 4 . a bone composed of many pieces that seem to border on everything and assume all shapes. curse the sphenoid bone!" No such uncharitable words would come from the student of Iran. the home of seemingly endless numbers of languages (Pahlavi. the labyrinth of Iranian Studies.Sources for the Study of Iran ROY MOTTAHEDEH Oliver Wendell Holmes when he taught anatomy at the Harvard Medical School in the 19th century used to begin his lecture on the skull by picking up each bone and des"The frontal bone borders on the cribing its position: parietal bone. Ethnically composed of every variety of mankind. Henning's list. but how often the primitive state of his science. a great cultural influence on its neighbors yet always ready to receive outside influences. Avestan. It is hard to say one can describe the borders of Iran or where historically needed to be how one can master all the separate disciplines able to describe Iran with any accuracy. the parietal bone borders on the occipital bone." and so on. is extremely broad yet selective choice of books. etc. Bibl'iography of important studies on old Ijranian Subjects in Its (Tehran: 950). makes Iran seem the most complex and indefinable of all the bones in the greater body politic of the world. Roy Mottahedeh is a Junior Fellow in History at Harvard University. etc.. a corridor open to the movement of many peoples. Elwell-Sutton overlook. Kurdish. "Gentlemen.P.

Persian articles are similarly (Teheran: 1961) by Iraj brought together in Index Iranicus Iranian biblioAfshar. vanden Berghe's Archeo. are listed in C. and summarizes what we know about each period.A. For Arabic manuscript sources on Iran the fundamental survey is Carl Brockelmann's Geschichte der Arabischen Literatur (five volumes). still has not been used Both geographical and anthropolog"isufficiently by scholars. recently released volume Persia (1945) by the Navy IntelliThe numerous Persian books gence Division of Great Britain. as well as in the occasional survey articles on Iranian studies in the Soviet Union found in Kratkije Soobshchenja Instituta Vostokovedenja.logie de 'Iran (1939) does make it excavations easy to find the reporttfor most oF7'he scientific of Iran. Persian books. The surveys of stratigraphy by T. Three new journals give a central place to Iranian archaeology: Iranica Antigua (1961 on). anthropologists. whether in manuscript or In print. IRANIANSTUDIES 5 . Frye's indispensible survey of pre-Islamic and early Islamic Iran. and of pre-Islamic are by Edith Paroda are examples of the very high quality of scholarship on Iranian archaeology in this country. Articles on Iran in Western languages are listed in Index Islamicus 1906-1955 (and supplements) by J. Jr. Cuyler Young. and Teheraner Forschunen 71961 on). etc. Wilber's useful article in Archaeolo Orientalia (1952) edited by G. Articles by Russian archeologists who work in neighbouring areas are listed in the footnotes and bibliography of R. an extremely industrious and intelligent especially those prepared for grapher whose other publications. the Iranian Bibliographical Society are essential to all students.N. Iran im Mittelalter. and its useful articles and bibliographies can now be supplemented by the new two-volume encyclopedia in Persian.The old Grundrics der Iranischen Philologie is still the nearest thing we have to an encyclopaedia on Iran. Miles. The geography of Iran. Pearson who is also the author of a very valuable general guide. The masterful survey of the medieval geographers of Iran by Paul Schwarz. fundamental to archaeologists. Iran: Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies7T963 on).C. The Heritage of Persia (1963). Iranshahr. is te subject df the historians. Storey's masterful (but incomplete) Persian Literature: A Bio-Blbliographical Surevey.D. cal books on Iran can be followed in some detail through the reviews in The Geographical Journal. Oriental and Asian Bibliography (1966). The exciting archeological discoveries in Iran in the last few years make it all the more tragic that one of the archeologically richest countries in the world cannot enforce Its Louis antiquity laws and thereby prevent amateur excavation. on geography are listed in D.

Mo'in. in series l ike the series of the Bonuah-e. makes Alessandro Bausani's Storia della Letteratura Persiana outstanding.A. H. long the specialty of G. Meier. like the dictionaries but in addition to the many classical five-volume Farhan2-e Nafisi. Lazard's books have given a new basis to the study of modern Persian.N. a special effort to review newly publishes texts. Frye and M. Gerschevitch in England. men like Qazvini and Eqbal.J. W. Rubinchik in Russia. 6 . the study of classical Arabic will not decline in modern Iran.growing number of magazines with useful bookreview sections. Incidentally. M. The important study of the many dialects of Iran. Rahnama-ye Ketab. and one in particular. has now attracted like D. and R. Nyberg and G. Hansen in Germany. J. makes Hopefully. Duchesne-Guillemi n in France." and so on. in which literature is discussed as literature rather than cultural history. and Parviz Khanlari's studies are other examples of what could be done in the study of Persian literature if a more careful and painstaking approach were adapted.A. Rypka's literary history of Persia will probably Its continue to be the most widely read book in this field. one of the most complex studies. A good survey of the whole field of Iranian language with ample bibliography is provided by volume Iranistik (1958) in the series Handbuchder Oriental istik.The study of Iranian languages. to have an ever_. Persian and Russian counterparts by Dr. de Menasce and J. is perhaps the strongest field of all philological Amongthe many able scholars in this of Iranian studies.N. V. the UNESCO including the Iranian catalogues by Afshar and Daneshpajuh provide the student of Persian literature and history with Contemporary Iran seems an unexpected wealth of materials. espand perceptive discussion of ecially in its very intelligent the structure and techniques of Persian peotry. Catalogues of manusqripts translations.E. Doerfer's many-volumed Tuerkische und Mongolische Elemente would be able Im Neepersischen is a feat which few specialists to undertake. Safa and E. we are still phililogists far from having a Persian dictionary on historical principles. Boyce and I. Dresden in America. Widergren in Scnadinavia. we now have a solidly based dictionary by M. Brandenstein and 0. Morgenstierne. for it is no accident that the best editors of Persian texts.K. G. F. were excellent Arabists. Livshyts and l. G. H. Texts continue to be published at an even faster rate. are also widely admired by specialists different approach. field are P. Bertels A in this subject. Ritter. MacKenzie.Nashr especially va Tar h the Soviet "Pamiatniki Literatur Norodov Vostoka.

rsial. Gittinger.The study of Iranian history is still in its primitive stages.P. Amin Banani and others.S. though studied for generations and conveniently summarized in many works are still far from being used fully.G. Few general works on the pre-Islam4c period have been produced in recent years. The section "Abstracta Islamica" in Revue des Etudes Islamigues provides abstracts of relevant articles and books as they appear.K. and most of these. Safavid history has attracted many talented scholars like I. the Iranian Petroleum Institute.S. Firuz Kazemzadeh. and H. The Greek and Romansources. the Plan Organization. Altheim. Richard Cottam. Safavid documents are being published in many countries. A good introduction to the important work done on this period in Iran itself are the excellent books of Zarrinkub. Lukonin and N. but it is a great hardship for the rest of us that none of them have ever written a general history of the Safavid period. Busse's Utersuchungen zum Islamischen Kanzleiwesen is a model of what good use can be made of such materials. The amazingly full studies of A.V. 1962) and J. the many branches of the Ministry of Finances. and controve. No subject are t. Ivanov in Russian and of Peter Avery in English. This will include volumes on geography and history of all kinds.K. alter kultur (Frankfurt. Two interesting and different approaches to recent Iranian history are found in the works of M. The most important publication on Iranian studies will hopefully appear in the near future: The many-volumed Cambridge History of Iran. Lambtonset a high standard for work on more recent Persian history. Pigulevskaja. like the works of F. Dickson in America. In this field we are fortunate to have several scholars in American universities: R. the many banks and so on. and will contain articles by scholars of all nationalities. Petrushevsky in the Soviet Union and Martin P. 1965). A very helpful guide to sources for the Islamic period is Jean Sauvaget and Claude Cahen's Introduction to the History of the Muslim East (1965). Western students should not overlook the interesting Russian books on the Sassanian period by V. Ramazani. 1963). and even those which have been used are not well known to Iranians. Paljukaitis's Ekonomicheskoe Razvitije Irana (Moscow. Planning for Agricultural Development: The Iranian Experience (Washington. The student of contemporary Iranian studies has at his disposal ever-growing bodies of statistics issued by the General Department of Statistics.1. Hans Bobek's Probleme eines unterentwickelten Landes. Nikki Keddie. STUDIES IRANIAN 7 .P.

Persia Religiosa. I only bring to the mind of my readers three passages of the three Holy Books. (b) of devotion of an Ego to pantheistic piety is not a feeling a Thou. God is considered as dissolved in the world. poetically sung or scientifically demonstrated as a Whole. what most sharply distinguishes pantheism from non-pantheism (or theism) is the fact that God-is always considered by pantheists as something impersonal. it is said that the finite and temporal world is nothing in front of God. as well as a history of Iran. In both cases. but rather the sensation of being a part belonging to a Whole. in which an immanent Life-Energy acts. i. between an Ego and a He. however. as it necessarily implies a body and a limitation. 8 . to put it better. It is also well-known that the original and fundamental of the three great monotheistic religious experience religions of the world. 25 ff. or in the second instance. The relation is always felt in both the Bible and the Qur'an just as one between an Ego and a Thou.Theism and Pantheism in Rumi ALESSANDRO BAUSANI defined as "all. He is the author of a history of Persian litea history of the rature. only that one of them (the He-God) has a much more powerful and free life than the more limited Ego of Man. is God and God Pantheism is generally is al l (I) but it can therotical ly assume two different forms. and it is swallowed up by the sole absolute Reality of God.) yet splendid symbol of the idea of Persian and Alessandro Bausani is Professor of Rome and the University Islamic Studies at the University of Naples. Storia della Letteratura Persiana. A primitive XXXII. and many other publications. It would be quite useless to quote examples of this way of feeling the contact between God and Man from the Holy Books. a chrestomathy of Malay. pantheof their view on theaffirm the superiority ists generally istic "inferior" forms of religion pointing out that (a) calling God a "person" restricts and diminishes His greatness. Christianity and Islam is between man and God radically antipantheistic. One is the fight of Jacob with God (Gen. which I consider particularly significant for this subject.e. First. a wave in the immense sea of Being. Judaism. religion of the literatures of Pakistan. or.

"wrought" by Him according to His independent and arbitrary will. The Perfect Manof pantheism is the Saint. John's Gospel: (111.of God-Person. not emanated The Perfect Man from HIim through a sort of blind necessity. "that". struggling hard in order that the only true God (3) may reign on earth as He reigns in Heaven. IRANIANSTUDIES 9 . Artist-God. and Theism is on the other hand re-absorption into the Absolute. el. Then. felt as participating by philosophically some impersonal divine force. that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish. and so we reached pantheism. more powerful. has been etymologically connected by some scholars with the Hebrew demonstrative root el. of which they were themselves no more than ephemeral (though longer aged than man) manifestations. in which the God-head shines more clearly and who points to the way to redemption from this world. '"You". among the pantheon of various local Person-Gods one. but have everlasting Life". soinething like a Commander-in-Chief of God's armies on earth. connected with a militant and sometimes even violent and revolutionary struggle against "other gods" in the name of God of the other (which however retains some characteristics weaker companion gods oF before. that of a vague yet most powerful presence of Sombebody in some sacred place. the second is the famous passage in St. The third is the passage so often quoted by Iqbal (and also by Rumi himself) "Every day He is engaged in some new affair" (Qur. "God" among the Semites. LV. (2) one of the most ancient ideas of God has been. "'He''. but only a person God only by an act of free election has chosen. Or might and sovereignty: else the Person-Gods were. in the course of Time. according to this theory. "made". Thus pantheism is see for instance Hinduism) theoretically (and also practically. 29) though the entire Qur'an bears perhaps even stronger witness idea of God than other of a personal'istic and activistic It can be added that one of the oldest names for Scriptures. and things are created. and this only in mature minds. A Prophet is not necessarily a Saint. not by inherent divine qualities. destroyed the others and reigned above all in undisputed and so we arrived at monotheism. often the Ascetic. and made infallible on His part. specially personality and and also with a creationist point of view living activity) God is for theism-an concerning the emergence of beings. or connected with polytheism and with a manifestantionist emotionist point of view concerning the problem of emergence of being (s). 16) "For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son. of theism is the Prophet.

the skill of the artist is that he can make both the ugly and the beautiful. so that thy difficulty may be removed at once. the best European authority on Rumi.. .. j8>g>^J Jf~~~. (4) In 1923 Prof. he that loves what God hath made is an unbeliever! . how should I be in love like an infidel with that thou hast made (masnu)? He that loves God's making is glorious.>. . R. wrote: "Neigher the theologian nor the poet is a pantheist.. giving to the word haqiqat a meaning that is for instar. the Masnavi-i-Ma'navi'.) which I consider fundamental for my thesis: "I am in love with Thy making (sun') both in the hour of Thanksgiving and in the hour of patience.RUMI'SCONCEPTION OF GODHEAD Facing. WHO LOOMS BEHIND SEE THEGREAT IDEALIST (6) The active creativeness of God is by Rumi clearly kept distinct from the created thing. nay 'tis an exhibition of the ugly by-him. 1360 ff." 10 ..J.s$re. . I am aware that as regards Jalalud-Din this judgment may appear questionable to those who have read certain passages in the Diwan-i-Shams-i-Tabriz where he describes his oneness with God in terms which look pantheistic at first sight and which I myself understood in a pantheistic sense at a time when I knew less about the history of Sufism than I do now. (5) i hope to show to my readers that Rumi too. Infidelity is Ignorance and the ordainment of infidel'ity is knowledge .BUTTHEY. OF REASON PHILOSOPHERS DEVOID FINDTHIS WORLD A MERE FAIL TO IDEAOF THEMIND: 'TIS AN IDEA. felt and sang God as a creative personality.ce found in the well-known rubal of Jami: < . as many great mystic personalities of both Islam and Christianity. This is best expressed in a rather seldom quoted passage of the Masnavi (11.. Nicholson of Cambridge. the ugliness of the script is not the ugliness of the artist. therefore distinguish.A. the ordainment from the thing ordained. Whinfield to the happy though not too exact translation. let us now study which of these two conceptions of the Deity is more strongly emphasized in Runti's master-work. the problem in this way.ij6/ That same sense of "active personality" let Mr. .

The soul near God becomes then one "according to whose desire the torrents and rivers flow and the stars move in such wise as he wills. of a divineness of Nature: things are residual tracks of God's ever rapidly evolving and artistically original act of creation. or elsewhere. of God as an Impersonal principle -from which everything necessarily emanates. a painter. . Inasmuch as the Work has woven a veil on the Worker. died. 689-90 and 760-62. "non-existence" (adam). not. Masnavi IV 2341 . you cannot see Hlm outside of that work. the cotton will be consumed by the sparks") or a deer in the presence of lion. and "the bird. the ego of man is. an artist. This idea of God as a is something radically differnaggash. his spirit flow out of IRANIAN STUDIES 11 . In that state it can claim to be fire as wall as iron. as he reached the presence of his Beloved. 1885 ff. that you may see the Work and the Worker together. when Iron takes the properties of fire without entirely losing its own individual essence. shirk. 3669 ff. Since God's workshop is non-existence.What has already been made by God is something crystallized. and life and death are his officers going to an fro according to his desire" In another passage. workshop there Is only worthlessness outside of the .83). this nearness is never felt by Rumi as a real absorption in God without any residual." (Masnavi 11. Nonexistence is the house and workshop of God.r who. the workshop of God. senseless. after death. Rumi tells of a lov. And even when the pure soul. Non-existence Is called by Rumi the kargah-l-Khuda. he that is outside is unaware of Him. To love that would mean to adore and love created things would mean idolatry.). stony. full as it Is a good specimen of Rumi's ideas about fana and baga. No feeling then in Rumi. Since the workshop is the dwelling-place of the Worker. which I quote rather In (III. extremely near God. on the metaphysical Importance of nonexistence also cf. or in ecstasy. Come then Into the workshop. In order to point out this utter independence of God from this world Rumi often pleases himself to call the regions where this inaccessible and yet ever originally working Ego abides "Nothing".T are for instance the following: the flame of the candle In the presence of the sun (but yet the candle exists and "if you put cotton upon it. as redhot iron In the fire. it must be remarked. . that is to say into non-existence. God himself. The metaphors He uses to express fana In an interesting passage of the Masnavi (IIi. ent from any conceptior.

he is not less than the mountain of rock which by parturition brought forth the she-camel (7). without lip. not What an encouraging idea for a pantheist! unlike a modern novel-writer is always ready to surprise us with some coup de scene.- r ^ - st_ 4 v " . Welcome! 0 thou whose selflessness intoxication is caused by Our Self. . but not evanescent and This will be Paradise: but Rumi goes annihilated beings. 4677 ff. . 4616.i. w i s 12 . . the Beloved) "took the lover's hand saying: This man whose breath has departed will only then come to life when I give him spiritual breath. The verse of his Diwan . But Rumi.his body" for "God is such that when He comes. the presence of an element of Time in the otherworldly plane. at the conmand "Be!" peacocks and sweet-voiced birds come to being in the bird's womb. This is the deepest meaning or his idea that the highest degree in the life of the spirit "is not attainment but infinite aspiration after having attained" (8). I tell thee the old mysteries anew: hearken! . a new world of deified. he is not less than the seminal water from which at the devine bidding there are born Josephs with faces like the sun. there is not a single hair of thee remaining" (111. So after the annihilation . He said: "O spirit that We have opened the door to hast fled from tribulation. so far along this way as to admit. as the Qur'an says (quoted by Rumi just some lines before the anecdote of Sadr-i-Jahan) the mystery of the perpetually active personality of God.) and He (the Sadr-i Jahan. In a certain sense. At this momentopen the ear of earlessness for the sake of hearing Whenhe began the mystery of "God doeth what He willeth"! to hear the call of Union little by little the dead man began to stir.e. So the real end of the story is told some lines further. . he is not less than a wind from which. now. and union with Us. inasmuch as God gives life to a new creation. under the heading: "Howthe Beloved caressed the senseless lover that he might return to his senses" (l . 4621). of everything which is not J God. 0 thou whose being incessantly derived from Our Being. the mystery of "God doeth what he willeth" is revealed. . The lover of God is not lass than an earth which at the zaphyr's blandishments puts on a garment of green and lifts up its head from death.

if the batin were not to be expressed through zahir why would God have created the material world? Rumi asks himself in this passage of the Masnav7 (I. do not tarry in anything that thou hast gained. not as extensive. 42). The gifts of lovers to one another are. . For him acts of worship are one of the forms in which love." It is rather surprising to find so clear an assertion of the spiritual productiveness of ritual worship in an alleged pantheist like Rumi. A sort of intensive Time (" appreciative time " lqbal would say) is present in this eternal striving. o (Qur. not as a billowing sea in which the Soul-Drop is submerged. then. in respect of Love. Infinity is.): greed In the Masnavi he repeats it in other words "The greed of true men is by the forward way but in the effeminate goes backward .) If love were only spiritual thought and reality. (III. naught but forms. This Divine Court is the Infinite Plane.): "If the spiritual explanation were sufficient. Leave the seat of honour behind: the way is thy seat of honour' (9). well-known. Ah. This is something quite different from what pa'ntheism has always asserted. So for Rumi. the form of your fasting and prayer would be non-existent. have a real formative value. but rather as a Way towards the far away limi't of God: . otherwise it is no longer a Way but a dipersive Desert: limitation and form are then spirtually productive. The material world is therefore a serious thing. . . the communionbetween God and Manexpresses itself: and we have just seen that this dialogue will eternally continue in the world. If the Spirit should not express itself through matter. 1957 ff. external acts of worship such as namaz and saum etc. but crave more like one suffering from dropsy who is never sated with water. conceived not as spatial. there is a very occult mystery here in the fact that Moses sets out to run towards a Khizr. But a Way involves also two hedges limiting it. 2625 ff. LIII. IRANIAN STUDIES 13 . He did it seriously. the creation of the world would have been vain and idle (whereas the QtJr'an repeatedly asserts that God did not create the world joking. but the purpose is that the giftsr may have borne testimony to feelings of love which are concealed 'in secrecy. or worlds. but rather intensive infinity.

In a way which reminds the ash'arite. Rumi's fl-ight from the world is the flight of one. because of His spells the non-existences at that very momentare dancing joyously Into existence. are beautiful.). phys Ica sight after the death of the Also the relationship between God and the world is. tokens of H's power. rather a relationship of creation than of emanation. they begin to stir... the "divine artist who depicts thoughts" (VT.. He spake to the body a message. he spake to the sun so that it became radiant. He spake Into the ear of the rose and made It laughing: He spake to the stone and made it a cornellan of mine. 1448 ff.) " . 2 1 8 1) creates thing.. Consider what the Speaker chanted Into the ear of the cloud so that it poured tears from Its eyes. according to Rumi. though in the body it has the semblance of continuity.. so that it became regardful and has ever since remained silent.... art dying and returning: Mustafa The ever active God recites spells arld incantations over the spirits and (Masnavi 1. Every moment the world is renewed and we are unaware of its being renewed whilst it remains the same in appearance.thou declared that this world is but a moment .. From its swiftness It appears continuous. like a waterskin. Rumi likes Nature.. God. 1142 ff. though considering this world beautiful (Laysa fi'l-imkan ahsan mim-makan)yet thinks 14 . Again He puts into Its ear a fearful saying. he does not fly away from the world like the Buddhist who consider things ugly and despicable (11).. consider what God has chanted Into the ear of the earth. at this word the existent marched back post-haste into non-existence. The swiftmotion produced by the action of God presents this length of duration (10) as a phenomenonarising from the rapidity of divine action" (Masnavi 1. li-ke the spark which thou whir1est rapidly with thy hand.. Whenagain He recited a spell over the existent. things.disclosed to our purified l body. who. so that It became spirit. If thou whirl a firebrand with dexterity it appears to the sight as a very long line of fire. and sharply anti-pantheistic and anti-necessitarian Idea of successive creations of the Universe In atoms of Time: "Every instant . Life Is ever arriving anew like the stream." Owing to that contact witm the creating God. and upon the face of the sun fall a hundred eclipses.

they have no rest in this dead world" (Masnavi V. Harut and Marut because of their feelings of Intoxication said: Alas... Such intoxication arises even from God's gradual temptation. "Harut and Marut were intoxicated with the spectacle of God and with the marvels of the King's gradual temptation of them. since every atom of that world Is living and able to understand discourse. The Divine trial was turning them rapidly down. if the direct dialogue of man with God is too premature. so that you may judge what intoxicatlons are wrought by the ascension to God. . and eloquent. .fron the intoxication of lust . a danger is felt: the danger of losing sight of the proporimperfect tions.. the supreme temptation of the perfect soul (12). we would IRANIAN STUDIES 15 . But Rumi Is also deeply aware that. 3588). Therefore. but how should one that is drunken have consciousness of these things? (13) . but know again that this world is to be deemedIntoxication of lust in the terrestrial of small account beside the Intoxication of the angels . .. .. Speaking Worlds: Another aspect. which Rumi sees. of that dialoguing duality. life of man role of the Prophet-Saint in the spiritual In the spiritual emerges in Rumi's religious philosophy. the ever active Worker working In the workshop of has prepared or Is preparing there worlds non-existence.. the danger of assimilating one's own still self into the Ego of God. If no practical and visible wall be raised against the too easy mergingconception.. since their spirit had experienced tha delight these delights seemed to them mere play. even richer and more Intense than this world of ours. the danger of Pride. a single drop of the wine of Heaven causes the soul to be rapt away from the wine and cupbearers of this world . together with that of the eternal striving after that you may imagine what intoxications befall the angels and the spirits purified by the Divine Glory . words and thoughts in-God and identifying-with-God So the idea of the indispensable would remain insufficient. He Is preparing "speaking worlds" to use Rumi's original expression: "The prophets abandoned this delight because they were steeped In the divine light.Be cut off. after fana of that element of intensity-time even in the Plane of Eternal Life.that God. Even angelical natures suffer this temptation. path. . we would rain upon the earth like clouds.. ..

811 ff. So Rumi says (Masnavi. no one was ever envious of God. punished them for their fault and they fell into the pit of Babylon where they teach no more than a poor substitute of Divine Lore. of teaching justice and doing good. God. Man Is always ready to say.): "God made the Prophets the mediumbetween Him and His creatures In order that feelings of envy should be displayed In the agitation of the mind. I. And this he does often in the lbilsian sense. This Iblisian tauhid (T4Tmust be broken so that the purified soul may understnad the divine tauhid. Rumi sees a powerful means against falling Into magics and pantheism in the faith In a Prophet: the personality of the Prophet becomes in this way like a symbol of the personality of God. a counterfeited form of the Science of Heaven. and none but Hin"'. with the satanic arriere-pensee. whosoever has a glass-heart Is broken. But the supreme and most freely acting Personality. as the grandeur of the Prophet (in this case MuhammadT1Nas none feels envy of become established. 16 .spread in this place of injustice a carpet of justice and equity and devotions and faithfulness". and a remedy against any subtle temptation of pride and envy. Is an easy pretext for me not to curb my neck to true and perfectly humble adoration". inasmuch as no one was disgraced by inferiority to God. Whosoever has a good disposition is saved. ff). Now. but the person whomhe deemed like himself (15) he would bear envy against him for that reason". in ultimate aialysis.n the innermost chambers of human heart and a cruel physician is necessary to eradicate It. 801. They were superb. To love and adore the Invisible and impersonal God Is easy. since he is accepted by all the faithful. theref6re. him. to a temptation towards pantheism. which mounts. they wanted to take themselves the tntltiattve of changing the world. 11. like Ibils: "Yes. But God's surgical lancet goes even deeper than this: ". (mii. This gradual temptation could seem rather cruel on the part of God but (1) the Islamic God is not a petty-god. . I love and adore God. of some pantheistic pseudo-religion and (2) evil is always ready to conceal itself i. Prophets and veneration for them are the weapon to destroy this extremely subtle temptation. magics. the theology of pantheism. In a Saint arises: the probation every epoch after Muhammad of the people lasts until the Resurrection. .e.

God is always near him to urge him. thereafter you will become united. giving for the power of acting freely increases your power. man is always In danger of losing himself and not many are there who reach that degree of hardness enabling them to see God face to face.Two points have to be remarked In this connection: (1) the psychological acuteness of Rumi's religious analysis (2) the activistic trend in his spiritual attitude. Here.) and: "He (the man who broke his foot on the path of exertion) and he became . . was an accepter of the Divine Command. Thanksnecessitarianism Is the denial of that beneficence. accepted. (18) (Masnavi I.1074-77). that hardness so beautifully expressed in the Persian verse Iqbal liked so much (17) Man. once he has overcome all the temptations of God in a fascinating struggle that reminds one of Jacob transposed into a spiritual plane. IRANIAN STUDIES 17 . necessitarianism takes the Divine gift of free will out of -your hand". giving for the power of acting freely increases your power. If you seek union Free will is with Him. the endeavour to thank God for His beneficence: your Thanksnecessitarianism Is the denial of that beneficence. mand you will become the spokesman therof. killed by the Beloved and then caressed by Him again to Life. but of theistic taslIm. He acquires a power which is no more the fruit of pantheistic magics. Until now the stars were influencing him: henceforth he Is the ruler of the stars!" (1. . as everybody clearly sees. can stare Into God's eyes: this indescribable and ever new dialogue with God Is the supreme goal of the lover. So the Path becomes also extremely dangerous (16). Until now. Through fixing his eyes In God's eyes man acquires an Immensepower. we are very far from Nirvana''(19). Do you recieve His commands? He will cause If you accept His comyou to be received into His favour. he was receiving commandsfrom the King: henceforth he delivers the King's commandsto the oeople. to stimulate him through new "temptations". In taqlId. Mancan never repose at his ease in a given religion. 936 ff. islam (in the etymological sense) accepting the amanat of God: "Do you bear His burden? He will cause you to be borne aloft.

ephemeral by nature because of any inner Principle. but it is made such by God. Perhaps the only point in which Rumi remains rather near the ideal of pantheistic ethics is the accentuated character of liberation and redemption of the individual from the cage of the world in his religious preaching. It is not a joke. one pointing to an initial view. and his Saint-ethics of moksha (though expressed in quite different forms than the Brahmanic ideal of iioksha) which is not the prophetic ethics a militant and socially organized faith. But he makes Him always act ac totally free and even sometimes strangely and cruelly. original Ego-Power. fighting with Man so that he may become Man. (6) Every temptation of mixing up the humanand the divine planes must be overcome by the faith in the Prophet and. that ethics of the spiritual conquest of the world of God. the second to a final stage indifferentiate of unity with God. (4) The sensible world and even the thoughts of man emerge as a result not of necessary emanation or manifestation. IV to be taken seriously. which at first sight point to something like a pantheistic I shall quote two examples. but of free creation. unity of Being. It is also a duty of elementary honesty to state that in Rumi's Masnavi many lines and passages also can be read. 18 . (3) If free activity and a sort of intensive Time are of Personality. though ephemeral. so to say.Sunrning up the results of these short remarks on Rumi's pantheism. though Rumi never states this in explicit words. and in the hereafter it will be an eternal and indescribable running after God or a dialogue with God. then the God of Rumi the characteristics could also be called a person. The material world too has its positive Importanct seriously. but it has (see for instance also Masnavi. in the Saint of the epoch. (2) The sensible world. So material acts of worship too have to be taken 3659-60). we see that Rumi's ideas are in the following several points quite distinct from those of a pantheist: (1) God in not All: He is working outside "all" in his workshop situated in the plane of non-existence (adam). which form an insuperable barrier against too simple a form of monism. is not. (20). after him. (5) Devotion is here on earth submission to the will of God. which are far from exhaustive but only intended as a stimulus for ITt and others to deeper"study.

