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# A Review and Comparison of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) For Analog and Digital Input Switching Power Amplifiers

Karsten Nielsen Bang & Olufsen, Denmark Institute of Automation, Technical University of Denmark

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Presented at the 102nd Convention 1997 March 22-25 Munich, Germany

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AN AUDIO ENGINEERING SOCIETY PREPRINT

A Review and Comparison of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) methods for analog and digital input switching power amplifiers Karsten Nielsen Bang & Olufsen A/S, Denmark and Institute of Automation, Technical University E-mail: kn_iau.dtu.dk Internet: http://www.iau.dtu.dk/Nkn Abstract Switching power amplifiers can be based on numerous different and rather complicated non-linear modulation methods. This work is an attempt to review and compare a complete collection of 12 pulse width modulation methods, of which several have not been considered before. There is a lack of such fundamental reference material, and it is thought that further development in the field can result from a more fundamental and in-depth understanding of the principles involved. All major modulations classes: natural sampled PWM (NPWM), uniform sampled PWM (UPWM) and hybrid sampling schemes are analyzed and compared by analytical means and by simulation. A new efficient analysis tool, the Harmonic Envelope Surface (HES) is introduced to aid in the deep understanding of the modulation processes. Detailed measurements for an implemented amplifier example are given, to illustrate the possibilities for high end audio specifications by high efficiency switching power amplification. 1. Introduction Recent research activity has shown that switching power amplification is likely to be an area with considerable possibilities in the near future, due to the unique combination of high efficiency, high fidelity and low complexity that has been proved obtainable in recent publications [29], [30]. A central element in a such a system is the pulse modulator to synthesize the train of pulses. This element can be based on numerous different analog or digital implemented non-linear modulation methods. This work attempts to provide an in-depth study and comparison of all possible pulse width modulation schemes, that can be realized in principle with a maximum of 4 independently controlled switches. Previous work in the field of pulse width modulation as e.g. in [2], [3], [5], [6], [9], [11], [13], [15], [16], [22] has concentrated on a limited set of modulation schemes and/or other applications than switching power amplification, where the objectives may be very different. The trend in recent years has been to 1

of Denmark

investigate a digital implementation of the modulator. This paper does not follow this trend, but attempts to step back and consider the modulator a general element, where the quality of the output and the modulator complexity is considered of primary importance, and the practical method and domain of implementation of minor importance. To the best of the author's knowledge, no compares all modulation schemes that can be controlled switches with focus on switching application. Further motivating factors for width modulation schemes are: work exists which analyses and synthesized by four independently power amplification as a specific reviewing and comparing pulse schemes have not at all,

· Interesting characteristics of the more known modulation drawn sufficient attention.

· Some fundamental modulation schemes have not been analyzed although they may have advantageous characteristics.

All major modulations classes are analyzed and compared: natural sampled PWM (NPWM), uniform sampled PWM (UPWM) and hybrid sampling methods with focus on linearized PWM (LPWM) [24]. 2. Pulse modulation based power amplification

The basic elements of a pulse modulation based power amplifier are illustrated in Fig. 1. The four general blocks are the pulse modulator, the switching power stage, the passive demodulation filter and error correction circuitry. The four essential blocks are discussed in general terms in the following. 2.1 The pulse modulator The general pulse modulator outputs a train of pulses, which has a general spectral content as illustrated in Fig. 2. The modulator output generally contains three distinct elements: · The input signal component (sine input assumed in Fig. 2). · Distortion components of the input signal. · A high frequency (HF) spectrum composed of either discrete components related to the carrier frequency and input signal, noise shaped noise or a combination of both. The desired pulse modulator characteristics are: · A high basic linearity, in order to minimize the need for error correction. · A minimal switching frequency _.) / bandwidth (B) ratio. · A minimum of HF spectral content at all modulation depths. The ideal modulator would generate no HF-components. An interesting new modulation method/modulator topology where this is theoretically possible is presented in the parallel paper [31 ]. 2

· A low modulator complexity

for easy implementation.

The pulse modulator can be based on pulse width modulation (PWM) or pulse density modulation (PDM). Since PDM is a quantizing pulse modulation scheme, the HF spectrum has a stochastic nature. Some reports have been given on the use of PDM both in a digital modulator implementation and analog implementation with the power stage incorporated in the loop [19], [28]. However, the average switching frequency is higher than that obtainable with PWM. This leads to lower performance and a considerably lower efficiency compared with e.g. the PWM based topologies recently presented in [29], [30]. A further disadvantage is the necessity for a high order loop filter in order to obtain a sufficient noise shaping effect. This is difficult to realize and limits the modulation depth of the modulator. Consequently, PDM is not considered to be a suitable modulation scheme for pulse modulated power amplifier systems, and will not be considered further. 2.2 The power switch The power switch converts the incoming small-signal pulse modulated waveform to power levels. High efficiency is obtained by the on/off operation of the power transistors, i.e. they do in principle never enter the active region. An attractive realization of the power switch is the bridge topology, shown in Fig. 4. The topology can realize all of the considered modulation schemes in this paper. Some of the modulation schemes can be realized with a simpler half bridge, and this should be considered in their favour. 2.3 The demodulation filter

The demodulation filter is realized as a passive filter. The filtering requirements will depend on the modulation scheme, and of course the requirements on the output. In general though, the demands can be realized by two basic topologies: · Differential + common-mode filtering topology, as illustrated in Fig. 4 (a second order filter). · The simpler pure differential filtering topology, with no references to ground (other than HF). This simpler filter realization is possible if the modulation scheme produces no common-mode components on the bridge terminals. The pure differential realization requires four times less (typically high quality) capacitance. Furthermore, the differential filter topology is effectively implemented by using double wound cores which halves the number of inductors, and reduces the total copper volume. So, common-mode filtering requirements seriously influence the demodulation filter complexity. 2.4 Error correction

Error correction is the general term for compensation schemes for the inevitable errors that will be introduced in each of the three forward path 3

blocks. This may be implemented by single or multiple-loop linear feedback [8], [26], [29], [30], feedforward [7] or even non-linear feedback [23]. Linear feedback topologies have proven to implement superior performance in the recent publications [29], [30]. Further steps towards high end switching power amplification are taken in this paper by combining attractive modulation schemes with powerful feedback control schemes. The results are given in section 9. Numerous attempts have been made to implement the open loop topology (mainly based on digital PWM) without compensation for modulator errors, power stage errors and post filter errors [11], [14], [15], [16], [17], [21], [22]. The fact that no amplifiers have been buildt with a reasonable power handling capability and reasonable audio specifications, shows that this approach has failed. The causes are mainly the numerous non-ideal characteristics bound to the principle: 1. Any modulator and power switch non-linearity errors are fed directly to the load. Correlated errors introduce distortion and non-correlated errors introduce noise. 2. There is no rejection of power supply perturbations. Since the power stage output is largely proportional with the supply voltage, any supply ripple will intermodulate with the audio signal. In other words, PSRR=0dB. 3. The total amplifier output impedance is high due to the finite switch impedance and the filter impedance. 4. The sensitivity to load variations is high due to the passive demodulation filter. Accordingly, changes in load impedance will distort the frequency response of the amplifier. 5. The sensitivity to temperature drift, component tolerances and aging effects is high. The non-controlled switching amplifier is therefore not robust. By applying efficient error correction, dramatically improved and much more consistent performance can be obtained. Furthermore, the need for costly tuning procedures etc. is eliminated, and the total cost of the system will in general be reduced. 3. Pulse width modulation schemes

Traditionally, pulse width modulation is categorized in two major classes by the sampling method: natural sampled PWM (NPWM) and uniform sampled PWM (UPWM). Alternative sampling methods exists [3], [12], [14] which can be categorized as hybrid sampling methods since the nature of sampling lies between the natural and uniform sampling. The principles of the different sampling methods is illustrated in Fig. 3. Several variants of these three basic modulation variants can be defined, and Table 1 shows the considered variants. The hierarchical structure illustrates the order in which the modulation schemes

AD switching . In general the principle of linearizing UPWM has attracted some attention in recent years and variants exist [11]. [20].Single sided modulation. A parameter 5 . [24]. [14]. The figures illustrate from top to bottom the modulating signal and carrier.Fig. [24] is chosen in this work for comparison with UPWM and NPWM due to its simple implementation. Note. are differentiated. [14]. the signal waveforms on each of the bridge phases and the differential. Linearized PWM (LPWM) [17]. how the LPWM waveform is much closer to the NPWM pulse waveform. [12]. One approach is interpolation of the sampled data to approach the characteristics of natural sampling as first introduced in [3]. although the pulse train frequency is same. NBDD. 3. By using a triangle as reference. double sided modulation results. Fig. the following abbreviation method is defined: {Sampling Method} {Switching} {Edge} the modulation Samplingmethod I Edge Singlesided I An example is NADS for Natural sampling . as introduced in [4]. [13]. To systematically differentiate between variants. Class AD and BD are the (somewhat misleading but standardized) abbreviations for two level and three level switching. The principle of hybrid sampled PWM by LPWM illustrated in Fig. The uniform pulse width modulation is based on comparison between the carrier and a sampled version of the signal. UBDS and UBDD. 14 illustrates the essential time domain waveforms for the considered 8 variants of natural and uniform sampling. and efficient synthesis of a three-level switching pulse train is illustrated in the time domain figures for NBDS. This modulation of both edges doubles the information stored in the resulting pulse train. [22].Levels I Abbreviation Two(AD) NADS Natural sampling Three(BD) NBDS (NPWM) Doublesided Two(AD) NADD Three(BD) NBDD Singlesided Two(AD) UADS Uniform sampling Three(BD) UBDS (UPWM) Doublesided Two(AD) UADD Three(BD) UBDD Singlesided Two(AD) LADS Hybrid sampling Three(BD) LBDS (LPWM) Doublesided Two(AD) LADD Three(BD) LBDD Table 1 The considered variants of pulse width modulation. 7 . [15]. Examples of NPWM and UPWM modulator implementation are given in Fig.and common-mode output signals. 5. [21]. The harmonic distortion present in uniform sampled PWM has led to alternative hybrid sampling schemes. respectively. [25].

