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Plants are complex multicellular organisms that o tain energ! ! photosynthesis. Plants resem le algae "ith similar biochemical characteristics # fundamental process. Difference o$ plant an% algae is plant co&ere% ! a "ax! cuticle. Cuticle' essential $or existence in lan% eca(se it helps pre&ent the %esiccation an% %r!ing o(t. )eca(se plant is co&ere% ! c(ticle* gas exchange is $acilitate ! stomata +algae lac, stomata-. .ost plant possess multicellular sex or ans calle% gametangia* "hereas ametan ia o$ al ae are unicellular. In plant* the $ertili/e% egg %e&elops into a m(lticell(lar em r!o !ithin the female ametan ium. In algae* the $ertili/e% egg %e&elops a!ay from its ametan ium.

Plant ha&e clearl! %e$ine% alternation of enerations +part of their lives in multicellular haploid stage and part of multicellular diploid stage-.

Diploi% /!gote %i&i%e ! mitosis an% %e&elop into multicellular embryo +protecte% in gametangia-* then germinate into mature sporoph!te plant. The mat(re plant ha&e special sporon enous cell%spore mother cell that %i&i%e ! meiosis to $orm haploid spore& The haploi% spore %i&i%e ! mitosis to $orm multicellular ametophyte& 'A()* +*),PS )- PLANTS i. Non &asc(lar plant ii. 2ee%les &asc(lar plant iii. 3lo"ering plant i&. 4!mnosperms 1. NON56A2CU0AR P0ANT2 Comprise more than 17*888 species o$ mosses*!orts an% horn!orts. Ha&e se&eral a%aptations that green algae lac,' c(ticle* stomata an% m(lticell(lar gametangia. No means $or extensi&e internal transport o$ "ater* %issol&e% s(gar an% essential n(trient minerals. Re9(ire moist en.ironment $or acti&e gro"th # repro%(ction Di&i%e into : ph!la' i& /ryophyta

)asic Plant 0i$e C!cle

The haploid portion is ametophyte generation* "hile the diploid portion is calle% sporophyte generation. Haploi% gametoph!te produce antheridia +$orm sperm cellsan%1or arche onia + ear egg cells-. 2perm reach egg an% fertili"es to $orm diploid "y ote #sporophyte eneration$.

CHAPTER 6.1 PLANTAE: THE SEEDLESS PLANTS ii& Hepaticophyta iii. Anthocerophyta. 'osses #Phylum /ryophyta$ The onl! plants "ith a dominant ametophyte generation. Us(all! li&e in %ense colonies or e%s. Each in%i&i%(al plant has tin!* hairli,e absorpti.e structures calle% rhizoids* an% stemli0e structure that ears leafli0e blades. The green gametoph!te al"a!s ears its gametangia at the top o$ the plant. .an! moss ha&e separate sexes.

On the underside of the thallus are the hairli,e rhi"oids that anchor the plant to the soil. 0i&er"orts pro%(ce sexually and asexually& 2ex(al repro%(ction in&ol&es the production of arche onia and antheridia on the haploi% gametoph!te. These gametangia are orne on stal,e% str(ct(res calle% arche oniophores and antheridiophores& 2ome li&er"orts repro%(ce asex(all! ! $orming tin! alls o$ tiss(e calle% emmae. 4emmae are orne in a sa(cer5 shape str(ct(re; the emmae cup* %irectl! on the li&er"ort thall(s. 2plashing rain%rops an% small animals ai% in the %ispersal o$ gemmae. <hen a gemmae lan%s in a s(ita le place* it gro"s into a ne" li&er"ort thall(s.

0i&er"orts ma! also repro%(ce asex(all! ! thallus branchin and ro!th.

Honr!orts #Phylum Anthocerophyta$ 2mall gro(p o$ a o(t 188 sp. 4ametoph!tes s(per$iciall! resemble those o$ the thalloi%!orts. Horn"orts are $o(n% in disturbed habitats e.g. $allo" $iel%s an% roa%si%es. Presence o$ a single large chloroplast in each cell* is more li,e certain algal cell than it is li,e plant cells. Archegonia an% antheri%ia are embedded in the gametoph!te thall(s rather than on archegoniophores an% antheri%iophores. A$ter $ertili/ation an% %e&elopment* the needle2li0e sporophyte pro=ects o(t o$ the gametoph!te thall(s* $orming a spi,e or >horn?5hence the name horn!ort.!orts #Phylum Hepaticophyta$ )o%! $orm is o$ten a flattened* ha&e lo e% str(ct(re calle% a thallus that is not differentiated into lea.es1 roots and stems&