): "For that. and that non-existence which is more dead than the dead . People (20) who quote such anecdotes and stories of the Masnavi generally . 3056 ff. after long purifying suffering and pains. of the Almighty. "tis Thou! (I. Raise ye the battlement with the mangonell(manjanig). 686-89). that the world may be filled with male and female. it became many in number like the shadows of a battlement. We were one substance like the Sun: we were knottess and pure like water. and he opened the door only when the hover answered again. I will not open the door: I know not any friend that is "I". . 0 reader. every day is that He despatches three armies: One army from the loins of the fathers towards the mothers in order that the plant may grow in the womb. for it is the "Be! and it was" the bringer into existence of every impossible thing.forget to read deeper and to read further. Whenthat Godly light took form. Do not deem Him idle and inactive. among the clearest ones in Rumi's Masnavi. about the free and personal working of God (vv. that difference may vanish from amidst this company of shadows" (Masnavi 1. the hand of God is necessary.(1) "Simple we were and all one substance. Ilis least act.) But I think that it would be immature to interpret right away such passages as pointing to a pantheistic view of immersion and complete annihilation of the self in the Deity. Recite the text: "Every day He Is engaged in some affair. By His hand every Impossible thing is made possible: by fear of Him every unruly one is made quiet . we were all without head and without foot yonder. 3068 ff. IRANIAN STUDIES 19 Even the dead are made living by the spell . too well known to be reproduced here at length "of the person who knocked at a friend's door": his friend from within asked who he was: he said: 'tis 1: and the friend answered "Since thou art thou. One army from the wombs to the earth.non-existence Is compelled to obey when He calls It into being. One army from the earth to what Is beyond death that every one may behold the beauty of good works". (2) The story. For instance this same anecdote of the Lover who finally said "tis Thou".indulging in that adulterated pantheism in which too many Europeans try to find relief from too mechanized a life . is accompanied by some considerations.

id metaphors of a panthetraditionally istic or seemingly pantheistic seems clear to me . impossible to express in words and therefore only continuously hinted at. . God kills and gives Life: even the dead are made living by the spell of the Almighty (as we just saw in the story of Sadr-i-Jahan quoted above).so that they instinctively to attribute their ideas to Rumi too. Death and effacement of the Ego is for Rumi only a pieparatory degree to a more splendid rebirth and revival of which he Generally he uses in such can give only dim and vague hints. we clearly see. unity it was ." As for initial somebody who wants to avoid useless talking. but is not final annihilation. No doubt then that the mistake of many of Rumil's interpreters is due chiefly to four reasons: (1) They failed to understand that Persian lyrics are expressed in terms a. as a pomrful barrier against confusion of values and vahdat1-vujud.ooking than the verses of hTs Masnavi. for instance. (3) They failed to grasp the great religious importance Rumi attributes to the obedience and faith In a Prophet.unity of all things in non-existence. that those poems of Rumi which follow the lyrical pattern of the hazal (22) more strictly (the odes of his Diwan) are generally more pantheist. it does not mean unity in some etheral matter to which they will return. So the mystery of what the lover and the beloved will say to each other in the chamber finally unlocked. even to be annihilated in and with such an ever active God can in no wise mean a real and complete and As Rumi says in this same anecdote. nirvanic annihilation. (2) They failed to perceive that for Rumi "annihilation" and unity are rather a preparatory stage to a metaphysical personal life. from which they emerged by a free creative act of God.Therefore. remains a mystery.. 20 . and that the pantheism of many Persian poets is a question allegorical So rather of form and emotion than matter and intellect. The first 'adam is quite different from the 'adan of fana. (4) Psychologically they were themselves inclined to consider a monotheistic and personal istic religion like Islam and orthodox Christianity something "old" and superated by were led modern monistic views. cases expressions like "this discourse hath no end .

2. 8). 7. R. A treatise on Sufism by Nur-ud-Din Abd-urJami=. 8.IN THETEXT TO REFERENCES NOTES 1... 142 and of all. The Mirza Muhamnad entire treatise of Jami is imbued with pantheistic ideas.H. 1947. Quran of doing. translatlon of idealist. the only God really worth serving adoring. 1923.. p. See Nicholson's misra 6. see also the words Iqbal attributes to RumIat the beginning of Javednama. and also in the quoted quatrain it would be to give haqiqat the meaning of a personal difficult God. Quoted in Syed Abdul Vahid's lqbal: His Art and Thought. About this idea of second birth of Personality. 4. So his famous could easily 9. 95-96. be reversed in It is unnecessary to explain to Muslim readers who Khizr was. p.. Whinfield and Rahman Kazvini . I. XXVIII ed.wth a translation by E. workinq loving. 1906 p. I would only like to point out the deeply and obscure passage modern way in which that difficult of the Holy Quran is explained by Rumi. IX.. About the infinite progress of man even in the other World sometimes this Quranic verse has also been quoted (LXVI. Whinfield's perhaps involuntary confronted with the original. 3. Nichol- The Ideal of personality In Sufism. 44.609. Das Heilige. Hasting's Encyclopaedia of ReuI12ionand Ethics. 1948 p. AnyhowMr. I follow Prof. 109. 5. London. Otto. and 213 Munchen. Lahore 11 ed.e. for he is the most artistically J Cf. 21 IRANIANSTUDIES .A. it very apt to convey to the mind of the reader the difference between pantheistic and theistic conception of haqiqat. the Quranic and the often reiterated challenges of the Holy to other "Gods" to do what God has been capable In the following quotations son's translation. R. Lawa'ih. note III daftar.

is also to be seen in Dante's Divine Comedy (Paradise XXI.The conception that not only In this world but even In the Paradisiacal plane there always remains a Mystery.) "In the course of events your resolutions and purposes In order now and then come right and are fulfilled. unsuccessful. 2617 ff. esting is the story of Iblis and Mu'awlya and the wonderful yet deceitful words put Into the mouth of Iblis about his longing for his former state. Note here again the original way In which God Is Introduced as a personal living power who almost Jokes with men and angels like the cat with the mouse. the Quranic assertion 12. which in this too Is the chief Particularly Intersource of Iqbal's Ideas on lblis. in powerful Imagery but more powerful pessimism as a mass of blood. 11. Bologna 1922.S. The famous Russian philosopher and mystic V. 1884). trying to eradicate from the feelings of man any slightest trace of admiration for beauty in Nature. 15. God is even so "cruel" as to act with man In the manner Rumi describes In the words (Masn. Soloviov has some deep considerations on the supreme temptations In his SD ritual Fundamentals of Life (DuQovnvia Osnovy Zhizni. p. In some Buddhist texts for Instance the human body Is described. that through hope of that fulfilment your heart may form an Intention and that he may once more destroy For if He were to keep you wholly your Intention. his nostalgia for Heaven (Masnavi 11. The character of Iblis Is described In a very original way In the Masnavi.) Cf. 14. Italian ed. 16. In his Six Lectures Iqbal calls It "serial time". your heart would despair: how would tt 22 . 4462 ff. and then. 13. 46 ff. an element of striving to solve It. 91-96) question from when S. Pier Damiani answering a difficult Dante about predestination and free will says to Him: Ma quell'alma nel ciel che plu si schiara Quel serafin che In Dio plu l'occhlo ha fisso alla domanda tua non satisfara nell'abisso Pero che si s'inoltra dell'eterno statuto quel che chiedi che da ognt creata vista e scisso 10. excrements and bones. 111.

In order to understand what I mean by Intensive Time In God a re-reading of Iqbal'4 wonderful discussion on Time In His Lectures would be necessary.and Interesting article of the Itallan orientalist. But to exist In real time qens to create. an element of Time Is Introduced even ILto the deepest and innermost receptacles of Personality. 18. 163. Thus. unadulterated by spatial Imaginations.. for Instance.. M. personality means life In real Time. 23 20. 19. See Lectures. 21. Rome.there must be present In Him an element of Tlme. more. Iqbal. see the penetratIng. In the Idea of a teleological plan created by a GodPerson a brillian solution to the dilemma between purely Intellectualistic teleokog(denying reality tt. IRANIANSTUDIES . So if God creates. with Bergson. Lahore ed. Free creation Is the living symbol of appreciative Time. over. 1946. X. But Iqbal. Mistica Musulmana-eMistica Indiana. sowed the woul its it? By their Lord. A study of Rumi's attitude towards the problem of free-willl would be extremely Interesting but It Is rather out of pisce here. It is a pity that such an insufficient study.? And unless It seed of expectation how from 4 ts barrenness subjection to the Divine become apparent to their failures the lovers are made aware of I-n success Is the guide to Paradise"' 17. Time) and chaotic elan vital. About the exterior similitude and real differences between the conceptions of fana and nirvana. as a fundamental element of consciousness. Moreno. criticizing Bergson's keeping too sharp a distinction between elan vital and spatialising thought.asthat of Carra de Vaux In the Encyclopaedia of be dedicated to so great and Important a perIsl s-oa ity In Islamic thought as Rumi. 1930 P. considers apprecIative Time.M. finds. (MuslIm and Hindu Mystics) In Annali LateromensI. The verses quoted are Intended only to show how a personalistic view of Religion could brilliantly solve the problem.sow the seed of expectatior. or duree. and personality.

pp. 255-61 are dedicated to Rumi). A very clear Jefinitlon of ghazal Is to be found in the extremely interesting qFtTc7e by H. pp. its origin and its poetical elaboration. on Insanu-i-KamiI (1925. 192 ff .) (Die islamische Lehre vom vol Ikonmmenen Menschen. 24 .22.e. Schaeder In Zei tschrift der Dentschen Moroen1and'ischen Gesel1schaft. ihre Herkunft und ihre dichterische Uestaltung i.H. the Islamic doctrine on Perfect Man.

ger. P. K. 1966) ~ Eskdund. Identity Card (Grove Press. 1965) Bayne E. The Heritage of Persia (World Publishers. P. Somala.. Under Five Shahs (Murray. F. of Wisconsin.. 1965) Benedick... City and Village in Iran: Settlement and Economy inthe KermanBasin (Univ.. R. CuiIcan. 1966) Frye. 1I965) Esfandiary. Davar. K. The Medes and the Persians (Pra. Modern Iran (Ernst Benn. Iran (Univ. Behind the Peacock Throne: Travels in Persia (Redinn.. R. Nationalism in Iran (Pittsbur4Univ. Manand Society in Iran (Brill. The Kurdis h Republic of 19946 (Oxford Univ.. 1964) 1965) Binder. The Heart of Iran (Hale. D.. 1963) Eagtton. Press. Behind the Peacock Throne: Travels in Persia (Redman. L. Education and Social Awakening in Iran 18501961 (Brill. W. 1964) General Arfa. 1964) 1962) Press. Iran and India through the Ages (Asia Publication. Cottam.industrial Finance in Iran (Harvard. F..and Iran (Daynamics of Political Particpation. W. 1964) Avery. Four Ways of Politics: State and Nation In Italy... of California.Recent Books on Iran BOOKS PUBLISHED ON IRANIN ENGLISH (1962-1967) Arasteh. R. R.1965)Forbes. 1966) Eskdund. IRANIAN STUDIES 25 1963) . 1962) Arasteh...israel. 1963) English. R.

The Lommunist Movement in Iran (Univ. Religion and Rebel. W. and Wiehe. Sociology of Development (Praeger... PErsian Lambs (Holt. Press of Virginia.. Keddle.. 1966) Marlowe J.. Russia's 1963) Ramazani. S.. and Kibell C. The World War In Iran (Constable. 1965) (Library of Congr. A. Contemporary Iran (Praeger. Planninq for Agrcultural Plan.. The Petroleum Industry In Iran (U. An Autoblograph (Doubleday.lion In Iran: Protest (Class. Persian Lions.. C. Iran: A Selected List of References 1967) Jacobs. of 26 . J. Wilber. D. H. State.. D. N. Dept..Past and Present Zabih. 1967) Skrine. Persia Revisited Nahat. G... 1965) Mehdevi. Assoc.. 1967) 1963) 1963) (Princeton... J. Iran: A Short Political The tabacco Gufde (New York. Perslan Gulf in the Twentieth Century (Praeger.S. Notlau. California. 1967) Developent (National Harnock... 1962) (Knopf. Iran.. 1965) Soraya. 1967) South Flank (Praeger. 1967) Nazen.Gittinger. L.. The Foreign Policy of iran_ 1500-1941 (Univ.. Marlowe J... 1964) W1ilber.. C. N. 1962) The.

S. Zekavat. California isphahani. OPECand Its objectives American. UNIVERS'ITIES. of Soviet political strategy. M. Florida. ECONOMI CS NowaT7B. S. Tehranien. A. Parvin. S. M. Sadri. Rajaee. S. Berk. pol icy in Iran (1949-1960). Oxford. study of entrepreneurtal probIems during economic growth. since Tabriztchi. Pennsyl vania.OR IN BRITISHANDAMERICAN IN PREPARATION. Davand. Development of U.Current Research on Iran (I) A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THESES CONCERNING IRANCOMPLETED IN THE LASTFIVE YEARS. Columbia. Columbia.S. M. Location of Industry In Iran. A. An analysis of the feasibility of the use of fiscal policy to stimulate economic growth In Iran. Columbta. In the Middle East. D. Economic Planning In Iran. Iran in the perspective American. California INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS Arcilesi. Harvard. IRA$I/WSTUDIES 27 . The political economy of Persian oil nationalization. Oil experts and economic development with special referencd to Iran and Venezuela. Optimization of economic resources for economic for economic growth in Iran. H. The role of per capita Income growth-a socioeconomic study-. S. Persia and the European state system: From unilateralism to reciprocity in Persian diplomacy in the 19th century.

A history of the I1-Xanid state. J. B.I. W. of the oil A study of the nationalization Industry In Iran. 28 . Legislative elites In Persia. Nezami. Z. McDaniel. Spooner. Staley. and spiritual Shibli and the Islamic tradition. Political Indlana. authority. Young.Y. The Perslan revolution and the Shuster Mission. A. R. The style political and structure of the Iranian M. University The Intellectual Princeton. H. development of Kasravi. Chicago. G. Jr. Iran and Iraq In the Buyld Period. Oklahoma. W. California. Mottahedeh. in Persian daluchesReligion and politics tan: a study In the confusion of temporal Oxford. Oxford Pennsyl- Umer. Illinois. government In The role of the Bakhtlarl Trlbe In the Persian revolution and their nineteenth (LA). A nomadic or seminomadic tribe ofiran. Amir Garthwaite. in Sedehi. Martinez. The Idea of constitutlonal Indiana Persia. Proto-Historic vania. M. N. Constitution and constitutionalism Iran. Zonls. Columbia. Harvard.T. A. Cuyler T. Kudsi-Zadeh. Russell.Ferdows. A. Noorl. A. -century background. Irons. R. elite. Western Iran. Michigan. legacy of Jamal al-Din Afghani. Effects of reference group identificatlon importance ascribed by on the relative Iranian and Latin American students at the University of OklahQma. Colorado State College. 1911.

American.Iranian Relations (1941-45). Bill. with the U. Prince- Algar. and modernization. viapower Hekmat. M. STUDIES IRANIAN 29 . A. Minnesota. M. Geographical Factors In the political bility in Iran.S. Wisconsin. Fishburne.S. A. Iran and the Cold War. Indiana.HISTORY Abrahamian. Heravi. D.S. G. U. U. Columbia.S. . Political and social role of the ulama In Cambridge. Qajar Persia. a study of snall behaviour. ANDSOCIOLOGY POLITICS. Russia and Persia (1890-1912) Florida. Columbia. Perslan relations in Iran. Mirheydar. Indiana. Cuba. aliens in International law-Iran. Alberts. J. Virginia. Tabari. J.. H. K. Social structure and cultural change in an Iranian Village (Davarabad). Rafat. Soviet politics Haddad. The social bases of the Tudeh Party (194153). Columbia. The Fedayan Islam. Ferdows. from the beginning until the end of World War 11. Howell. policy toward Iran (1959-63). Soviet policy and the. C. Nationalization of the private property of Indonesia. Adele. E. Columbia. Colorado.Entner. R.Kurds. Egypt. Cuff. H. W. (1856-1906) Relations between Iran and the U. Ghoreichl. Cross-cultural problems of Iranian students in the United States. Iranian politics ton.

M. Columbia Netzer. A study of the dependence upon alGhazali's Ihya' of the introduction and the first two 'Pillars' of the Persian Kimiya-i-Sa'adat. Cambridge. and Persian Javadi-Tabrizi. with special reference to the Nineteenth ceatury. A. of English Michigan. Shaked. Judo-Persian The scholars Edinburgh. S.LI TERATURE Atai. Contrastive study question signals. H. 30 . H. The Pahlavi literary influences. Edinburgh. andarz literature. The idea of Persia and Persian literary influence in English literature. P. of Nishapure. Spencer. 700-1225. Nouri. London.

Religion and Rebellion in Iran: Protest of 1891-182. The 1891-1892 protest movement against the granting of tobacco concession to an English company. But more important.-balanced treatnent of the subject. In an attempt to place the movement protesting the Tobacco Monopoly in its proper historical perspective. In her well.. It was the first successful mass protest against the unscrupulous foreign concessionaires and the greedy and unpopular Qajar monarch and his hated review FARHADKAZEMI The Tobacco Ltd. was the one granted in 1872 to Baron Julius de Reuter giving him monopoly over much of the country's resources. These concessions not only Increased the already wide influence of foreign agents in Iran. The most famous of these concessions. As Professor Keddie points out. Farhad Kazemi is a graduate student at Harvard University IRANIAN STUDIES 31 . Professor Keddie discusses the background to the protest movement itself and then draws interesting conclusions on its eventual success. Professor Keddle points to the rising popular discontent with Naser-ed Din Shah's free-wheeling grants of concessions to foreign agents in the perlod prior to the tobacco incident. This early victory against Reuter in many ways paved the way for the later tobacco protest. but they also made possible further exploitation of the people by the Shah and his government. the British refusal to support him. This phenomenonof religious-radical alliance was to recur later during the years 1905-1906 leading to the birth of the Iranian Constitution. 1966. 6).A.C. London: Frank Cass & Co. and some internal opposition forced the Shah to cancel the concession. Nikki R. the cancellation of the Reuter concession was significant in that it "called forth an internal protest which shook the Iranian government and forced the Shah to act In ways distastefull to himself. The fascinating story of the protest against the Tabacco Monopoly is told in clear and concise language by Professor Nikki Keddie of U. it marks the successful formation of a peculiar phenomenon in Iranian history--the alliance of the ulama with the modernizing reformers. The Russian opposition to Reuter. points to an extremely Important and interesting chapter In the Iranian history. Keddie.L." (p.

"it pointed the way to win victories from the government. giving him much credit for having begun the tactic of allying the ulama with the reformers against the government. (p. coming years. leaders whose opposition to the government masked very different aims--a legacy which still shows strong signs of life as late as the present. during the foreign influence did not subside. did not solve any of the original The concession was cancelled. Professor Keddie deserves credit for helping to fill this lacuna. enabled her to use source material not easily accessible to The result has been a fine analytical treatment of a others.. As it has already been pointed out. the tobacco movementwas a to foreign control. this small book is a sound scholarly volume on an important period of the Iranian Professor Keddie's knowledge of many languages has history. finally forced the frightened Shah to give in. significant episode in the modern history of Iran in that. In less detail she discusses MalkamKhan's ag'itation through his England-based publication. 133). On the contrary. 32 . Qanun. in spite of its victory. to put It In Professor Keddie's words. but the causes of discontent.Professor Keddie then discusses Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani's role during the tobacco episode." (P.15). was crucial during the whole affair since it also put a great deal of pressure on the Shah. it should be noted. The organized and coordinated campaign against smoking. and religious of peculiar coalitions of nationalists. subject which had not been treated adequately up to now. Professor Keddie concludes by saying that the tobacco protest. the country appeared to be succumbing even more Nevertheless. she nevertheless gives a great deal of credit to their efforts (especially Afghani's) against the Shah and the Tobacco Monopoly. The Russian opposition to the concession. it also left the ambiguous legacy reformers. Although Professor Keddie agrees that the exact influence of neither Afghani nor MalkamKhan can be measured.



rTmnIan Cbart




1966 SprInq




COUNCIL Ervand Abrahamian AlI Banuazizi, Secretary Hormoz Hekmat Abbas Heydari-Darafshian Farhad Kazemi, Treasurer Manoucher Parvin, President Majid Tehranian

IRANIAN STUDIES Ali Banuazizi, Editor Roy Mottahedeh, Associate Editor

IRANIAN STUDIES is published quarterly by The Society for Irdnian Cultural and Social Studies. It is distributed to members of the The price of single copies Society as a part of their membership. for non-members is $1.00 per issue. The opinions expressed by the contributors are those of the individual authors and lot necessarily those of the Society or the editors of IRANIAN STUDIES. Articles may be submitted in English or Persiai to the Editor for publication. All communications concerning IRANIANSTUDIES or the Society's affairs should be addressed to: The Society for Iranian Cultural and Social Studies (SICSS), P.O. Box 3384, Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, U.S.A.







recent hostilities have made North American social scientists less than welcome in while "Dperation Camelot" in Latin America --when many countries. exploiting his hosts without any serious thoughts of intellectual Latin reciprocity. have mounted so in recent years that the central problem for could soon become not what to North American social scientists study. rests solely with the author. Department of Defense funds were secretly employed to support allegedly the cause of honest social science "pure" research--did much harm. the rise of sternly nationalistic regimes in many non-western countries. the great unpopularity of America's undertakings in Viet Nam. In the Middle East. * The author wishes to express his thanks to Ali Banuazizi. has treated the country in which he worked as no more than a convenient stoppingplace on his way to a doctoral degree. Their investigations were made of Shiraz. political scientist. spent a year in Iran as Fulbright during 1966-67. The responsibility for the arguments advanced here and for any errors they may contain. The author He and his wife. not better. but I think that we North Americans should be prepared to admit that much of the responsibility is our own.SOCIAL-SCIENCE RESEARCH BY NORTH AMERICANS ABROAD: SOME REFLECTIONS* Sidney W. research fellows in villages west is Professor of Anthropology at Yale University. Mintz The break-up of colonial empires in Asia and Africa since World War II. toward North American research workers in foreign Hostility lands seems to spring from many sources. and one may expect the situation to grow worse. a linguist. however. Too often the North American anthroor sociologist pologist. in' the Province of Fars. and persisting international tensions have all contributed to the difficulties faced by American social scientists These difficulties engaged in research abroad. IRANIAN STUDIES 34 . Mintz and Majid Tehranian for their useful criticisms of earlier versions of this paper. Jacqueline W. but where to study.

and concerned not to expose his anxiety in this regard. validating their statuses and playing their roles appropriately at home. have probably happened. The writer has discovered the implications of this during nearly two decades of research experience in Latin America. North American colleagues. Since I spent less than a year in Iran. have vested interests of their own in dealing with visitors. one in which the host scholars. I am not equipped to 35 SPRING 1968 . he may feel somewhat insecure in the company of the visitor. sending back reprints. the local professor of social has much to defend in his dealings with his visiting science. and many of us have treated its countries and peoples in just this way. however. No doubt it sometimes happens that the visitor wishes to study precisely what his host has been wanting to do for years but could not. he may feel out of touch with developments in his own speciality. can be interpreted as reveal ing an "imperial istic" attitude toward the host country on the part of the foreign researcher. after all.--may be forgotten. without lecturing (if invited) at their institutions. without learning the national Even language. The social scientist abroad. even if these do not include a higher degree. his host-colleagues must look ahead to their own security long after he is gone. and anxious to establish his own credentials of competence. When these slights etc.America. they are doubly damaging. American social scientists abroad may be subject to a certain amount of tension or inhospitality that is not precisely their fault--even though I would continue to argue that we sometimes deserve what we get. are probably not attributable to North American sins. is but a special kind of tourist. perhaps. The local anthrothe local museum director. And above all. If his library is poor. for lack of funds and time. for instance--and it strikes this writer as stunningly disingenuous to deny that the relationship of this vast area to the United States is quasi-colonial in character--used to be called "our back yard". such things. pologist. For these and other reasons. the host must be careful to guard against the criticisms of his fellow-nationals-the harshest of which may be that he is excessively deferential to foreigners. or if his administrative obligations are heavy. We may think nothing of "doing research" in a Latin American country without paying respects to our foreign colleagues. fundamental courtesies--letters of thanks. to put it another way. farewel l visits. He must assure himself that the North American is not trying to take his job away from him. Some aspects of the hostility of the host. If he has not completed his doctoral training. The social scientist abroad must realize that he is moving into a pre-existing structure of intellectual and academic life.

The first is that North American social scientists in Iran do well to take note of the historical relationto western lands. and France still the stands very high--if not at the pinnacle--in of Iranian view of western cultural achievements. for example. it deserves to be--even though I believe that the popular stereotype of "the English" is far less favorable than that of "the French. An older generation of Iranian intellectuals. One has the feeling--l IRANIAN STUDIES 36 . The stereotype "the French people. At the present time. symbolized by events too recent and too telling here." in attitudes Differences toward Frenchmen and Englishmen--assuming that this argument has any merit--may hinge in part on the differing historical roles of their respective nations in Iranian affairs. Of course." I suspect. conceivable too. French culture was surely that segment of western learning most admired by the Iranian intellectual community of half a century ago. as more Iranians receive their educations in the it is United States and become familiar with American culture. the French international posture probably the favor with which French cultural reinforces achievements are regarded: French recognition of the national aspirations of other peoples. The work is similarly profoundly or at length with so sensitive and subtle a topic in discussing that country. and of the ship of that ancient civilizaiion effects of that relationship on the intellectual ambiance. symbolized by the disengagement in Algeria and the momentous earlier withdrawal from Viet Nam. that this society. And prefatory to any other remarks I may make. tially is far more favorably disposed to French culture and to the French language. or in Iranian schools which followed an essenFrench system of education. a different image emerges. indeed. and French for national pride and independence from the United struggles to require States. of English scholars is also highly regarded--as. trained in the great universities of France. than toward any comparable western intellectual tradition. will receive some credit for of the United States in conits achievements. But the position to some extent against temporary world affairs may militate fuller recognition of its intellectual accomplishments at this claim no more for it than that--that time. repetition When one turns from what may be inferred about attitudes toward Frenchmen and Englishmen to what may be inferred about attitudes toward the North Americans. I think it would be fair to say --in spite of the absence of any reliable sociological evidence-that Iranian intellectual attitudes toward the West have been shaped in good part by the educational experiences of that nation's middle and upper classes. But perhaps a few points may be made in connection with this general theme. for instance. I would like to stress that my reception in Iran by colleagues in the social sciences was for the most part warm and reassuring.

toward the United States is something else But the attitude in Middle Eastern oil and politics. nor by any means altothese undertakings are not altogether validate the American pregethernecessarily bad. It is often assumed by many foreigners. none of us is. and positions of amusement as anything else. Well. to the case of us North Americans. American power gives play to great imaginativreness in intellectual circles.A. of other foreign powers there. though rarely stated publicly. limited to Iranians. affairs. heavily engaged in defining and consolidating its interests everywhere. by-no means many of us. and that curious informality as deliberate that typifies impoliteness) misread. into the unprovable is called for This momentary digression need rationales in and anti-that because people who are pro-this advancing their arguments." and who feels that he is not carrying one. It is hardly enough to be anti-English one has to be able to say why. Iranian foreign policy is sensibly relations. it may be useful superficially the roles vis-a-vis reflect upon America's role in Iranian life. and that we are lacking in "culture"--a not usefully countered by losing our tempers. (often North American wealth. is now seen as a declining The attitude toward the at least by many Iranians.the current Iranian stereotype of "the Americans" takes into account America's great economic and military might. the gaucherie and apparent "openness" of the North American abroad. China committed to an improvement in Irano-Soviet in any public foreign policy statements. the Peace Corps. establish but it is nonetheless for us as individuals to difficult convince others of our bona fides in today's world. And the corres(quite ponding attitude toward the United States often carries appropriately. is as much one of Arab states. hardly figures Englandi at times as the arch-imperialthough conjured up retrospectively force in Iranian and world ist power. Though Iran shares a long border its recovery of celebrates with the Soviet Union (and still Azerbaijan after World War II). In or anti-French or anti-Russian. military advisers and military equipment--while new. are cause for some nervousness. though the policies the U. 37 SPRING 1968 . that our accomplishments are all of a charge technical order. it seemed to me) a sense of being subjected to an over-arching power. American interests both governmental and private. who is lectured accusingly by everyone about "You and impelled to empty his pockets to your atom bomb. I am reminded of a Saul Bellow character on a fellowship in Europe. Hence contexts are provided in Iran in and the obviousness of which it is popular to be anti-American. again.R. unfortunately. American developmental undertakings. they certainly sence and the show of American authority in Iran.

really can have practical Such data. utility.I suppose I am suggesting that the creative anti-American is automatically provided with good field position when confronted by the visiting North American social scientist. I could not take the necessary time to accommodate. and properly train a fledgling assistant in the field. may be gathered by local nationals and the like. special effort i was amused while in Iran to have been invited to give a public lecture on "The role of the in American life"--hardly a topic on which I can claim military any professional competence. I respectfully declined invitations to take to the field with me young Iranian social science students as assistants. even after having made clear well in advance. can be a double-edged sword. anthropologists.. of course. political scientists. it may be worth remarking that both invitations came from scholars who had received their graduate social-science educations abroad. and by mail. and enjoy doing their research there. etc. who are social scientists. they are interested IRANI" STUDIES 38 . data may be gathered through the research of scientists employed by International bodies. and that. given the brevity of my stay. but in another. I was accused of "academic imperialism. and hence might be expected to understand that one of the most difficult and demanding teaching assignments in social science is in-the-field training. I explained in each case that I cannot carry out my field research through an interpreter. on two separate occasions. as in the case of Fredrik Barth's brilliant work on the Basseri of Iran for UNESCO. One scholar did understand this. my refusal was matter-of-factly accepted. Since my personal view of the American adventure in Viet Nam is extremely negative. But whether or by foreigners. Since the invitation came from an Iranian social scientist who knew I was an anthropologist rather than a sociologist or political scientist. Additional working through universities. But programmed anti-Americanism Planners have been discovering in recent years that social science research really does have relevance to planning design.. of lectures in anthropology. after refusing. Some examples may illuminate this suggestion. and I was indirectly taken to task accordingly. When. I was led to speculate whether I was seeing imaginative anti-Americanism in action. it was apparently interpreted as disdainful and chauvinistic on my part." I was made to wonder whether possibly my refusal was nearly as useful as my acceptance would have been. the other either did not--or would I was also urged in one instance to give a full semester not. that basic information from sociologists. introduce. that the terms of my grant and of my sabbatical leave forbade this. institutes. and since I make no to conceal my opinions. that census statistics do not provide all of the answers. data will be gathered by local nationals collected primarily by scholars who choose to work in Iran because in Iran. In this same connection. Again. In one such case.

is no in Iran--with possibly unfortunate consequences. One of the more promising aspects 39 SPRING 1968 . other than higher salaries. the initiation conditions to delay tipon research opportunities. It cannot be forced. is that value so highly their freedom to carry on research. research cannot be computerized. work permits. with no particular practical goal in mind. whether in Iran or elsewhere. To assist--consonant with the requirements of his research plan and the terms of his grant--with the planning of courses. longer feasible scientific One keeps in mind that the international community is really a very small one. of research. for research opportunities--including etc. the word. this case. thorough--and initially. once he has returned to his own institution. to attach a quid pro quo to every permission granted. As Hogben once suggested. interest however obscure (or ludicrous) this may And the only way to expedite the research of seem to others. only a trivial percentage of the data will be employed in the actual but those data'can be made to "emerge" only by a engineering. there. impartial. when his foreign colleagues the United States. The production of monographs and books is but the production of significant easy enough for the facile.--more rather than less so. an entire desert may have to be surveyed in order best to determine where to run a railroad line across it. to give lectures on his research and on his discipline. North American--social So far as the foreign--in scientist the host country and to is concerned. But no one does first-rate in his subject. seemingly wasteful--investigation beforehand. When the survey is completed. Scientists due to a variety of causes.take on their This is not the least bit mysterious. It seems to me that. some of them research directions research without a genuine fortuitous. patient. to play the host in turn. Nor can scholars be told what to investigate. the preparation of bibliographies. could lead eventually to a widely-held understanding that unfetsocial science research by foreigners tered. his obligationsto his colleagues are clear. just as social scientists would like to feel as welcome and unfettered as possible in their research abroad. "gets around. so must they also be prepared to welcome such research by outsiders in their homelands. and the integration of his intellectual hosts with the wider scientific community. scientists Social science research at its best is a creative undertaking. many of the most significant findings in social science have emerged as by-products of research freely undertaken. To impose too many available." One reason for the brain drain. the completion of their scientific scholars and to accelerate is to make the prerequisites undertakings when they are foreigners here visas. Moreover. to maintain visit communication. that is.

drain" danger is real. did not dislike count upon them to permit us to work in Iran again. each day. cordiality such international abroad will be judged more and North American social scientists rather than in terms of their more on their individual merits. along the muddy streets As we remember rme saebzi. that return to their parent institutions. together over a tasty abgoosht or them. Chicago and Berkeley proudly count many The "brain Latin American academicians among their faculties. lived--and and we hope they true. the Latin American research in our universities. we will have no worries. were pitifully such as Yale. engaged in teaching and research in our academic social scientists few. to make up their minds about us personally. institutions community. pursued by their government. For when one comes back to the fundamentals. as long as they can communicate honestly and cooperin the pursuit of the truth. Though we have been back in the United States for half a year now. too--that will be reciprocated. now. it is they gave most freely. but many of these scholars come to give us the benefit of their knowledge for a semester or a year. and were so happy to help. and teach us how they of any other Iranians--that They had plenty of time. IRANIAN STUDIES 40 . atively Since this is commonly accepted to be the case among scientists. we think that they remember us. and of national politics at its best rises above considerations It should matter not at all to fellow-biodifferences. Of them we asked more than they take us in. and then The hope is. We were month from the villagers in getting to know many kind and warm Iranian very fortunate people in all walks of life. Harvard. or the policies national origins. a receive (and answer) perhaps as many as six letters we still with whom we lived and worked. of course. If we have only to too much of what they saw. for example. cultural that their cultural backgrounds or fellow-anthropologists logists from of their homelands--make them different --or the policies each other.of the North American picture in this regard is the constantly and carrying on increasing number of foreign scholars visiting Two decades ago. but we remember best the folk we saw or sitting of "our" villages. good will matters community scientific The international perhaps more than all else. we were very moved to discover that "ordinary" Iranians understood so well what we were doing among them.