6). the response to single tone input provides nearly all interesting information about the modulation process. and the response to multitone and noise inputs can in general be well predicted from the response to tonal input. The noise shaper outputs the requantized pulse widths (8 bits in Fig. 6 illustrates the essential blocks of an LPWM modulator in a full bandwidth amplifier application. Most important however. which are converted to a PWM waveform by digital counter and comparator hardware in the PWM unit. an important factor in the LPWM modulator is that the quantization noise and noise shaped noise introduced is sufficiently small and does not dominate over the harmonic distortion. Fig. . Computer simulation is used to analyze LPWM. The method has been applied to a few PWM variants by Black [2]. Although the modulation processes cannot be investigated at the same level with computer simulation as by concise analytical expressions. Analysis methodology The analysis and comparison of the different modulation schemes is based on PWM responses to single tone input. a complete set of analytical expressions for NPWM and UPWM is derived for the first time. however the complexity of the modulator also increases with s. Analytical treatment of modulated multitone and noise signal is highly complicated. and will not be described in detail. In this paper. The tonal behavior is analyzed by the well known double Fourier series approach from communications theory [1]. 3). and investigations are therefore deemed to be carried out by computer simulation. computer simulation can provide sufficient resolution for a detailed investigation of all the given LPWM variants in Table 1. Further treatment of the subject has been given by Bowes [5]. The practical implementation of LPWM requires the use of noise shaping. LPWM is analyzed on exactly same parameters as NPWM and UPWM. The linearizer unit outputs the pulse width for the oversampled input samples. where the objectives may be very different.for optimization is the number of samples s used in each carrier cycle to approximate the input (s = 3 in Fig. the approximation is improved with s. [6] and Mellor [13]. The interpolation factor (here 8) is determined by s and noise shaping considerations. Besides the pure harmonic distortion. in order to reduce the counter clock speed which defines the time resolution. The basic principles are well known. since a general compact double Fourier series expansion has not been derived as with NPWM and UPWM. 4. The treatment in the referenced and other publications have typically been limited to a smaller set of modulation schemes and/or other applications. Clearly. that is non-quantized PWM responses to tonal stimuli.

as the maximal power level. It is determined by considering the carrier and signal slew-rates. and numerous parameters can influence the choice of modulation strategy. the Harmonic Envelope Surface (lIES) is defined to aid in the understanding the modulation process. it is attempted to carry out a unified comparison by considering the following important issues: Spectral characteristics: A detailed investigation of the high frequency spectral characteristics is carried out for each modulation scheme. Since the HF spectral characteristics depend in a complex way off the parameters such as M. the objectives for choosing a given modulation method will inherently depend on the application. The resulting limitations depend on the choice of edge modulation as: SRs = c°---_ _ c co _<c°--_c(Single sided modulation) 2re 2_ SRD = 2 coc _ C°c _ co _<co___c (Double _c sided modulation) 2r_ _ _z (2) (3) In general. co . complexity/cost considerations etc. Practical considerations as easy demodulation will therefore put tighter constraints on the possible frequency ratios than the limits defined in (2) and (3). Still. target bandwidth._ a new analysis tool. signal frequency and carrier frequency which complicates a general analysis and comparison. The basic idea is to visualize the amplitude spectrum vs.4. These characteristics of the modulation spectrum differ considerably between modulation principles. the 7 . The frequency ratio is defined as the ratio between signal angular frequency and carrier angular frequency coc: q =- co co (JOe O) The theoretical maximum for q is not determined by the Nyquist criteria.1 Methods of comparison All modulation processes depend in a way of several parameters as the modulation index. the high frequency spectral characteristics will have determining influence on the maximal frequency ratio (the bandwidth limit of the modulation process). The HES provides a detailed insight in the spectral characteristics with a single compact figure. as with normal amplitude sampling. Furthermore.

Either the leading or the trailing edge can be modulated in single sided modulation. and the derivation will therefore be treated in greater detail. a complete set of analytical double Fourier series expressions are derived. for NBDS and UBDS. The choice of frequency ratio is not of primary importance in order to reveal the characteristics and differences between modulation schemes. THD is investigated vs. 7 that no common-mode components are present over the bridge phases. the double Fourie/' series (DFS) expression for NADS is developed in detail. The results can easily be generalized to other frequencies. wherefis the normalized frequency (f/f_). Analysis In the following. The following will show. Note from Fig. it is appropriate to chose a frequency ratio close to a worst case situation. Instead of a 3D visualization.AD . 5. HES-plots are derived on the basis of the expressions. which is the case with q=l/16. frequency ratio q in the worst case situation M=0dB. 7 illustrates interesting time domain signals for NADS. Several of the expressions. 5.g. The parameter space defining the HES-plots in this paper is: · Me {~100.4}. that this is a general characteristic of the two level modulation process.1 Natural sampled . However. The DFS for NADS is repeated below: . e. Distortion Some of the modulation schemes generate 'forward' harmonic distortion and it is therefore valid to consider total harmonic distortion (THD) as a comparison parameter. and the background for using a double Fourier series approach is discussed. In appendix A. a much better approach is to visualize the HES in 2D with color (grayscale) defining amplitude.important parameters modulation index M and normalized frequency Oc/f_). however the amplitude spectrum is the same for both variants and there will be no differentiation between the two variants in the following discussion.Single sided modulation (NADS) Fig. and the spectral characteristics and distortion characteristics are analyzed and compared. have not previously been published in the literature.0}. · q=l/16 · f_ {0.

Index to the harmonics of the audio signal. the 'skirts' will close to the carrier. q = 1/16 represents a close to worst case situation. the following interesting facts are concluded for NADS: · The intermodulation components are very pronounced at mx + ny.1]. M6 [0. and are totally eliminated at idle. This is a very pleasant general characteristic of natural sampling. · The components related to the even harmonics of the carrier reduce with M. co= Audio signal angle frequency.Jo(mrcM)cos(mJr) (4) The individual components Component m'th harmonic of carrier my IM-component mx ___ ny mir 2Jn(mEM) my[ One of the most important conclusions form the expression for NADS is that the modulating signal is left unchanged by the modulation. i. A. present in the output spectrum are identified to be: I Amplitude 2 1 . 15 illustrates the spectral characteristics of the modulation process. Bessel function of nth order. This is seen as 'skirts' around harmonics of the carrier. by two single 'shots' at M--0dB and M=-40dB.e there are no direct forward harmonics. coc= Carrier signal angle frequency. As mentioned above. At lower M.my[.-_Z ) m=ln=_+l my[ Where: M x = COc t y = cot J_ n m Modulation index. and depend heavily on the modulation index M. This means that the modulation process by appropriate filtering can be considered ideal in terms of distortion.2). Fig. At lower frequencies.Jo(m_M)cos(my[) sin(mx) m=l m_ _ Jn(mycm) ny[ . which is clearly more 9 . From the hHES-plot. Index to the harmonics of the carrier signal.2_ _ sin(mx + ny . the dependency between the dominating IM-components and M is nearly linear due to the characteristics of the 1st order Bessel function Jl(x) (Fig.FNADS (t) = M cos(y) + 2 X_ 1. and by a Harmonic Envelope Surface (HES).

A much simpler approach however is to devise the expression by simple superposition rules from the expression for NADS. The interesting time domain signals of the NBDS modulation process are illustrated in Fig. a double Fourier series for Natural sampled BD Single sided modulation (NBDS) has not been derived in previous literature in the field.J_(m_M] cos(m_] + 2 Z _ / _ / sin(mx) m=l mn (5) . Higher frequency ratios would produce in-band IMcomponents and increase the requirements for demodulation.Single sided modulation (NBDS) To the best of the authors knowledge.2 Natural sampled .BD ._ (t ) 2 (6) The scaling is necessary in order to obtain a total pulse amplitude of 2._ _ nq>) m=ln=+l mrc 2 FNBos(t)is defined as: FNBOS ( t) = FNAOS (t ) . 8. The derivation of a double Fourier series for NBDS will be carried out in the following in some detail. what is needed is a general expression for NADS with a phase shifted modulating signal. 5.FNAOS.mrc. since NBDS can be synthesized by a 180 degree phase shift of the modulating signal to the opposing half-bridge. Note the presence of a high frequency common-mode signal at the bridge phases. From (5) and (6) we get: 10 .4)) --_ 1. Subsequently. This is found by simply replacing y with y-4 in (4): FNADS.n.2 _ _ Jn(m_M) sin(mx + ny . The approach used in appendix A could equally be used to derive the double Fourier series for NBDS. _(t) q = M cos(y . which illustrates the necessity for common-mode filtering.attractive especially when considering the components placed below the first harmonic of the carrier.

