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Here are some tips that may be helpful:
You should have a clear idea of your research hypothesis by now. Make sure that this is stated clearly at the beginning of your paper (or presentation).
Summarize the articles you have collected, identifying the main points. If you have made a photocopy of an article or book chapter, highlight the sentences or paragraphs that are most applicable to your topic.
Start writing the sections that are clearest to you (these don’t always have to be written in order). Provide background information and then add your supporting ideas.
Once you start writing you will be able to identify areas where you still need more information. You can then develop a new targeted search strategy to retrieve more information. Your concepts may be much narrower than at the beginning stages of your research.
Make sure that you have the correct citations for all of your resources (don’t wait until the last minute on this one).
The format of your writing will differ depending on the expectations for the research.
the production of artifacts.Presenting Research Findings The traditional and most usual form of research degree presentation is the thesis or dissertation. This is due to three factors: •Expert practitioners challenging earlier concepts of what constitutes research. • New technologies which offer alternative means of presentation. but recently the specification of its form has been modified in parts of the Humanities and Arts areas. A research degree thesis has been mandatory in UK. to act as the focus for a viva where the research is ‘defended’ in either an intimate or more public forum. the written and bound thesis is still by far the most common feature of a research degree. Its use reflects its importance historically in the Arts and Sciences as the culmination of discipline-specific research methods presented in written form. . and in some countries to be published following the award of the doctorate. The purpose was and is to offer fixed and permanent evidence for further scholarship. • Study which is linked to. or the result of. Notwithstanding.
The final advantage of continuous writing during the research period. relationship. The process of writing throughout the research period has two benefits. The process of writing It is most unlikely that any researcher will delay writing until the material and its investigation is fully gathered. The second benefit is concerned with communication to others. The first benefit is self-communicative and self-referential. but it is also the case that finding unambiguous written expression helps to clarify thought . there are the added benefits of being able to read or visually observe them. eventually freely associating ideas have to be resolved. and their setting in text (arranged in linear progression) avoids. This is not to denigrate discussion without a position paper. holding ideas ‘in the mind’ and not attempting to formulate them immediately in text is important. Although the research training initiative according to theories of creativity. Clarification is important first to the researcher. argue or reveal ideas.* Once ideas are set down on a page.the act of externalization enables one to know what one is thinking. One tends to believe that the thought precedes its communication. Commitment to an idea demands precision and explication which is helped by writing because the written form has to be fixed and the argument and meaning unambiguously transparent. is that well-written ‘chapters’ or sections may be used as . to some extent. concepts or data in a fixed form. The act of determining the linear progression and the reasons for its order clarifies the intention of the contents. which often helps in determining their significance. The act of writing forces the concepts into shared sets of meanings. the more usual and beneficial procedure is to write during the research. and secondly to the reader.Thesis writing There are three important factors to consider: • The process of writing during the length of study. the possibility of circumvention in spoken language. The interaction between the research student and supervisor(s) is assisted by regular discussions and debates around specifically located and purposeful attempts to formulate. • The common written conventions of particular research disciplines. and placement within the research as a whole. but to point to the desirability of debate in relation to an identical text. • The audience.
. other disciplines are used for its interrogation. • Using a research training course. The conventions are only ‘useful’ where they already exist .conference papers or submitted to journals and gain the benefit of broader discussion and response.newer areas of research may be in a state of flux over their purpose. These may be learned in a number of ways: • The reading of texts which exemplify the discipline and perforce use the conventions. Supervisors may plan theses with students around such presentations. it follows that there is a convergence of such conventions. methodology. content. research methods are a vital consideration. In the planning and development of research. etc. booklet. These may be very interesting and challenging areas to be involved in because they are to some extent free from set expectations. If this is not the case. • The use of specialist terminology associated with the discipline. computer programme. • Regular attempts to write using the conventions. the area the research training initiative is usually termed ‘a field of study’ and typically. The danger of all disciplines is that although they are human devices to divide knowledge into manageable . which implies that they have within them a research method or methods which directly relate to the purpose(s) of the discipline. range. There is insufficient space to list and/or describe the potential number of disciplines. Written conventions reveal themselves in three ways: • The use of specific referencing systems (see below). As research within a discipline will be read mostly by others from the same discipline. • The focus of enquiry (normally shown in the style and method of recording) reflects the purposive nature of the discipline. and that their use is anticipated. but more typically. Written conventions of research methods Some research areas may be classed as disciplines. what is more important here is to establish a fewprinciples. the student is advised when and where to seek a wider audience. • The study of texts on research methodology. etc. A more direct way of saying this is that the written conventions have a rational relationship with the nature of the selected discipline.