Linguists consider Kurdish to be a northwestern Iranian language and therefore quite distinct from Persian. Within this extensive. The basic question concerning the origin of the Kurds is this: are they the descendants of the original inhabitants of all or a part of this extensive area or did they come to this area at an undetermined date from an undetermined place? Furthermore.THE ORIGINS AND APPEARANCE PRE-ISLAMIC IRAN OF THE KURDS IN John Limbert At present the Kurds occupy parts of Turkey. In these western Iran in the Kermanshah and beyond last areas. Syria and the USSR. One English traveller asked John Limbert is a Ph. Our evidence about the history of the Kurds is very scarce. the historic road from Baghdad to Hamadan divides the Kurds from their Iranian cousins. I ran.D. mountainous area the Kurds speak an Iranian language divided into two groups of dialects--northern Kurdish. We are concerned with the history of the Kurdish people. The name "Kurdestan" did not appear until the time of the Seljuqs. Within the Kurdish areas there are linguistic minorities such as the Gurani of Iran and the Zaza of Turkey who consider themselves Kurdish. wherever they appear. what. As the map shows. can be found about the situation of the Kurds in pre-Islamic Iran? We must be careful to distinguish between the history of the Kurds and the history of Kurdestan. and southern Kurdish. called Kurdi. The dividing line between these two groups of dialects run roughly from the southwest corner of Lake Rezaiyeh to the town of Rowanduz in northern Iraq. or Kurmandji. and what does exist is often of little value. I raq. a southwestern language. 41 SPRING 1968 . if anything. candidate in History and Middle Eastern Studies at Harvard University. the area in which the Kurds predominate is a long arc extending roughly northwest to southeast in a band of varyi ng width from cent ra I Turkey to and Shahabad regions. but whomlinguists insist speak a non-Kurdish Iranian language. the Lurs.

Turkish. Ashurbanipal. peoples. Some in spite of the Kurds' obvious links with the Iranian scholars. and At Soleimaniyeh. To for human save some of the youths. and there may wel1 have been non-Iranians who also became Mahabad.1 At present there are Iranians other than Kurds living in Kurdish areas. recorded that he had passed the village of Nazanom. Persian. have even claimed that they have found a Kurdish nose that looks like the nose in the relief of the Assyrian king Others have felt Thus the Kurds are the Assyrians. and Armenian neighbors. protect the tyrant two young people were killed every day. mingle with foreigners. of the Kurds among The classification the Iranian nations is based mainly on data and does and historical linguistic not prejudice the fact there is a complexity of ethnical elements incorporated in them. a peasant the name of a nearby village. Thus to which had to be fed fresh brains. newcomers dominating older inhabitants IRANIAN STUDIES 42 . The Origin of the Kurds The Shahnameh of Ferdowsi relates the popular Iranian version The tyrant Zahh5k had two snakes growing of the Kurds' origin. language (although sometimes just barely so) over a wide area but within a single tribe there may be a wide variety of racial types. common language in no and geographical--but do have is linguistic The Kurds speak a mutually intelligible way implies a common race. writes. mountains and became the original Some Kurdish tribes have given themselves Arab origins--Arab and tribes would go to the mountains. What evidence we concerning the Kurds. the Kurds have absorbed characteristics Arab. dutifully The traveller Nazanom (Kurdish for 'I don't knov'). evidence because of the complete lack of anthropological tunately. out of his shoulders. like that.The peasant answered. sheeps' brains were substituted brains and about four hundred young people thus saved fled to the Kurds. such things can be written. part of the Kurdish population. factual basis when we consider that the Kurds are apparently not Minorsky homeogeneous. there has been observed a social stratification in a feudal relationship. but an amalgam of various ethnic elements. from their Furthermore. since the Kurdish women are tall and attractive UnforGeorgian women. based on Qotur. the Kurds are a branch of the Georgians. may have a These Arab geneologies forget their mother tongue.

~ : 43 .

a people mentioned in Sumerian tablets century B.C. Kardu may be root QRD*.. Kardu which would be an Iranian interpretation or Qardu.C. Eumenes of Pergamum. and Livy mention them sources the name Kyrtiae appears--Polybius first for an enemy of Rome around 190 B. of the local name. fighting as mercenaries.C. The initial K or Kardu may actually (kardu-karduw) and Kyrti. for the people l iving in present-day Iraqi Kurdestan whom his army fought on its retreat in 401 B. and the relationship.. However. or in Kar-da-ka (or as early as the twenty-fourth of about 2000 B. Kyrtiae. i.C.. the obvious geographical of the Kardukhoi as wild mountain fact that Xenophon's description tribesmen not recognizing outside authority matches in many feature! the habits of the Kurds as recorded in later histories. the Centrites apparently an Armenian plural ending of Kardu.The "Kurdishness" of this entire area may actually diverse peoples.C.2 believed that the modern Kurds were direct Older scholarship This view was based on the similardescendants of the Kard5khoi. this view has been widely disputed since the beginnFor it has been recognized that any ing of the twentieth century. name Kurd probably comes from the Persian Gord.. ity of the names. that affiliations. According to Xeonophon. meaning brave or strong. represent I. name Corduene or Gordiaea for the area that is now Turkish Kurdestan. from the name of the Guti. in which case there is a connection with the Semitic Furthermore. and later for an al ly of Rome around 170 B. regardless of its racial and linguistic lives in the mountains bordering Mesopotamia will have about the IRANIAN STUDIES 44 . related to Kart'veli. imposed on ancient. The the indigenous name for the Georgians. people. the Seleucid Antiochus I I I. philologists from Kurd by reason of the final short older terms are distinct Kardu vowel which is part of the root of these words. be a unity The word of the word Kurd is not certain. for Xenophon writes In later that he learned the name of the tribe from an Armenian.D. Strabo mentions Kyrtiae in Media He also uses the Atropatane (Azarbaijan) and in Persis (Fars). The derivation is Iranian and appears in the Sassanian epic Karnamak-eitself It also appears among the Arabs at the time Ardashir-e-Papakan.e. Xenophon Qar-da-ka) in Sumerian inscriptions uses the name Kardukhoi. between the words Kurd In spite of the apparent similarity feel that the and Kardu. and Corduene. of the conquests of the seventh century A. meaning "hero". with its Arabic Some scholars have suggested that the word comes plural akr5d. these Kardukhoi lived as far north as The kh ending of their name is (Bohtan) River.

who made war on a tribe called the Amada. In this shadowy period the Iranian Medes may have absorbed the settled Manneans of Iranian Kurdestan. in an inscription of the Assyrian king Salemnasr.C. this is very interesting. since according to Herodotus the western frontier of the Median empire was the Halys River (Kizil Irmak). This fact suggests that there was an ancient and powerful language from which the dialects evolved. overthrew eventually the Assyrians in 612 B. that displacement of pre-Islamic times. was the same as "Dia'aku" who is reported to be a chief of the Manneans in Assyrian courses at the time of Sargon I (c.C. apparently stood in the same relation to old Persian as Kurdish does to modern Persian. that is.4 45 SPRING 1968 . organized the Median kingdom. cf which we have very few traces. Although some scholars have dismissed the Kurds' claim of Median descent.same manner of life. who.C. 715 B. The first mention of them in the sources is in 844 B. Kurdish could well be descended from the Median language or languages which spread into Asia Minor after the fall of the Assyrian empire in 612 B. the older view confuses the Kurdish people with Kurdestan. as Herodotus describes. for example. according to Herodotus. peoples was an important part of Achemenian policy.C. The 'ranian scholar Rashid Yasami (himself a Kurd) says that Deio-es. Furthermnore. one of which is called "the language of the Medians. and who later were absorbed by Cyrus the Achemenian into his empire of the "Medes and the Persians. The Kurds could have been formed by amalgamations among Iranian and non-Iranian indigenous tribes as the former moved west from the Persian plateau into the Zagros mountains and the anti-Taurus ranges of Turkey. who.3 The Median language. contains a monophysite liturgical prayer in seven languages. which lived east of the Assyrians both in the mountains of present-day Iranian Kurdestan and on the plateau further to the east. All Kurdish dialects have maintained the-basic characteristics of Kurdish despite the wide -dispersion of the tribes. Geographically. probably copied from a much older work. The Kurds themselves ciaim to be descendants of the Medes (Persian Mad). northwest to southwest Iranian." This language is a North Iranian dialect which affinities to North Kurdish (Kurmandii)." We have very little information about the Medes. which is just about as far west as Kurds are found today. and geographical linguistic evidence supports these claims. assuming that the area presently inhabited by Kurds has always been so occupied and ignores the migrations and other shifts of populations that occurred in We know.). An Armenian manuscript of the fifteenth century.

.C. not only were the Kurds of Fars a major support of Sassanian power. writing in the middle of the tenth century A.). He cites as evidence the Persian historian Beihaqi (c. Khorasan. The historians Mas'udi and Istakhri.D. used as infantry. the founder of IRANIAN STUDIES 46 . and auxiliaries.In central Kurdestan there of different nationalities Minorsky says. the present word for Minorsky also speculates North Kurdish. the Mardi Zescendants of the Manneansff and the Kyrtiae ?f the Bohtan areg7 who spoke Median dialects very close to each other. Rashid Yasami believes that the Kurds' original home was Fars. could have been an Iranization of tribes but bearing a similar name (Kardu). The theory of Kurdish east-to-west migration is an attractive one.5 that Kurmandj. 1000 A. and Fars as well as in Kurdestan D. It is certain that in their expansion to the west the Kurds incorporated many indigenous elements. especially as the Median capital of Ekbatan (Hamadan) was located east of present Kurdish areas. tell of Kurds living in Kerman. Kurdestan. what is now Iraqi Kurdestan was not yet Kurdish. the painters the Kurds (akrad) of has something the wise men of of Ch. but the Medes are picked men in the cavalry.. But there is no way we can establjsh how or when the Kurds spread west of the Median portion of tie Iranian plateau. The "Kurds" of Fars The Arab and Persian historians who wrote during the early centuries of Islam frequently mentioned Kurds living outside of in Fars.. Each reason and area associated with it: Greece. It is very interesting that Livy separates the Kyrtiae from the Medes when both are fighting against Rome in the army of Antiochus At that time (190 B. We can only guess that at the time of Xenophon. It is very possible that the Kurdish nation is formed from the union of two tribes. According to Yasami. represents the union of Kurd with Mede and Mannean. especially According to these histories. the Kurds had lived in many places outside of Kurdestan in Sassanian times.) the Kyrtiae are mercenaries. Sistan. III.and Fars. but Ardashir I.

according to istakhri. But before the beginning of the twentieth century. as Madi. or southwest Iranian. Both the Shahnameh and the Karnamak-e-Ardashir tell of Ardashir's defeat by and eventual conquest of the Kurds. 47 SPRING 1968 . they might have been. He says that Sasan. Such southwest dialects as Luri and Bakhtiari are much more closely related to Persian than to Kurdish. or Shab5nk5reh. no basic distinction was recognized between Kurdish and Luri. northwest Iranian. who.8 Only recently h&ve these two languages been found to follow the N.W. there is simply no trace of Kurdish One of speakers at presetn either in Fars or on its borders. married Ram Behesht of the Bazanjan Kurds. Of course it is impossible to prove that the tribes of Fars were not true Kurds. was himself a Kurd. supporters in his revolt against Ardavan V. were one of the five Kurdish tribes of Fars. and Their son Pgpak took advantage of his Kurdish connections sent his son Ardashir as governor to Darabgerd (Darab).the empire. But in the Karnamak account Ardashir makes war on the Kurds of the land of Masi.W. Furthermore. perhaps related to mDdern Luri. five Kurdish tribes of Fars is the Jiloya. 0 son of a Kurd. but distinct Iranian tribes speaking southwest Iranian dialects. Ardashir's grandfather. In the Shahnameh account Ardashir wars with the Kurds before subduing the neighboring areas of the reference is probably to the Kerman and S. which was the center of the Chupanan. If we reconstruct the ancient linguistic division. who gave you permission to put a crown on your head?7 However.-S. After Ardashir had proclaimed himself king of kings. You've bitten off more than you can chew and you have brought death to yourself. then the Kurds of the north spoke a language related to Median--that is. at present istakhri's there is a Lur tribe in the same area with the name Kuh-Giluyeh. or Mede-Persian division. an area in Kurdestan. raised in the tents of the Kurds. it is more likely that the groups are and that the tribes of Fars are not true Kurds. the Arsacid ruler. and the "Kurds" of the south spoke a language related to Persian.istan--therefore Kurds of Fars. Ardavan wrote an insulting letter to him which called attention to Ardashir's Kurdish ancestry. Sadeq Hedayat. not all Kurds supported Ardashir. which the translator and editor. the large federation of tribes to which the Banzanjan belonged and who had been Sasan's These same Kurds of Fars now became Ardashir's original protectors. interprets Although it is possible that the Kurds of Fars are related to the tribes of Kurdestan.

migrating from the east. but were nomadic tribes speaking Southwest Iranian dialect related to-modern Luri and Persian. jolly-good-fellows cowardly Persians) has resulted in an outing. to Iranian nomads--accordnomad. outgoing. who absorbed various elements from the indigenous population of the Zagros unity upon them. but were Iranian nomads speaking dialects related to Persian. From what has been said. he is calling Ardashir an ignorant since in effect more insulting. mountains and imposed a linguistic there is no basis for and geographically Linguistically between Kurds and Medes. it should be clear that the early with any certainty. making a distinction The Kurds that the Islamic historians mention as living in South and Southwest Persia were probably not true Kurds." Kurds of Fars of Sassanian times were certain) that the so-called not true Kurds at all . nonsense. Ardavan V's letter becomes ethnic connotations.whose origin and whose time of coming to Fars are unknown. of all is the fact that Kurd in the older Most conclusive Persian or Arab sense meant simply nomad with no particular In this case. double-dealing. the Persians called the Mesopotamian Thus it is reasonable (but hardly Arabs the "Kurds of Suristan. 2) IRANIAN STUDIES 48 . conclusions: 1) The Kurds were formed by an amalgamation of Northwest Iranians. The term was not even restricted ing to a tenth century work. propounding wild theories pouring of pseudo-scholarly But we can draw two that can never be conclusively disproved. history of the Kurds cannot be reconstructed of evidence and the romanticizing of the scarcity Unfortunately. the Kurds by Americans and Europeans (they are seen as straighin opposition to the connivforward.

Kurds. 7 Ibid. 8 171. of the Kurds. Minorsky. Encyclopedia of Islam. "Kurds".. 70. Rashid. Les Kurdes.. 49 SPRING 196& . cit. p.N. op.FOOTNOTES V.. 172-3. a sixteenth century history cal ls the Lurs a branch of the Kurds. 1132. 4 Yasami. 5 Cited by B. 3 MacKenzie. 6 Y5sami. The Sharafnameh. 12. and Driver. "The Language of the Medians". see 2-To follow the derivation of the name in more detail. D. Minorsky. Nikitine. Nikitine. 354-5.

Literary A. Teheran. The Persian Wars Livy. yal Asiatic Society. London: Oxford Press. Sharafnameh. Turks." JRAS. 7. 491-513. ( Complete History of Kurdestan). Geography Xenophon. 1921. Teheran: e-Kurdestan. Xi. Hassan. 1951. Fars Army of Iran. editor and translator. "The Name Kurd and Its Philological Associations. (Dictionary of Iranian Geography) Teheran: Army In Persian. Persian. Pahlavi Sources Karnamak-eHedayat. I1. pp. The Kurds.BIBLIOGRAPHY I. History of Rome Polybius. Sources (published by the Loeb Classical Sources Classical Library) Herodotus.. Bidlisi. 1966. Vol." Journal of the Oct. IRANIAN STUDIES 50 . and African Studies. J "Studies in Kurdish History. translated 3rd edition. Driver.. and Arabs. C. Tarikh-e-MofassalAmir Sharaf Khan. Sadeq. (Book of the deeds of Ardashir.J.R. n.d. Anabas i s B.. 393-403. London: OUP. "Dispersion of the Kurds in Ancient Times. Edmonds. 563-572. Other Sources Arfa. Elmi. Histories Strabo. from Pahlavi into modern son of P3pak).. pp. Ardashir-e-Papakin. 3 (T92275 Kurds. Farhang-e-Geographia-ye-Iran. 1957. . G. Geographical Division. 1923." Bulletin of the School of Oriental pp. 1963.

University of the Province of "Description . Sciences. the direct descents of the Guti. UNESCO. "Kurds" in The Encyclopedia account. Vi lchevski. BSOAS. the Kassites. Institute. "The Language of the Medians." pp. 1961. pp. 354-5. U. Cambridge: 1905. I I. 209-231. PP. but excellent _ of Islam. (Kurds. 865-90. 311-340." 195) Lane." JRAS. pp. Press. Rashid. 73-80. LXXV(1945).. 1948. Les Kurdes. In Persian. and history. Tribes lation April. "The Guran. pt. Kurdi (Kurds). Their Historical This book. "The Place Scene. D. Kord. 0. Teheran. V. translator. Academy of va Tarikhi-ye-u. Fars in Persia at the Beginning of the 12th Century A. Translated from a manuscript of Ibn-al-Balkhi. Peivastegi-ye-Nezhadi and Racial Connections) Teheran. Kurds and Kurdistan. D. Iranshahr (The Land of Iran). Anthropological Basil.D. _. A concise. 1930.S. pp. written by an Iranian Kurd..N. Paris. n. Nikitine. G. In Persian." XXII (1959). of the Kurds in the Middle Eastern Royal Central Asian Society Journal XLV (Apri . Arshak. (First published. The author holds the theory that the Kurds were the inhabitants of modern Kurdestan and as such original and others. MacKenzie.S." pp.R.." JRAS of the Farsnameh. 1895-6)..) LeStrange. 1 (1943). lith. 1912. 51 SPRING 1968 . Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. BSOAS. account of Kurdish origins well-reasoned is a fascinating. Minorsky. G. London. 75-103.d. Yasami. 53. Teheran. 1956. 1-30. 2 volumes. 1923. Leningrad: In Russian. 1p41 on the Nomad Austin "Hajji Mirza Hasan-e-Shirazi (A transof Fars in the Fars-Nameh-e-Nasiri . 1963. Journal of the Royal "Tribes of Western Iran. Saf rastian.

Her funeral. her poetry gives an unabashed expression to desires and perceptions that have been long hidden in Iranian women because of their oppressive social conditions. Houshang Ebtehaj (Sayeh). and. Mgder N5derpour.and those of her generation. But Forough Farrokhzad avoids the of parochialism. and Sepehri. She exposes the social injustices. She was one of a group of young modernist lead in breaking away from the poets who followed Nima Youshij's mold of Iran's powerful classical tradition in poetry by writing in 1 blank verse and dealing with the live problems of their age. Ahmad Shamlu (imdid). With raw and powerful imagery. according to those who knew her well. above all. both her own. however. and warm in her as in her poetry. 1934-1967. cratic imbecilities. She deals with the problems of alienation. pitfalls she goes far beyond the quaintness of an outspoken poetess breaking traditional taboos by lustily celebrating her sensuality. mocks the bureauunmasks the social hypocrisies. Fereydoun Taval lol i. and her daring modernism. friendships Her untimely death in an automobile accident a year ago shocked attended by thousands of people the whole of Tehran. the more significant be-. IRANIAN STUDIES 52 . Attractive. was one of the city's greatest public displays of genuine grief in recent years. She also has social and philosophical concerns. from all walks of life. Farrokhzad's contribution was. Tamimi. Siavash Kasrai. uninhibited. an she was as sensitive. Atashi. stood out in at least two regards: her womanhood. expressing her own yearnings for a world to come 1 The leading figures among these modernist poets include: Mehdi Akhavan-Sales (Omid). Farrokhzad's place in modern Persian poetry is still a matter of critical examination. Yadol l ah Royai (Roy-i). Mehdi Tehrani ( Azad). iconoclast. cause she also spoke as a woman.FOROUGH FARROKHZAD: THE BITTER LOSS Among leading contemporary Iranian poets. sexual fetters were broken by her only to set her forth on further adventures of the mind and the spirit. the despair and anguish of human separation. Forough Farrokhzad. exuberant.

and a student of Persian art and literature. visceral. in the elevation of her themes. Although she did write some poetry of despair. No. she is. the least alienated in her ten years as a ted modern Persian poets.T. The following poems are drawn from Farrokhzad's last collection of poatry published under the title of one of her better-known digar (Rebirth). She is. and simplicity does with utter honesty and a great sense of personal immediacy. Despite the universality of her themes. in the end. Her imageries arise from the pulse of ordinary life in Iran. affected. Her affirmation and earthly. love. 2 For an anthology of Farrokhzad's own self-evaluation as well as her friends' elegies on the occasion of her death. And ail this she where freedom. M. 2. life asserts itself. Esfand 1345. and in the depth of her understanding. tavallodi These poems. here again. perhaps. poet. She even made a successful excursion into another artistic medium of expression. of life is exuberant. a gradiate of Radcliffe College.shall reign. have been sensitively translated into English-by Miss Anita Spertus. Vol. poems. she grows by leaps and bounds in craftsmanship. along with a numnber of others. 53 SPRING 1968 . her unique perception of life as a woman asof the alienaserts itself. While the present poems cannot show the whole of Farrokhzad's poetic range. the least and the most Persian of the Persian modernist poets. 13. directing a documentary film on a leprosarium which won her considerable 2 critical acclaim. And above all. see Arash. perhaps. they are representative of some of her major thematic concerns in her maturest stage of development.

wrth air. between the pupils rabbit of my eyes. from the slit like bubbles filled of my eyelids. it would go down into the dark forests IRANIAN STUIES 54 . days peaceful full full days those skies those those groves houses of glitter of cherries on one another over green ivy fences kites leaning of playful Those roofs those streets giddy with the perfume of locust trees Those days have passed those days when. there was a restless of joy: each daybreak it would go out with the aged sun seeking and at night new fields. My eye drank up all like fresh milk--- that it fell it was as if.THOSE DAYS Those days have passed those those fine full. upon rushed out my songs.

. 0 o 51. o4 L~jtJac~ ~Lbu.j Ass(1O 55 . L' s.jT ubiv . 5 s A56 e sLa t 5 o 5 T & W9.)" T }.

ah. panes of glass--- of flying brought drowsiness the lines that cancelled my old exercises IRANIAN STUDIES 56 . I would gaze out endlessly: My pure snow.Those days have passed those snowy silent days when. would come down softly on the old wooden ladder on the thin clothes-line on the tresses rope of the aged pines And I would think of tomorrow. It would begin with the rustle with the appearance in the door frame of an indistinct shadow her free in the coldness of light. far from my mother's I would erase sight. tomorrow a white slippery form of my grandmother's veil. like soft fluff. doves which suddenly would set and with the wandering pattern on the colored tomorrow The warmth of the korsi Quickly and fearlessly. from behind the window pane in a warm room.

-. Uy 4.z .&44o.. 4q? )). L?+ 'U1 * 1y9 45j4L*jS )y)T 57~~~~_ 5 . zr-.. ?)s*))r .X sAA .

modest company of the wild narcissus the city that waiting that trembling in the silent that would visit on the last The calls morning of winter in the long streets were splashes of green of pedlars IRANIAN STUDIES 58 .When the snow slept I would walk saddened in the little At the base of the pots of withered I would bury my dead sparrows Those days have passed those days of enchantment and wonder those days of sleep and wakefulness garden jasmine those days when every shadow held a secret and every closed box concealed a treasure of noon Every corner of a closet was a world unto itself Anyone not afraid in the silence of the dark was a hero in my eyes Those days have passed those festive days for sun and flowers at a scent.

(5Jl s) A& 0T Q. .sg1_J1 ) tbj~) O )a1. t a63l37 59 .- C.W3Jt9j5LIA.

would stretch out and fuse with all the momentsalong the way. and it would turn round in the eyes of the dolls The bazaar---Mother would go swiftly toward the colored fluid forms and would return with gift packages.The bazaar was afloat in wafting smells. would call another hand from behind a wall. beauty of a we would sing our love in the dust of the street Wewere acquainted with the simple language of floral messengers Wewould bring our hearts to a garden of innocent friendliness IRANIAN STUDIES 60 . in the pervading odor of coffee and fish The bazaar would unroll under one's feet. and little and love repeated in a greeting full of shyness On warmsmoke-filled afternoons spots of ink on this trembling quivering fearful hand. with a flower. with baskets full The bazaar was rain that would fall and fall and fall Those days have passed those days of wonder at the secrets of the body those days of cautious acquaintance---the blue-veined hand that.

sJxolG61vj .4 s .j L Fj 9jI2j *.cL-G . :SseAS. s ~ ~ 45DA .. .

Now is a lonely IRANIAN STUDIES 62 . would pass among us with messages of kisses that quivering feeling which. and we would be enraptured with the burning quickness of our breaths and our beating hearts and stolen smi les Those days have passed those days like plants which decay in the sun decayed with the rays of the sun And lost are those streets giddy with the perfume of locust trees in the noisy And the girl crowds of the one-way streets who used to color alas. Now is a lonely woman. woman. her cheeks with geranium petals. suddenly would surround us to the trees. in the darkness of a corridor.and would be grateful and a ball It was love.

MJ 5 L t >. 63 .oLrL L.i) bj)o Lr..) Lo .

.. Behind this window the night is trembling. IRANIAN STUDIES 64 .. alas the wind has a rendezvous with the leaves of trees In my small night rests the fear of ruin Listen.THE WIND WILL CARRY US AWAY In my small night. Do you hear the blowing of the darkness? I look at this good luck like a stranger I am accustomed to my hopelessness Listen. which at any momentmight fall.. Do you hear the blowing of the darkness? In the night now something is happening: the moon is red and disturbed and above this roof. the clouds like the crowds of mourners seem to await the momentof rain A moment and after that---nothIng.

5 vl *A ) 5 3o S K l > _A .?.. ?5 )o a-Y' 01 65 l j .lt) ) r? ? hr 4SbAr ~~~~s).

uneasy Oyou are green all over. you and away with it The wind will carry us away.and the earth stands still in its course Vague things lie behind this window. IRANIAN STUDIES 66 . put your hands like a burning memoryin my loving hands and entrust your lips like a warmsense of life to the caresses of loving lips The wind will carry.

3 67 .13L 3 1.t.

returning lit from a branch from school in an interval of rest while making love is a cigarette. with a meaningless smile. IRANIAN STUDIES 68 .REBIRTH My whole being repeating that is a dark verse in itself carry you to the dawn of eternal blossoming and growth it will Ah. Perhaps it is the absent who tips his hat look of a passer-by and. I sighed in this I grafted verse to you in this verse. says "good morning to another passe r-by moment of your eyes: Or perhaps life is that clozed when my glance a feeling that meets ruin in the pupils I shall mingle with my visions of the moon and the darkness. you to tree and water and fire Perhaps life is a long road on which a woman with a basket passes every day Perhaps life is a rope with which a man hangs himself Perhaps life Perhaps life is a child.

T j4J.I )L wjI 6ii.I) .T fjX Jj ab Z?.L AlpLiy Z 69 .1@i &? LoT\~~.o'41A 5 4t li4)@. L~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~U =L A.

of a voice that says to relinquish in the sadness "I love your hands" I plant I will my hands in the garden: become green---l know. I know lay eggs And the sparrows will in the holes between my inky fingers IRANIAN STUDIES 70 ..In a room as big as loneliness my heart as big as love looks at its excuses the beautiful the sapling the voice their for simple happiness: flowers in the flower pot in the garden of our house drooping that you plaited of the canaries. this this My lot is the sky that a hanging curtain My lot takes from me stair is my lot.. is my lot: is to step down from a deserted and find something worn out and nostalgic My lot is to walk sorrowfully my soul in a garden of memories. I know. songs as bi-g as the window Ah.

3j t 3a . j;X 4

L; I

5 Lli

al jt J13j -L

1~ LA.&Lo-a4)L4)l;



)t~~~~~~ ijT




P Xf .71 y




;L o jl s @SL >AJ

') ,


I hang earrings

on my ears,

a pair of twin red cherries, and to my nails There is a street I facten where dahlia petals

the boys who once loved me still, with the same toussled smiles hair and lean legs and slender necks, of the poor girl whom, one night

think of the innocent

the wind carried There Is a street has stolen

away. that my heart of my childhood

from the quarters

The journey of a mass along the line of time and the mass making pregnant a mass aware of an image which a mirror brings In this way back.from a party the dry line of time,

someone dies and someone remains No fisher would hunt pearls in a shallow disappears stream that underground.