2_ Jn (mrri) m=ln=+l mrc The individual harmonic components cos(mx + ny . several important differences are observed: * The determining IM components mx + ny are close to linearly (J_(x)) dependent on the modulation shows very pleasant spectral index at lower output levels. The HES-surface characteristics at lower output levels.cos(z) sin( we can reduce (8) to: FNBOS (t) = M cos(y) ) and sin(z + _ni[ ) = cos(z) s. By comparing NADS and NBDS HES-plots. 16 illustrates the general spectral characteristics for NBDS.gtc .mi[ + hi[) m=ln=+l mi[ 2 Since: sin(z .mi[) sin( ) are identified to be: Amplitude Component IM component mx -+ ny 2J n (mrcM).n____ _ ni[) m=ln=+l mi[ 2 2FNBoa (t) = 2 M cos(y) + 2_ _ Jn(mlrM) cos(mx + ny _ mi[ m=ln=+l mi[ ni[ 5 ) (8) .mil mrc ni[) + 2_ _ Jn(mi[M) sin(mx + ny ._z) +2 So(mi[ mrcM)co sin(m s(mi[) x) m=l -.in( 2 ) (9) .2 _ 1.2_ oo _ m=ln=:t:l sin(mx) (7) Jn(mi[M) sin(mx + ny .-}--)hi[ = . and all 11 .2FNBDX(t ) = M cos(y) . sin(nrc) mi[ T Fig.M cos(y .2 _ _ 'In (mi[M) cos(mx + ny .Jo(mrcM)cos(mi[) m=l mi[ .

Obviously. This is a very important advantage of NBDS. Based on the this clearly improved theoretical performance. · Whereas all harmonics of the carrier were present in NADS (especially the odd harmonics). to be superior in terms of modulation spectra in comparison 5.4DD(t ) = FNADS (t) + FNADS (--t) (11 ) A prerequisite for the above simple addition is that the leading and trailing edge modulated waveforms do not overlap. they are not present in NBDS at all. meaning that the spectrum only contains half the components compared to NADS.3 Natural sampled . as a consequence of the synthesis of three switching levels.high frequency components disappear at idle. This causes the 'striped' nature of the HES-plot. This is obtained by a simple selection of parameters. · All IM-components mx + ny with even n are eliminated. Following. (NADD) Fig. The double Fourier series has been synthesized in the literature in [6].AD . · The maximal IM-component amplitudes are lower than in NADS. 9 illustrates the time domain waveforms for NADD.Double sided modulation NBDS is concluded to NADS. NADD modulates both leading and trailing edges of the pulses by using a triangle shaped reference. A simpler approach is the direct derivation from NADS by simple superposition: FN. by trigonometric reduction mechanisms the series can be derived: FNADO(t)= M cos(y) Jo(m_ _M) __2 sin(-)cos(mx) +2_ m ir m=l m/_ 2 2 +2_ _ Jn(m_ -M) . y_ 2 s in( l m+ mr_ 2ri)ir) cos(mx + ny) m=ln=+l 2 of the following components: (12) The modulation spectrum is composed 12 .

The smaller 'skirts' of NADD doesn't offset the advantages of the total elimination at lower output levels in NBDS._(t) 2 (13) 13 .FNADD.e. i.e. · Similar to NADS.--: 2 sin(--_-) rrrt[ g 2 2dn( m ml rirM) sin((m + n) ir) IM-component mx + ny 2 2 Fig.Double sided modulation (NBDD) Fig. 17 illustrates the general spectral characteristics for NADD modulation. The following interesting facts are concluded for NADD: · The argument to the Bessel functions is halved in comparison with both single sided modulation schemes NADS and NBDS. Consistent with the approach used above. since the odd harmonics of the carrier are present with maximal amplitude. meaning that about half the HF spectrum is eliminated in comparison to NADS. NADD does not have a pleasant spectrum at low M. From the modulation spectral characteristics.. This is of special importance around the first harmonic of the switching frequency. but not as attractive as NBDS mainly due to the characteristics at lower modulation index. of carrier components that happen 5.1) . NBDD provides two samples pr. The modulation spectrum for NBDD as been derived in [5] by an approach similar to the one given en appendix A. i. switch period. · Only IM-components with (m+n) odd are present in the spectrum.4 Natural sampled . the spectrum for NBDD can however also be derived by simple superposition rules as: FNBDD (t) = Where FNADD(t).Component m'th harmonic of carrier my I Amplitude 2Jo(m_ 11.BD . 10 illustrates the synthesis of the NBDD pulse modulated waveform. NADD must be concluded to be superior to NADS. a ' striped' HES-plot occurs. This is important since the ratio by which the IM components reduces thereby is increased considerably. The differential output illustrates a doubling in the number of samples..

n(t ) = M cos(y .5 Summary for NPWM The systematic analysis of NPWM given above have illustrated the differing spectral characteristics for the four variants. 10. 5. Looking at the HES-plot for NBDD. As with NBDS._) Jo(m_ M m=l mrc 2 sin( (m + n)TC-)cos(mx + ny . and the resulting double Fourier series for NBDD can be written as: FNOOO (t) = Mcos(y) _ Jn(m_rlV_) -4_ m=ln=+l _ rrt/'g ' ' ny)-_) (15) 2 sin(tm___)sin(_)sin((mx+ The individual components are identified to be: Component I Amplitude IM-component mx+ny 4Jn(m_rM) sin((m--_)sin(_ )mJr Fig. Furthermore. while the'carrierfrequency (and thereby the switching losses) are retained. there is one extremely important advantage by using NBDD: · The effective sampling frequency is doubled. The above outlined advantages of NBDS over NADS also hold when comparing NBDD with NADD.FNADD. In terms of modulation quality. 18 shows the spectral characteristics for NBDD. it has by far the most attractive spectral characteristics. a drawback is the common-mode content at the bridge output terminals as illustrated in the time domain plots in Fig. it is possible to rank the four modulation variants form 'best' to 'worst': 14 . the scaling in (11) is necessary in order to obtain a pulse train with an amplitude of 2. The most important conclusion of the analysis is that NPWM is totally free from 'forward' harmonic distortion.nrc) 2 (14) " "Jn(mrc_) +2_ m=ln=+l Z m/r 2 Again. The derivation follows the scheme for NBDS.

1.NBDD 2. NBDS 3. which is beneficial for demodulation and control system design. 15 . · A near linear relationship between M and IM-component amplitude at lower modulation indexes. NADS The HF-characteristics of NBDD combines three attractive features: · An effective doubling of the sampling frequency. · A total elimination of all components related to the carrier. which causes the idle spectrum to be totally free from components. NADD 4.

Single sided The double Fourier series for single sided general case by Black [2]. · By comparing HES~plots for NADS and UADS it is obvious. = + . that the IM components for uniform sampling are lower than for natural sampling.g.Jo(m_M)cos(trot) m_r dn((nq + m)TrM) (hq + m)_ Fig. The derivation same scheme as for natural sampling.6.In(mrMq) nlrq 1. i._ n=l x. The HES-plot illustrates the severe dependency of M for these components. .n_q - 1 . and HES-plots are derived on the basis of the expressions and the spectral characteristics are compared.. In comparison to natural sampling (NADS) several important differing characteristics are observed from the HES-plot: · Phase and amplitude distortion of the fundamental.1 Uniform sampled . _ dn((nq + m)_M)sin(nv + mx m=ln=+l (hq + m)Z[ We have the following amplitudes of the individual harmonics: Component n'th harmonicof signal m'th harmonic of carrier frequency IM component mx + ny I Amplitude . modulation) the expansion can be written: modulation (UADS) modulation has been devised in the for uniform sampling follows the For UADS (here trailing edge Fvws(t) . (16) 2 ') _ _. Again. 6. · The spectrum contains forward harmonics of the input. . +_ Iff{. double Fourier series expressions (DFS) are synthesized for all UPWM variants..e. e. 16 . 19 illustrates the spectral characteristics of UADS. The distortion is clearly not acceptable.AD . the modulating input signal is not found unchanged in the pulse waveform.a m=l n_q _.J0(m) M m/l. Uniform sampling As it will be shown in the following UPWM has distinctly different characteristics in comparison to NPWM. THD=-20dB at M=0dB.