CHAPTER 6.1 PLANTAE: THE SEEDLESS PLANTS A single gametoph!te o$ten pro%(ces m(ltiple sporoph!tes. .eiosis occ(rs "ithin each sporangi(m or spore case* an% spores are $orme%. The sporangi(m splits open $rom the top to release the spore. Each spore has the potential to gi&e rise to ne" gametoph!te thall(s. @. 2EED0E22 6A2CU0AR P0ANT2 3erns are common in temperate "oo%lan%s an% tropical rain $orests. Consist o$ true fern an% ferns allies "hich are !his0 fern +1@ sp.-* club mosses +a o(t 1888 sp.- an% horsetails +17 sp. The! are consi%ere% $ern allies eca(se their li$e c!cles are similar to those o$ $erns. The most important a%aptation o$ $ern is the presence of .ascular tissue Axylem and phloemA $or s(pport an% con%(ction. 6asc(lar plant is bi er than non5&asc(lar eca(se "ater* %issol&e% mineral an% %issol&e% s(gar can e transporte% o&er great %istances to all parts o$ the plants. Ha&e true stem "ith &asc(lar tiss(es* an% true roots and

E.olution of leaf There are t"o asic t!pes o$ lea&es' microphyll an% me aphyll. .icroph!ll is small an% possess a sin le .ascular strand& Is tho(ght to ha&e e&ol&e% $rom small* pro=ecting extensions o$ stem tiss(e. Onl! club mosses possess microphylls. .egaph!lls are tho(ght to e&ol&e $rom stem branches that gra%(all! $ille% in "ith a%%itional tiss(e to $orm most lea&es. .egaph!lls possess more than one .ascular strand&

a- .icroph!ll s(ch in those l!coph!tes* ma! ha&e originate% as small stems o(tgro"th s(pporte% ! single* (n ranche% stran%s o$ &asc(lar tiss(e - .agaph!ll "hich has ranch &asc(ar s!stmem * ma! ha&e e&ol&e% ! the $(ssion o$ ranche% s!stem -erns #Phylum Pterophyta$ .ost o$ $erns are terrestrial. The li$e c!cle in&ol&es a clearl! %e$ine% alternation of eneration. The $ern sporoph!te is compose% o$ hori/ontal (n%ergro(n% stem* or rhi"ome* that ear lea&es* calle% fronds* an% true roots. As each !o(ng $ron% $irst emerges $rom the gro(n%* it is tightl! coile% an% resem les the top o$ &iolin +fiddlehead-. As $i%%lehea% gro"* the! (nroll an% expan% to $orm $ron%s. 3ron%s* roots an% rhi/omes all contain .ascular tissues& 3his0 -erns #Phylum Psilophyta$ Simple in str(ct(re an% lac0 true roots and (t possess .asculari"ed stems& E.g. Psilotum nudum <hene&er the stem $or, or ranche%* it o$ten %i&i%e into t"o

H!pothesis $or the e&ol(tion o$ lea&es.

CHAPTER 6.1 PLANTAE: THE SEEDLESS PLANTS e9(al hal$. In contrast* "hen plant stems ranche%* one stem is more &igoro(s an% ecome the main tr(n,. 2porangia +tin!* ro(n%- are orne %irectl! on the stems. The spore release% $rom the sporangia "ill also germinates to $orm prothalli. The prothalli o$ "his, $ern are %i$$ic(lt to st(%! eca(se the! gro" (n%ergro(n%. The! are apparentl! non5 photos!nthetic an% ha&e s!m iotic relationship "ith micorrhi/al $(ngi to pro&i%e s(gar. .ost species o$ "his, $erns are extinct. Altho(gh the! %o not closel! resem le $ern in appearance* the! are consi%ere% $ern allies eca(se o$ similarities in their li$e c!cle. Horsetails #Phylum Sphenophyta$ Horsetails e.g. Equisetum ha&e tr(e roots* stems + oth rhi/omes an% erect aerial stems-* an% small lea&es. The hollo" stem are impregnate% "ith silica. 2mall lea&es are $(se% in "horl at each no%e. The green stems are the main organ o$ photos!nthesis. There are the repro%(cti&e ranch* "hich ears a terminal coneli,e stro il(s.

The li$e c!cle o$ horsetails is similar to $erns. Club 'osses #Phylum Lycophyta$ Possess tr(e roots* stems* small an% scale5li,e lea&es. 2porangia are orne on repro%(cti&e lea&es in coneli,e stro ili. HETE*)SP)*4 -E*NS Th(s $ar* "e %isc(ss the $ern "hich pro%(ce onl! one t!pe o$ spore 5B homospor!. Ho"e&er* certain $erns an% cl( mosses exhi it heterospor!* in "hich the! pro%(ce t"o %i$$erent t!pes o$ spores' microspore an% megaspore. Each stro il(s (s(all! ears @ ,in% o$ sporangia' microsporangia +pro%(ce sperm cells- an% megasporangia +pro%(ce egg-.