(l &.j

,R4a.2tr X. s



S ' *- Jh S,c .>


sJ@hj B 4A
X o4j




be reborn in the world at dawn flute: at night from a kiss IRANIAN STUDIES 74 .know a sad little who lives and plays softly. A sad little who dies and will fairy In an ocean to her heart on a wood-tipped softly fairy from a kiss.

75 .

by Abbas Alnasrawi. 1967. Lovejoy and Paul T. 1967. by Michael Hubbard. Frederick review RECENT STUDIES IN OIL Jaid Tehranian Financing Economic Development in Iraq: The Role of Oil in a Middle Eastern Economy. New York: Frederick A. 1966. New York: Oceana Publications. Mughraby. 1967. Saltimore: 1967. Praeger. by Anibal R. Permanent Sovereignty Over Oil Resources: A Study of Middle East Oil Concessions and Legal Change. 1966. Our Oil. New York: Frederick A. Frederick A. New Mattei: Oil and Power Politics. 1966. Our Gift. London: MacLaren & Sons Ltd. Praeger. is Assistant Professor of Political Economy at IRANIAN STUDIES 76 . 1966. Beirut: The Middle East Research and Publishing Center. The Evolution of Oil Concessions in the Middle East and North Africa. Praeger. by Hulmut J. Praeger. Vienna. Economic Aspects of Oil Conservation F. by Henry Cattan. New York: Oil and Public Opinion in the Middle East. Praeger. by Zuhayr Mikdashi. Martinez. Frankel. The Economics of Transporting Oil to and Within Europe.. A Financial Analysis of Middle Eastern Oil Concessions: 1901-65. New York: Frederick A. by David Hirst. Majid Tehranian Lesley Col lege. Ydrk: Crude Oil Prices in the Middle East. Frank. by Wallace The Johns Hopkins Press. Homan. Regulation. 1966. 1966. by Paul H. by Muhamad-A.

Since it is difficult to deal critically with all of them in a single review.The past two years' vintage of studies on oil has been lush and promising. The Supply and Price of Natural Gas (London 1962)." University of Chicago Journal of Business (April. Mobil.A. notably in the works of Professor M. With little access to the vital sources of information in the industry. 1967. have more or less come to the conclusion that oil is too important a matter to be left entirely to the oilmen. One striking aspect of these studies is the fact that four of This is not them are by writers who come from the producing countries. Shell.* *See especially.M. and Texaco) with their French half-sister (Compagnie Francaise des Pe"troles) has been somewhat weakened in the recent decade. few scholars could conduct serious research on oil. Adelman of M. "Oil Prices 1957-67: An Interim Report (Unpublished Mss. Feb. The trade journals.I. A whole generation of independent observers and scholars of the oil scene. Gulf. December. 1964). We have now. which reflect the point of view of the producing countries.) Natural Resources and International Development (Baltimore.. 1964). "The World Oil Outlook". For a long time the industry was the exclusive domain of eight major international oil companies which exhibited an altogether natural jealousy over their knowledge of its operations.I. of Economics Working Paper. which still remain an excellent source in the thinking of the representatives of private interests.(A. We have listed here only ten of the most important of those recently published in English on different aspects of this most complex of world industries. "Crude Oil Production Costs in Four Areas". even the beginnings of some theoretical into insights the economics of the industry. There are now many independent private and national oil companies competing in the international markets. "Oil Prices in the Long-Run (1963-65). of the increasingly purely accidental. 1966). have also emerged to fill some of the gaps. Furthermore. Standard of New Jersey.E..T. But as the dominant position of the seven AngloAmerican-Dutch sisters (British Petroleum. 77 SPEING 1968 . Dec. Standard of California. are now supplemented by publications such as those of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Middle East Research and Publishing Center. "Security of Eastern Hemisphere Fuel Supply (MIT Dept. the aim of this note is simply to provide brief summaries while pointing out some of their common and divergent features. so has their exclusive control of the sources of information..-Mar. in Marion Clawson (ed. 1967). it is suggestive serious interest that the producing countries have taken in the affairs of an industry vital to their future development. including some of the present writers. governments of the producing countries and also of some of the consuming countries.

is symptomatic of international Eastern Hemisphere. again. well as among their everpresent with The chief concern of these studies is. the oil companies. levent and irrelevant Frankel's book on Mattei is a study. brief. it is somewhat apologetic. trade. lationships. Economic Aspects of Oil Conservation all are primarily concerned with petroleum in the Regulations. with the exception of one. welcome beginning of a study that will have to be later carried out in order to provide a basis for the comparison in greater detail Frank's study of crude oil prices presents of the new concessions. ternational in the last two decades of war phenomenon. piece of research into the legal notions that presents an extensive system and its serve as the under pinnings of the concessionary Martinez's book is an anthology of the author's reevolution. accounts of the changing scene in the industry. and legal framework of these rethe changing ecomonics. only Although Eastern Hemisphere oil constitutes market conditions. and the availability cheap Middi. economic development. lenged the major international IRANIAN STUDIES 78 . This is a posttrade in petroleum exceeds 85 percent. that a country which depends on a single commodity for more than cannot be policical80-90 percent of its foreigh exchange earnings. its share of inabout 56 percent of the world's total production. Oil and Public Opinion in the Middle East is a study of an important The author argues western bias. has motivated the latter to domestic coal to lowshift their demand for fuel from high-cost more Oil exports constitute cost imported petroleum products. can and cannot do in the underdeveloped oil producing countries. This. an inthan 50 percent of all international The movement creasing share comes from the Eastern Hemisphere. infused with a distinct subject. ignoring the fact that the subject of oil should be depoliticized. with abundant resources in It shows what money capital and foreigh exchange earnings from oil.e East and North African oil on a massive scale to the consuming countries of Western Europe. who chaloil companies on their own grounds. or lack thereof. politics. of a remarkable oilman. and of this. development of a very cona very lucid account of the historical Alnasrawi's work is a case study of fusing system of pricing. and presents a good. the oil Henry Cattan's study reflects to its fate. though necessarily virgin territory It is a comparative analysis of the Middle East oil concessions. ly indifferent system in companies' views on the evolution of the concessionary Mughraby's study rethe Middle East. The studies under review are on the whole impressive contriMikdashi's study ventures into a butions to our understanding. quite appropriately.Another common feature to note among these studies is that. by a-close advisor and an astute observer of the oil scene. of millions of barrels of crude oil and crude oil products across involves a highly complex network of inter-relationships continents among an increasing number of producing and consuming countries as intermediaries.

system in the United States pretensive study of the prorationing sents an excellent case study in microcosm.000 dwt capacity.Hubbard's is a study of the changing transport scene. Lovejoy and Homan's exthan 100. in the United States siderable governmental and private cooperation to maintain prices high by keeping supply commensurate with demand. of the problems and Despite conprospects of production programming on a worldscale. finally. the industry continues to be plagued with excess producing capacity. All in all. these are good years for the students of the New sources of information are international petroleum industry. absorption of the available 79 SPRING 1968 . which is now of more of super-tankers being revolutionized by the introduction And. as the problem is no longer as much one of scarcity conditions. Just as with the market bursting forth with each passing day. abundance. towards prorationing among the exporting countries OPEC's efforts can profit greatly from the lessons of the American experience as analyzed in this work.

Kazemian. OR IN PREPARATION. Ovanessian. (Berkeley) on the Economic development U.CURRENT RESEARCH ON IRAN (E) IRANCOMPLETED OF THESESCONCERNING PARTOF A BIBLIGRAPHY THESECOND IN BRITISH ANDAMERICAN IN THE LAST FIVE YEARS. Princeton. R. F. American. Husain. history of Nishapur in the Eleventh planning in Iran. Gh. Berkeley. IRANIAN STUDIES 80 . The Safavids. Emerson. The trade relations Cambridge. Cambridge. Bahar. The Zands. Cambridge.S. Studies in the texts of Sogdian Christians. Zonis. Calif. Daftary. and works Maleku-sh-Shuara Cambridge. Radwan. criticism of Hafiz. Bulliet.S.D. E. A comparative study of Persian and Arabic poetical developA. Husaini. century. The social Harvard. S. Modern Persian Schwartz. M. Loraine. The impact of the U. JaIalu-Din Rumi and Sufism. 0. Rehder. Chicago. The life art and music. A. J. movements in Timurid Iran. Cambridge. technical and financial rural development of I'ran. ments in Eighth and Ninth centuries. J. Contemporary Persian M. Cambridge. R. and economic life Underground religious Cambridge. of Safavid Iran. Perry. M. UNIVERS ITIES.

s. S.d1 Sbt 4a rmtn:er3 Uolumr.etwtor 1968 .Iraia Sllt tuUiEs Eulketin of The Sodet!j PorIrantin Ctu4al an) .

or the editors those of the Society for publication. 06520.A.S. Connecticut Cover design by Tina Kazemi .00 per issue. Roy Mottahedeh. to the Editor be submitted or Persian in English IRANIAN STUDIES or the Soceity's All communications concerning Cultural and for Iranian The Soceity should be addressed to: affairs New Haven. Box 3384. Hormoz Hekmat Abbas Heydari-Darafshian Farhad Kazemi. 0. Editor Associate Editor for Iranian quarterly by The Soceity IRANIAN STUDIES is published to members of the It is distributed and Social Cultrual Studi-es. for non-members authors and not necessarily are those of the individual contributors may Articles of IRANIAN STUDIES. of single copies The price membership. Yale Station. Studies (SICSS). Maj id Tehranian IRANIAN STUDIES Ali Banuazizi. as a part of their Society by the expressed The opinions is $1.COUNCIL Ervand Abrahamian Secretary Ali Banuazizi. Treasurer President Manoucher Parvin. Social U. P.


POLITICAL PARTY DEVELOPMENT IN IRAN' Richard W. which are of those societies processes ences in the political and as "modern". to the to focus on the unique by pointing failure remedy this as a major indicator of differentiation factor of functional out. of other developing comparison with the experience deserve the posthas been in vogue throughout The term "developing" But for all that the term remains a vague one. of over twenty five hundred history Why Iran with its recorded the United States while as "developing" years should be classified than two hundred years should be classified with a history of less Indeed the very use of obvious. following states. Cottam political party free and vigorous of reasonably The period in Iran was remarkably brief when viewed in the peractivity Beginning land. his the stage of development. have a great deal of functional as a can be useful differentiation the degree of functional but of development of the stage valid indicator frequently Richard W. as Riggs points or develsystem is not a synonym for the transitional prismatic as traditional which are classified Some societies oping system. oddly.3 But. which party development of political patterns years witnessed states. party activity the abdication slowly after August 1953 when it was suduntil more intense became steadily But as brief as this period was. these twelve denly suppressed. as "developed" is not immediately subconand more journalists so vague a term leads some analysts connotawith its perjorative "primitive" to substitute sciously tions for "developing". of that ancient of the very long history spective of Reza Shah in 1941. as "developing". The factor of differentiation. developing than the differences rather the similarities tends to stress to Fred Riggs has made a major effort among the three systems. as "traditional".2 differThere are qualitative Yet the term is a fair one. Cottam is Professor of Pittsburgh. World War II era. the structural-functional approach. University of Political Science at the IRANIAN STUDIES 82 . classified of analysis in the political school the predominant But.

and tribal politics and yet not be conscious of the state. since the politically aware populace considered it relatively free and meaningful. honest answers to questions designed to test political awareness are hardly to be expected. Therefore the awareness as the tea is used simplest indicator of political which has or here is a comprehension of membership in a cosunity seeks a state organization and of the existence of a society of states. the generic period for Iranian political parties in which certainly as less than three percent of the population could be classified politically aware. however. The urban vote for the 17th Majlis in 1952 was something of an exception. and 1950-1953 during which 83 SUMMER 1968 . The purpose of this study is to test the analytical utility of this focus by correlating types of political parties in Iran with three different levels of political awareness and political participation. is in fact of little utility. 1941-1950 during which the level of awareness is assumed to be five to ten percent. in Around 40% of the adult male population of Tehran participated that vote. By political awareness is meant ail at least vague awareness of An individual the state as a unit and of the society of states. the developing process is the growth in the percentage of the population that is politically aware and of the percentage of the population which has a sophisticated understanding of the political process of the state. Between the individual who barely understands he is a member of such a community and the individual who comprehends the subtleties and nuances of the political process of the state there is a vast range in degree. The three periods to be looked at are: 1906-1921. He may understand and participate clan. in village. The contention here is that the most obvious and at the same time analytically distinction useful political among the three is the degree of political awareness and political participation. as politically classified unaware is not necessarily apolitical. Seen in these cannot serve as the primary analytbecause of the exceptions ical device for pointing to the unique aspects of the political process in the three systems. Voting in elections. which would seem to be a logical indicator of basic political participation. In a dictatorship which much of the most active population is engaged in underground politics. Nor is a survey such as Almond and Verba's Five nation in study likely to yield valid results in Iran. Unfortunately levels of political awareness in Iran can only be estimated. Uncomprehending peasants were herded to the polls in parliamentary elections while politically sophisticated urbanites remained at home rather than participate in a meaningless ritual.

individual. of course. the Democrats and Moderates... leaders. But their failure to organize extensively mentary groupings. There beyond advancing the self-interest homogeneity in each of the groups although the was ideological and ideological. authoritarian parties does not begin with The history of Iranian political to their political Iranians have been referring the year 1941. political sons of the oligarchy became enamored of these ideas and deterparallel A salon constitutionalism mined to put them into effect. oligarchy or from some other source. participants which the percentage of political The typology to be used for the parties will be based on the 1) dependence on or independence of a following five criteria: would the party collapse were the i. can lay And two political of party A definition "party". broadly-based parties of the United States or Western Europe would. for discussions some ideas and institutions penetrated the oligarchy.e. 3) base of recruitment for to which popular elements is the party i. made. they were very natural in accord with the Western model. IRANIANSTUDIES 84 . toward party competition. and 5) attitude or non-authoritarian.. exclude both the These groups were composed of only a few Democrats and Moderates. 4) breadth of the ideology appeal is it i. cal parties is of little groups emerged naturally from the recognize that these political of the dowreh or circle and that they institution traditional parties more of political constituted a major step in the direction Furthermore.e..the level of awareness is assumed to be over ten percent and during increased rapidly. expanded to that of 19th Century Russia followed and some circles The Democrat party in particular when into societies (anlumans).e. of their lacking any purpose outside parliament is not indicative of individual members. particular 2) base of recruitment for activity. and consciously Democrats were the more intensely the ideology was a compound of the French Enlightenment and nationalism. in communicating with the who found difficulty dozen individuals more than parliaIndeed they amounted to little Iranian mass. likely to turn for support. Their failure to organize outside is merely awareness. parties since shortly after the constitutional groups. groupings for this stage of political political The institution of the dowreh consisted of a group of who met regularly or men of similar interests relatives friends.e. As awareness of Western or for socializing. some claim to the appellation which is abstracted from the great. party rank and file. revolution of 1906. to cease political individual is the party leadership drawn largely from the old i. symptomatic of the narrow base of political Whether the Moderates and Democrats are described as politiWhat is important is to consequence. awareness.

But they were too well known. instruments Strong personalities were to be found in both parties. rank and file recruited from the base. Such a type would appear in a later stage of political awareness when an effort would be fruitful for reaching barely aware voters through a highly personal appeal. in the early stage of growth in political In the 1941awareness. was formed. values. had close ties to and drew its leadership from a number of these societies. and non-authoritarian. party leaders this development offered new opportunities and new types of political parties to appear. too much part of the group to elicit the type of unquestioning support characteristic of that of the charismatic leader. if they can be called classified as personality independent. of even those leaders who their will continue to include basically alter style nevertheless some traditional which often add not at all to political patterns the glorified dowreh party was modal only effectiveness. but neither could be classified as personality dependent. and norms of behavior that were characteristic of the traditional will society persist throughout the transitional or developing stage. This should come as no surprise. 85 1968 SUMMER . behavioral confined to the most conservative traditional patterns The behavior members of society. 1950 period a new modal type appeared. such. Dominant personalities were expected features of the dowreh. but in terms of a growth in political development awareness proceeded when Reza Shah abdicated in 1941 and free rapidly. Therefore. A dominant section of the leadership in this stage was recruited from sons of the oligarchy. However. rather broad ideology. were certain The type of party that appeared almost immediately was the glorified dowreh-type described above. This was not the group within leader was which a charismatic likely to appear. These early parties. leadership the oligarchy. can be recruited from narrow literate came to a standstill Party activity during the 1920's and under the authoritarisn 1930's rule of Reza Shah Pahlavi. the anjuman and the new party. Only as Iran has moved into an increasingly in the 1960's has the totalitarian control Nor are these glorified dowreh-type party begun to disappear. was again possible a much larger party activity existed public which had at least potential for the appeal of receptivity political For would-be party leaders. The statement often heard that parties in this period were little more than personal is misleading.

the group was majority of Iranians remained politically Emerging from families of moderate very influential. compelling ideology came a promise of fundamental intellectually The fact that this party openly proclaimed its adherence change. The other party type was represented by the National Will These people resembled each Party and the Democrat Iran Party. society. and a major effort ticipation figures to communicate from rival political could be anticipated with and then to mobilize the support of this group. high degree of political relatively numbers this group. One major of the typology. The first." unaware. In the period from 1941 to 1946 two new party types appeared. llectuals. narrowly and rigidly ideological. however. process. were intensely foreign with any particular been so common that an association as long as the power could be thought of as not unpatriotic welfare of the Iranian people was foremost in mind. Included also aware during the Reza in the public which had become politically and had achieved a Shah period was a group which was well-educated In absolute sophistication. as personality The Tudeh Party type can be classified independent. in Iran had foreign intervention nationalistic. potentially the members of means. perceptual difference the National Will Party was perceived to be at cated circles least as close to the British as the Tudeh Party was to the The party's leader. IRANIANSTUDIES 86 . generally unsucintellectuals cessful effort was made to attract members from other elements of and authoritarian. to be referred to henceforth as the "new inteBut when it is remembered that the vast was not large. of the new intellectuals. become premier in 1921 after a coup d'etat perceived to have been When he fell from power he went into exile in the British-backed. Awareness and parsome awareness of the modern political are not the same thing. other closely in each of the criteria sophistiIn politically existed however. this group were frequently restive and anxious to see fundamental change. focused its appeal on Along with an the more radical members of the new intellectuals. leadership recruited mainly from the new intellectuals. had Soviets. represented by the Tudeh Party. and many saw far less reason to look with favor on Iranian nationalists the British than on the Soviets. rank and file recruited also largely from the new although a major but at this time. with the Soviet Union was less of to communism and its association Though most an obstacle to recruitment than might be imagined. often small merchants or minor bureaucrats. including many members of the Tudeh.By 1941 approximately five per cent of the population was and probably somewhere between five and ten percent had literate. Sayyid Zia al-Din Tabatabai.

But following this electoral victory the party collapsed with a suddenness that amply demonstrated the tenuousness of party attachments. achievement values which called for rapid social and economic change. The elements of the successful ideological appeal were also becoming clear. The mode of appeal to each group of aware but politically of the three groups had to be different and Sayyid Zia and Ahmad understood this. but there was a substantial in degree of perceived attachment. the leader of the Democrat Iran Party. them politically Second. difference Each of these parties sought to attract support from the the new intellectuals. They included as an essential feature an intense devotion to the goal of a truly independent Iran with a dignity consonant with Iran's great past.British mandate of Palestine and was believed to have been brought back to Iran during the British and Soviet wartime occupation as part of a British effort to counter the Soviet challenge implicit in the Tudeh Party. and non-authoritarian. an ideological appeal narrower than that of the dowreh-type party but broad when compared with the Tudeh. personal and here neither party was successful. rank and file recruited from the oligarchy with a generally Unsuccessful appeal to the new intellectuals and to the aware mass. inert. mobilizing was extremely difficult. AhmadQavam. Here the Democrat Iran Party had some success. even though a by-now significant section of the Iranian public was to some extent politically aware. For a brief period in 1946 the Democrat Iran Party was able to enlist the support of a surprisingly leaders and large number of political the party was extraordinarily successful in the elections for the 15th Majlis. First. They included also an acceptance of modernizing. The failure of the National Will and Democrat Iran parties and the limited success of the Tudeh demonstrate two major points. were appealed to through an advocacy of economic and social reform and real national independence. a narrowly ideological appeal was necessary to attract recruits from among the new intellectuals. This party type can be described as personality dependent. was believed to be "close" to the British as were most aristocratic politicians. leadership recruited from the oligarchy. But within these areas of general agreement there was a wide range of 87 1968 SUMMER . Qavam intuitively Support from the old oligarchy was gained essentially by an appeal to the power and spoils interest of prominent personalities. That a man with such a reputation could seriously hope to gain popular support is testimony to the Iranian acceptance of foreign interference astonishing as a fact of life that must be lived with. and the by-now substantial old oligarchy. but the National Will Party with its British reputation attracted very few The appeal to the third group was primarily intellectuals. and here both parties were The new intellectuals successful.

Iran in addition stressed spiritual values. he must make a narrowly ideological appeal. A fourth called for a statism which in many ways resembled the corporate focus of fascist Italy. Both were independent of particular leaders. felt Iran's national independence and dignity were in no sense compromised by a close association with the Soviet Union.One group of new intellectuals viewpoints. For others liberal democracy was at most a very distant goal. Soviet support for a puppet communist government of Iranian Azerbaijan in the latter part of this period did lead to disillusionment and many defections. The majority of the new intellectuals rejected any close association with a foreign power but accepted Iran's boundaries as essentially unalterable. and even more so among the old intellectuals who had in the early constitutional participated for whom revolution. Of the successful parties in this and the Mardom Iran Party. A mere recounting of the range in intellectual attitude spells out the dilemma for the Iranian political leader in this To attract the new intellectual period. although the Iran Party came to be closely identified with Allahyar Saleh. made little the new intellectuals as the recruting Both parties had rather narrowly file. the substance of their appeals was very period two. Afghanistan. But such an appeal would attract only one section of the intellectual community and would have virtually no appeal beyond that small group. Their resemblance was close IRANIAN STUDIES 88 .many the goal of liberal democracy haa a clear priority. with a foreign opposed to any close association power. However. non-doctrinaire and liberal democratic. On the point of economic and social change. Mardom socialist. There were among the new intellectuals. A major area of disagreement concerned the applicability of the liberal democratic frame. Polar to this. resembling rather closely the British Fabians. the Iran Party real effort to go beyond base for their rank and ideological appeals and similar. Iraq. another group made of nationalism its primary focus and proclaimed that Iran's dignity could only be restored by a restitution of lost territories now included in the Soviet Union. Another combined what it believed was doctrinaire Marxist socialism with an insistence that a peculiarly Iranian road to socialism must be followed. Therefore the possibility of building a broadly based party was remote and the established pattern for the 1946-1950 period was the development of a number of narrowly ideological parties with a restricted popular appeal. one group accepted the comunist formula. and Pakistan. They were highly nationalistic. A third group was less doctrinaire.

the Toilers Party just might have become Iran's dominant party. with Embassy. Baqai 89 1968 SUMMER . All of the other significant parties made serious efforts to attract support outside the narrow community of the new intellectuals. Khalil Maleki. Mohamad Mossadeq and. was a most interesting transitional type. Baqai were men with easy the British access to the Court. Baqai prior to 1946 and then had associated Democrat Iran Party. Two of these. The Tudeh Party though outlawed. cynics believed. But in this regard he could not compete with Dr. which might Dr. villages The second of these parties. A contacts within the guilds and religious third group of close associates of Dr. Dr. through the personal appeal of its leader Dr. By far the greatest success for the Toilers Party resulted from the alliance of Dr. It targeted two specific groups and hoped to be able. difference typological who had Iran Party leaders were by and large old intellectuals emerged from the oligarchy whereas the Mardom Iran leaders were new intellectuals of middle class origin. Marxist but anti-Stalinist intellectuals. But there was one The which persistently drove them apart. especially one-time communist theoretician. to reach deeply into the non-participant politically aware. Baqai and some doctrinaire the brilliant. But its successes outside the intellectual community were few and largely confined to the labor area although there were beginnings of progress in near Tehran and in the Caspian province of Gilan. stepped up its appeal to virtually every recognizable group within the newly awakened publtic. but the ideological appeal had been narrowed which permitted recruiting from the new intellectuals. Leadership was recruited from the same oligarchic base. the Toilers Party.enough that the two parties sometimes merged. This latter group had had a dowreh-type association itself with the Dr. found their greatest recruitment successes within the new intellectual community. Baqai seems to have had a charismatic potential eventually have enabled him to reach many of the non-participant politically aware. Baqai also included in his entourage men who were able to exercise some control over a number of labor unions and who had excellent circles. however. Rarely will a political such a broad combingroup be found which incorporates ation of traditional Furthermore and modern behavioral patterns. The Iran Party can be seen therefore as a party which evolved naturally from the glorified dowreh type.Dr. The Toilers Party in fact deserves close study. With the newspaper Shahed as its mouthpiece this wing of the Toilers Party was able to attract the support of a large number of new intellectuals. the army making an effort to do so. Mozaffar Baqai.

and street leaders. However he was dependent for success on a loose alliance with some independent-minded politicalin Tehran and in the provincial religious and leaders centers. in an effort was made to reconcile the inherent contradictions His appeal which had a dual center in Islam and Nationalism. from labor and guilds. At this stage of Iran's political development this was a highly significant target group. Shiah religious leaders. economic and social attitudes were conservative to reactionary. This party recruited its leaders from three groups. was to be demonstrated Kashani's No real ideological appeal was broad and loose. of Iran They were attracted to grand slogans and Islam. Since the great bulk of the aware but as yet nonparticipating public could be classified as lower-middle class. Both can be classified as personality dependent although in each case had the leaders died in the period either a successor would have been found or a new party with a substantially similar appeal would have appeared. and since the Warriors of Islam was the most successful of the parties in reaching this group. it attracted its rank and file also from these three groups. The other of these two parties. AbolQassem Kashani. especially in the provincial centers. IRANIAN STUDIES 90 . and it was non-authoritarian. But it was dependent leadership of the most successful of the politician-priests. from the new intellectuals. was ostensibly headed by the turbaned but spectacularly on the opportunistic Shams Qanatabadi. The party of the religious intellectual. and Kashani did not reach. Pan Iran. was more narrowly targeted. guild leaders. The Toilers Party was clearly personit recruited its leaders ality dependent. Kashani could reasonably believe that his political potential was next only to that of Mossadeq. the Warriors of Islam. Rank and file support was attracted from the deeply religious lowermiddle class. particularly high school students. course claimed to oppose authoritarianism but liberal democracy was clearly of little interest to Kashani personally. It directed its appeal to lower middle class youth. Two other parties of some significance had relatively far success greater outside the community of the new intellectuals. but there is little were very reason to believe his rank and file much aware of them. This was not the kind of appeal to attract. In fact minor parties competing for the same rank and file were already in existence.his party and his own reputation was to destroy as a leading nationalist politician. The more noteworthy of those two parties. it was narrowly and rigidly ideological. the tenuousness of this alliance in 1953.

potential particularly All of the groups targeting them used essentially the same ideological appeal. This party recruited fundamentalist-activists from the urban lower middle and lower classes. Premier Ali Razmara was assassinated by a member of this group in 1951. The party had virtually no appeal among the new intellectuals and Nevab Safavi and other Fedayan leaders were generally regarded as insincere and for sale to the highest bidder. The leader of the most successful of these groups was Dariush Foruhar. The appeal was statist but anti-capitalist. was gravely wounded by a Fedayan gunman. And none of the parties could be classified as a mass party. an intense nationalism which called not only for the ouster of the imperial West but also for the return of lost Iranian territories now located within the boundaries of each of Iran's neighbors including the Soviet Union. The party called for free party competition but the sincerity of its call for tolerance could be questioned Finally there was the Fedayan Islam about which little is known. and leaders were recruited from young men of the lower middle class and the fringes of the new intellectuals. In order to achieve this end what was called for was a means to surmount the ideological parochialism that characterized these parties and at the same time to attract the attention and support of the politically aware but non-participant section of the population. Partly for this reason the party is sometimes mistakenly placed in the Mossadeqist National Front. anti-communist. Since the young students were volatile and easily mobilized. In ideology it called for a return to the fundamental principles of Islam and viewed secular and nationalist parties as blasphemous. force of some they were a political in a chaotic situation. 91 SUMMER 1968 .but the assassins of Premier Mansur in 1965 were possibly Fedayan members. Virtually every element of the population which was mobilizable was reached by one or another of them. and often anti-Semitic. Unlike the previous period. and a leading Mossadeq lieutenant. an act which led to the premiership of Dr. Mossadeq. The Shah had Safavi and the entire Fedayan leadership executed in a later period. But only the Tudeh and Toilers parties had any real success in attracting significant support from both within and without the new intellectual groups.5 In fact Mossadeq soon became a prime target of Fedayan assassins. the parties of this period must be classified as successful.and a number of parties or would-be parties competed for preeminence in the high schools. Hossein Fatemi.