. 6. The series for UADS with a phase shifted modulating signal is: FUnDS. m=l mg . /.5'. mentioned the differences factors.nh) m=ln=-+l (nq + m)rc 2 17 .L_) E S_((nq+ nr_ +_ m)rcM)sin(ny + mx ._(t) 2 (l 8) 2FuBDs(t) = -°°? 3. similar to the approach used for natural sampling. and this factor alone makes the modulation scheme unusable in general switching power amplifier applications.-.¢ (t ) = -n=l ngq sin ny . UBDS has not previously been treated in the literature. E ']n((nq+ infirM)sin(ny + mx -ng _ nO) m=ln=+l (nq + m)tr 2 By definition. _q.FNADS. The general expression for UBDS is derived from UADS by superposition._) + _=l Jn(ngMq) n ngq -}-_ .-.2 Uniform sampled . 11 illustrates the time domain waveforms for UBDS.ntt ( n ) 2_ Jn((nq + m)lcm) (hq + m)Tr (19) sin(ny + mx.n_q .nt_ mE) (17) sin(mx). and the derivation of the series will therefore be treated in some detail in the following.m=l 5_ n Y_ =+l + g sin ny .nrrq .AD .Single sided modulation (UBDS) To the best of the authors knowledge.ngq . n(n_Mq)sin(nYn _._.. are insignificant compared with the above The severe distortion is the most worst obstacle for UADS.However. Fig. the Fourier series for double sided uniform BD is generated by combining (17) and (16) and amplitude scaling as: Fv_os ( t) = This leads to: FNADS(t)-.Jo(mgM)sin(mx+ _.

6. · All harmonics of the carrier are removed. 20 shows the spectral characteristics for UBDS. The double Fourier series is derived from UADS as: FUADD(t)= FUAD$(t)+ Funo$(-t) The Fourier series for UADD can be written: (21) 18 . · Similar to the natural sampling case half of the IM components are canceled compared to UADS.nlrq)sin(_) n=l nTrq +m _ =ln _=+lJn((nq m)lc rM)cos(ny + mx)sin(_) (nq + + m)t The individual harmonic amplitudes Component n'th harmonic of signal IM component mx -+ny are: ] Amplitude orn (mrMq) sin(mr) 2 n_q orn((nq + m)TrM)sin(mr) (nq + m-_ -2- (20) Fig.3 Uniform sampled . since the now dominating 3. · The residue is free from components. This is the reason for the 'striped' nature of the HESplot. since uniform sampling approaches natural sampling when the modulation index goes towards zero. The most interesting aspect of UBDS is the cancellation of even order forward harmonics which makes it usable at much higher frequency ratios than UADS.FUt_DS(t ) = _ Jn(ntCMq) cos(ny. harmonic is around -40dB at M=0dB.5. 13 illustrates the time domain signals for UADD. including the carrier itself. As expected. The following apparent conclusions for UBDS can be drawn from the HES-plot: · In comparison to UADS ali even order forward harmonics are canceled out.AD .Double sided modulation (UADD) Fig. The frequency dependency of THD is investigated more closely in section 6. many of the positive characteristics of NBDS at lower levels are also found for UBDS. This improves the resulting THD.

the following amplitudes obtained: Component [ Amplitude n'thharm°= harmonic of m'th carrier component mx + ny ntrq Jo -2. as it is the case with the natural sampling counterpart NADD.n=l n Trq + m=l m']_ ' (hq + re)lc sin (m + n(1 + q)) cos(ny + mx) of the individual harmonics 22.4 Uniform sampled .FOAOO. 6. the total cancellation of half of the harmonic spectrum is not present. but at considerably reduced amplitude compared to UADS (at M=0dB).BD . 21 shows spectral plots and a HES-plot for UADD.Double sided modulation The Fourier series for UBDD is derived form UADS as: FUAOO( t) . · All IM-components are present at full scale. The following characteristics deserve attention: · All forward harmonics are present. are m=ln=+l Form the DFS._(t ) 2 (UBDD) FUBDD(t ) = (23) We get: .e.co (_M) (_) dn(nq +m) (hq + re)Ir sin ( (m + n(1 + q)) 2) specific Fig. i.

q for all four UPWM schemes.009 UADD 0. Still. From the HES-plot. the different modulation schemes can be ranked from 'best' to 'worst' in terms of distortion and HF spectral characteristics: · UBDD · UBDS . · All harmonics of the carrier (and the carrier itself) are eliminated in the spectrum. · Apart form UADD. There are remarkably high components around odd harmonics of the carrier. Fig. 23 illustrates THD vs. it can not be considered as a doubling of the sampling frequency.0006 UBDS 0. The table below summarizes the frequency ratio's corresponding to a THD of-70dB: UADS q (THD=-70dB) 0.019 Not even UBDD delivers acceptable distortion at reasonably high frequency ratio's. As expected. UBDD does eliminate half of the harmonic spectrum ('striped' nature of HES-plot). 22 illustrates the spectral characteristics for UBDD. they decrease with M where the uniform sampling approaches natural sampling.n=l -4_' _ m=ln=+l n_q sin (m+n(l+q)) sin( )sin ny+mx (24) (nq + m)_r We have the following amplitudes Component [ of the individual harmonics: Amplitude n'th harmonic jn(n_rMq) nJrq sin((q + 1)_1 sin(_) IM mx+nyC°mp°nent jn((nq+m ))Jr E_)sin((m (hq + m + n(1+ q))_. the following facts on UBDD deserve attention: · Although UBDD provides two samples per pulse.)/rsln(n' __)Tc Fig.012 UBDD 0.5 UPWM summary The systematic analysis of UPWM illustrated the widely different characteristics regarding distortion and HF-characteristics. 6.

[14]. Distortion of lower modulation indexes can not be investigated. In general. the double Fourier integrals that arrive form this sampling approach can not be solved analytically. The first publication addressing hybrid sampling schemes was given back in 1967 by Mananov [3] who called it modulation of the third kind. especially if the sampling approaches natural sampling. Since the performance differences between the simple LPWM and more complex algorithms is insignificant. it is the first time that all hybrid sampled variants (LPWM variants in Table 1) are analyzed and compared. Least Squares (LS) can be used for the curve fitting. but since the focus is on worst-case situations this is not a severe limitation. The basic idea is the same .g. 3) [17] is rather simple to implement. which is enough for the analysis and comparison with NPWM and UPWM. and a simple expansion into a double Fourier series is therefore not directly possible. with PWM D/A-converters and switching power amplifiers as specific application. No uniform sampling PWM scheme can implement a very good digital modulator.g. since all distortion information and modulation components can be derived form this approach.the harmonic distortion. e. LPWM is chosen for investigation and comparison with the UPWM and NPWM sampling schemes. The digital algorithms required for the approximation vary in complexity. Hybrid sampling schemes The thorough analysis given above on uniform sampled PWM has illustrated one fundamental problem of this 'digital' modulation scheme .* UADD · UADS UBDD 'wins' by a combination of lowest distortion and best HF-spectral characteristics. the harmonic distortion can be reduced. [15]. the polynomial approximation [14] requires an curve fitting algorithm and a numerical algorithm to find the crossing point. 14-16 bits of resolution in every switch cycle provides more than 100dB of spectral resolution. [13]. Several alternative hybrid sampling schemes been presented in recent years. and the Newton Raphson algorithm can be used to determine the crossing point. as e. The four modulation variants will be analyzed with the following parameters set: 21 . only a single period of the input tone is modulated. However. [12]. In order to obtain sufficient resolution in the analysis. The tonal behavior is therefore investigated by computer simulation. As it was the case for NPWM and UPWM.by sampling 'in between' the natural and uniform case. 7. Where as the LPWM algorithm (Fig. although the win is not as clear as the dual natural sampling scheme NBDD. a very fine time resolution is needed for the PWM wavefonn.

At s -. · All of the components around odd harmonics of the carrier disappear as the approximation accuracy is increased. · The HF characteristics change with s.4 Linearized . 7. 22 .5 }.2.2 Linearized .2. 27 illustrates the amplitude spectrum for sc {1.Double sided modulation (LADD).AD . q for M= 0dB for different levels of interpolation ( sc {2. 7. i. Fig. Half of the IM-components drop out as s increases. · THD vs.Single sided modulation (LBDS).5} with the above defined parameters. the following is concluded: · A dramatic improvement in THD is observed for increasing s. The spectral characteristics are investigated vs.Single sided modulation (LADS).BD .5}. · The total improvement in distortion from s = 1 (uniform sampling) to s = 5 is around 30dB. exactly as for NPWM and UPWM.5}. At s = 3 the components are totally eliminated and LBDD therefore has the same attractive HF-characteristics as NBDD. 7.2. The following is observed: · The total improvement in distortion from s = 1 (uniform sampling) to s = 5 is around 30dB as for LBDS. The following is concluded: · The improvement in distortion from the uniform sampling case to s = 5 is around 20dB. concluded: · The distortion remains odd harmonic at all s. At s = 5 the characteristics are very close to NBDS.e LBDD is not linearized as effectively as the other schemes. · There are interesting changes in the HF-characteristics as the approximation accuracy increases. Fig. 3). 24 illustrates form top to bottom the amplitude spectrum for sc {1.3 Linearized . THD = -68dB with a frequency ratio as low as q = 1/16.3.5}. 26 illustrates the amplitude spectrum for sc {1.e the IM-component amplitude increase with s.1 Linearized . the distortion is reduced 50dB form s = 1 to s = 5.3. From these amplitude spectra. Thus. Fig. i.5}. · The HF characteristics change with s. ) 7.3.3.5 the characteristics are very close to NADS.Double sided modulation (LBDD). The following is Fig. 25 illustrates the amplitude spectrum for sc {t.AD .2.3. the number of approximating samples s.3. where s = 1 corresponds to uniform sampling (Fig. s c {1.BD .e the IM-component amplitude increase with s. i.2.· q = 1/16.