As indicated above. The audience All writing addresses someone. while retaining the integrity of the subject area.it is a rare specialist who is capable of writing that is understandable to most. which implies that the text must be addressed to (a relatively small number of) fellow-experts. The hope of writing something that is transparent to all intelligent people is probably utopian in doctoral theses. and reflects the increasing specialization of knowledge. The specialist’s suspicion of the populist is not always misplaced. This is compounded when and if the author offers papers to specialized audiences as part of the research process. methods. This is particularly problematic with doctoral research that by definition is required to add to the existing body of knowledge or formulate new methods. If this is accepted. and with it. . the type of language used. the thesis will be expected to be ‘recognizable’ within the discipline or field in terms of its intentions. The current growth of multi-and cross-disciplinary research and the emergence of art/design practice research are reactions to this problem. and style. the researcher’s role is to convince those working in the same area of the importance and validity of the research in terms they know and recognize . they can become so rigid that they begin to formulate the nature of the questions that may be asked. and as such it may well fall outside the interpretative skills of an intelligent layperson.related parts.
12-point Times or similar size) Print dark enough for readability. Staple paper together and submit them in a file folder (not a binder or notebook). Treat the paper as a forum for expressing important ideas. When writing the review the discussion of articles should be integrated and critical. You will become more proficient at this task as time passes. In this way you do not risk quoting an author out of context or plagiarizing. or plagiarizing the work of others. This method is a great time saver. A brief APA style guide will be that you purchase or refer to the information.Reviewing the Articles It is best if you read the article and then summarize the method. and discussion. format of the American Psychological one most used in exercise physiology provided. This may be a mistake. A review of this type often leads the investigator to copying quotations from the article and then using the quotes in the review. The top wide margin of the card can be used to write the bibliographic information (always include all needed information) and the remaining front and back of the card is large enough for your written summary information.g. Format You should become familiar with the Association (APA). Keep print style and size reasonable (e. . At the end of your literature search these separate cards will enable you to group similar studies under headings.. it is recommended APA Publication Manual for detailed Double space and use 1-inch margins around the perimeter of each page. A common method for reviewing research articles is to write notes about the article while reading it. Using a 5" by 7" index card for note taking has many advantages. Proof read paper and corrects all mistakes before turning it in. Also when you type your reference list you can alphabetize the cards and type the list directly from them. Expect to have read the research articles more than once in order to completely understand the material. This format is the writing. Additionally you are forced to understand the article more thoroughly than if you copy quotations. This is your paper! It is your chance to analyze and interpret literature and expound on ideas. Other Considerations A good review of literature is one in which the topic is narrowly defined. Often quotes are taken out of context and are misleading. Take changes when you critique the nature of the experimentation and discussions. however. results. You are expected to write a paper that is insightful and analytical. Be sure to use a new card for each study reviewed.
narrow topics and articles in the literature. Feel free to discuss your topic or potential topics with me. Think about your interests and look through the textbook.Final Recommendations Begin to choose your topic today. This may be useful since I can help to focus your attention on specific. .
New Era University No. Susma Daryl M. Diaz Saturday 3pm-6pm . 9 Central Ave. Maristela Mark Jim Martinez Submitted to: Criemi H.. New Era Quezon City College of Business Administration Writing Skills in Presenting Research findings and related researches already conducted Submitted by: Renz Steven J.
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