Almost all of the loosely aligned religious leaders who had cooperated with Kashani broke away from any association with the Warriors of Islam as did guild leaders. Mossadeq was a leader who could be trusted. a movement or a front is of little The individual significance. Mossadeq also proved to be the answer to the problem of transforming the politically aware but inert mass into active participants. Those who broke with him soon found their very patriotism questioned. the destruction of the British-Iranian oligarchy alliance which was perceived to be denying Iran independence and progress. there did finally emerge a political party or political movement which met both of these requirements. i. Of the parties described above only the Tudeh and the Fedayan Islam were not included. 1950-1953. the National Front had in Dr. In addition the National Front incorporated a number of glorified dowrehs which were formed around some of Iran's leading political personalities. The National Front succeeded in surmounting the ideological parochialism of the previous period by focusing the attention of all participants on the one task regarding which there was general consensus. But only IRANIANSTUDIES 92 . In the eyes of most of the National Front Baqai and Kashani had committed treason. This loss of freedom was best demonstrated when in 1953 both Dr. and also incorporated entire guilds. The intellectual wing of Toilers split off to form the Third Force Party. The National Front continued to be regarded as a coalition by its leaders but it had demonstrated an ability to discipline even its most outstanding lieutenants. Mossadeq a charismatic leader who quickly came to personify and symbolize the Iranian search for national dignity. Both were confronted immediately with massive defections. Baqai and Ayatollah Kashani sought to take their parties out of the National Front. Qavam. In both cases only those individuals personally beholden to Baqai or Kashani remained. Whether the National Front after 1951 is defined as a party.e. Prior to 1951 the National Front was indeed a front or coalition. But even more than this. This was the National Front which formed around the leadership of Dr. and Kashani each offered himself for this role. Very quickly a general consensus developed around the conclusion that Dr. Baqai. Other political leaders had understood that in the early stages of political awareness a people is particularly prone to indentify with and to seek satisfaction for its frustrations in the leadership of a great personality. parties maintained their identities within the National Front but lost much of their freedom of action.. Mohammad Mossadeq. Dr.In the final period of relative freedom.

although briefly These parties. party development can be viewed in Thus Iranian political three stages. the liberal-democratic depenas personality The National Front can be classified the new intellecdent. ideologically entire spectrum of politically (until the summer of 1953. broad.The 1950-1953 period magic appeal. It is one of the ironies of this age that intervention West cut short this experiment. Obviously a great many an acceptance more than three years would be required to inculcate governmental process in a people which of the liberal-democratic But in this three-year had long acquiesced in authoritarianism.and leader could at that time have it is doubtful that an authoritarian attracted broad support from that group. In the first stage. parties were mere outgrowths of traditional more structured and with an slightly oligarchical patterns. produce the kind of leadership capable of performing a tutelary role. leadership recruited from the oligarchy. When a tutelary leader did appear in Reza Shah. each related to the percentage of politically which the percentage of politically aware. process. period a great many uncomprehending people accepted the liberaldemocratic process simply because it was part of the political elite they believed normative system of a leader and a political from in. Mossadeq had the requisite was one in which there was a rapid extension downward into the awareness and an even more rapid expansion population of political Dr. it turned sharply in the authoritarian direction). from the rank and file recruited tuals and the middle-class. National Front thus can be seen as primary agents of political and the norms that those moving into the political socialization. and aware. he operated outside the party aware was very low. espoused liberal leader needed the support first of all of the new intellectuals. especially But they did not as agents of rapid political mobilization. democratic norms. It is no stream accepted included liberal accident that the man who gave leadership to the National Front and who became Iran's first really popular leader should have In 1951 a potentially popular national democracy. revived. in which the percentage of politically 93 1968 SUMMER .when confronted with non-authoritarian a serious challenge from the right. process than political of the traditional were more disruptive They did. and liberal ideology focusing broadly on nationalism explicit in a power position. democracy. Mossadeq and the of the percentage of political participants. With Reza Shah's abdication in 1941 party activity aware was At this stage. a modern political capable of substituting serve in the 1906-1908 and again in 1919-1921 periods. Dr.

the entire politically virtually inert as the continued memory of Dr. new intellectual The third stage. for the abdication of Reza Shah. was one in the participation of was able to enlist which party activity Evidence such aware population.probably approachiag the ten percent mark. The modal is underground. Mossadeq among politically peasants suggests that this period was indeed one of rapid mobilization. and for the overthrow of Dr. the outstanding of the duccessful parties was the narrow ideochaLacteristic to attract the support of the mobilizable logical appeal utilized element. revolution of 1906 and of for the success of the constitutional its failure in 1912. but the attempt failed. Now an official. has been conducted Since 1953 Iranian political party activity There was an effort on two levels. lasting only from 1950-1953. politically of these stages mirrored the extent and profile of political awareness in the country. official loyal to the regime. of much resemblance to the party activity reason to anticipate Since that time a great many more Iranians have become 1953. IRANIANSTUDIES 94 . and semi-clandestine. party But the really significant exists. The variable of foreign intervention was in part responsible Foreign intervention makes this obvious. alone been a unique one. for the coup d'etat of 1921 which was the first step in Reza Shah's rise to power. Furthermore the success of the National Front was dependent on the single national the entire around which virtually issue of anti-imperialism But at the same time each aware populace could rally. in the late 1950's to superimpose two parties. frankly on the polity.6 political for There is no thought here of suggesting an inevitability Iran's developmental process has these stages of development. aware and are potential politically party type of the future would surely be one capable of recruiting rank and file support from this very large newly awakened population. Should the present regime be replaced by activity there is little one permitting once again free party activity. authoritarian. Mossadeq.

liberal-democratic elite in the early stages of development can And the avoidance of instability achieve only tenuous stability. The Strategy of Conflict (New York. "Journal of Politics. Marbery Efimenco. in developing states which have the misfortune of being on the Sino-Soviet littoral is generally assumed to be in the American interest. an exaggeration of the attraction Instead. prophecy. Mossadeq. paper was Iran. in Developing 3Fred W. States. Countries: 4It is one of the ironies of American social science studies of developing states that this very common phenomenon is so Since the perceptual frame of the frequently understressed. and the Iranian Students Association in University. Mohammad Mossadeq might respond to child psychology. Schelling. 13. But this underestimation of liberalopposite appears to be true. p." Harvard the United for Iran than in the This point has no better illustration that the sophisticated and complex suggestion of Thomas Schelling Thomas Dr. 1963) p. Riggs. familiarity SUMMER 1968 . 5See N. April 16-17. color to some extent the view of another analyst will inevitably of liberal political culture. the democratic values might reasonably be expected. August 1955. 1965. of American national interest. American policy makers seem to prefer an authoritarian regime which can maintain at least a comforting surface stability in such areas to the democratic regime whose surface appearance The downgrading of liberal democratic will frequently be chaotic. C. 1964). of his paper April 1965 by Hossein Mahdavy during the discussion He reported that in the course of "Iran's Agrarian Problems". of a attachments may therefore be in large part a rationalizing In Iran it amounted to a self-fulfilling national policy stance.Footnotes and more condensed version of this 1An earlier presented at a Seminar on "Problems of Contemporary sponsored by the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. 396. "An Experiment with Civilian Dictatorship in Iran: The Case of Mohammad Mossadeq. Administration The Theory of Prismatic Society (Boston. 6This point was made at the Harvard Conference on Iran. the Iranian survey team had making a survey of thirty villages found universal withl the name of Dr. democratic attachments may well best be explained as a consequence from a determining perception of perceptual distortion resulting the Even with optimal success.

for the 5afavids in any Western sense did not exist. al-dawla. especially from the regal canopy." a brief by the Chairman of of Toronto. The term dawlat. which supported this So too. terminology. if ever distinctly was expressed in Safavid realized." used in an abstract was sometimes meaning "bliss. We must therefore begin consideration of the evolution of the Safavid state by making the of the state the concept negative statement that. that particular concept for the people who speak that language. the pillars dawlat. the vazIlr was entitled ictimad that is. support During the Roger Savory is Associate Studies at the University *This is article State. felicity". of the Thus the principal officers Safavid state were termed arkan-i that is. author entitled "The Development unpublished of the Safavid IA<ANIANSTUD)IES 96 .NOTES ON THE SAFAVID STATE Roger Savory if a language does not have a word It is axiomatic that. does not exist for a given concept. its trusty or prop. As Minorsky has said: "it is a moot question how the idea of the State. the Department of Islamic version of a more comprehensAve. time of shSh cAbbas I onwards. way to denote the aura of beneficence which surrounded ruler the just and sheltered his subjects.

Miisa al-Ka. of the national evolution in the period and the emergence lines. the Although picture. opposition of the Since the conduct of kingly infallibility. the Shadow of God upon earth. more concrete during the reign of Shah Sulayman uses in 1090/1679-80 completed mamllkat-i Tran and Mansab-i as: such phrases !adnrat-i man*ab-i that the It is more likely Tran. with his officials his relations structure. certain about the position JI shall of the shah. by the Safavids fostered his authority as the lieutenant did not invalidate of the ruler the successor of the Imams. the overall alter are. concept had no very clear Uafavids therebegin. to the shah was closer of the Mahdt. was that the imperfections themselves. of the ruler. form. or unjust. doctrinal more ridigly or of mujtahids. his commands be just to obey him whether required by God was in appointed The idea that the ruler was directly of absolutism. macsUm).in the nearest equivalent state. Such stray this development. and the representative of the to the Ehah the universal government there belonged such. of God. and men were consequently head. The shah was the apex of the whole administrative of the godemanation He was the living His rule was absolute. the the Uafavid shah was the representative The basis in 260/873-4. 97 1968 SUMMER . of the Prophet. certain the throne that ideally and asserted rulers. the vicar As of the Hidden Imam during his absence. religion. and consequently source of absolute to the led inevitably This theory to him was a sin. the Safavid representative Truth than were other men. from the earth Mahd1. and by examining the position by considering fere. by another reinforced but it was powerfully of the Hidden Imam. and with the people. The namici Mifidi." into a was crystallizing the idea of 'the State' claim of the Safavid (mujtahid-i mujtahid' should be in the hands of an 'immaculate the view and certainly The prevalent view. There is some evidence dominions. class following CAbb5s the Great of a poweful for responsible were largely theologians. both spiritual world. who disappeared to be directly theory was the claim of the Uafavids of this As the descended from the 7th ShicT Imam. Caztm al-sha'n-i sadarat-i along Ithna cAsharT Shicism. of the Safavid period formative the "divinely-protected mahrusa. sense was mamalik-i a concrete towards the end of the that. and temporal. theory. Safavid a chronicle for example. assumption with the conduct which proved to be incompatible shAh frequently of the representative one might expect from a pure and immaculate this particular to resist Culama attempted Hidden Imam. to give his rule the character sufficient itself that namely. however. ShIci high-ranking as they interesting allusions. do not materially they were very of the state.

who wrote his History nearly a century after the fall of the Uafavids. qui est le chef il n'y que pour le temporel." held by a contermporary of Louis XIV. because. and it is worth while to dwell on this because the other side of the coin presents an appearance I refer. his regard for religion. insight The Huguenot jeweller Chardin. that the position of the Persian peasant was analagous to that of the French peasant under the majority of the Bourbons. at first sight. to whose penetrating we owe much of our understanding of the Uafavid administrative system. As William and ethnic diversity geographic. like Chardin. he attempted to view the Safavid system of government as a whole.. for instance. of course. European history to the complexities given the absolute nature of the power of supposed. souverain. considered that the power of the Safavid shlhs was even "le He writes: more absolute than that of the Ottoman sultans.the absolute All Western observers are unanimous in asserting nature of the $afavid monarchy. despotique et absolu. system of government checks and balances that the traditional worked in Safavid times. or of the Russian muzhik under the Romanovs. etant tout entier dans la main d'un seul homme. and he has imposed upon the free probably never had any further restraint exercise of his vast authority than what has arisen from his his respect for established usages. a assurement aucun souverain au monde si absolu que le roi de This opinion carries the greater weight because it was Perse. is also of the greatest value. insert a caveat against applying ideas derived from the study of It might be of $afavid Iran." The judgement of Malcolm. freedom and personal security the high degree of individual It may be well at this point to obtaining under aafavid rule. Gouvernement de Perse est monarchique. and his fear of exciting an opposition that desire of reputation. paradoxical. to whom it was said: "Sire. prior to the nineteenth century government in Persia consisted of "unlimited power balanced by or of "fleeing" from right of rebellion". comparison would fail entirely or Iran. the place where Your Majesty is seated represents for us the throne of the living God. political H. the unrestricted of these It was precisely because of the existence authority." IRANIANSTUDIES 98 . might be dangerous to his power or to his life. the Safavid rulers. Nothing could be further from the truth. tant pour le spirituel. Hallman has shrewdly remarked. to which is." of the King of Persia has ever been deemed a law. and any such superficial to take into account the social.. and "to see "The word He says: and explain how all things worked together.

the court fuctionaries. and is always inflicted by executioners who attend his person. his property. on whom the shah's anger might be vented without warning. In a recent work. lay and ecclesiastic. or a court functionary." It was the persons who stood between the shah and the mass of his people . and who stood in constant fear of their lives. which is generally in his presence. who held the absolute power of loosing and binding. the victim of such arbitrary action on the part of the shlh always belonged to a class the elimination of which should surely be applauded by a Marxist historian. and the serried ranks of officials. Louis XIV was very conscious that he society.e. As Malcolm justly observes: "this summary the execution of those whose appeal to the shAi proceeding (i. his life. In Uafavid times. a period not noted for its political stability. added to the mode of execution. its base was the commonpeople . he says. namely. Yet artisans. who made up the complex Safavid administrative system. one writer for instance deprecates the existence of a society in which the ruler could execute a subject "merely to test the keenness of his sword. Anyone who held office in the state was considered to be the slave of the shah. "the nation suffers a great increase of misery under a multitude of tyrants. was rejected). Malcolm states the advantage of this system succinctly: if the shah is not feared. directed at the lower classes of society. if ever. often give a character of barbarous tyranny to acts of the most exemplary justice.the peasants in the rural areas. 99 1968 SUMNER . that the arbitrary use of this power was rarely. who Marxist historians deplore the existence of despotic power in Persia per se thus miss the fundamental point. and the lives of his children. The only occasions on which ordinary persons were executed in the presence of the shAh were those on which cases which had already been tried in the lower courts were submitted to the shah as the highest magistrate in the land and the ultimate court of appeal in cases governed by Curf or common law. the absolute nature of paradoxically. he says." Louis XIV expresses the sentiment in his Memoirs: "nothing can so securely establish the happiness and tranquility of a country as the prefect combination of all authority in the single person of the Sovereign.the nobility. was the one man who could protect the ordinary peasant or householder from oppression and injustice. as we have already hinted. however." otherwise. were at the disposal of the shah. but rather a guarantee of. an official guilty of oppressing the people. he would also certainly be a member of the nobility. both civil and military. shih's authority was not a threat to.If the apex of the pyramid of power was the shfh.. and the shopkeepers and small merchants in the cities." Admittedly he is talking about the 12th century. the individual freedmon and security of the lower classes of In the same way.

"The principal check upon the conduct of subordinate governors is an appeal to the throne. or courtiers. it is hazardous for any of his ministers. at large. attention". there was no arbitrary exercise of power by the shih.the country groans "under the oppressive tyrants. source of strength to the monarchy and a safeguard for the people As Malcolm says: against bureaucratic oppression." lash of a thousand Chardin declares emphatically that outside the court. in the employ of the Persian government. in a rude and half-civilized community. Failing to obtain satisfaction IRANIANSTUDIES 100 . we must be satisfied attention that. et plus douce. que la condition des Grands eat la plus exposee. the exercise of the absolute power of the sovereign over those to whom he delegates his authority. unless he be very weak or very unjust. he is certain of seeking that relief. is essential to preserve the people. namely the subject's traditional right of appeal to the shAh This ancient right was at once a without let or hindrance. et souvent le plus funeste." Malcolm goes on: "What we reflect on the which the habits of the Persian monarch afford to his facility subjects of preferring complaints. which those whom they oppress can always in Persia from make. et celle dont le sort est le plus incertain. as no person can prevent an individual and when he reaches court. comme au contraire. and that policy which directs to them. one of the bases of the Persian system of government. cruel and unjust. except over those whom usage. Though a great proportion of the Kings of Persia may be deemed capricious. la condition du Peuple y est beaucoup plus assuree. Malcolm tells the story of a British sergeant. qu'en aucun autre pays du monde. for. This tradition was still followed in Qijir times. and the condition of the state they govern. have placed at their disposal" (my italics)." Chardin's words are echoed by Malcolm: "No small proportion of that security which the rest of the community enjoy. whose pay was withheld by a certain from the official official. may be referred to the danger in which those near to the king continually stand. Both Chardin and Malcolm assert that the awe in which the shlh was held by the Court and the nobility was the primary reason for the relative security and freedom from oppression enjoyed by the lower classes. we find very few examples in the history of that country of their exercising their absolute prerogative. qu'en divers Etats Chretiens. In the above passage Malcolm has exposed. to commit violence of injustice in his name. "C'est autant en Perse. from the oppression and rapacity of petty rulers. with his usual astuteness.

but as a god. normal and proper procedure. Another important reason was the zeal of the rulers to keep themWe selves informed of the condition of their meanest subjects. "there is no country in which the monarch has more personal duties than in Persia. This jealously guarded right of appeal to the sovereign was one of the reasons why. as they worship him not as a king.. used to disguise himself and tour the streets Harun al-Rashid. incoxnito. The shah's concerned. we are told. monarch. a It is impossible that a great number of persons of all ranks. the Uafavid shahs officials.." 101 SUMMR1968 .. The Venetian ambassador Vincentio d'Allessandri noted in 1571 that "the reverence and love of the people for the king. unless his character be very perverse1 tend to promote their happiness" (my italics). . are all familiar with the stories of how the cAbbasid Caliph. seriously. used to frequent. the coffee-houses and tea-houses of The Persian kings took their administrative Isfahan. but accessible to. his habits of occupation are the same as in the capital: and we may pronounce. the sergeant appealed directly comments Malcolm considered this to be a perfectly ministers. in order to assure himself of the well-being of the people and to detect instances of oppression on the part of his In much the same way. Malcolm asserts that. the ordinary individual enjoyed a surprising degree of freedom from tyranny.are incredible. although the first Safavid shahs were worshipped as quasi-divine persons. in a despotic system. When in camp. and markets of Baghdad with his faithful vaztr. This custom was one of the factors which militated against the development of anything analagous to the Japanese cult of emperor-worship. whom custom requires to mix so much with his subjects. JaCfar the the shhi. duties and did not hold themselves aloof from their subjects. that he is from six to seven hours every day in public. can be ignorant of their condition: and this knowledge must. during which time he is not only seen by.

Cambridge Malcolm.. zum Islamischen Hinz. VI (in press).M. Irans Aufstieg zum Nationalstaat im funfzehnten Jahrhundert. Tadhkirat al-Mululk. Part I. of the Safawid Offices R. of Savory. "The Principal Offices of the Safawid State during the reign of Ismacil I (907-30/ 1501-24)". 27-44. 91-105. UIntersuchungen Cario 1959. 1960.L.M.. The Safavids in Persia. Vol. London 1815. Vol. of Iran. L.. Savory. "The Principal during the reign of Tahm1sp I (930-84/1524-76)t" in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Vol. 1961. and the 1958. IRANIAN STUDIES 102 .M. W. pp. H.Bibliography Books Bellan... Islam. in Saeculum 4 (1953). Studies. and monographs: L. R. part 1. The Fall of the Safavi Dnasty Afghan OccuRation of Persia. pp. and Minorsky. Ein orientalisher Bundesgenosse des Abendlandes im Turkenkampf". translated London 1943. History in R.. 65-85. Kanzleiwesen. Chah CAbbas I. explained by V. Sir J.. Savory. H. Part VI.. XXIV. Busse. Lockhart. Cambridge History Articles: Roemer. Savory. "Die Safawiden.. XXIII. The Safavid Administrative System. Paris 1932. Chapter 2 9in press). in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Berlin and Leipzig 1936.M. in Cambridge R. pp. History of Persia. V..R.. Minorsky.

no. pp.V. in Melan. "The Office of KhalIfat al-Khulafi under Safawids". L. in Journal of the American Oriental Vol. 4. 2. "The Significance of the Political Murder of MIrza Salmin". Vol. R. III. 85. Karachi.M. For particulars of the most valuable works. see Minorsky. Tadhkirat al-Muluik. des Safavides". "Sur l'Origine Louis Massiknon. 2 R. pp.. 181-191.. 345-357. Society. V.Bibliography Savory. See also the following: Travels to Tana and Persia. 1964.. 497-502. pp.. and A Narrative of Italian Travels in Persia in the 15th and 16th Centuries. Z. Damascus 1957. Vol. pp. October-December 1965. III. published by the Hakluyt Society. 6-9. Journal of the Central Institute of Islamic Research. 103 SUMKER1968 . Savory.ges Togan.M. London 1873. no. Travel Literature The European travel literature relating to the Safavid period is immensely rich and important. in Islamic Studies.

This is the problem of the motivation of the authors of medieval urban histories. There is hardly a single major city in the Persian speaking world that has not been the subject of at least one local history. there seem to be at least two distinct genres of local history. but if it were to be. In studying any single work or city. The root of the problem is essentially the very richness and volum of medieval urban historical writing itself. That is beimmediately apparent wherein the difficulty cause the impression one gets at first glance is that of a genuine "genre" of historical writing. IRANIANSTUDIES 104 . Richard W. encompassing several cities looms as a major obstacle. this is not the case at all. but as soon as a broader approach is and numerous works. been compiled. it may be possible to work around the problem. These two genres are the local biographical dictionary or tabapit and what might be considered local political history. it is not lies. and these two are often to varying degrees interwoven or linked to other genres of historical writing. comparable to the chronicle In fact. it attempted. published or unpublished. Bulliet The object of this article is to open up to speculation a historiographical problem which the serious student of Iranian urban history necessarily encounters. many more that at one time existed have disappeared.CITY HISTORIES IN MEDIEVAL IRAN Richard W. however. Neither is it the case. Actually. Given the richness of this genre of literature. A complete list of these local histories has not. Bulliet is Instructor in History at Harvard University. or the biography. it would be very long indeed. that each of these works follows its own pattern and is totally unlike any other. for that is what makes the comparative study of Iranian cities potentially so rewarding. but many. to my knowledge. Many of these works are extant.

and that their individual contributions are worthy of being recorded for future generations. but it does not adequately explain the phenomenon of strictly local biographical dictionaries. that it is these persons (rather than the political governors) who represent or reflect the active forces in Muslim society in their respective spheres.A. shrines. or other eminent earlyl4uslims. these continuations do not include separate introductions but only the biographical entries. quarters. There are too many aspects of these works which do not really fit into this analysis. and a more or less extensive list of its mosques. 1 And he elaborates further: Since the earliest organized disciplines in Islam were the religious and legal disciplines of hadIthstudy. one or more accounts of the origin of the city. Jurjan. and so forth. It is also noteworthy that in cases where there have been later biographical compilations written as continuations of the original work. Gibb. He states that: Thus it is clear that the conception that underlies the oldest biographical dictionaries is that the history of the Islamic Community is essentially the contribution of individual men and women to the building up and transmission of its specific culture. the earliest works are oriented biographical towards meeting their requirements both in general works and in the 'histories' of particular cities and provinces . Balkh. waterways. The first seeming inconsistency is the regular appearance in these works of an introduction containing usually a few phrases in praise of the city attributed to Muhammad. penetratingly discussed by H. This sort of introduction can be found in such biographical dictionaries as the histories of Nishapur. and Isfahan. an accoumt of its conquest by the Muslims. the local biographical is dictionary.The first genre.Ali. 105 SUMMER 1968 .R. seen as a subdivision of the larger genre of conventionally dictionaires biographical This larger genre has been per se.2 This is an excellent analysis of the philosophy of history underlying the general approach of the compiler of biographical dictionaires.

Also. are deleted from the vast majority of the biographies. and for purposes of verifying chains of authority of badith one might find it useful to know what particular institution the man taught in. of course. IRANIANSTUDIES 106 . One final inconsistency. The emphasis on genuinely local interests and places is unmistakable. In short. within the framework outlined by Gibb. Even the dates of death. a man named al-Utri will be described as living in the quarter of UTra in Nishapur. but in such cases as a postmaster noted for drunkeness and lascivious conduct it seem unlikely. inclusion of biographies of people who appear to have no scholarly standing and who seem to be extremely One unlikely of hadith. to be sure. elucidate the nisba of the person being discussed. For example. it seems that although the tabaglt format was very widely used by local historians. although others might be added to is the not infrequent the list. is the regular appearance in the individual biographies of place-names in contexts which would surely be of little interest to the student of iadith. an epitomiser such as the man who condensed the original multivolume history of Nishapur by al-Vikim al-NaisibUri to some one hundred and fifty pages should choose to retain virtually nothing of the original te-xt in addition to the man's name except where he lived. Some of them. But it is difficult indeed to determine why in normally spare biographies the compiler chooses to record where the subject's funeral took place or where his house or shop was located in relation to other localities.a question histories implied by Gibb's use of quotation marks but rather why the writers chose to cast them histories of local in this format which seems to Western readers to be so uncongenial to the purposes of the local historian. The question is not why the writers of biographical dictionaries them confined to small areas chose to call . the impetus for writing these biographical dictionaries handbooks was not primarily to provide for badIth scholars. one might desire to know what cemetery a man is buried in for purposes of making a pilgrimage to his tomb. And it is even more difficult to explain why. No more was it to record the contributions of individual men and women to the history of the Islamic Community. sources for the transmission cannot be absolutely did not transmit certain that any individual badith. which are of such vital importance to the student of badith.A second inconsistency. which reflects certain of the interests implied by the contents of the introduction. Nor are these place-names easily explained by other reasons.

works in this category seem to merit the title "history" much more than the biographical dictionaries. genealogical tables can be reconstructed that are sometimes more complete and accurate than those that are virtually ready-made in these political histories. Where the biographical dictionaries may have several thousand biographies simply listed in alphabetical order and subdivided. Complete genealogies of the important families of the city are given along with various anecdotes and mention of any intermarriage with other important families. into rather broad chronological groups. including in mary cases a substantial is quite different. if at all. the entire structure of the work is along the lines of the biographical dictionary format. which is of sufficient length to include over a thousand of the usual cursory biographies expected in this format. The important point here is simply that these two distinct genres of historical literature existed side by side for several centuries and that the difference between them is not so much in the categories of information deemed worthy of recording but rather in the entire approach to the notion of local history. and the borderline between them sometimes become rather thin. works typically contain more or less lengthy discussions of geographical features and points of interest. these works typically group the biographies by family. But this can be done only at the expense of a tremendous amount of time and effort. The chronological historical which with the tabaqit introinterest. is continued in these works up to the time of the author. but the overall effect these Like the introductions to the biographical dictionaires.The second genre of local historical writing is represented in extant works by such works as Ta'rlkh-i Baihaq_. To Western readers. In the Fadi'il Balkh. for example. Precisely the same information can be retrieved from the biographical dictionaries. because the variations on these two themes are many. Ta'rtkh-i Qum. but only seventy or so biographies are included in the entire work. Furthermore. 107 SUMMER 1968 . ductions generally stops with the Muslim conquest. biographical notices. and Ta'rlkh-i al-Jannlt Ruyln. Raudit fl Aweif Mandinat Harat. But in addition they include accounts of the various dynasties that have ruled the city and of the various important families in the city. They share many characteristics with the biographical dictionnumber of naries. There is no need to go further into the various differences between these two genres of local history. the entire structure of the biographical portions of these works is different.

As the problem now stands. Naisabur he himself composed genre. allegiance but is a phenomenon which runs throughout this Islamic history. the essential approaching to write question is no longer what prompted any individual local a local history to write history. one is forced smaller than empires This is not to say that the company of educated religious point. biographical dictionary a biographical which demonstrates of philosophers. For in the introduction the he says that he used as a source political history genre. not infrequent between Moreover. Basically. combined with the theory of the caliphate. cooperation the two groups. Furthermore. which is a prime example of the Ta'rlkh-i of al-4lakim. as we shall the initial is not entirely the case. it would be best question however. that the were so distinct namely. that of the motivation of the authors of Iranian urban of the two discussion of the nature histories. the together. that to be evading question. and officials is always or necessarily antagonistic scholars and trading toward and divorced from the great landholding links are This is far from being the case. led to underestimating religion and the state of units But looking at the history importance of this cleavage. and notability between the religious power structure of society the secular and the 'umara'. the author of Ta'rlkh-i of that work. this viewto revise or states. suggests a plausible genres of local history. often when the city as a between the two groups occurred quite the medium of religious or through this to the problem posed initially Thus. The preceding way of however. which is of the Baihag. capable The answer to the question posed above that we are authors chose one or the other suggesting here is that individual own status and depending on what their genre of local history in what is reflected was within the city. the problem. of the first type rather see. which was in many ways particularly in Iran during accentuated times the medieval of Sasanid structure period when the social in the was still This is the cleavage strongly influential. Marriage families. The best rebuttal approach when they began their argument is the case of Ibn Funduq. notability. Before going into this to deal with the first and most obvious answer that comes to mind. we return article. The emphasis and dynastic on political in Western scholarship binding history. dictionary that he was fully of working in the other format. but. that the two traditions aware of the alternative individual authors were not completely of this works. whole was threatened IRANIAN STUDIES 108 . between the Culaml. but what prompted any individual This may seem than of the secoAd type.

and there history of the city was the same as its own history. Essentially. his allegiance was to the secular notability. his choice of format was to the religious governed primarily by his allegiance notability or the secular notability. which one often called by the names of the law schools. "Islamic Biographical Literature. was enough distribution of real power in the community to lend substance to both beliefs. 54. if not an each group believed that the antagnoistic one.R. he composed a labaqjt of these men. the importance of this cleavage is that it was felt to be a dynamic and competitive one.M. For present purposes. taking his cue from the religious discussed ultimately biographical dictionaries by Gibb. of religious and secular notables would vie for power coalition with an opposing coalition. Thus. p. members as he ran across them in alphabetical order. it seems clear that each identified or the individual primarily with either the religious secular group and not simply with the upper class as a whole. it is at least suggestive of a line of approach to be taken toward this type of historical document. from the ruling dynasties on top to the local landholding families on the botton. Ibid. he felt that the history of his community was the history of the great families that ruled it. this is a very important consideration to keep in mind. then he felt that the the history of the history of the community was basically scholars and their patrons who had been born. when any individual undertook the writing of a local history. It suggests that local histories must always be read with the thought in mind that the author of the history had a very definite conception of what history was and that his work is therefore biased in very specific ways." the Middle East. Holt. political history was of interest only up to the advent of Islam in that locality.A. he chose the second genre of local history. ed. And for the person attempting to deal with these works on a comparative basis. B.. p. 2. religious or visited in the city. however. If. 109 Historians of London. Yet. Gibb. 1962. 55. 1968 SUMMER . he emphasized the blood line and continuity of family tradition by treating them all in one place. FOOTNOTES 1. on the other hand. His emphasis was on blood lines and signs of power rather than on education and signs of religious Instead of taking a family and discussing its individual prestige. Lewis and P. Even if it is not the entire answer. If the former. Whether this explanation of the nature of the two genres is valid can only be ascertained by specific examination of the of a number of authors of local histories biographies in terms of the social cleavage discussed above. Thus. studied. H.

However. as a source of capital formation. For the purpose of this study the assumption is that absorptive in some capacity of the petroleum exporting countries is not the limiting factor to economic development. It has been subsequently expanded to be published as a book. Since lack of most underof capital goods industries is a common feature and equipment developed countries. exchange necessity. However. the question of Initally. not in itself of capital and foreign availability exchange will of lead to economic An examination of the question development. Fatemi In this study the contribution of petroleum revenues. Even if domestic could be secured an underdeveloped still faces savings country another major problem in its development effort.S. they need to import machinery is a and for this foreign (and technical know-how). the effectiveness of capital itself is limited by the absorptive capacity of the The availability of noncapital factors and their given economy. In an underdeveloped economy due to a very low level of income both average and marginal propensity to consume are very high. University Fatemi is Associate of Akron. Professor of Eqonomics at the *This is a summary of a study originally undertaken as a doctoral dissertation. relative elasticities not only determine the rate of development but generally in the short run set a limit to the amount of capital which can efficiently be invested. of capital significance as a necessary factor for economic is investigated.S. Domestic capital formation can hardly take place under such conditions. IRANIAN STUDIES 110 . Ohio.ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLEUM-EXPORTING COUNTRIES All M. how these can place the economy of these nations on a revenues Ali M. Most petroleum-exporting countries have been spared this problem. The overall is development rate of development affected and limited of productive greatly by shortage factors. oil revenues are paid in hard currencies. and among the scarce with underdevelopment factors associated capital is a very important one. The empirical of the study are based on aspects and financial economic data from Iran and Venezuela. This is due to the fact that their substantial the . for the economic development of the exporting countries is considered.

it seems possible for the exporting countries to demand and receive a higher share of profits when it is economically justified. in what manner can these temporary revenues from a wasting-asset facilitate structural changes necessary to raise the domestic savings coefficient? 2. The oil companies and some of the consuming nations have held the opposite view. How can the producing or exporting countries best optimize and stabilize their export proceeds? Is the ultimate answer? nationalization Since sustained or self-perpetuating growth requires a high level of domestic savings. Therefore. As far as the sharing of the economic rent is concerned there seems to be no special economic rationale for 50/50 profit-sharing agreements. it should be possible for them to bring about some price stability through internationally joint production policies. though as a long run solution it does have certain advantages. Through international agreements such as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) such joint actions are made possible. Profits in the Middle East crude production are very high and costs are remarkably low. but as an immediate solution to the problem of exporting countries it poses many problems. But posted prices are used in intra-company and inter-company transactions --dealing with affiliates. The first question is considered in the light of the oligopolistic nature of the international petroleum market and its significance for the exporting countries. The exporting countries of the Middle East feel that posted prices are too low. Since 90 percent of the trade is done with the affiliates posted prices become important. refining and marketing which all take place outside of the exporting country and thus are not subject to its income tax. There is for the most part a discount either in cash or in more favorable tanker rates. 111 SUMMER 1968 . making it possible for the oil companies to benefit from high profits in transport. As far as nationalization is concerned.self-sustained growth path in the long run is investigated through further analysis of two specific questions: 1. not much trade with independent compaines is conducted at these posted prices. Prices of crude oil in the Middle East are "posted" or published by the major oil companies. However. Also since the exporting countries have been constantly faced with deteriorating terms of trade.

