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Morgan Lail English 1102 Professor Voltz Annotated Bibliography Rap music does not influence the youth

Anderson, Craig A., Leonard Berkowitz. "The Influence of Media Violence on Youth." Academic Search Complete. EBSCO, Dec. 2003. Web. 12 Oct. 2013 This article is based on research on violent television and films, video games, and music. These investigators and reports have examined the research on the association between youthful media consumers exposure to television violence and their behavior. This research resulted in evidence that media violence increases the likelihood of aggressive and violent behavior in both immediate and long-term situations. This article shows that recent studies provide converging evidence linking frequent exposure to violent media in childhood with aggression later in life, which can include, physical assaults and spouse abuse. The rise of new media has introduced new ways to children and youth can be exposed to violence. I selected this source because it relates to my inquiry topic. Also, the research base is large and diverse in methods, samples, and media genres and consistent findings. I learned that the more frequent and longer youre exposed to media violence, the more likely youll have aggressive thought and may result in an anti-social environment. I will use the data that is collected to have additional statistics and charts that demonstrate a correlation among violence in the media on television and film violence. This article also explains cross-sectional surveys and

randomized experiments to investigate the influence of violent music on aggression. The way that this article explains a variety of different research methods to find results was very interesting. This makes me feel that I can demonstrate evidence in many different forms. I want to prove that violent behavior is not influenced through the music we listen to but more so in the films we watch, and the video games we play. This source is an online book. The credentials are made very clear in the first four pages of the online source. I find that these authors are credible because like many other sources I have used I also found this one in the Academic Search Complete through the Atkins library. The end of the article includes a long list of references, and cites all of the sources used in the article. The authors all have a PH.D and give a documented background at the beginning of the article. Evans, Kirk N. Does Rap Music Cause Violence? Charlotte NC: of North Carolina at Charlotte, 1997. Print. The author, Kirk N. Evans, conducted a case study based on rap music and if it causes violence. Rap is a very controversial type of music and has been since its origin in the 1970s. For the purpose of this study, Evans decided to put Rap into two separate categories of Hip-Hop or Gangsta in order to narrow the possibilities down to a specific type of rap. He also undertakes a survey which sampled 401 students from these two universities. They were asked a number of questions about their urban experience and the music they preferred to listen to. The results were compared on the basis of age, whether they lived in an urban area, gender, race and their particular preference of music. Kirk says, Despite all the public debate, Epstein and Pratto (1990) note that social scientist have not correlated violence to Rap music or its listeners. Race was not a predictor in this case study. Evans theoretical grounding for the hypotheses that he will put forth are deeply rooted in the social aspect of this generation. Evans insists that, Rap

artists are not the creators of the environment; rather, they examine, and evaluate and echo its sentiments through their music. The violence depicted in the lyrics of rap songs are simply a demonstration of the actual violence in Americas streets and neighborhoods. His source is credible because he works on this case study to specifically discuss the problem of defining music as an independent variable and is not a cause of violent behavior. He has a data analysis of all of his work and also surveys students as I have stated before. I selected this source because I found it on the Atkins library website. This book is only 80 pages but of all if consists of literary reviews, demographics, and data analysis that help back up Kirks argument. I learned that there isnt a correlation violence to rap music or its listeners. It will help me answer my question because this whole book is based on just one case study making my argument more specific with evidence. The author Kirk N. Evans worked hard on making his book a credible source. This book has a thesis submitted to the faculty of The University of North Carolina at Charlotte in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in the Department of Sociology. Published in Charlotte 1997. On page 25 he includes his bibliography of all the sources he used throughout the book. Ybarra, Michele, Marie- West-Diener, Dana Markow, Phillip J. Leaf, Merle Hamburger, and Paul Boxer. "Linkages Between Internet and Other Media Violence With Seriously Violent Behavior by Youth." Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics 122 (2008): n. pag. Academic Search Complete. Web. 12 Oct. 2013 In this article the goal was to examine the association between violence in the media and the expression of violent behavior among older children and teenagers in a national sample. The media survey was a national, online survey of about 2,000 youths that was conducted in it. The