0 dB LADS LBDS LADD LBDD -20.Fig.1 dB -36.8 dB -68.7. 31 illustrates THD vs. to 5. From Fig. sufficiently good.Fig. 28 . Similarly. 31. Due to this interesting characteristic of LPWM. harmonic). as the approximation accuracy is increased.3 dB -68.9 dB -39. for the four LPWM methods.2dB I *=3 -55. independent of the modulation scheme.4 dB 58.3 dB -58. q= 1/16) s = 1 I s=2 -46. the deviations form the linear characteristic at very low output levels is due to the simulation accuracy. that THD is close to linearly dependent on q as it was the case with uniform sampling.8dB -49. q investigations in Fig. if the approximation is 23 .3dB -46. THD is given at exactly q = 1/16: (THD.3.9 dB -58.0dB -58. this clearly shows that THD is very sensitive to the number of samples s used in the approximation.0dB In combination with the_THD vs.5}. q for se {2.2dB -46. is that it is possible to realize acceptable perfmxnance by digital implemented LPWM modulators with all the considered modulation schemes. The reason for the increased distortion at higher q for LADS and LBDS with 5 samples approximation is due to IM-components and not forward harmonics (THD is based on an RMS sum of the 2.5 LPWM summary Fig. Another remarkable conclusion form the investigations is that the differences in distortion between modulation schemes diminish in LPWM.4dB [ =5 -68. 28 to Fig. At s = 5 the distortion is thus -68dB. the choice of modulation scheme is based on HF-spectral characteristics. A general and important conclusion though. 31. 28 .9 dB -68. This also means that the ranking of the different modulation schemes is similar to the ranking of NPWM from 'best' to 'worst': · LBDD · LBDS · LADD · LADS LBDD clearly has the most attractive HF-characteristics. It is interesting to notice. The nature of the distortion however is not the same as shown from the spectral amplitude illustrations.

So. The problems of implementing the digital modulation scheme. an error correction system is crucial. This is extremely good for such a high power system. The example is based more specifically NBDD. single sided modulation double sided modulation (this is not the case Considering these problematic issues at the fact performance and is easy to implement with high for digital implementation of the modulator. Example implementation given. output power at two different carrier frequencies 50KHz and 250KHz. · The problems by implementing double sided modulation. The major specifications are given The specifications are now discussed in greater detail: · Fig.32 illustrates the power stage efficiency vs. The harmonic residue at 1W/1KHz (Fig 33) illustrates the reason for the extremely low distortion: All harmonics are damped more than 95dB relative to the fundamental !. since the power stage distortion is typically orders of magnitude higher than in a high performance digital LPWM modulator. This is the most severe problem. that NPWM has shown ideal quality. digital modulator implementation is dramatically different from analog modulator implementation. which has to be removed by the demodulation filter. Problematic issues with digital LPWM modulation Although the analysis of NPWM. which tends to be high especially in full bandwidth systems. The efficiency is seen to approach 92% and 96% at higher output powers. 6. UPWM and LPWM has been carried out on the same parameters. respectively. as it is apparent form the modulator examples in Fig. it is not easy to argue Detailed results for a implemented amplifier example is shown that very convincing audio performance can be switching power amplifier system. output power for 100Hz. 1KHz and 10KHz. in the Table 2. 24 . · The noise shaped noise. where two parameters need to be noise shaped. The general problematic issues regarding digital PWM based switching power amplification can be summarized to: · The problems of applying error correction for power stage and demodulation filter error components. 9. · Fig 34 illustrate THD+N vs. · The PWM counter speed. PWM modulator vary with is simpler to implement than in natural sampled systems). i.e. The noise shaping causes the HF-spectrum to be a combination of both discrete components and noise.8. in order to delivered from a on analog PWM.

0mW-->Pomo_) CCIFIMD Residual noise 20Hz-22KHz 200W 300W 0Hz .Cont. outputpower Peak outputpower Bandwidth (3 dB) Load impedance Supplyvoltage (single) THD+N (20Hz-_fm. For the first time. a complete set of analytical expressions are provided for all variants of natural and uniform sampled PWM. Some essential conclusions from the systematic review of pulse width modulation for switching power amplifier systems are: ._. the Harmonic Envelope Surface (HES). A new analysis tool. in order to be able to investigate the spectral characteristics in detail with a single illustration. The total RMS sum (20Hz-20KHz) is 50gV. 36. corresponding to an unweighted dynamic range of near 118dB. and hybrid sampled PWM methods have been carried out. Several problematic issues regarding digital LPWM implementation only emphasizes the advantages of NPWM in switching power amplifier applications.001%-0.05% <0. High quality pulse width modulation can be realized in both the analog domain by NPWM schemes and in the digital domain with LPWM schemes. However. 35 further documents the well distributed amplifier noise at idle. 10. Conclusions A detailed and systematic comparison of a complete collection of 12 natural sampled. · The switching amplifier system also possesses extremely low intermodulation distortion (IMD) as illustrated by the standardized CCIF measurement in Fig.80KHz 4 / 8 / 16 70V 0. was defined on the basis of the DFS expressions.005%. NPWM is the optimal modulation strategy. uniform sampled. These advantages offset the increase in modulator complexity. · The double sided three level analog schemes (NBDD) and (LBDD) provide several advantages. mainly due to a perfect reproduction of the modulating signal in the pulse modulated waveform. the most important being the effective doubling of sampling frequency and the perfect modulation spectrum at idle which is free fon_ components.005% 50gV RMS (unw) Dynamicrange (unw) 118dB Maximalefficiency 92% Table 2 Full bandwidth NBDD based amplifier * Fig. 25 . The IMD is below 0.

Modulation Theory Van Nostrand Company. 1967. 67-70. References (Arranged after date of publication) [1] Bennett.· With practical frequency ratios. that the detailed study and evaluation of pulse width modulation methods will help to a better understanding of the modulation processes and their advantages and disadvantages. 1933. Black. W. LPWM can provide excellent approximation to natural sampling for all variants LADS/LADD/LBDS/LBDD. the necessary number of samples for high quality approximation varies with modulation method. A detailed analysis of the possible variants of power stage. demodulation filter and the control system (error correction system) was outside the scope of this paper. Vol. November Bowes. Acknowledgments The author is grateful to professor John Vanderkooy. 11. 11. IEE. H. 1970 Bowes. the author wishes to thank Bang&Olufsen. "New Results in the Calculation [2] of Modulation Products" [3] [4] Bell system Technical Journal. Furthermore. "New sinusoidal pulsewidth-modulated Proc. 122. University of Waterloo. S. 1953. R. IEE. 22.D. all other three elements also need great attention. et al. Eng. the Danish Energy Agency and CETEC for their economic/technical support in the research project. one out of the four major parts of the switching power amplifier. i. Future publications are planned on these highly interesting subjects. J.e. Practical results for a 200W NBDD based power amplifier example were given to illustrate the possibility of realizing high efficiency switching power amplifier systems with high end performance. Proc. Vol. using the technology of today. pp. (2). Rad. 12. In order to realize a high performance amplifier system. It is hoped. Martin.R. 117. 26 invertor" 1975 [5] [6] . Theoretical efficiencies of class D power amplifiers. pp. 228-243. Mananov. V. S. No. However. This paper has only concentrated on the pulse modulator. R. No. Canada for his comments on this and the parallel paper [31 ]. V "Single polarity pulse width modulation of the third kind" Telecomm.S. 6.

J. S. et al. 1983. 1. No. Vol. No.441-448 Goldberg. 285. p.4. 1990. 1980.[7] [8] "Novel approach to the analysis and syntesis of modulation processes in power converters" Proc. 31. Vol. "Distortion minimisation in Pulse Width Modulated Digital Sampling Process" Systems Using a [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] Electronic Letters. J. Oxford. John. K. Num. 11. Goldberg. publ. Kings College. Vol. A. et al. pp.M. University Pulse Width Modulation of London. no. Aug 1991. Signal Processing for High Resolution Digital-To-Analogue Conversion. "An intelligent single-chip microcontroller based power controller for realtime applications" IEE International Conference On Control 88. May 1975. Preprint 2959 Leigh. 138. 2-16. April 1988. 1491-1492 Goldberg. Ph.D thesis. Sept.P. 1st August 1991. etaL "Reduction of spectral distortion in class D amplifiers by an enhanced pulse width modulation sampling process" IEE-Proceedings-G. their spectrum analysis and microprocessor implementation" 1987 UPEC. pp. "Design Parameters Important for the Optimization of Very-HighFidelity PWM (Class D) Audio Amplifiers" JAES.M. 5. J. "Pseudo-Natural Pulse Width Modulation For High Accuracy DigitalTo-Analouge Conversion" Electronic Letters. M. 122.H. S.O. 1310-1311 Mellor. p. Los Angeles. P. B. "Feedforward error correction in power amplifiers" JAES. Nov. IEE. pp.J. "Dynamic Model-Based Linearization of Quantized Pulse-Width Modulation for Applictions in Digital-to-Analog Conversion and Digital Power Amplifier Systems" 27 . 2nd August 1990. 1-5. Sethuraman. et al. et al. [16] Hawksford. "New Results in PWM for Digital Power Amplification" 89th AES Convention. Vanderkooy. pp. M. No. 28. Conf. November Based [14] [15] 1992. "PWM: A survey of modulation strategies. 489-493. Vol. E. Attwood. M. Waheed.

O. Preprint 3886. "A New Extension of One-Cycle Control and Its application to Switching Power Amplifiers" IEEE APEC' 95. Vol. Hawksford. "Power Digital to Analogue conversion using pulse width modulation and digital signal processing" IEE Proceedings-G. Zheren et al. Hiorns "Digital Signal Processing and Circuit Design for Pulse Width Modulating Digital to Analouge Conversion" Ph.40. University of London. San Francisco. et al 28 with [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] . P. Lai.H. Tech. 1994. pp. Digital PWM-forsta_rker til aktivt hojttalersystem. pp. R. John "New concepts in Pulse Width Modulation" 97th Convention of the AES.[17] JAES.5. No. Uni. 2nd jan 1992.5. Lai. 1992. Shajaan. Wienna. Amsterdam. No. 329-338. et al. April 1992. 140. Vanderkooy. Craven. Vol. M. etal. 1993. November 1994.41. "Digital Sampling Process for Audio Class D Pulse Width Modulated Power Amplifiers". Electronics Institute. 826-831. Preprint 3908. Vol. "Toward the 24 bit DAC: Novel Noise-Shaping Topologies Incorporating Correction for the Nonlinearity in a PWM Output Stage" JAES. Oct 1993. 1992. of Denmark. 235-252. S. Preprint 3227. Electronic Letters. M.E.D thesis. No. R.Sc. Hiorns.E. Shajaan. Vol. pp. P. M. Mellor. R. Kings College. Feb. Preprint 3809. pp.4.J. Thesis (in Danish). 1994. "A Sigma-Delta modulated Switching Power Amp" 92nd AES Convention. J. "All digital Power Amplifier Based on Pulse Width Modulation" 96th Convention of the AES. San Francisco. "Linearization of Multi-Level. 56-58. pp. Klugbauer. Mohammad et al. November 1994.28. Multi-Width Digital PWM Applications in Digital-to-Analouge Conversion" 97th Convention of the AES. 291-313.

Munich. May 1996. 3. Preprint 4258. Preprint 4328."A PWM Method for Reduction of Switching Loss in a Full-Bridge Inverter". K. Nielsen. Los Angeles. May. K. California. No. Karsten "High Fidelity PWM based Amplifier Concept for active speaker systems with a very Low Energy Consumption" 100th AES Convention. Nielsen. [29] "A High-Efficient Pulse-Density Modulation Audio Power Amplifier" 101 st AES Convention. Copenhagen. Copenhagen. [30] [31 ] 29 . Nielsen. om Power Electronics. 1995.A novel approach to switching power amplifier design" To be presented on the 102th AES Convention. Vol. Karsten "Parallel Phase Shifted Carrier Pulse Width Modulation (PSCPWM) . 10. "High Fidelity Pulse Width Modulation Amplifiers based on Novel Double Loop Feedback Techniques" 100th AES Convention. M. May 1996. [28] IEEE Transactions Iwata. Anderskouv N.. Andersen. March 1996. Preprint 4259.

Thus..o. y)= {.)-5 .which is less than x. a double Fourier series expansion is necessary because. in the general case no relationship exists between the signal and the carrier. Appendix A The signal frequency and carrier are in general incommensurable. 1 illustrates a top view on the XOY-plane on this surface. 13. defined as F(x. The pulse width modulated wave can be synthesized from F(x. and the PWM waveform non-periodic. Fig. The analysis is based on a sinusoidal input: u(y) = 2<k + M.Y M_S_ ((( o_¢C ) -2g 0 2_ 4n 6n _ o --. 1 Geometric surface to aid in the development of the double Fourier series. here for the NADS modulation method. otherwise (x -lxl2_) < u(Y) (26) where Ix[2_ is the closed multiple of 2r_.x 8n 10n _11 .._cos(y) The surface is defined by: (25) F(x.. 30 ...(%)_) _x Figure A...y) onto the XOZ-plane.y). II 171fi fi [-1f--1 I m. This is done by projecting the intersections of the ZOA-plane with F(x. This projection is also illustrated in the bottom of Fig.. Bennett has used a J-dimensional surface to analyze general "double periodic" waveforms. 1.e by the ZOA-plane.y) by a plane perpendicular to the XOY-plane along the line OA.. i.

The general expression of the double Fourier series is given by [2]: 1 F(x. i.By relating x and y to time as: X = (Oct y = cot (27) Each value of time corresponds to a point on the OA-line in Fig. The fundamental idea behind the 3-dimensional representation is seen by considering by XOY-plane sectioned into 2re-squares. Clearly. Note. 1. 1. that it is the exact shape of the contour that defines the type of sampling used.y) is identical in each 2r_-square and therefore periodic in two dimensions. while uniform sampling could be synthesized by a staircase waveform as illustrated in Fig.y) = _ Aoo + _ [Aon n=l cos(ny) + Bon sin(ny)] + _ [Am0cos(mx) + Bmosin(my)] m=l oo ____ (28) + _ _ [Amn cos(mx + ny) + Bran sin(mx + ny)] m=ln=+l The Fourier coefficients are most conveniently 2tr2Jr expressed in complex form: I Amn + JBmn = 2/r2 _ _ F(x. A double Fourier series provides the values of F(x.e.y) at each point in the 2x-square and thereby interently also on the OA line. 1. y) d(m+nY)dxdy 0 o (29) Since the three dimensional surface F(x. the double integral above is rather simple to solve: 31 . A. Natural sampling is synthesized by a straight line. A. as illustrated in Fig. the double Fourier series for the pulse width modulated pulse train is simply obtained by the substitution given in (27).y) is assumed constant. F(x. A.

. the series is reduced to: 32 .5 0 --0.2 Bessel functions of the first kind from 0thto 5thorder. By inserting double Fourier series arrive: M special cases where either m of n is 0 is the resulting coefficients in (28) the following FN ws(t) .m _ =ln _=+ldn(mrcM) sin(mx + ny . n .-_-) m_ Setting/c= 0. eJnYdy 2rc2m 0 J_' eJ(m2zk+n_)J n(mMl_) 71.1 sin(m2rck + n 2)Jn(mM_r) (m.5 and bymultiplyingthe seriesby a factorof 2 (corresponding to a total pulse height of 2) and after removing the DC component.Bessel I .2m_rk) (31) . y) eJ(mx+nY)dxdy 0 _ = - (m. functions from 0th UD to 5 order 0. 2_r2irk+Mwcosy Amn + jBmn _ 1 f 2rr2 0 2x _ J_' f (eJ(m2_k+mMir cosy+ny) _ eJnY)dy 2rc2m 0 2re i ejrn2_k fe jmMlrc°sy .n * O) (30) _ F(x.m (m.2m_k .5 I 2 3 4 5 In0ex 6 7 8 9 t0 Figure A. n -_ O) J Bran I1. = k + -2 cos(y) + _ sin(mx) m=l mrc _ d°(mlrM)sin(mx m=l mir . n _: O) ¢ Amn = _m .e O) (m.m cos(m21rk + n _)Jn(mMlr) Evaluation of (30) at the straightforward.

33 . the alternative superposition approach used in the paper to derive the other expressions is considerably simpler and to be recommended where usable. . Several modulation schemes have been synthesized in the literature.Jo(mffM cos rotc .m/r)) m=l m_ -2 _ _ Jn(mlrM) sin(mx +ny-mIr-ntr) m=ln=+l m/I. However._D S (t) = Mcos(y) + 2( _ sin(mx) m=l mTr _ Jo (mml//) sin(mx . +2_ 1 ) ( )sin[mx) m=l m Jr -2 f _ dn(mirM)sin(mx m=ln=+l mJr + ny.FN. 2 g FNADS(t) = M cos(y) .mir nrc) (32) 2 The series for all other modulation schemes can in principle be generated by a similar approach.

components l. 1 Basic elements of a switching Power : . _ time Fig. may be discrete. 2 General pulse modulator output characteristics. · Nature refer¢_ I _/[11\ Uniform Natural '_ _-- (3 samples) (3_ Hybrid eferenc_ I nT _ (n+l)T schemes.(analog / digital) L input Pu e Modulator i Fig. 3 Basic pulse width modulation 34 .fe d lato Switch _' Error Correction system with analog or digital input. _ J Nois_ Discrete HF components The HF spectrum IIIlI rs ' Fig. power amplifier l[ Dist. stochastic (noise) or a combination of both.

44.Fig.s2. which can realize all the considered C_r /¢..2 S2l A44 rSk/CA s.3MHz is required in Noise shaping 35 . l s. Interpolator [---------4----_ Lineariser Noise Shaper Fig.s2.. 5 Examples of modulator ___ NBDS/NBDD modulator example structures. UADS/UADD PWM modulator .-v by__s.8_ [ z Shaper IPwM_loc_=_03_. UPWM _L_ modulation stage..1_[ (8x) I_.4N_/CA NADS/NADD PWM modulator AA4 N'. 4 Bridge power schemes.. Fig. ucc s. Interpolator _ Noise PWM / 44.z / e.i_l(ere_omp.) PWM I PWM ¢1o¢/=90.1_z (ax) 1352._.k/gA : t. order to obtain reasonable PWM counter clock speeds. 6 Practical implementation of digital UPWM and LPWM modulators.

.Single sided (NBDS) 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ·_..5 O . ' i . '.. 1 ..5 .--. 6 7 8 Fig. 7 Time domain waveforms for NADS Natural sampling . 3 _ 4 ..Natural sampling ....s 01I i _' ' I ' I I i N I I 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 '_ °'51_ I m 0_ I-I 0 1 2 hn u I I I I I 3 4 5 6 7 8 · ll_ I--1 'r'----q'l'-'---_ l--q .AD . < Ok 0 1 '---I .BD . 8 Time domain 36 ... 5 6 _ -7 '_0. i i I i i i i i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 EE 1 o 0.o... 'c_f.... 1 Il i '_°W'' -lb' I " I i ''' I i I _m _ ri I i mr--1 '1 _ '_ 0 1 i 2 3 4 i 5 6 7 f 8 8 °i '. 2 ' .. 0 1 2 3 4 5 Normalisedtime (t/ts) waveforms for NBDS..Single sided (NADS) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 '_ 0. 1 2 ' I 2 3 ! 4 ' 5 ! 6 ' 7 ' i 7 8 I I i i 3 4 5 6 Normalisedtime (t/ts) Fig..

L_ 3 ! ' b__ .I I _ < 0_lh ' 0 '' _ I '_ 1 ' '' '[_J' } I 2 3 } 4 r_ I 5 VI I-7 _-_ 8 colh0'5_-'0_-._ 1.'__J . 2 ' I. 10 Time domain waveforms for NBDD. 6 ' ' .: -. 9 Time domain waveforms for NADD. 0 1 1 ' i. 3 4 5 6 Normalisedtime (t/ts) Fig.¥ 6 7 '8 0 1 2 .5 6 7 . 2 ' . .Natural sampling .__ 0 1 2 3 4 _ 8 o o{0 .Double sided (NADD) -1F 0 . 4 ' . i' . 2 7 8 37 . .BD . i [{ . 2 . 7 5 I 6 iF_[ 7 8 T°51I I _ OV [-'-]'I 1_' 0 f' 1 _' . 7 ' 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 3 4 5 6 Normalisedtime (t/ts) Fig. . 6 .----. ' _' 3 4 .Double sided (NBDD) ? 0 1 - 2 3 4 5 \/ 6 ii 6 7 8 'T°'si. 5 ' '--"----_ . 3 4 L__ 8 . 5 . 1 ' ._ 1_ V 1 ' Y 2 Y 3 Y 4 ' _ 5 ".i_J_J-r. n .AD . "_ ['1 L_. 7 1 '' 8 Natural sampling .

4 5 6 7 8 0 .it_n i rli___ i--bi i U I I I I I I I 0 1 2 3 4 5 ..I_FL_L] L_ oo°_il ' ' ' .Single sided (UADS) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0[0 _0.BD .. I2 Time domain for UBDS.*!_1o.o_ O_ 0 .Uniform sampling . 6 i 7 i 8 -lb 0 . 'I/_--Li-I h I h '_ " '1 I I I I I I 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 .Single sided (UBDS) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . 11 Time domain waveforms for UADS. ffi --i 1 i .. 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 5 6 7 3 4 5 6 Normalised time (t/ts) Fig... 1 _ 2 _ 3 ._°. 38 . 2 i 3 i 4 _ 5 i 6 i 7 8 I I I I I I I 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ._. 7 Nt 1 8 8 Uniform sampling .AD . 1 _ 2 i i 3 4 5 Normalisedtime (t/ts) waveforms Z_ 6 7 8 Fig..

1 2 .. 14 Time domain waveforms for UBDD.. 7 8 39 . 3 ' 4 '_'_ ' 5 _ i 6 _ ' 7 _ 1 I I I I I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 '_t 0.SlI "_ O] ''1 0 ..._!_0 u H u.....BD . ' 1 ..Uniform sampling .'-----' 0 _ [ ' 3 4 5 6 Normalised time (t/ts) Fig... I I I I I I 1 I} 2 I . 4 5 6 7 8 0_. I I ...O. [ 2 _i 3 .. 3 I 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t_ _ 0.... I ' I' 3 4 5 Normalisedtime (t/ts) I I 6 7 1 8 Fig. Uniform sampling .. _ 1 '--' 2 ....51 o ..Double sided modulation (UBDD) 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ..5 rn I ... 'I 1 '4 2 : ..AD ...n i_i_ _'_n n i f--i-u _ Ld 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 '_. . i 1 ] 2 t 3 f 4 I I I 5 6 7 8 0 1 h o ... I .. 13 Time domain waveforms for UADD.....Double sided (UADD) 110 '_0.

.NADS 0 --lO0 _80 _O0 ii[lllllllllllll II 1IllJl]l 1111 ]11 o . q=l/16. il'lustrated ihe harmonic spectrum and a HES-pl0t with M varying fi'om -lOOdB to OdB (full scale).I. 1.. 15 Frequency domain characteristics for NADS.5 frequency N_S .1. lil -so -60 --80 --90 _o IJ ! O_ O --lO --20 --30 I 1_5 _r_li_ 2 2.5 (_ Fig. 40 .. 0 _ll_s_ 35 4 4_5 --60 --70 --90 I 0_5 1_ 2 N_r_arm_ed 2_ fr_q_y 3 3_5 4 4..

41 . 16 Frequency domain characteristics for NBDS.NBDS 0 --10 --20 --60 --90 --100 --10 --20 --30 _. -50 -60 -70 -ao I II II II1' ° I1II --50 --70 --80 -l· I orm_l_ md frequency NBDS (f/rs) 0 -90 0_5 I 1 _5 2 Norm_Bsed 2_5 frequency 3 _f_f$_ s_5 4 4_5 Normalisedcarrierfrequency (f/fs) Fig. illustrated the harmonic spectrum and a HES-plot with M varying from -lOOdB to OdB (full scale)· q=l/16.

5 4 4.5 (//fs) [I 4 4.5 Fig. 42 .5 II 1.5 frequency 3.5 I: I IllLI 2 Normallsed 2. illustrated the harmonic spectrum and a HES-plot with M varying from -100dB to 0dB (full scale).5 -_° °°0 0.5 -50 -6o -7o I 1.5 frequency NADP I I 3 (f/f s) 3. 17 Frequency domain characteristics for NADD. q=l/16.NBDD 0 --10 --2O --.50 70 --OO __o --60 °°0 0 --lo --20 --30 0.5 Normallsed 2 2.

5 frequency 3 (f/f s) 3.NBDD O --10 --20 --50 --7O --SO -lOO o 5 I I Normallsed ' 2. spectrum and a 43 . illustrated the harmonic HES-plot with M varying from -lOOdB to OdB (full scale).5 0 --10 --2o --3O --4O --50 --60 --7O --sO --90 -lOO o. ] 8 Frequency domain characteristics for NBDD.5 4 ' 4.5 4 4.5 I 1. q= 1/16.5 Normalisedcarrier frequency (f/rs) Fig.5 Normalised 2.5 frequency NBDD I I ' 3 (f/fs) 3.

illustrated the harmonic HES-pl0t with M varying from -lOOdB to OdB (full scale).5 froqu_ncy LJAE)S (f/ts) 3. 19 Frequency domain characteristics for UADS.5 0. spectrum and a 44 . I 4.S 4 --20 --30 --50 --C_O 70 --90 I 0 S I 1_5 2 rqormallsod 2_5 lrequ_n_y 3 3_5 4 '*_S _f/f_ Normalised carrier frequency (f/fs) Fig.5 I 1 '_o NS rmall2od 0 2. q=l/16.uAl:>s o --90 -1°°0 --10 --SO --1000 oo° 1o I I I I I I I I Il l lI I I !11[I I111I 1 ° .11.11 II .

45 ....5 (f/rs) --10 --20 --:30 --50 --6O --70 --80 --90 ' ' ' ..5 NormallsecJ 0 2. % orm_ll _ od lroqu_ncv .. 20 Frequencydomain characteristicsfor UBDS.5 frequency UBOS _ 3.UBDS 0 --10 --20 _90 -1 oo -lOO _'olI l [I[ll[I o II II II LI --50 --60 _70 --_0 ....[ 0 5 1. (f/f_) N0rmalised carrierfrequency (f/rs) Fig..5 4 4....q=1/16.. illustrated the harmonic spectrum and a HES-p[0t with M varying from -lOOdB to OdB(full scale)...

5 .5 Fig. l I i Li [I i1[1 [1 [I1i i 1 4o ]1.o 0. illustrated the harmonic HES-plot with M varying from -lOOdB to OdB (full scale)._ 4_5 _f/f_ 0---10 --20 --30 --7O --80 _° _. 3. .5 _requonc_ (f/_s) II .LIADD 0 _10 -1°°0 _. II I 5 Normallsod . t __ 2. spectrum and a 46 . -50 -1°°0 i . q=l/16.5 4 4. 1[ i m. 0_5 1_5 2 Nor_atis_d 2 5 frequency UA_D :3. 21 Frequency domain characteristics for NADD.