Therefore even after nationalization the exporting countries will still have to deal with the major international oil companies as oligopsonists. Revenues from petroleum exports must facilitate an increase in the coefficient of domestic savings to such a level that self-sustained growth becomes possible. Nationalization as a short run solution may not serve the purpose of exporting countries mainly because international markets are controlled by the major oil companies. However. study can be Revenues from petroleum exports can contribute to the long-run development of the exporting countries only if they succeed in modifying one of the most important structural parameters . the flow of petroleum export receipts must continue indefinitely in order to maintain the desired rate of growth. it will be necessary to restrict the marginal propensity to consume. In relation to this question an aggregate theoretical model is postulated and some of the computer results of various simulations have followed the analytical solution of the model. Petroleum export. Through joint action in an organization such as OPECthey are better able to safeguard their interests.the savings coefficient. In that sense these revenues exporting can serve countries. Determination and enforcement of a relatively high marginal savings ratio is dependent upon these factors. If nationalization is envisaged as a long run solution. Common interest of the exporting countries will be best served if they maintain a common front. as the necessary shock for altering the low-income equilibrium feature of the underdeveloped petroleum Stability of petroleum prices and the volume of revenues are necessary prerequisites and major contributions to raising the low savings coefficient. If this is not accomplished and the propensity to save remains at the same level. IRANIAN STUDIES 112 .The second major question raised in this study is concerned with the effect of oil revenues on the domestic savings coefficient. revenues make such a progressive rise in the savings coefficient possible without the necessity and hardship of further reductions of current consumption. This will allow both additional consumption and additional savings and will raise the savings coefficient. listed In brief the main conclusions reached in this in the following paragraphs. the exporting countries must concentrate on finding their own independent routes to the market.

It had stuck half its tongue out from betweeni its locked teeth. whose hand was dyed bright red "I'll get his tail and each one of you'll get him up together. the wings of its nostrils opened and shut. the sidewalk.D). the horse's own body heat melted the Ice around it. said: a leg and we'll stand the can't spring up all at and I'll let go legs That leg's on two legs and street cleaners. were trying to get it out of the dltch. Then you let go of his legs real quick his tail. hIow can a chi cken stand this not stand on three?" and with colored sunglasses to "So it's really possible lift got to get some people. Its mane had fallen sadly over its forehead. and one could see the polished shoe The water in the ditch was frozen--only attached by three nails. candidate Studies at liar-var(d University. that the where blood oozed long bone of one of Its legs had been dislocated from under the reddish-brown skin. wearing fatigues without any insignia and a service cap without a sun visor. In hlistory and Middle Eastern 113 1968 SlUMMER . The hoof of one leg--the one with the broken long bone--had turned out. he'll once. animal this way? You've whole body and put I t on an John Limbert Is a P'hi. It took short breaths one after the other. Two street cleaners and an itinerant workman. He should be able to stand on three not broken very much." a leather out life out its A gentlemen wearing case under his arm said. The kneecap of another leg was torn completely loose from its cartilege and was joined only to a few strands and sinews that had not given up their faith at the last.TWO SHORT STORIES BY SADEQ CHUBAK JUSTICE Translated by John Limbert A carriage into a broad ditch horse had fallen and its foreIt was absolutely obvious leg and kneecap were smashed. bloody water. One of the with henna. Its whole body had fallen into dirty. hoist Then when the beast pain and can't put his legs on the ground. Bloody foam appeared around its mouth.

why don't you put it out of its misery? The poor beast is really suffering. "How A man with a long pipe answered: "By God. not for horses. even if we came and just as you commandput it out of its misery--even supposing we forget judgement day and the questions and answers of that world--but tomorrow what do I answer the government? Look. Should get rid of it with a bullet." The policeman. A bystander did it happen?" with a newspaper who had just arrived asked. Since this morning he's been in the water and the poor thing's been dying without a sound." Then he yelled. The carriage-man has been 1Seyyed: A descendent of'the prophet Mohamad through his daughter Fatemeh and his son-in-law Ali. have an owner?" "Now doesn't it A man wearing a chauffeur's leather coat and gloves and with a green scarf wrapped around his neck answered. Just give it a little mumiya'i2 . answered sarcastically. one side of his maw still puffed up with beet-root. his head tilted.who was holding a little One of the on-lookers. it's nothing' A car hit him and he died. Tomorrow it'll be all right. honored sir! First of all. "One " ' rial. answered while peeling beets with a handleless knife for a customer. said: God won't like it if they kill it. Besides. complained: "Enough of this kind of talk! It's not worth a thing Then he to its owner. "How couldn't he have an owner! Is it possible not have an owner? Just his skin is worth fifteen tomans at least. This Then he shut off his talking and said to a customer. "Damit. the bullet is for thieves. "Not a chance. one rial!"'3 That same man with the newspaper asked. aren't they going to ask a poor bastard like me what he did with the bullet?" A turbaned seyyedl with a worn-out sheepskin on his shoulders "Eh friend. A sir is about 75 grams. child's hand. IRANIANSTUDIES 114 . During World War II sugar was rationed in Iran--thus this man is selling black market sugar. A beet-root seller. A green turban is the 2 sign of their status. I'm not from around here--I'm just passing through." turned and said to a seedy. No one thinks of it. you have a pistol. there's nothing wrong with the beast. half-dead looking policeman who was at the edge of the sidewalk munching some beet root: "Officer. Mumiya'i: A kind of mineral asphalt which is placed on broken 3 bones to aid healing. got sugar without coupons! One sir.

free of face. face of a healthy pleading--the it watched the people. rose from its entire of mud had dried thickness Five fingers skin. just as well without But the thought of having ten tomans in cash in his watch pocket--the proceeds of the sale--stirred up his anxieties and cravings--anxieties and cravings for filling up on vodka and Neither had touched his lips opium. He felt He moved a kind of freedom he had never known before. tears. his arms a little and they seemed lighter and freer--so he could live a coat. flesh but had a peaceful at all. and how his nerrves were like dried sticks from a day without these He pictured how it would be to stick two doses of delights. without eyes. "Are only its his legs with a green like a chauffeur The same big man dressed said its ribs are "The driver around his neck answered. of the of steam came out of the nostrils puffs You could see the body. since yesterday." Irregular Steam horse. Here were also muddy. and there the shook violently. By it he had taken off his shoulders both the wright selling of a mass of wool and cotton and the false restraints of society. Its neck and other places Its whole frame of its body throbbed. his horse die?" Didn't away with? carriage A well-dressed inj ured?" man with glasses he'll just till be right now and he's back. 115 1968 SUMMER . THE FLOWERS OF FLESH Morad stood in the middle of the crowded street. complain It didn't With open horse. ribs under the on its rump. scarf smashed too." gone to put the carriage away--then boy whose hand was held by that man raised The little take his What did the driver "Daddy dear: head and asked. he pulled off his coat and handed it to the old clothes peddlar.

his horse die?" Didn't away with? carriage A well-dressed inj ured?" man with glasses asked. free of face. THE FLOWERS OF FLESH Morad stood in the middle of the crowded street. of the of steam came out of the nostrils puffs You could see the body. tears. He felt He moved a kind of freedom he had never known before. Here were also muddy. he pulled off his coat and handed it to the old clothes peddlar. face of a healthy pleading--the it watched the people. flesh but had a peaceful at all. ribs under the on its rump. scarf smashed too. "Are only its his legs with a green like a chauffeur The same big man dressed said its ribs are "The driver around his neck answered. 115 1968 SUMMER . and there the shook violently. just as well without But the thought of having ten tomans in cash in his watch pocket--the proceeds of the sale--stirred up his anxieties and cravings--anxieties and cravings for filling up on vodka and Neither had touched his lips opium." gone to put the carriage away--then boy whose hand was held by that man raised The little take his What did the driver "Daddy dear: head and asked. his arms a little and they seemed lighter and freer--so he could live a coat. By it he had taken off his shoulders both the wright selling of a mass of wool and cotton and the false restraints of society. without eyes. since yesterday." Irregular Steam he'll just till be right now and he's back. complain It didn't With open horse. and how his nerrves were like dried sticks from a day without these He pictured how it would be to stick two doses of delights. Its neck and other places Its whole frame of its body throbbed. rose from its entire of mud had dried thickness Five fingers skin.

But when less and stupid to him after he had satisfied they appeared he was their slave and he indulged them again and again with fresh greed. underneath the seams he had his stinking seat of society's He He didn't live at all like a human being. a handful of moveable bones. hated all people--even so that now he felt himself alone even accustomed to loneliness He completely ignored everyone in the most crowded places. Anyone could be who he wanted or do what he wanted. appeasing his cravings without considering his previous regret. But right now what could he do to escape the claws of this Jew creditor whose store was on the other side of the street? From a distance he watched the store and saw the Jew perched like All at once an eagle on a four-legged stool in front of it. ignoring both their order rejoining and alternating This man was a wrong-colored patch stuck on the and conclusions. addictions and even these were just temporary--they seemed pointthem. side like a snake that has just woken up. had He was tied to nothing except his own no place in his thoughts. "What's it to me if this Jew Morad shook and said to himself: collars me int front of these people and wants his son-of-a-bitch 116 IRANIANSTUDIES . move his head from side to indifferently thoughts and listlessly. truth. Then he let forth pleasure that soothed his nerves a little. like his breathing. around him. lies and shame. the sound of his the fresh yawn mixed with the street noises and was lost--but remained in and delight of the imaginary opium still softness his system. and would forget everyTo Morad both his own words and those of others were thing. His existence was made up of Morad had nothing to live for. around himself like an egg shell and inside it he twitched.opium together in the bowl of his first pipe and then to smoke Just from this image he felt a the whole thing at one time. his thoughts. a quick mind mixed with a grim pessimism. Do But sometimes strong convulsions did touch his spirit. own existence. religion. enjoyed his own misery as though it was happiness and at the same He time considered torments an inseparable part of his life. you know when? He noticed his surroundings in spite of himself when he felt a craving and would see that everyone had everything-But suiddenly he would ridicule his own even extra things. a noisy yawn and his eyes filled with tears. He had made himself tiny babies. propriety were all the same for him and. and an encrusted course of studies that even he himHe changed his mind a thousand times a second. self could not use. meaningless--disgrace. honor. He had built a skin Morad would not see and did not want to. pants.

' She won't' I don't have a coat on. and he wants about a thousand other things--and they make like they don't notice but every one of them's stored up a harem of wives and sighehsl for themselves and their buddies. Its sculptor would have lived without women for ____heh: An Iranian Moslem or Jew may make a legal marriage with a woman called a sigheh. Where could his weak. but not inclining to any of these alone. The contract will will specify the period of the marriage which may vary from hours to years. what's the difference between them and me? They don't know there's a man among them just like them--he's got a stomch like them.two tomans? As if he hadn't already raised hell about it more So if I think a bunch of fools is important than a hundred times. I want to live with it. His head reeled. was immediately absorbed by his whole system. for example. This smell. provacative and aloof--quickly passed Morad and spread the soft morphine scent of her perfume behind her. 'Let's go to my house. 117 SUMMER 1968 temporary . He had held it so long that he finally started coughing.' There'll be some cussing and swearing-then they'll go one way and I'll go another. like morphine. poverty and lust. so why should I give it up when my life and death depend on this piece of paper? I'll go and fill up on vodka and opium and sleep at Mahin's house. I can't get along with people. nasty little eyes see me in this dusk?" A young woman--shapely. statue-like buttocks--that a human being could have been fashioned so well only in clay. whose dogs are they that I'm so scared of them? What'll happen? When we argue these people'll all come around. he wants a woman like them. The women'll all say. I haven't had a bath in months. 'Just another street bum with nothing. the delicate breadth of her shoulders. and the prominence of her prefectly-proportioned. He felt as if he had taken a deep draw on his opium pipe. She had been so skillfully put together--the clear. I don't have any money. I need my money. Anyhow. 'A good-looker--not bad for bed:' But do you figure any one of them'll come up and say. lovely indentation of the waist. nobody knows my mother and father--who's going to pay any attention to me. She was one of those who in his whole life Morad would never touch--not even. it smelled like roasted opium mixed with iodine. But I know this much. To hell with it! I'll mix with the people and sneak away. People'll say. at the laundry would he touch the cloth of her clothes. Just then an intense desire arose in him--he didn't know where it came from or what it wanted--a desire made from envy. He breathed in as much of the perfume smell as his lungs could hold and wouldn't release it. You see.

sweet-smelling flesh. The flowers of flesh were scattered and the form of that body he had desired changed into a broad. warm. But amrous looks and desires that made the heart pound rose from these same undulations. "It's a nice piece--yeah--who I don't know what they've screws it? got that's better than me. Waves trembled in the indentation of her waist and one imagined she was walking a tightrope and sometimes swung her buttocks instinctively to keep her balance and not fall. Morad's life collapsed in the drunkenness of this enervating He thought. that took huge. sneered at him. The poppy flowers on her tight. enticing along on two pieces of buffalo skin--dried skin of an animal that once had lived but that now was trampled on as he walked the asphalt of the street. And those poppies sure make it nice. It seemed she was naked and on her skin they had tattooed these blood-red poppies and their dark brown branches. . living flowers of flesh-flowers of life. ." He again felt a desparate need for his opium pipe. A man wanted to follow her a while. If I ever get hold of the god they say gave that piece to them I know what I'll do to him. animate shaking of her buttocks drew the flowers up and down like In one place more. Each one of the flowers had its own set of separate exciting and tempting movements that spoke to a man. Aren't I a part of this world too?" He was completely absorbed in watching the poppy flowers. naked legs. The orderly. so full of life. ridiculous frame full of holes.years in some remote place and would have wanted to create am ideal female for his own pleasure. such a pretty color. in one the measured valves of an automobile. IRANIANSTUDIES 118 . to inhale the smell of her morphine perfume. For an instant his gaze turned away from the flesh flowers. but everywhere luring and speaking. He spoke stupidly to himself with a pleasure as though he had never seen poppies before: "Opium's flower is nice too . well-formed calves-covered with tiny golden hairs. strode gracefully form. and drew him after them. and to watch those sneering. But suddenly it seemed to him that the flesh of that woman's body had collapsed in the patterns of shade and light thrown by the trees along the street. opium and his stomach gnawed at her inaccessibility. staggering strides. like a wheat field in mid-August with the evening sun shining on it--supported her mysterious body and controlled And this entire its movements. place less. A pair of lovely. thin dress stuck to her body as though they had been shook with life exactly pressed on her flesh with decals--they in time to the movements of her shapely. and desired from head to foot. But that's a real good thing.

. So I'll take the pants off you right in front of the people. he threw himthe bottom of his lungs. you should die in the gutter. touched mixed with concealed indifference Lightheartedness Morad. and he could remind himself of giving up the red two-toman note. . He breathed easily and for a moment made sure that the head was ground and pulverized like a spider squashed creditor's a debt under a camel's foot--and there was no one else to collect from him. couldn't move off his seconds passed and the Jew creditor still side of the street.Now in this confusion the Jew creditor saw Morad's shape from a distance. his eyes picked out Morad in the crowd. the animate. eyes off him. He thought to himself: If I catch you this time I won't let you go free from my claws. . The creditor kept watching hunter who marks out where his prey has Morad. he never took his tiny. you'll know you can't eat what belongs to Yaqub . his whole being A moment awaiting the encounter with the stubborn shopkeeper.18 The Chevrolet passed quickly. Morad stood Horad. their faces without disturbances. patience gave out--he fidgeted every instant he stood in his place But his gaze was fixed on waiting for the Chevrolet to pass. just like ants gathering around the corpse of a The fear of viewing death changed their huge. went by before he could forget the morphine-perfume. But several self in one motion off his stool toward the street. stinking cockroach. the irritating redness of the poppies. liness these people had deserted their homes to seek refuge in the 119 SUMMER 1968 . and like a skillful fallen in the thick grass.t had not reached the middle of the But the creditor still street when a ten-wheeled truck loaded with flour hit him and ran him over. faces--obviously From the fear of death and of lonewere completely different. A speeding Chevrolet had blocked him and he A few more seconds passed and the-creditor's had to wait. Yaqub's torso was smashed and mangled. He put his hands in his pockets and did not move from his place. a large crowd had gathered around the truck. . provocative movements of the flesh flowers. and bellowed his name several times from After he saw Morad stop. made him out. bat-like on the sidewalk on the other side of the street. in normal life. while the rest of his body had collapsed like burnt wool. Before Morad could even blink. "DamnMoslem. The truck dragged his body along the ground between the grinding wheels for a few meters until it stopped with a horrifying of brakes. He felt contempt for himself and muttered at a whore--if you went up to heaven and came the Jew: "Your sister's wouldn't give you half a dinar--come on over and back down I still see .

self: His eyes were fixed to the ground and he thought to him"Brother of a whore.ebbing and flowing crowds of society. Black coagulated blood spread over the pavement of the street and sank in wherever there were crevices in the stones. ?" Gradually Morad. He very slowly pulled himself out of the crowd and took the road to his remote. . he was for himself. He felt an annoying wakefulness and sensitivity in his nerves. He yawned and realized he was Suddenly Morad was nauseated. There was freedom and abandon in his heart. though tiny bits still stuck to the truck's tires. he banged his head into the trunk of a plane tree. and a mass of smashed bones formed a foul mixture with the sinking blood and with the dung of the street. our luck would be better than this:" As he kept his face toward the ditch and watched the floating cigarette pacK. . underground coffee-house. takes it somewhere quiet and eats it. He had no more endurance. A mass of blood and bone from the skull spilled on the ground. IRANIAN STUDIES 120 . the living chickens argue over the warm stuff until finally one of them pecks it. late for his opium. While. who had money and are champagne and caviar when they were alive . They were for themselves." He kicked at a pack of stripped in the street that had fallen and when its top Gorgan cigarettes did not open he bent over and picked it up. mixed with the crowd. Neither the sound of car horns nor the noise of the people reached his ears. like a soft-boiled egg-white with a blood spot. He swore at the tree: "I screwed your sister:" Morad changed direction and lost himself in the crowd. By this time the truck had rocked back and forth and had passed over Yaqub's body. Morad thought to himself: "Why is it when they kill a chicken and throw out its guts. "Son of a whore: If we had a chance in the world . blood-soaked matter. his hands still in his pockets. He muttered under his breath. Alone For him all these people passing again. It was emipty. He leaned against a wall for a minute until his feeling of nausea passed and then started walking again. and now there was nothing in their hearts except the grip of terror. He felt lighter. but these people are afraid of their own dead. nearby had no existence. But he didn't care. His feet had grown heavy. . it's like they're pulling out all my veins. He shoved bodies and bodies shoved him. He threw it angrily into the dirty water that had drawn itself up like a wounded snake in the ditch alongside the street. ." Then he spat a thick blob like soapsuds on the and continued his thoughts: "It was a nice one: asphalt There'd be a good time if a fellow it.

squashed brains. Only this time her perfume smelled of dung. lecturer in Persian literature at Harvard University. a crushed skull. and a mass of black. under his supervision. She still shook her exciting. As she passed she spread the smell of the same morphine perfume behind her. He saw the same beautiful woman coming out of a hat shop. These poems appeared in our last issue. coagulated human blood. and the flowers of flwsh tattooed on her body sneered just as before.But suddenly he shook and turned his head. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The editors would like to thank Mr. living rump regularly up and down the same way. 121 SUMMER 1968 . by Miss Anita Spertus. Manouchehr Mohandessi. for his permission to Iranian Studies to publish three of Forough Farrokhzad's poems out of an anthology translated.

an Iranian journalist. between exposition book. of the extensive materials for 19th century Persian diplomatic in the British Foreign Office archives or history now available important documents in the but nevertheless the less substantial such as review I?RATIONALITY"AND " RRATIONALITYt IN IRANIAN FOREIGN POLICY Shaul Bakhash The Foreiwn Policy of Iran: A Developing Nation in World Affairs: University 1500-1914. graduate work at Harvard University. 1966. His account. and more detailed more recent by Kazemzadeh's superseded since a good two-thirds 1864-1914. Ramazani writes a nice balance and has struck powers of summarization impressive is not moreover. to the post-1914 book is devoted of Mr. by Rouhollah Ramazani. is endowed with with great lucidity. in his current book. Kazemzadeh terminates In addition. attempts to examine the degree to which the makers of Iranian foreign policy succeeded in the period with which he is concerned Mr. Ramazani has two basic points of reference. French and Russian archieves that historians for Firuz Kazemzadeh and Nikkie Keddie have made the basis use of available by intelligent Nevertheless. studies. Mr. Mr. Mr. for the first in English book thus appears than the rather policy foreign focus is on Iranian Ramazani's And he brings to his foreign policy of the great powers in Iran. time. interest First. he Mr. recent survey a very adequate he has put together materials published half of the in the 19th and the first policy foreign of Persian 30 pages of the book deal with (Only the first 20th centuries. Shaul Bakhash. and analysis. in Persia and Britain Russia where period. analysis a schematic framework and terms of reference which are of in themselves. Charlottesville: of Virginia Press. Rouhollah Ramazani has not made use. IRANIANSTUDSIES 122 is presently doing . the 1500-1800 period). Ramazani's in the Much of the material his study.

he analyzes the manner in which the Qajars. and as "irrational' those foreign policies that do not. whims and over-all personality of the monarch. Ramazani has set for himself. that Iranian foreign policy has been dominated by a number of identifiable constants: the predominant role of the shah as foreign policy-maker. Ramazani is on slightly firmer ground when he bases his judgment of "rationality" on the degree to which means and ends coincide in the fashioning of foreign policy. Thus he demonstrates how. This simple and straightforward scheme both aids and hinders the task of analysis that Mr. the over-riding influence of the shah linked foreign policy too closely with the abilities. He traces in illuminating fashion the ways in which the rise of Iranian nationalism began to influence the course of foreign policy. 123 SUMMER 1968 . irresponsible irredentism in the first half of the nineteenth century and an equally over-ambitious nationalism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Ramazani's attempt to test Iranian foreign policy in different periods against the yardstick of "rationality. in his view. Again. His analysis too often degenerates into a mere labelling as "rational" those foreign policies that work. But the same thing cannot be said of Mr. All this is very useful and enlightening. All this takes place in a kind of international vacuum with inadequate consideration of the degree to which the changing international picture affected Iranian freedom of maneuver." He adopts from Morgenthau the arguement that holds "a rational foreign policy to be a good foreign policy. of a "trational" foreign policy. (What does "rational" mean. he seeks to identify some of the basic persistent characteristics of Iranian foreign matching means with ends--the hallmark. anyway?) Mr. fought war after war with inadequate military force and organization to suffer defeat after defeat." But the concept is far too vague to give much insight into the workings of Iranian foreign policy. under the Qajars and also Reza Shah. ignorant of the real military power of Britain and a rising Russia. Ramazani is able to show. Mr. quite convincingly. weaknesses. the yardstick. and internal weaknesses which rendered ineffective many diplomatic efforts. too often turns out to be an a posteriori justification of the accomplished fact. But even here. Secondly. when applied to different cases. long periods of unrealism when ends far outran the available means to secure them. or of any other nation's foreign policy for that matter.

of course. under which Russia and Britain divided Iran into spheres of influence. there often are no options open. in Mr. the door on even this possibility was shut. On the contrary. to Mr. Ramazani's scheme forces him into an awkward ticking off of governments as "rational" and "irrational".e. But when it comes to judging the "rationality" or "irrationality" of Iranian foreign policy. when Iranian governments rose and fell with clocklike regularity. that the international situation had changed. much the same was true. after a long period of involvement in internal consolidation. Ramazani's account. which signs the favorable 1921 agreement with Russia and deals more adequately with British pressures on Iran. throughout the 19th century. But after the conclusion of the 1907 agreement. The fact is that for small nations caught in the crunch between two great powers. and Britain's own war weariness immensely increase Iran's bargaining power. of course. Again. For a while there was at least the possibility of playing off Russia against Britain. A second objection. It is not. the operative factor is not a sudden maturing of Iranian foreign policy makers. in the confused internal and international situation of the 1914-21 period. that Mr.For example. had emerged as a factor in international politics again. the effect of this change in Russian policy on Britain which now had to worry less about Russian penetration of Iran. Reza Shah's foreign policy is described as having turned "irrational. as long as things go well with Reza Shah. effective) foreign policy which a given country might follow." The fact is. For example. it implies that must be taken that there is always a "rational" (i. Mr. Ramazani totally ignores the changing international situation. war was looming and Iran's area of maneuver had grown much more constricted. until he is able to point to a "rational" government. in each chapter a section is devoted to this subject. Iran's means for fashioning an effective foreign policy after this date were far narrower than Mr. As soon as things go badly and the allied invasion takes place in 1941. Ramazani's approach related is that to the first. Russia. The new Soviet government's desire to win friends in a period of weakness and idealism. these changes do not enter the picture or receive far too little weight. Ramazani suggests. he is deemed to be following a "rational" foreign policy. But here again. he roundly blames Iranian nationalists for attempting to IRANIANSTUDIES 124 . What conceivable "rational" foreign policy might Czechoslovakia have followed to stave off the Nazi onslaught once she was abondoned by Western Europe? For Iran.

the Russians and the British were redrawing their spheres of influence in Iran and. of stick to an uncertain neutrality The "realistic" alternative which course. the going the country to outright Russian annexation. Britain was virtually abandoning the northern half of In fact. fumbling. Mr. inept and bewildered succeeded by tactics that appear illogical. by giving Russia complete freedom of action in her sphere. at this very time. the sin." Mr. relax and enjoy it. often corrupt. Ramazani suggests would have been to ally with Britain and Russia against Germany. however. and Mr. appears at times to imply abject surrender. Yet. jingle in Russia at the time was that Iran was not a foreign country just as a hen was not really a bird. But it is also true that there are moments--and this was surely one--when men and nations do have nothing left but their sense of dignity. 125 SUMMER 1968 . Ramazani's concept of rationality Finally." It is true that the parliament had no power to make good its brave challenge to Russia. defeated and gripped by internal chaos . He thus disapproves of the Iranian parliament's rejection of the Russian ultimatum of which brought Russian troops marching from the 1911--a rejection Caucasus onto Tehran--as another sign of "unrealism. uncertain and procrastinating and by what at times was nothing but empty bravado in at least preserving the fiction of independence until international circumstances permitted its reassertion. And Iranian statesmen. the "'rational" course would have been to accept the inevitable. is again "unrealism. Mustapha Kemal's "irrationality" paid its own dividends. Ramazani's emphasis on common sense and rationality in this instance sounds too much like the old adage that "when rape is World War I." For Turkey in 1919.

Jarm.of s Jaaino tu4i> 1~~~~~~~~~~~` Qtdazm*t t968 Vow?4~ I '1 .

New Haven. It is distributed to members of the Society as a part of their membership.The Society for IranianStudies COUNCIL Ali Banuazizi Richard W.U.S. The opinions expressed by the contribu- tors are those of the individual authors and not necessarily those of the Society or the Editors of IRANIANSTUDIES.O. by Tina Kazemi January 1973 Box E-154. Yale Station. Associate Editor IRANIAN STUDIES is published quarterly by The Society for Iranian Studies.S. Cottam Hormoz Hekmat Abbas Heydari-Darafshian Farhad Kazemi. All communications concerning IRANIANSTUDIES or the Society's affairs should be addressed to: The Society for Iranian Studies. Current Address: Chestnut Hill. U.A. The price of single copies for non-members is $1. Box 3384. Massachusetts 02167.00 per issue.A. design 06520. Articles may be submitted in English or Persian to the Editor for publication. Treasurer Manoucher Parvin Majid Tehranian. Secretary IRANIAN STUDIES Ali Banuazizi. Editor Jacqueline W. Boston College. . Mintz. Connecticut Cover Second Printing. P.