participants were 10 to 15 year old youths who had used the internet at least one in the past 6 months. Research on the development of aggression and violence indicates that seriously violent behavior occurs through a confluence of factors, including individuals, family (e.g., poor parentchild relationships), school (poor academic performance), peer, and community (e.g., neighborhood violence) characteristics. Although some scientists believe media violence and rap music is a contributing factor, everything in our life can be blamed for the contribution to violent behavior. I selected this source because I found it on the Academic Search Complete database. I plan to use this evidence in my source because my targeted age group was teenagers. I like that this source had good information and conducted an experiment between younger children and teenagers. This article based its research on specific age groups, making the results less broad and more accurate. I learned that in the results only a mere five percent were engaged in violent behavior after being exposed to violent media within a twelve month period. The credentials of these authors all have Master of Public Health degrees and a PhD. Many of the articles on that database are very reliable and are written by credible authors. This is a valid source because its based on a specific age group. The results are not too broad, which reinforces the evidence that this source has provided. The authors used statistical data and a list of references at the end of the article.

"Rap Music Contributes to Violent Crimes." Debate.org, 20 Nov, 2009. Web. 9 Oct. 2013. <http://www.debate.org/debates/Rap-music-contributes-to-violent-crimes/1/>. In this website two candidates pick a debate topic, talk about it in great depth, and then the other candidate rebottles the argument. Ironically the title of the argument is called Rap music

contributes to violent crimes. I picked this article because the rebottle of the article was very strong. This website uses valid sources and sites all of the information. The candidate argues that in one study she found students actually improved their academic abilities after watching rap videos, as well as expressed more progressive attitudes regarding society (i.e. decreased racial tension). After watching politically focused rap videos, they were more inclined to support a particular political candidate. This suggests that rap can positively influence people to get involved in a positive way, such as becoming interested in politics. For example Songs about Bush and Obama during the 2004 and 2008 campaigns demonstrate this reality, along with encouragement of rappers for people to vote. Increased acceptance of crime and violence appears to be linked with viewing violent or sexist rap videos rather than listening to rap music on its own . So, it's not the music itself that is being linked to this behavior. I picked this source because it influenced my decision. The writer showed me that there are a lot of sources out there to back up my inquiry topic that rap music does not necessarily influence teens. Rap music has been an escape from poverty for many artists such as Tupac, Eminem, Bigge and more. These rappers all came into play during the origination of rap music back in the 1970s. Instead of feeling hopeless, many children who live in impoverished areas find that rap music is inspirational and gives them hope to escape from poverty. Teens find that rap and rap battles are creative and a non-violent hobby. This aspiration to be a part of the rap scene helps keep teens off of the streets. Rap is a very diverse genre with many artists addressing important socio-political issues and positive themes. I find this source to be less credible than my other topics because it is a blog website. I used it in my bibliography because it influenced many of the ideas I will use to generate my

paper. I like the ideas that both candidates used in the debate. The information is not plagiarized and they do cite all of the sources throughout the debate. Roberts, Donald F. "Chapter 8 The Effects of Violent Music on Children and Adolescents."Media Violence and Children: A Complete Guide for Parents and Professionals. N.p.: Greenwood Group, 2003. 153-70. 16 Oct. 2003. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. The author focuses on lyrical content and how it can influence violent behavior amongst children and adolescents. I only chose one chapter out of this book because it focuses on my inquiry topic. This chapter emphasizes the importance of music amongst adolescents and how it can have a number of important effects on them. In this chapter, he briefly describes three major uses of music: affective uses, social uses, and the uses of lyrics. He uses statistics to back up his research. He also uses tables and charts to compare how non-violent lyrics and violent lyrics can affect adolescents. This chapter emphasizes on the music genres heavy metal and rap. The information relates to my question in every aspect. His data focuses on the positive aspects of music on teens and reverts away from the negative aspects that some people believe influences violence. The source is also thorough with the research it provides, making the point the author is trying to convey very clear. It doesnt just use one type of visible date but uses multiple ones. It gives the reader clear understanding by using charts, tables, and statistics. I learned that only 30% of teens actually understand and comprehend the lyrics they listen to. I plan on using this fact to argue that if 70% of teens dont comprehend the lyrics they are listening to, then there is no chance they could be influenced. This article will be used when I back up my argument in my inquiry paper.

Donald Roberts is also the Director of the Institute for Communication Research and Chair of the Department of Communication. I found this book using the Academic Search Complete website.