47 ._ 0 _10 --20 _70 _80 0_5 I -1. 22 Frequency domain characteristics for UBDD. orm_ll od trequency UBDD I HI1 (l/_s) _ (fJf s) 3 5 4 4_ --1 O0 1. illustrated the harmonic spectrum and a HES-plot with M varying from -100dB to 0dB (full scale).UBDD 0 --10 --20 --lO0 30 _80 _go _ 0.5 N_r_allsed 2_5 fr_quBncy Fig. q=l/16.

.. 23 UPWM THD vs. ] -30 .. q. 48 . f VI=0dB) -20 .THD vs...... :' -1000_ 3 10-2 Norma[ised frequency (f/rs) 10-1 Fig..

o 0.8 Normallsed -frequency ' 1.2 0._ -2 -lO -20 -30 e_l -50 -70 -80 -g -10 0o -6°!1 I 0.13d8 m -1 0 -so --60 --70 --80 oo 0 0. THD_--20.UADS.4 1.2 tdormallseCl frequent v (f/fs) LADS3. THD=--68.5}.8 --10 --2O -_ -so --6O --70 --BO --00 -1 oo 0.2 frequenc_ ' (f/fs) B.6 1.4 1. o -lO -20 0.4 1. 0 --10 --20 M=OdB.2 (f/fa) ' 1. M=OdB.6 0.6 2 -5o -100 I 0 2 0. 49 .2 NormallSed frequency (f/ts) LADSS. q = 1/16.30B I I[l[l 1. a=o(J 1.6 1.4 · I . 'HD_--46.4 0.6 0.6 1.8 0. M_OdB.2 0.4 --_ 1.4 --40 I I o. TH_=_55_9_B 1.4 0.3.8 Normallsed LADS2.6 Fig.8 1.8 1. U_OdB.2.6 1 .18dB 1. 24 Spectral characteristics for LADS for se { 1.

M=OdB. THD=--68.6 0. 1. 25 Spectral characteristics for LBDS for se {1. 0.3. 0 --10 --20 --30 M=OdB.4 I .2 Normalized frac uency (f/f6) LBDS2.8 2 frequency --55.8 I 1.4 1.2 Normalized frequency (f/fs) LBDSS.I _I0.2 . 0. q = 1/16.6. 2 50 . 1 '2 (f/fs) I .4 . 1.3dB .2 --40 --00 --70 --80 _ Z°o 0 --10 --20 --30 0.SdB --40 --50 --70 oll --90 --60 1°°0 0.2 0.5}. Fig. 1.8 Normalized TED= .87 (f/rs) -50 --7O --80 --90 .2.4 1. M=OdB. . 0..6 .6 .2 ILI . THD=--46.8 2 _I . THD=--36.gdB --50 --60 --70 --8O -1 __o oo 0 --10 --20 0.4 . 000 o --lO -2o 0.UBDS. U_OdB.4 0.6 1. 0.4 0.8 .4 .8 Normalized 1-frequency .8 1. 1.6 0. 1. II I II 1...6 1.6 1.8 0. 1.2 0. IL I II .

3. q = 1/16.79 <fife) 0 --10 --20 --40 --SO --70 O0 O 0 --60 --8O I I 0.BdB --20 --_0 --4O --_00_ __ZZ I.8 Normalized 1L frequency .4---- 1.. M=OdB.4 0. 26 Spectral characteristics for LADD for s_ {1. I.8 Normalized THD= 1. -"°i I:Llll l O I iII Li o I .2 0.6 1.8 2 51 .8 _ 2 frequency --5S. THD=--39.4 o -lO _ Fig.6 0.]1 ii Iii 0 J Il --6o --70 90 -0_2 · m 0 4 0_6 o_a N_r_rized THD_ frequ_nc --46_03 1_2 _t/f$_ · 1.4 1.8 -- 2 frequency --68.6 (f/fs) 1.4 0. _ 1..2 I 0.2 l] 1. .2 (f/ts) I 4 6 1..36 -_oo --40 50 --6O --70 -- 0 --t30 _°°o 0.2 0..6 0.2 . I 0.8 Normalized THD_ 1.2.5}. 0 M=OdB.UADD..4 1_ · I _ -lO -2o -30 -4o 0.6 0..

l 1.8 Normallsed I_ I frequency I 2 (f/fs) I 1.2 i 0 4 0.O 2 --10 --20 --40 _-_ --50 --80 --30 -lOO -_° °l:J 0. l[ ' I 1. i ___a 0.6 1. THD=--se. THD_--49. THD=--68dB 1 - [ I 1.4 o 6 0. THD_--58*4CtB . 52 . 1 --70 --O0 --30 oo O 0.2 Norn]allsed frequency (f/fs) LBDD5.--9 1 oo 0.2 Normalised frequency (f/rs) LBDD3.6 0.4-- 0 --10 --20 --40 -so . q = 1/1d.5}.2 0.6 I I .2 Normallsed frequency (f/rs) LBDD2.6 0.4 -1.2dB I.4 1.8 2 Fig.8 1. U=OdB.2 0. M=OCSB. M=OdB.6 ' 1.4 =1 .2.. M=OdB.4 1.4 0 6 ' 0.8 2 --40 --50 0 -..0dB --60 --TO --90 1°°0 __o 0 --10 --20 0.UBDD.6 --1.2 0.8 I 1.8 1. 0 --10 --20 M=OdB.3.. 27 Spectral characteristics for LBDD for se {!.8 I 1.

' /. _. q fo]:se {2.5}... q for se {2. 29 LBDSTHDvs.LADS -40 -45 -55 -60 -50 -65 -70 21_" _ ' ' -75 -80 -85 10 -_ . 53 .3./ ..-70 3 _:: / -8o j2_.._:z- i 10 -T Normalised frequency (ffis) Fig./ //: -9100-2 NormalJsedfrequency (f/rs) 10-1 Fig..3.. LBDS -40 -5O 2 -60 i o_ o I.5}./j..28 LADSTHD vs.

.5 }.LADD -40 -1' I- -60 -50 -70 ' . 31 LBDD THD vs.... q for se {2...II-- -70 -80 -90 10-2 Normalisedfrequency(f/rs) Fig.. 30 LADD THD vs.. .3.. :' -60 ...... q for se {2.. 10 -1 54 . -80 4 -90 10 -2 Normalisedfrequency(f/fs) Fig.3...5}.. 10-_ -40 LBDD -50 ...

Note..32 Power stage efficiency for 200W examples. ....1 .::_ 90....Ol 0. ..05 0... ' ' 0. 1KHz and 10KHz....i i ! _- 2(2 10 ·tO-_ 100 Output power 101 (W) 10 2 Fig. and at 50KHz carrier frequency (4KHz bandwidth) 96% efficiency is obtained at higher output powers..005 oooZ 55 200300 W Fig 33 THD+N vs output power at 100Hz. . :.. 6o _i ..100 . . With a 250KHz carrier frequency (20KHz bandwidth) the efficiency approaches 92%... 0. that THD+N is measured over a very broad power range form 10mW to 250W...02 % O. . .. ..- - _ .

.11111 10k 12k 14k 16k Hz " .... ...._o_ -20: -30_ . "' * '-_ Fig.-.0015%....._ · ....a .... . Note.'F _F -ao_ Ap = _L 'i r -8C -9C -10c ! .1 ...llll IIIIt 2k II IIIF... .:1.d......l_.. i. am "" ._ . corresponding to an unweighted dynamic range of 118dB..._ )lHl:il[ IIIP!lll II . IIIll : 4k 6k 8k 1 ' ._... .....lOO: -11o-_ -12o__ i tlfll........ J.. that all harmonics are damped at least 95dB...so--" -60-_ -70_ d t -80-_ -O0: .... . harmonic distortion is thus 0..11. ..... The noise floor corresponds to an audio band RMS noise level of 50pV. .... I . L -18o.........:III II...!...._o-.. .n. 18k IIIllh 20k 22k 24k Fig 34 Hanuonic residue at 1KHz/1W (re 1W).i....... ..... 35 The well distributed amplifier noise at idle with terminated input (re full scale).. __1 2k 4k 6k IIIIlirl 8k ilrlll 10k Hz 12k Ii ill 14k II II[I 16k ILIIII 18k II IIII 20k r IIII 22k j .../.. t.40_ Ap .. *0- . The 2...

! I la'"'ll_' 0. i i '_. 57 .5 -20 -17.02' .5 -10 dBr Fig.5 -30 -27.5 +0 J]llbf. : / Iflhll!l qP[Jfll'lJll!tl_l -7.5 -15 -12. l[l I_[l'iTfii Iii[ii]II [lllJlllJ [fflllil[il[il]Jll II.oo J. output level The two tones are 19KHz and 20KHz.5 -35 -32. I I i % I : L [ I : o. 36 Two tone intermodulation distortion (CCIF) vs..5 -5 -2.5 -25 -22.lll][hlflltlllilll!llll JllllllJl IIIIIIIII flllfl/llillllllllt O'O00?_tO -37.