Gochenour BOOK REVIEWS 170 FIRUZ KAZEMZADEH: Russia and Britain in Nikki R. Keddie Persia. 172 173 1864-1914 Nikki R.JrtaZatv &tudi >CCekii Volume I of kSojcforJroWatiSt S Fall 1968 udZs Number 4 ARTICLES 128 133 154 161 OF THE SOCIETY' S SECOND ANNUAL REPORT MEETING B3USINESS IN EDUCATIONAL AMBIVALENCE IRAN Marvin Zonis Manoucher Parvin IN MILITARY EXPENDITURE IRAN: A FORGOTTEN QUESTION Jalal Al-i-Ahmad SOMEONE ELSE'S CHILD Translated by Theodore S. WULFF: The Traditional Crafts of Persia The TANYA FARMANFARMAIAN: Lifted Veil LUTFI: OPECOIL ASHRAP 175 . Keddie Majid Tehranian Majid Tehranian HANSE.

political problems of Iran. culture and society. literature. The main objective of the Society was set forth by its Con'to encourage the study of Iranian stitution: lanincluding history. for the coming year. remarks were followed by a full report on the presented by Dr. and social. Ali Banuayear's activities. in to review the Society's New Haven. Connecticut. "The Society for Iranian Cultural and Social Studies.REPORT OF THE SOCIETY'S SECOND ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING The Second Annual Business Meeting of the Society was held on August 24th. zizi. the Society's Secretary." Dr. guage. during the first year of its existactivities and to make plans ence. welcomed the members President of the Society. in formally established a meeting at Yale University. 1968. economic.' "The need for a forum that could bring together students of Iranian society and culture had been felt for some time. His opening and their guests to the meeting. manifesting in the appearance of several rather itself and the organization short-lived periodicals IRANIANSTUDIES 128 . Banuazizi reported. Manoucher Parvin. "was on September 2. 1967. to elect new officers Mr.

journal. studies Iranian to North Amnerica'). however. limited present. a shared convicabroad. since of several seminars on Iran.Moreover. in involved members. quarterly The Society's with three published. such an organizacurrent conditions it was tion could function independently. independent and non-partisan for the effective this was deemed essential of the Society as a and continued functioning devoted to the preorganization professional of scholarly research on Iran's insentation and social life. and having reached the readers. increased membership has steadily the Society's 40 over we have Today during the past year. 129 FALL 1968 . StuIranian bulletin. Journal. of a Scholarly Publication "2. tellectual "The work of the Society during the past in four main areas: year concentrated "1 . already issues Both with regard a fourth under preparation. most of whom are actively Soof the to the objectives relevant research we have been able to secure In addition. to the Society's many subscriptions of our members and subscribers The combined list of like a Who's Who in the field reads literally for the at least (unfortunately. the Society to establish considered desirable There was. Recruitment of Members. Starting with 9 members at the time of its inception. in the creation among all those instrumental tion of the Society that it should have an as character. ciety. given the in Iran. has been regularly dies. there was a reasonable doubt that.

to the articles and the printing. The Sponsorship of a Seminar on Iranian Studies.' More than 50 persons attended that meeting. The Society also sponsored a two-hour radio program on Iranian music in the Cambridge-Boston area. M. Banuazizi's report was followed by some questions. subscriptions and contributions during the past year had were totaled $621. It is expected that this seminar will be held in the spring of 1969. Massachusetts at which Mr. "3.00. there has been a noticeable improvement in the quality of the journal.09 in the Both reports were unanimously adopTreasury. Cultural Activities. after which he was warmly applauded for his vigorous and effective leaderThe ship of the Society during the past year. Esfandiary gave a talk on 'Iranian Intellectuals Abroad. well-defined theme in Iranian Studies. Mr." Dr. F. "4. officers ted by the meeting and the respective were thanked for their valuable contributions to the Society's progress. are under way Preparations for a seminar. Treasurer's report was then presented to the members. leaving a balance of $53. The Society sponsored a reception last spring for members and friends in Cambridge.91. IRANIAN STUDIES 130 . Kazemi reported that the Society's revenues from membership fees. to be sponsored jointly by the on some Society and an American university. while its expenditures $568.

opening the way for the internationalization of the Society's membership." The meeting then moved to the election of a new Council. Dues were standardized for all members. Professor Assistant Connecticut College." regardless Prior to this amendment. with dues for Full Membership reduced from $12 to $10. 2. As a scientific and professional society. The category of Associate Member was thus eliminated altogether. and dues for Family Members remaining at $2. and the following amendments to the Constitution were enacted. Psychology.The meeting then moved to the next item on the agenda. 1. the meeting felt there of nationality should be no distinctions in the membership requirements. and the following seven were elected to serve for the coming year: Ali Banuazizi. and humanities. The official changed from the "Society for Iranian Cultural and Social Studies" to the less cumbersome "Society for Iranian Studies. The privilege of Full Membership in to "any person the Society was made available of this Society and ensharing the objectives gaged in research or study in social sciences of nationality. only Iranians were for Full Membership while non-Iranian eligible students and scholars could apply for the Society's Associate Membership. 131 of FALL 1968 . name of the Society was 3.

Richard W. Hunter College. Instructor Harvard University. Majid Tehranian Secretary of the Society IRANIAN STUDIES 132 . Lesley College. Editor. Jacqueline Mintz as Associate Editor of Iranian Studies. Treasurer Ali Banuazizi. Farhad Kazemi. Lecturer Columbia University. in Political in Abbas Heydari-Darafshian. The Second Annual Business Meeting of the Society came thus to an end amid hopes for the expansion of the Society's activities during the coming year. in Economics. its The new Council elected Executive Committee: the following Majid Tehranian. Hormoz Hekmat. in History. Bulliet. Assistant Political Economy. Instructor Science. Utica College. University Manoucher Parvin. Science. Secretary Farhad Kazemi. Lecturer in Political of Michigan. Lecturer Economics. Iranian Studies It also appointed Mrs. of as Professor Majid Tehranian.

I wish to thank those Iranians who so generously gave of their time. Frank Bamberger of the Computation Center. Mr. and their opinions. as well as Professor Frederick W. for their assistance in every phase of this work. of Chicago. Department of Political Science. at the University of Chicago. 133 FALL 1968 . in the intensity of its dilemma resulting from efforts to effect a symbiosis between two divergent traditions-cultural continuity and Marvin Zonis is Assistant Professor of Political & Social Sciences. Frey. and Assistant Director of the Middle Eastern Studies Center. The research on which this paper is based was carried out in Iran by the author from 1963 to 1965 and was supported by a Research Training Fellowship of the Social Science Research Council. Department of The University Sociology. their knowledge. MIT. Data analyzed and reported here were derived from interviews with 167 members of the Iranian political elite identified through a two-stage reputational analysis.EDUCATIONAL AMBIVALENCE IN IRAN MARVIN ZONIS Iran is rare among developing societies.

IRANIANSTUDIES 134 . As the Shah himself sees it. the educational sector is frequently among the first to reflect this commitment. and especially But this group is an interesting ingly greater. the role of indiviis correspondthe elite. and economic change.e. where the traditions of public administration are weak and where the political process is relatively less structured than is the case in by formal organizations more developed countries. In no area of contemporary Iranian life can this be more tellingly demonstrated than that of education. duals. "1 But the "adjustment" proceeds. innovation. contradictions. "we are both adjusting the technology to our culture and our culture to the technology. These men subject for study on other grounds.. Situated at the highest command posts both within and without the government.technological. Western. the political elite translate the wishes of the monarch into political action through the prisms of their own attitudes and values. It is to each of these areas --the attitudes of the political leaders and the education system to which we turn to demonstrate Iran's dilemma. and ambivalences of Iran's political elite is reflected in the course of Iran's educational system. Where the political leadership has made a firm commitment to social. haltingly with the result that neither of the traditions is especially vital. at best. i. But the ambiguities.2 In a political system such as Iran's. nor entirely relevant to Iran's political goals. political.

of the elite have lived outside their Sixty-five own lands for a minimum of ten years (onemember 135 FALL 1968 .Iran's progress in the blending of personify her cultural heritage with the technological contributions of Europe and the United States. this melange of traditions-so essential for modernization-must be done in the minds of individuals. Their travel has not only been it has also tended to be lengthy. (on the whole. All but two of the elites have traveled outside their own country. In fact. and nearly one-half (N=78) of the elite received graduate degrees from such universities. The members of Iran's political elite have had numerous first-hand to opportunities learn the "new knowledge" directly. Foreign travel is one such means. some 18% (N=30) attended high schools outside Iran. Of the 167 members of the political elite who were interviewed. the elite are remarkably well-educated. 36% (N=60) received undergraduate degrees from European or American universities. Some sixty percent of them have traveled abroad more than a dozen times while forty percent have done so two dozen or more times. Fifty-one have received bachelors degrees or their equivalents while eightyeight have received graduate degrees. For in the final analysis.) But there have been other opportunities for becoming personally acquainted with Western culture. In a land in which at least 4/5 of the population are illiterate these are no slight achievements. frequent. the common pattern is for elites to enjoy frequent and far-ranging foreign travel.

All but one of these political claims fluency in a language influentials percent other than Persian while forty-five (N=75) know three or more other languages. [5. knowledge of foreign languages. to confront modern knowledge in its The ability original language can be a profound source of On this count. Moreover. of technology. know English.. travel has been to the capitals have not been to Only three of the 167 elites Europe or the United States. that the Persian for elite have enjoyed personal opportunities into Western culture and technosocialization in logy. this foreign minimum of four years.having lived abroad for nearly of the elite of while two-thirds sixty years of his life) leaders have lived abroad a these political Moreover. these languages are the ones best able to transmit the culture which buttresses percent of the Eighty-seven modernization.AN STUDIES 136 .'. culture.4%] claimed to know Russian and these were who had been born or primarily older elites educated in Czarist Russia.) We have noted then. the elite information. There is yet another way of facilitating of contemporary technological the transmission i. eighty percent (N=135) (N=56) know German. also. French and English) foreign languages (especially and travel to the centers of this contemporary culture have all been as much a part of their IRAY. are well-equipped.e. and one-third only nine members of the elite (Surprisingly. High levels of education (frequently the knowledge of Europe or the United States). elite (Nu146) know French.

elite can be attitudes The elite can be probed through interviews.3 137 FALL 1968 . accepted. How they act to introduce. in these two sources of weltansicht. parliamentary roll call votes is available. through of political their positions power. And information on how political measures were proposed. No bitter political appeals to the public are in enacting desired made to aid a politician parts of a program. reflected their behavior and attitudes? It is the former-what the elites actually do. extent is their exposure to these two streams. and enforced is simply unobtainable because of the of the members of the system and sensitivity the precariousness of their positions within it. rather than is ultimately how they feel-which of interest to us. they will coninfluence those behaviors in directions sonant with their attitudes. But such measures of political behavior are extremely hard to aoqize in a political system where the most meaningful and decisive actions are made outside the scruNo record of cabinet or tiny of the public. But although information on elite behavior is not obtainable. One can then hope that while their attitudes will undoubtedly not determine their subsequent behaviors. asked to express their views on a variety of salient issues and to ruminate over a number of projective questions.and emotional maturation processes intellectual as has been their contact with the more tradiBut to what tional elements of Persian culture. after all. the cultural and ideological basis of Western progress while invigorating their indigenous culture is the issue.

Simultaneously. no answer TOTAL 31. those concerning education and technology present a fascinating and seemingly contradictory amalgam of the traditional and the modern.8 5. We asked the elite.Among the self-proclaimed attitudes of the political elite.7 27.4 6.0% (167) of the elites Nearly three-quarters agreed with the notion-a common one-that Iran has consistently absorbed and ultimately conquered its conquerors through the strength of its culture. when asked to assess the roots of Iran's past greatness.4 9. however. the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with the notion that "Iranian culture is so unique that it has always subverted would-be conquerors and 'Iranized' them.6 100.6 5. onlythirteen IRANIAN STUDIES 138 ." TABLE1 ATTITUDES TOWARDS UNIQUENESS AND EFFICACYOF IRANIANCULTURE Attitude Strong agreement Moderate agreement Slight agreement Slight disagreement Moderate disagreement Strong disagreement Don't know. for example.5 13.

leaders and to education and culto individual a projecWhile this may partly reflect ture. it is also symbolic of the deep-seated towards education." his ledge increases be "we would that than sixty percent agreed development far better off with less scientific reflect These attitudes and more simple faith." then. When asked to assess the factors which would to a renewal of Iran's greatness most contribute only in the future. knowledge. whelming percentage of responses attributed Iran's past greatness to "great and wise kings. reforms. to the realities tion of contemporary political past.percent of the responses pertained to culture. throughout elite of Western learning. Nearly sixty percent of the elites does not. or learned men. effecting economic development. the elite perceived Iran's rooted on the dissemisolidly future greatness nation and mastery of contemporary culture and technology. meled by the challenges 139 FALL 1968 . his know(N=97) agreed that "he who increases more Slightly sorrow." etc. while national greatness felt that personal happiness the elite therein." an ambience which was consistently expressed A past. untraminterviews. elite respondents stressed development and spread of modern one factor-the serMore than improving the civil education. ambivalence of the elite This ambivalence may also be noted by comparing responses to another pair of questions. Iran's historical attributed greatness. or speeding political vice. The elite alternately 'strong leaders. lies And yet. The overlearning.

was nostalgically remembered. Iran was great in the past on the strength of its political leadership. personal disquiet and malaise will result. extreme respondents urged: One of the more We must revitalize Persian culture. And political unrest and personal unhappiness go The central dilemma is the appahand-in-hand. That learning which makes men nearer to each other is good. But while national greatness may be forthcoming.. The Iranian elites of man to his society as in view the relation if national developsome way inimical.e. For the future. situation Renewed greatness can be found through raising the cultural level of the population by the spread of education. a superior culture led to the eventual defeat of her conquerors. then. which education is ment is to be achieved-for essential-then personal happiness needs be sacrificed. Yet on the numerous occasions that those leaders failed to preserve Iran's political integrity. In many ways this vision of national dewith notions commonly velopment is consistent held by Western and certain Communist observers. But modern knowledge brings rancor and hatred. i. betwen rent zero-sum nature of the relationship personal and national goals. In a fundamental way. the is not bleak. for science is the bane of the contemporary world. many of the elites approach technological culture with a deep ambivalence. but nonetheless "cherished The stereotyped IRANIAN STUDIES 140 .

noble nomads, images of the passive peasantry, brave Bedouin" hold that development can only destroy this idyl and lead to social and personal disintegration.4 Daneil Lerner, however, has demonstrated the empirical untenability of "...a very powerful finding of this belief: our study is that Middle Easterners who are modernizing consider themselves happier than do those who remain within traditional lifeways.1"5 Whether personal satisfaction and national development are, in fact, incompatible in the Iranian context is not an issue here. What is for us is that this ambivalence asignificant mong the political leaders of Iran appears to be reflected in the development of Iran's educational Whether from altruistic institutions. motives which seek to isolate the more traditional segments of society from the personal which is the concomitant of education disquiet or from less selfless motives which detect in a threat to the continuation such disquiet of their own privileged political the stature, political elite has acted to place educational development in Iran under two severe limitations. at the Firstly, education, especially to the scions higher levels, remains restricted of the narrow, upper strata of Iran. Secondly, the content of that education which is offered tends to be relatively less oriented towards the most modern aspects of contemporary Western culture-the social and natural sciences and more oriented to studies comengineering--and patible with Iran's traditional culture--the liberal Let us arts, humanities, law, etc. 141 FALL 1968

examine each of these of her est in spends cation

in turn.

Iran's school population as a percentage eligible young persons is among the lowthe Middle East. Furthermore, Iran a lower percentage of her wealth on eduthan do most of her neighbors. TABLE2

PUBLIC EXPENDITURES ON EDUCATION ANDSCHOOL ENROLLMENT RATIOSFOR SELECTED COUNTRIES OF THE MIDDLE EASTO Public Expenditure School Enrollment on Education as % Ratios of National Income 1st Level 2nd Level 3.1% 6.4 8.4 2.9 2.0 4.7 N.A. 5.2 2.9 3.8 37 45 70 60 70 34 11 48 48 44 19 26 55 43 32 9 4 29 20 25


Iran Iraq Israel Jordan Lebanon Morocco Saudi Arabia Syria Turkey U.A.R.

The unadjusted school enrollment ratio in Table 2 for the first level of education is a percentage ratio based on the enrollment at this level IRANIANSTUDIES 142

related to the estimated population five to fourteen years; the second level is a percentin relation age ratio of all school population6 to total population aged 5 to 19. Despite the decades-long concern for developing her school system, Iran's overall quantitative level of education remains below other Middle Eastern nations save the least developed. Moreover, the slope of the educational pyramid the difficulties indicates confronting Iran in to alter these ratios. its efforts An extremely high drop-out rate throughout the school system marks this dilemna.7 TABLE3 NUMBER OF STUDENTS IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY IN IRAN AT THE SCHOOLS BEGINNING OF THE 1965-66 ACADEMIC

Grade First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth

Primary Schools 524,514 438,637 386,108 335,518 272,419 2241437

Secondary Schools 160,490 106,852 85,611 58,232 43,750 38,800





FALL 1968

They were distributed by grades as follows: TABLE4 PERCENTAGE OF LITERACY CORPSSTUDENTS.We note that from an initial input of more than one-half million students.0% IRANIAN STUDIES 144 .813 pupils were receiving training. A recently established but distinct system of formal primary education is the Literacy or Education Corps.8 1. During the 1965-66 school year.6 14. BY GRADE. establishing village schools and teaching basic literacy skills.0 4 5 &6 4. The drop-out rate for students of this Corps is even greater than for the regular school system.8 100. Secondary school and university graduates who are conscripted into the Armed Forces may serve their tenure in rural areas. 365. less than half enter the final year of primary schools.1965-1966 ACADEMIC YEARO Grade of Primary School 1 2 3 Percent of Total Pupils 52.8% 26.

It would seem clear that the many drop-outs from the formal educational system, who had received only a year or two of primary school training would be able to retain their primifor only a short time. skills tive literacy purposes, they must be countFor all practical illiterates. ed as functional we note Turning to the secondary level, that only thirty percent of the boys and girls who enter the first grade of primary school enOnly ter the first grade of secondary school. seven percent enter the final year of secondary thousand Of these 7% or thirty-eight school. thousand actuonly about twenty-eight students, ally obtain that degree which is so essential for finding white-collar jobs in the bureaucracy. But the major rewards in Iranian society being reserved for university are increasingly for vocational Educational criteria graduates. in Iran as in success having been as inflated the more developed West. This has even been list formalized by the Ministry of Education's for Iranian secondary schools, of objectives " give further general knowledge to these students and prepare them for admission to uniis tremendous presversity.... "110 The result few places in Iran's unisure on the relatively 15,000 appliIn 1963, approximately versities. cants sat for the entrance examinations to the of Tehran, Tabriz, Isfahan, and Universities had Meshed. In 1964 the number of applicants increased to 18,042. Only one year later the number had risen to 29,335; climbing in 1966 to 35,000 candidates. 145 FALL 1968

And these pressures for entrance to faof higher education within Iran mount cilities for the number of secondary school annually, students is growing faster than the number of For and colleges. places in the universities and university example, the number of college students in Iran in the 1965-1966 academic year an increase of sixteen percent over represented But for the number the school year 1962-1963. of students in the final year of secondary school the increase in the same period was thirty-two Thus not only does the unbalance percent. continue to exist but it continues to widen. degree is a requiBut if a university site for mobility to the higher levels of the and such a debureaucracies civil and military to acquire, Iranian students gree is so difficult stanare induced to compromise their educational One is that applidards in a number of ways. cants tend to seek admission to any faculty of whose entrance examination they the University or of their intellectual can pass, irrespective Thus in 1965, the twentycareer interests. adseeking university nine thousand applicants mission received more than 60,000 passes to take the examinations being offered by various faculties. the number of therefore, Frequently, students in a given faculty is a poor guide to graduates who will the number of that faculty's work to its subject matter. devote their life's Science and technology students will frequently receive their Bachelor of Science or Engineerto the employing degrees and proceed directly where bureaucracies of government ment offices IRANIANSTUDIES 146

they compete with their classmates boasting Bachelor of Arts or law degrees. Their special lost. is effectively training Failing to be accepted at any faculty of of Tehran, applicants the University will frequently bide their time for a year (or several years) and annually retake the entrance examinations, hoping to do better, eventually. Of the 29,000 who took the university entrance exams in 1965, 12,000 had only recently graduated from secondary schools while 17,000 of the hopefuls had graduated in previous years. Failing yet again, these students will turn to the less prestigious and academically inferior provincial universities, more understaffed and overburdened than the University of Tehran. But of the 29,000 students in institutions of higher learning in the 1965-1966 year, only 7,300 are enrolled at the six major and numerous minor provincial universities. The remainder and vast majority are enrolled in the of gaining a capital. Thus, the likelihood place at these provincial universities is not particularly great either. of these Equipped with the prescience and noting the higher status of their statistics compatriots bearing degrees from European and American universities, many high school graduates seek an escape to foreign study. And many On a per capita basis, Iran is in the succeed. first rank, with India, Japan, and Canada, of countries But the penalty "exporting" students. for Iran's maintaining this community of fledgling scholars outside its boundaries--now said 147 FALL 1968

service. that meet to system the educational This is true. While the government appears to be making overtures whose end result would be the satisfaction of these demands for more education for the overall proggreater numbers of students. a new law passed the Parstudy abroad. liament restricting to only those who had completed their military As the loopholes in this legislation. bound up with the present intimately future is of power. because of the STUDIES IRANIAN 148 . that the demand and will continue for higher education exists of the ability to to expand out of proportion demand. As a member of nosis must be a negative one. a figure approaching return to settle 80-90% in certain disciplines. to number some 30. after mid-1967.1 Iran is well aware of this loss and underresoures. political distribution There is no doubt. "I have been instructed tional affairs for higher education opportunities to restrict to those who have the most at stake in our system." It was clear that he referred to the those young people whose scions of the elite.A enormous. in educalong influential elite.000 persons-is lost to their majority of them are irreparably It has been estimated that a minimum homeland. of its youth's intellectual utilization In the summer of 1967. are closed. the political put it. at least in part. of sixty percent of these students abroad never in Iran. then. system of higher education will mount. and which the Iranians are so adept at locating pressures on the internal using.

aspects of Iranian culture. is still been announced. cult to obtain. but it appears that traditional areas of the curriculum are more than holding their own. remain relatively social sciences study of education in Iran revealed that earlier of Tehran half of the students at the University and Letwere enrolled at three faculties-Arts While the establishters. its fruition It is doubtful that enrollment ratios between subjects will be and non-technical technical for the distant future. and Theology.lagging commitments to meet those deelite's mands and in the process to train young persons culture necin the contemporary technological essary for modernization. and one of for the more traportant is their predilection That is. however. ditional all too often. commitment to higher education dishas meant the expansion of non-technical expense of science and at the relative ciplines in this area are diffiStatistics technology. is that the What we are suggesting. of course. acerbates an already difficult 149 FALL 1968 . This lagging commitment is only one maniof conof the ambivalent perceptions festation There elite carry. ambivalence towards education which characterand values of the political izes the attitudes Imperial Majesty amongst them--exelite-His Here situation.13 has ment of an "Arya-Mehr Technical Institute" distant. the which education temporary imthe most are others. Law. markedly affected These two major problems of educational and archaic currienrollments reform-limited cula-are by no means peculiar to Iran alone. while medicine and the natural and One stunted.

for the near seems unlikely of this situation mentioned above are When the attitudes an instance where social and psychological The economic factors are mutually reinforcing. 1H.. Inc. own attitudinal Reza Shah Pahlavi. 1961 IRANIANSTUDIES 150 . M. and the powerful. power. influence of the that the increasing therefore. and Doctorate degrees and those with secondary school educations alone. underdevelopment of Iran and its social strucof the ture combined with the deep reservations towards contemporary education serve to elite educated impede the development of a technically modernizing cadre.D. on these issues. which will affect the implement future decisions system in general and its Iranian political are as likely educational system in particular of their be to elites prisoners the present as ambiguities. all report similar perspectives There is no reason to expect. or education of differsignificant no statistically attitudes. the holders of Ph. p. I. less powerful of the poliyounger and currently (and also the better educated ones) tical elite shift in will result in any marked attitudinal Those who must make and the governing group. 132. the oldest of the elites youngest. The most powerful and the least ences appear. analyzed in terms of the reputed political such holding elites the age. Book Company. Mohammed York: McGrawHill (New Country for Mission Mt ). any radical improvement Unfortunately.

I set 10% or the top 300 of this list as the cutoff point to delineate the political elite from the general elite." 151 FALL 1968 . Carl I. and with the elimination of overlaps and those who had passed away. Arbitrarily. etc. present attitudes may well be a better indicator of future behavior than are present behaviors. and Jack Brehm. a general elite of 3000 individuals was established. A further complication is presented when the possibility is admitted that what one does at present may and alter how one will feel in well influence the future. Rosenberg. Mass Society and Mass Media' Vol.) were detailed. some thirty categories of professions. McGruse. Cabinet Ministers. "America. members of the Royal Family. H. and government positions (doctors. All the occupants of these categories (for periods going back to 1941 depending on the category) were identified. Bauer and p. Abelson. -Journal of Social Issues. 3In this sense. An Analysis of Consistency Among Attitude ComPress. 30-31. Vide Milton J. Hovland. 16 (1960). ponents (New Haven: Yale University and A. William J. Alice Raymond 1960). Robert P. This group of the 300 reportedly politically most powerful individuals then became the subject for intensive investigation. tribal leaders. Attitude Organization and Chan. The members of the panel individually ranked the 3000 on the basis of their reputed political power. First. A panel of ten Iranians-reputed to be knowledgeable and honest--was formed. social roles. of course.2To translate this rather facile coninto operational ceptualization criteria and then into the actual names of individuals proved a laborious task. 213. Bauer.

from the U.4Daniel Lerner. and 10Ministry of Education. Table 9.S. IRANIAN STUDIES 152 . on expenditures from UNESCO 6Statistics Yearbook. 5Ibid. Table 9. Agenassistance ing with technical Development and the U. p. in Iran (Tehran. pp. 9Ibid. Educational Statistics 1967). 27. or teacher-training commercial. p. been expanded. 73. schoolsi. 37. 3. 1965). only 16. p. The Passing of Traditional Society. For enStatistical Yearbook. large proportion of the decline is attributable to the "dropout" problem.S. Modernizing the Middle East (Glencoe: The Free Press. Objectives Resources of the Education Ministry of Iran (Tehran.028 secondary school students were enrolled in vocational.293 (3%) of a total of 510. by the 7This statement must be qualified that one reason for the progressively realization class size is that the number of pudiminishing pils entering the first grade of primary school has increased annually as the school system has we assume that a Nonetheless. 1964.. agricultural. 117-129. Ministry of Educa8Bureau of Statistics. Iran. Table 21. Still. One concomitant has been education at neglect of vocational the virtual a condition which is changthe secondary level. tion. Army. Statistical rollment ratios see UNESCO 1965. 1958). p. cy for International in the 1965-1966 academic year.

. 72. "The 'Brain-Drain': Society for InCase of Iranian Non-Returnees."Educational sion and the Modernization of an Ancient Civilithe zation. March 17. p. University 153 FALL 1968 .982. ternational passim." Unpublished Ph. 1964 and 1967. students: for the university handbooks of the Data gathered from statistical Ministry of Education.800. 1966. The 12Habib Naficy. of Chicago.D. Diffu13Ahmad Fattahipour. dissertation.456 and 28. mimeo." Development. 1963.384 and 38.are for the lThe actual statistics 29. secondary school students: 24.

etc. 1952-1963. Brazil. Why should Iran spend a larger percentage of its national budget on military expenditure (in relation to portions allocated to health. there have been military coups d'etat in three of these Brazil and Turkey.MILITARY EXPENDITURE IN IRAN: A FORGOTTEN QUESTION MANOUCHERPARVIN A high official of the Iranian government was recently visiting the United States when he offered to meet students and scholars of Iranian affairs in order to discuss questions of mutual interest related to Iran. viz.. IRANIANSTUDIES 154 in Economics at . Among the questions he was asked was the following. Spain. countries.) data is available? Among the twenty-seven such countries only Indonesia. Manoucher Parvin is Lecturer Columbia University.1 Since then. eduthan most countries for which such cation. Indonesia. It was hoped that such a meeting in an academic environment would bring about a greater understanding of the current government policies and thus bridge the generation and information gap existing at present. while the internal condition of Spain political and Portugal is only too well-known to warrant further comment. Portugal and Turkey showed a higher percentage of military expenditure for the years.

$600 million extra is to be used for the modernization of the military Is such a sacriestablishment. downward movement since 1963. A survey of the major newspapers and periodicals published in Iran shows that in fact such mi are vigoranswer is typical and its implications There is a pronounced absence of ously sustained. for a less developed fice necessary. any debate and a conspicuous silence concerning expenditure-especially the magnitude of military to ecothe in comparison with resources allocated or the elsewhere. explanaThus. in the absence of official tions and the lack of inquiry by the news media. Majlis nomic development-in understood it is implicitly Accordingly. of the ordinary citizen that the responsibility in this matter do not extend beand his interest yond the payment of taxes and tacit acceptance of the present mode of expenditure of a substantial portion of government income. expenditure in Iran the absolute has been amount of military steadily increasing and the relative percentage has shown no sign of In addition. comwe shall attempt to make several suggestive which may justify ments concerning the reason(s) 155 FALL 1968 . the judgment of such authorities must be accepted without further debate. especially economy in transition? Our speaker was obviously surprised that Briefly.Furthermore. he anyone should raise such a question. stated that only the highest government authoriand subties are responsible for such inquiries In matters of national security sequent decisions.

But the Soviet Union has ceased to her allies. since several Iraqi administrations all their in of elaborate recent years. Among Iran's neighbors. The major reason offered by the highest officials is the existence of a potential external threat. In any case. more recently. of that of Nasser's Egypt and and. spite military maneuvers. ted by the increase in the number and size of economic transactions. be considered a potential threat according to which are substantiarecent official statements. As for Egypt. we have been warned in the past of the potential aggression of the Soviet Union. and military Turkey and Pakistan are political allies. However. consequently. a superpower? The national security vis-a-vis outcome of Iran's combat with superpowers is still fresh in our minds. even if Iran allocated all of her national budget to military excould she even marginally increase her penditure. lead to certain ameliorative adjustments or modifications of military expenditure. Let us study this justification in the broadest terms.such a large expenditure on the military establishment in Iran. Iraq cannot be considered a threat in either. and other such manifestations of friendship. have failed to "pacify" the Kurds in their demands for autonomy. and Afghanistan may not produce another MahmoodAfghan unless Iran produces a Sultan Hossein. We hope that this note will initiate detailed studies creating a demand for reasonable accountability of the public funds and will. IRANIANSTUDIES she has amply manifested 156 her .

157 FALL 1968 . are satisfactorily high pacified by the relatively positions salaries paid them and the authoritative granted them by various governmental agencies and of higher learning. We are told that the success of the "White Revolution" or rethe many-sided "political and socio-economic revolutionary withforms" have left the potential out a concrete cause for revolt. Land reform and various labor laws have gone a long way to increase the vested interest of the peasantry and labor in intellectuals the present regime. looking beyond Iran's consciously Is the Iranian government inpresent boundaries? the power vacuum created by terested in filling forthe general departure of the British military of ces from the area? Is governmental tolerance Finally. In addition. which such a large necessitate search for reasons military expenditure. we must disregard such speculations immediately. if we accept the stated policy of the present regime. Is it possible or otherwise. that the present regime is. Firstly. The threat of an internal uprising in Iran is discounted by the Iranian authorities.military prowess beyond and within her boundaries in recent years. the Pan-Iranist Party of any significance? is the renaming of the Ministry of Defence as the of certain expanMinistry of War an indication sionist tendencies? Again. Assuming such a institutions we then still must to be description objective. The withdrawal from Yemen and the short-lived clash with Israel supply ample evithat such a state cannot dence for the assertion in the foreseeable future present the kind of threat to Iran's national boundaries which we have been repeatedly led to believe.

gradually outgrows its former boundaries and functions no longer merely responding to the demand for security against attack but creating new demands for itself as an automotive organism bent on preserving and expanding its interests.2 budget on the military regard the above hypothesis. Realizing that several countries. made by the Shah and other dignitaries. an autonomous expanding institution with interests of its own. to a large degree. the case of Iran belong to this category? IRANIANSTUDIES 158 . spend a smaller portion of their national we must also disforces.Iran's allegiance to the Charter of the United assured in statements Nations has been repeatedly Secondly. increasing Does vided is no longer improved even marginally. in (especially establishment in certain countries the economically less developed ones)3 becomes. in the political and socio-economic Could we assume that it is a combination of the all the above factors which has necessitated expenditure in Iran? present level of military including India. and Israel among others. unless the preparation for territorial are adopted in order to subexpansionist policies with conditions limate general Iranian discontent spheres. with more unPakistan. Thus. it has been shown that the military Finally. Such a military mechfor the instrumental established anism originally function of national defense. to plan rapid economic it would be impractical and in combination with development simultaneously expansion. while the cost of is forces in such countries maintaining military no the with security proupper bound. from the security point of favorable conditions view.

Obviously. cist and must be restudied is that Iran's hypothesis The third alternative (c) and silently gradually changed foreign policy has is of pursuing today Iran the with the result that an expansionist policy. we have implied that it is In this article the business of the Iranian taxpayer to know what 159 FALL 1968 . conforce is required to a large military sequently. relative citizen forces in Iran are unnecimplies that the military and that they are large and/or inefficient essarily of the Irathe expense at growing and flourishing This implies that either the milinian taxpayers. system.In summary. (a) The "White Revolution" is not as successful as has been claimed by the present regime and. has become an autonomous interest tary establishment are anachronipolicies group and/or that military and changed. purchased at a higher cost per is national security This hypothesis to other nations. but unknown to us. that we may have failed to con(d) It is possible including a threat of sider other relevant factors. invasion from Mars or elsewhere known to the Iranian government. in order to explain the proporof the national budget large allocation tionally one or a combination of to military expenditure. hypotheses must be acthe following alternative cepted as explanatory factors. preserve the present political the reacceptance of this hypothesis contradicts of the present and progressiveness presentativeness by the press and spokesmen regime. it can be assumed that Iranian (b) Alternatively. as publicized of the government.

investment in human capital (education.criteria have been used to spend his taxes. Janowitz. It appears to us that the allocation of a larger portion of the national budget for the moof the communication and transportation dernization and systems. thus promoting economic integration. The percentages by M. may in the long run be more beneficial even from the viewpoint of "national security" than the yearly and automatic enlargement of the military forces and expenditures. pp. for absolute amounts. health. We hereby hope to have raised a question which may be studied fUrther with the aim of stimulating changes advantageous to Iranian society. Parvin. 2p. 1See United Nations Statistical 1963 & 1964. NOTES Yearbook." Maktab (Summer. Iranian national budget spent on the armed forces around the 40% level during recent has vacillated years. etc. 41-52.. The Military in the PoliUnitical Development of New Nations (Chicago: versity of Chicago Press. IRANIANSTUDIES 160 . This does not imply a demand for the publication of military secrets but rather concrete explanations as to the reasons which have necessitated the present amount of military expenditure. cit. 3See M. 48-51.) which increases economic productivity and social mobility. Parvin. 2See M. 1968). mentioned above have been calculated Unrest in "Quantitative Analysis of Socio-economic and Its Effect on Economic Growth. pp. The average percentage of the 1966).

I knew you could put the child in a nursery or stick But where would they take him in some other place. If someone else were in my place. woman. I didn't know any place or any way out of the thing. "Well. It is being reprinted here by the permission of Mr. really.) 161 FALL 1968 .SOMEONE ELSE'S CHILD JALAL AL-I-AHMAD Translated by Theodore S. over with and come back home and told my mother and the neighbors what I had done. 1967). The boy was my former husband's who had divorced me and never come to take him. I don't know which one. one of them. what would she do? Well. Vermont. you could have Theodore S. when I had gotten it That same afternoon. If this new husband divorces me what would I do? I had to get rid of the child. A woman like me who doesn't know her way around wouldn't think of anything else. what could I do? My husband wouldn't keep me and the child both-a child who was not his own'. of the Peace Corps This article in the Mid East (Deappeared earlier cember. him? Where could I be sure they wouldn't keep me to me and waiting and then not pay any attention call me and the child a thousand names? Where? I couldn't have it end that way. Gochenour Well. (Ed. Gochenour and the Editor of the Mid East. Gochenour is Director Training at Putney. said. But it wasn't that I didn't know any place. I had to live too.

now there's no more thinking about it. too. "Do you think they would have let him Ha!" Though I had thought of that way. I've much three true But my mother came to my rescue and consoled And she said some things to me which were right. How bad it was! I heard one of them utter.taken ried know said in? your child and given him to a nursery or carhim to an orphan asylum.. in front of everybody I cried bitterly. And now it was A world of sorrow poured on my already too late. woman.." me. and. for one child? I've got plenty of time to have or four babies one after the other. Myself. What's done is done." I don't where else she named. well enough.. "Couldn't you have gone. He was right too. But just then my mother to her." But I didn't have any place to start or any confidence they would let him in. I wasn't out of my mind and just got up and did this thing. I couldn't bear it any more. heart because of what that woman had said. to see if they would let him in?" And then I said to my mother. But it's he was my first-and I shouldn't have done this. so why should I pine so just begun to live. Every precious saying of my little boy came to mind. Was I ready to love my husband's children as my own and not see them as a IRANIANSTIUDIES 162 . and. when that woman said this to me my heart pounded inside me and I said to myself. I knew he was right. brat at his table. he didn't want to see some other man's When I talked sense to myself. "And you cry to boot! She isn't even ashamed. It was my husband who insisted. "I wish I had done it. and But.

he was all full of talk about the boy. No matter how much I think about it now I can't unBut I in my heart. It was just the third night we were married but he was sulky with me. his third year.. I said. Bad. "O. took the child's and went outside behind my husband. In the two days after we had been married and I'd gone to his house. I better not see the child. I don't want to see some other man's brat at my table. My boy was near He walked handsomely all by himself. "I don't know what you should do." He gave me no way out or any help at all. I knew he wanted to provoke me so I would get on with the business with the child quicker." He thought My husband didn't say anything. not to have to see my child-I won't say my child-the brat of some other jackass (according to him) at his dinner table. The night before. he just talked and I listened. Do it however you know how. Finally. I tossed hand my prayer veil on my head. The bad thing was that I had given myself so much trouble over him for three years. "When I come home at noon. the same way for him-he had a right too. you say what I should do. we talked a long time about him-not that we conversed very much. In the morning when he was going out the door of the house he said. That night he didn't come beside me. huh?" And from that moment I knew what I had to do. awhile and then said. because all 163 FALL 1968 .K. derstand how I was willing didn't have any choice about it any more. as if he was not on speaking terms with me.drag on my life? Didn't I think there were too many of them at my husband's table? Well.

then I'll buy you a lollipop. A horse had gotten its feet in the hole of a drainage ditch and some people had crowded around him. Every and it up over him was finished. just recently. time I would take his hand and take him with me in the streets. It IRANIANSTUDIES 164 .the trouble with night of staying was just now that to do what I had him had passed already. his leg been hurted." to his mama and he got hurt. How handsome he was! I took his hand and held my prayer veil around my waist with my other hand. horse. whose leg had When I put him back down on the ground he said. I said. What would I do with them? Blind my husband! He'll just have to go and buy some new clothes if I have a baby againl I smoothed his clothes and combed his hair." heart. he didn't listen Slowly I went up near the bus station. thought stopped me: "Woman." other days. I wouldn't have to scold It was the last him any more again to come quicker. But I had to do. sweet"Mama. "First we go on Just as on the bus. and we started walking slowly. "Yes. I wanted them on him. blue and I had put his best suit on him-a little coat and pants-which my first husband had bought When I was dressing him a for hi. having him was good. Matching him step for step I went right up I had put his shoes on his feet to the bus station. In two or three places he wanted me to buy him some geegaw and I said. been cut and was bleeding. why in the world do you put new clothes on him?" But I just couldn't not do it. I think he kept asking me over and over. Iy child kept wanting me to hold him up to I helped him up to see the see what was happening.

while and then My child looked at my face a little asked. 165 FALL 1968 . go buy a lolliMama? If bus isn't coming. "Mama. I told the driverMaidan-i-Shah and he stopped. or to my child I didn't pay any attention who turned his face up at me now and then." And I would say again it would come soon and for him when I would tell him I would buy a lollipop we got on the bus. But to him. "Mama. chattering and laughing. with him. tience. as these hurt the Such things how my heart ached! heart this way break child's would I my Why worst. "We're going to Daddy's. my child had asked a I think he asked me once.morning rush hour and the busses were was still I stayed in the station for perhaps half crowded. so near to the end? I had promised myself I wouldn't get angry from the time I left the house until the I wouldn't hit my child or fuss thing was finished. Finally we took line seven and by the time we got off at Maidan-i-Shah. My child now and then and I was getting tired got restless He asked so many questions I lost my pamyself. But how my heart ached now! Why did I hush child was quiet for him up like this? My little said then something to the apfinally awhile and prentice driver who was making faces at him. hundred questions. "What do. "How you chatterl see?" Now If you talk I won't buy you a lollipop. where we go?" I don't know why I suddenly said without knowing what I was doing. which Dada?" I blew up at him and said. an hour before one came I could get on. let's pop. Two or three times he said.

" Go on. Ny child was still The square was crowded and there were lots of busto be done. you come too. and afternoon when I cried in front of the neighbors. What a strange look it was! He stayed with me not knowing what to do. At the other side of the to make him understand. him. I strolled Perhaps half There busses now. sweetheart. Even afterwards. I still dreaded to do what ses. as if he still know how I held on to myself. I don't wanted to ask me something. I were fewer passed.laughing when we had gotten off. I'll me. at What a strange look me. He hadn't I didn't know how learned about taking money yet." IRANIANSTUDIES 166 . an hour came to the edge of the square and pulled out ten shahis from my pocket and gave them to my child. yourself. give this money to him. that's a good boy. "Xama. and I buy something pointed to him and said. He stood there and just looked at me. He just looked at the money can do it yourself. away. "Go on. square a pumpkin seed seller was shouting." as if he wanted to take it but didn't know how you since I had never were supposed to buy things. "Take it-go I want to see if you know how to do it by nice. Once again I showed him the seed seller and said. I was almost at my heart never ached like this. "No. giving or even in the run until I had or now. stared He taught heart only just then it was! It seemed as if my and felt was close to very bad. I he had gone when it up. about for awhile." He looked down at the money and then said to stand I said." Go on! I want to see if you here and watch you. Say 'Give me some seeds. an end. started aching.

" child had not said this Perhaps if my little I would have forgotten why I had come. he said. slow push my hand on his back and gave him a little and said. like He looked at the seed seller the times when he made excuses and cried. were there were no busses or horse cabs in sight to run over him. Go on.and then. bit." Still As I was saying this I was close to tears. no seeds. under my arm. flew to the middle of the street myself and grabbed him in my arms and ran to the sidewalk and his myself among the people there. of worth raisins. darling. But his words 167 FALL 1968 . I would have given had lingered a little But he didn't cry and I got mad. honey. it's getting late." ten shahis Then he went. Mama?" I said. faster. I was nearly I want raisins. "Yes. "O. "Mama. if he helpless.K. heaving. put me down... "Go on now." "Mama. You went slow and almost got hit by a bus. he said. He came back from the two or three steps he had taken and said. buy whatever you want! Get along!" too! him over the ditch by the sidewalk and And I lifted I put put him down on the asphalt of the street. "What matter. Mama. If he had cried one little longer. Sweat streaked down my face and my chest was He said. I go fast this time. lost my patience and yelled at him. I up the thing. he have raisins Tell him to give you too?" I said. You should cross the street "Nothing. " From where we The street wasn't crowded. "He has raisins. but just as he reached the middle of the street a bus blew its horn and I shook I in terror and without knowing what I was doing.

I hadn't wiped the tears out of started me again. child. I ducked my head and when was drenched in sweat. It was as if from that side of the street safely. It was the I kissed him and put him on the ground his face. on put would I kiss last kissed him. ler. I had gathered the ends of my prayer veil under my arm and had started to walk away. I managed to lift it the boy was walking again and nothing would stop him from reaching the seed selHe had reached the other My job was done. I froze and my hands stayed just as they were act. Just like that time when I had been ready to dig into my husband's pockets--that first husband of mine--and he appeared at the door. Just as he turned and looked in my direction. "Go fast. quickly and I was afraid two or three times that He turned they would get tangled and he'd fall. what I had come to I remembered when yet my eyes I do--remembered my husband who would get angry. Again I Exactly like that I stopped in my tracks. as if I had been looking at someone else's child just exactly like looking at someone else's Just as you get learning to walk by himself. are coming. sweetheart. I twisted my way quickly IRANIANSTUDIES 168 ." Again the street was uncrowded and this time feet He picked up his little my child went faster. It's true that I didn't want I froze in my steps. I was pleasure in looking at someone else's enjoying looking at him. The last time I looked at him it was exactly child. But this was was to I understand him I was like a thief caught in the not why I froze. running away. cars and said in his ear. under my bosom. moment I had never had a child. when he had reached the other side of the street and looked over at me.

I relaxed. I flew into the taxi and slammed the door with a bang. Even my bones trembled. Two streets down I thought of dashing into an alley and running. The driver grumbled and started off. I was afraid someone was following me. I gasped with relief and then I had an idea. The passengers had just paid their fare and were leaving the cab. and when we had gone a ways and I felt and sure of myself. Without thinking or seeing anything around me. It almost paralyzed me and nailed me to the sidewalk. I don't know how I turned and looked behind among the crowds on the sidewalk. I opened the door a little I pulled in my veil and shut the door again. even after trying a long time. leaned back on the cushion and began to breathe easily. The hair on my skin stood on end and I went faster. and suddenly I was afraid. I couldn't get back the money for the taxi from my husband. 169 FALL 1968 . I forced myself near to the alley when all at once a taxi pulled up behind me in the street like someone coming just then to grab me. My veil had caught in the taxi door. And that night. I thought the policeman at the intersection I had passed had jumped into a cab and was now getting out behind me and would grab my wrist in a moment.

fuller view of his subject that has hitherto been available. rather than taking into acviews in arriving at an independent count non-British Nikki R. 1968. New Haven: Yale University 679pp. Keddie is Associate of California the University IRANIANSTUDIES 170 Professor of History at Los Angeles. 1864-1914. at .00 By Firuz Press. Professor Kazemzadeh gives us both a comprehensive overview of British and Russian policoverage of the most imcy in Iran and a detailed in the policy of the two governportant incidents of the effects He also provides an analysis ments. He is of British and Russian policies for avoiding the to be congratulated particularly view of many recent works in this British-centered that have often tended to analyze Brifield--works as they were analyzed by British tish policies diplomats at the time. Kazemzadeh. international book on modern Iranian of research job The author has done an outstanding and Persian sources. as well in Russian. NIKKI R. on Iran. British. $15.BOOK REVIEWS Russia and Britain in Persia. and has presented a far as some in other languages. KEDDIE Professor Kazemzadeh of the History Departhas produced a formidable ment at Yale University far surpasses any other work monumental that and relations.

us make od he covers would is not enalthough it is put forth very cogently. Professor Kazemzadeh argues that both Russia and Great Britain were motivated more in Iran by desires for expansion and increased power than by that economic He insists any economic interest. it can be shown that British subone. his views uith identifying Iran. 171 FALL 1968 . the argument against even private ecobeing determining is a formidable nomic interests However. on the other hand. and this designificantly profiting than the author gives it. While it is true that Malkam. cal view of all three parties involved-Britain. economic as well as strategic in the last years of the period discussed nally. particularly some Iranian reformers. approach toward warm water ports in the South was Fiin motivation. the need to protect India. serves more attention The author also seems too negative regarding Malkam Kh7an. regarding any of countries the three as a special villain. insignifimore even were Iran regarding interests the periduring writings and cant than discussions argument. as well as from its sale. and Russia-without those of the policy makers of any of the three or. and that the British desire to control tied to was intimately as much of Iran as possible the Russian Similarly. the British Government became heavily dependent on Iranian oil.Professor Kazemzadeh has taken a critianalysis. tirely balance sheet of British or Russian ofa pre-oil regarding Iran and contrasts expenditures ficial drawn it with the rather meager private profits from Iran. This believe. one draws If convincing to this reviewer. jects had far more significant economic interests in India. as to a lesser extent. by Professor Kazemzadeh.

cant influence fiIranian history is full of such contradictory to falsification gures. Iranian history and international students and scholars should put it on their must reading list. whose untimely recent death will be mourned by all scholars of Iran. Professor Kazemzadeh's book is to be welcomto the field of modern ed as a major contribution Both relations. 1968. KEDDIE Hans Wulff. These points and a few details aside. The above points are only matters of interfrom Proon which this reviewer differs pretation fessor Kazemzadeh. make of them unblemished or barely blemished it is also a mistake to discount their reform efforts because of their sometimes impure or mixed motivations. Western $25. By Hans Civilizations. has produced a comprehensive pioneering work on the history and and industcurrent status of all the major crafts the great The book amply illustrates ries in Iran.00. NIKKI R. Cambridge: Wulff. Their DevelopCrafts of Persia: The Traditional Eastern and on Influence and ment. and/or point importance of Iran as the originator and of many of the major technological of diffusion IRANIANSTUDIES 172 . not mean that he is to be dismissed as a signifiModern on reform and modernization. E. MIT Press. and if it is a nationalist heroes. Technolog_. some of the other reformers in official this does was venal and even dishonest on occasion.positions.

taking up book leaves off. however. of experience gained. questioning. is one of youthful reflecprevailing and the The title tion on the wonders of life. and all scholars of Iran.. innovations The treatartistic however humble. the technological history of Iran has been shamefully neglected in the past. and it is to be hoped that others will delve more deeply into the historical aspects of human history.. lifts a Hamlettruth at every corner"). anthropologists. is comprehensive ment of each craft.evading ian puzzle ( "My box of cookies laughs at me.. passion instead of love spoke of intimate words of love.But they are left untouched because of my guilt. The mood. 1968.Will I study? Or will I not?").. celebrated Shelly's theme are aptly taken from sonnet: "Lift those not the painted who live call veil life. By Tanya Farmanfarmaian. often with innocence glittering ing. sensitive. of Poems 1966-67. The book is where this excellent of great importance for historians. and there is an excellent glossary of terms at the end. 173 FALL 1968 . ("My intentions and withered youth in His."). and well-illustrated... smiles. Here are forty-eight pen of an Iranian young short poems from the search- woman. and at times with flashes of humor and wisdom. Despite its great importance." which heeds not and The poetess in this collection and she finds hypocrisy ("False the veil. A Collection The Lifted Veil: Tehran.

rather than cosmic. social consciousness." she demonstrates a talent for stinging satire: Here walks Catita." "September.whose place sits age.. Despite some monotony of mood and a craftsin awkward infancy. The cold war of a million timeless years. Shattered the barrier of timelessness." and "Sunset")." "The Caspian Shores.T. . she promises a One's parents have gone out. They face the comical battle of society against society. when she is seduced by the temptasentimentality tion to make prfound statements about life in general. immediate rather than detached medium Poetry is a difficult and philosophical.. --IRANIANSTUDIES 174 M. Shrouded in the immensity superficiality. Armed with cynicism. But as a first volume of her work. this and promise. collection shows great authenticity hero. And have braved a world of Treachery and indecision. she disand adventure. In less despairing moods. In a few (The Beggar. and a young poet risks for philosophic reflections. Miss Farmanfarmaian may some Just as Shelly's day become splendor of a poet among shadows." In one poem." covers beauty in the movements and rhythms of natue ("Life is a Colored Awning. "Winter. Miss Farmanfarmian manship still in this colpoetic sensibility reveals considerable She is at her best when she is personal lection. she shows an incipient In another. "clad in the dark robes of hardened by the absence of excitement experience. "Catita. hushed rebellion: of her War).

that when some tedious reporters prodded him on the philosophy of the labor replied in one word: MORE. Iran. OPECOil. But to understand the problem in purely psycholoIn perspective. Texaco." he writes. Abu Dhabi. 175 Professor of Political FALL 1968 . Kuwait. gical terms is to lose historical one passage of this book. world's major exporters of crude oil: Saudi Arabia. movement. size of their assets: Gulf. the moral basis of the producing countries' "might perhaps "An outside observer. Iraq. and British Petroleum). Standard of California. he tersely To the queries about the philosophy of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). S5. and Qatar. Ashraf (a former secrein Kuwait of OPECand a high official tary-general provides what may be considered petroleum affairs) claims. 1968. that Middle East governments jump to the conclusion Majid Tehranian is Assistant Economy at Lesley College. Socony Mobil. Research & Publishing Center. Indonesia. MAJIDTEHRANIAN It is said of Samuel Gompers. the indomitable American labor leader. of the interests in 1960 to defend the collective OPECnow includes nine of the producing countries. Middle East 120pp. Gompers reply is very appropriate. Unadulterated greed is probably as much operative on this side of the bargaining table as it has side of the major forbeen on the other side--the oil companies (in order of the eign concessionaire Standard Oil of New Jersey. Established too. Venezuela. Royal Dutch/Shell.Beirut: By Ashraf Lutfi.00. Libya.

and even the situation today still requires many more improvements to bring the terms of the conventional Middle East agreements into line with normal conditions elsewhere." (P. this volume is also primarily concerned with the future. The crux of the matter is that these governments had a bad deal from the very start. The Middle East governments have been at it for the past 30 years or more. worsened. Conditions in the market have. however. of course. What they have been striving to attain all this time is the redressment of an unfair situation. the classic case in point. Yet such a conclusion would be completely unjustified. there is an abundant and growing excess IRANIANSTUDIES 176 . It of OPEC's past but provides an excellent critique with an eye on what can be accomplished if only its members would adopt a strategy to win the initiative oil companies. While Lutfi sentiments in the producing shares the prevailing he arguesin favor of nationalization. As dressing justice of his previous work. greater diversity in sources of their supply of crude oil. countries quite persuasively and in consonance with most informed opinion--that it makes no practical good sense for any individual country to go it alone. but the parity they seek is still a long way off. if The companies have an even anything. volume proposals for represents in this little to the producing countries. 1960).have an insatiable appetite and that their demands will be never-ending. 73) Lutfi With charac Geristic forthrightness. from the major international and what is posBetween what is desirable sible. there is a wide gap. Iranian nationalization is. Arab Oil: an amplification A Plan for the Future (Beirut.

the horse's mouth. of its own.none of the producing countries producing capacity. nemeal. In this is a big "if"--there will--and have a poOPEC. beggar-thy-neighbor countries. he argues. The market thus continues to be a buyer's conthat by judicious market. But OPEChas so far played the game according to the It has approached problems piececompanies' rules. from a position tenance of posted prices at the August 1960 level. it has bargained duction in the member countries. OPECcannot claim much that could Lutfi maintains. E. of the producing of the goverrunents policy abound in OPECreof solidarity While expressions no producing country is known to be ready solutions. "achievenot to celebrate here is Lutfi's objective deeds. but Lutfi believes it can duct on the part of the producing countries If there is a market.xcept for the mainof weakness. Straight from not have been otherwise obtained. and marrefining has any adequate transportation. and. to OPEC greater ments" but to challenge proposed strategy for OPECconsists Lutfi's production controls and of a two-pronged policy. 177 FALL1968 . the national oil companies of forward integration The logic of both of the producing countries. former secretary-generals. its volume to resist the temptation of increasing of production and sales at the expense of another. the producing countries powerful bargaining instrument that can tentially counter the combined resources of the oil companies. it has wasted too much time in fruitless and fallen victim to the companies' degotiations and having failed to control prolaying tactics. from the pen of one of OPEC's this is a sharp rebuke. be turned into a seller's is a way. perhaps above keting facilities the operative is still all.

jigsaw puzzle will be and flexibility. comes in a variety of crude and is put other places. prorationing. lingly submit to such a plan. but even if we assume that. authority to plan and implement of a supranational and production quotas for the producing countries is of decisive companies. but so are the obstacles. types. and there are enough contradictory to provide the necessary and commercial interests This is why most OPECmember countries incentives. political plan. on the overwhelming. representing would a consumer But 63). from the producing Lutfi asks for statesmanship on this issue. With effective members would recover from the consumer an average the current of 50 cents per barrel. of (p. wilwould not consumer countries all probability. of different to such a number a requiring Herculean task. to the principle oil companies have gone on record to oppose it. policies OPEC Lutfi calculates. and they have considto counter it. as an umpire among the producers. rationing government is the higher authority that acts States. paid unenthusiastic while the of production controls. committed In sucker? of a role unenviable the accept policy. dexterity considerable To cite the work of the Texas Railroad Compromodel for international mission as a successful the In United is somewhat misleading. erable resources at their disposal In the absence But this is not the only obstacle. the import quotas seal the domestic market from foreign competition. countries of remain the formidable difficulties there still a of commodil. is refined in still To solve this uses. discounts level to energy cheap a be might it as country. IRANIANSTUDIES 178 . voluntary cooperation It takes only one spoiler to upset the importance. lip service have.y controls of production implementation that has so many sources.

any countervailing But tions exist in the world market as a whole. while rein support prices that make this investment sulting (p. of implementation even if we assume a successful have are too disorganized and consumer interests None of these condiinfluence. ward already member countries the OPEC nine Eight out of Most of them oil companies. such in (b) they should coordinate their activities this of But all a way as to avoid price-cutting. prora(Baltimore. shown in their study of Economic Aspects of Oil 1967). refining production and interbecome can before they to go have a long way lack all They operations. As Lovejoy and Homan have lem of market weakness. national oil companies would production controls. without effective ties in again with prorationing. on the American prorationing international it must be recognized that though production controls in the United States have maintained high and they have not solved the basic probstable prices. promising more the seems this integration. eign concessionaire all of them But facilities. have their own national with foragreements have entered into partnership have their own some companies. 116) profitable. refining portation. As for forSo much for production controls. competitive nationally marand organization manpower. Conservation Regulation the problem of tioning has only institutionalized excess producing capacity by encouraging investment and development to capture new shares in exploration of the market or to maintain one's own. technical sufficient is of argument Lutfi's The burden keting outlets. road. oil must integrate companies that (a) the national from their control forward as rapidly as possible to the ownership of transof sources of crude oil and and marketing facilities. 179 FALL 1968 .

which will end in 1979-. Time is on the side of the producing countries. Lutfi's plea is that the producing countries must prepare themselves to take over by that time at the very latest. However. to insure success. if need be. he argues. In his last chapter. three conditions must be met: (1) In a five to ten-year plan. Lutfi calculates. To do this. written after the Six-Day War of June 1967 between Israel and the that the time may be ripe for Arabs. The first to go will be the Consortium's in Iran.though renewable for three five-year terms-and most of those in Venezuela will terminate in 1983. This is true. they must have a strong bargaining position by their access to marketing outlets. By nationalization would yield 1973. Lutfi fails to account for the 180 IRANIANSTUDIES . 85-86). he reflects the Arabs to take decisive steps towards collective nationalization. even if we assume lack of cooperation by the oil companies and increased exports from non-Arab sources (pp. (2) then all of the major Arab producing countries must join the plan. substantially greater revenues to the Arabs than under present arrangements. and oil must be enof the nationalized (3) disposal trusted to a single marketing organization. in due course the concessions held by the major companies will expire. by price cutcessions ting. tions Without entering into Byzantine argumentaover figures.he argues. by extending special conto buyers and.tend to act as commercial enterprises entering a rather controlled market. the Arabs must acquire a tanker fleet capable of transporting at least 50 percent of their production of crude oil. Which brings us back to where we were-the necessity for producers' solidarity.

. rent is an unknown and possibly unknowable quantity. USSR. the bargaining power of the respectConsequently.) al rent which accrues to the lower cost and more advantageously-located crudes has been for a long between the oil companies time a bone of contention and producing countries. the international petroleum industry is characterized by the presence of very high economic rents. But as additional profit margins accrue to the producing countries alone in this plan. Resulting from complications of cost and price calculations. however. the profits resulting they shared a strong common interest with the producing countries in squeezing the consumer. North Africa. in crude oil producDue to great variation tion cost in the major producing centers of the world (in declining order of their average costs: of interest which exists between the oil companies and the consumer countries in sabotaging any nationalization plans. and the Middle East). ive parties tends to be the ultimate arbitrator. Appeals to the consumers' metaphysical interest in the continuing success and prosperity of the producing countries would deter them from bargaining only as much as the oil companies' claims of indispensibility have deterred the producing to take as large a share of countries from efforts the profits as possible.S. neither the consumers nor the oil companies have any interest in seeing it succeed. the Starting from a weaker bargaining position. have seen in OPECan instrument producing countries of collective bargaining for taking as large as 181 FALL 1968 . So long as the oil corpanies appropriated to themselves most or part of from high prices. (For our purposes. Venezuela. we define rent as anyThe residuthing above cost plus normal profits.

S. the ills an international Market instability. (2) parity the producing oil and manufactured goods which and (3) import from consuming countries. to provide the machinery for could be established It would be wise the enforcement of the agreement.the of form the in share of the rent an increasing sources of discounts below prices of competitive The oil companies as well as the producenergy. dustry will remain with us. threats and bluffs of continuous hard bargaining. to the companies gas) that guarantees normal profits economic rent to and the full measure of available This is a common ground the producing countries. tives of the producing and consuming countries. atomic energy and indigenous oil and (i. import discriminatory threats of supply quota and the producing countries' should be removed. Also. a share of the available possible weak marand capacity producing excess prevailing to take begun has also consumer ket conditions. share a common interest ing and consumer countries and maintenance of prices at a in the stability with other sources of energy level competitive coal. tion of the international that all Under such an agreement it is preferable measures such as the U.. various sorts will be the price everyone will have IRANIANSTUDIES 182 . (1) the rights to guarantee for such an Authority between crude prices of nationalization.Under the rent.e. It seems that until such a time as foresight lead the governments of or force of circumstances to come to such producing and consuming countries of the oil inagreement. countries maximum freedom of trade. an Internationdisruption composed of the representaal Petroleum Authority. commodity on the basis of which an international agreement could be formulated for the rationalizamarket for crude oil.

petroleum industry has for too long been run almost exclusively by a small group of major oil pay. profits and diversity of for supply sources. of the national oil companies. while the producing countries pant for "more. however. Oil is too important to be left entirely to the oilmen. it is would act in defense consumers in search companies questing be no panacea to these ills so will to attack the problems in a statesmanlike manner. the dialogue must be broadened to include The international the consuming countries as well. Those whose vital interests are at stake-consumers and producers alike--must have the deciof the industry. production controls. There will long as there is no and comprehensively til such time. the major importing and exporting countries are fortunate enough to have the necessary comachinery for forging such an international operation. under these circumstances. and collective nationalization if at all possible." The latter are well-advised. Now. to strengthen their bargaining position by any and all means: collective bargainforward integration ing. Unto be expected that everyone of his own immediate interests: of lowest possible oil prices. sive say in regulation And in the of European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) Organization and OPEC. Lutfi's essay is a forthright contribution to a necessary dialogue in the producers' camp. 183 FALL 1968 . of the obstacles Despite its underestimation to production controls and collective nationalization. individual nationalization if feasible. progressive reform of the present concessionary agreements into partnerships and contracts.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful