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George Gougoulidis

A Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) Vessel is a shipshaped offshore, selfsustaining, seaworthy platform able to produce oil, continuously over the life of an oil field

FPSO Anatomy

Very different form trading tankers Typical charter rates of tankers may be measured in terms of thousands of dollars per day FPSOs operate with a cash flow measured in millions of dollars per day A service interruption is more important than tankers Dry docking every ~20 years

Either new buildings or tanker conversions Barge-shape or similar to crude tankers Exempt from MARPOL, thus they can be:
Single hull Double hull Double sided

Built to stay on the field for very long periods

Hull Ratio Trends

New FPSOs L/B B/D L/D Cb 5.1 1.9 9.2 0.95 Tankers 5.6 2.5 13 0.9

Evolution of FPSOs
Tanker conversion New FPSO

Internal Arrangements
The major part of the hull consists of the oil storage tanks Collision bulkhead at the bow: 5% x LBP or 10 m aft of FP whichever is less Since tandem off-loading at the stern, also use aft collision bulkhead Cargo tanks sizing according to MARPOL regulation 24 at least 2 slop tanks with 2% of storage capacity, if segregated ballast

Mooring Systems
Definition - weathervane means that the ship can rotate in the horizontal plane (yaw) into the direction where environmental loading due to wind, waves and currents is minimal Most common
Spread mooring Turret mooring

Spread Mooring
Groups of mooring lines are terminated at the corners of the FPSO, holding a stable heading for the vessel Vessel not able to weathervane, thus higher environmental loads Limited to areas of mild environment and relatively shallow waters (up to 330 meters) Simple system, with low cost and doesnt require conversions

Spread Mooring @ 288 m

Turret Mooring
a number of mooring legs are attached to a turret, which includes bearings to allow the vessel to rotate 360 around the anchor legs Minimizes environmental loads on the vessel by heading into the prevailing weather It can be:
External Internal

External Turret
At the bow
Single cantilever (deck) Double cantilever (deck and bulbous bow)

(+) Simplicity, minimal requirement for integration into the hull, low conversion costs (-) Shallow waters, mild environments

External Turret
Single cantilever Double cantilever

Internal Turret
Typically 5%-45% x L aft of FP Usually 10%-30% x L aft of FP (+) Suitable for deep waters and severe environments (-) Complex integration into the hull, loss of cargo area

Internal Turret

Topside Facilities
Oil and water separation Gas compression Water injection Cargo handling and offloading Utility and support Safeguards

Processing Facilities
Crude stabilization plant on the main deck Minimum distance between main deck and processing units 3 m
For safety and accessibility purposes

Storage capacity usually 10 times the processing capacity

Processing Facilities

Alongside Tandem

Fire safe wall facing the process systems Separation distance between process facilities and accommodation at least 100 ft The location of accommodation affects the location of the turret and machinery space
Accommodation at the bow turret towards midship decrease of natural weathervaning Accommodation at the stern turret closer to the bow able to weathervane

Accommodation Configurations
At the bow At the stern

Topside facilities can weigh 5.000-30.000 tn Point loads on main deck Allow 10%-15% additional strength to cover increase in weight The supports of the process plant should be placed over transverse, longitudinal bulkheads, and web frames Box-shaped hull means more buoyancy near the ends resulting in high sagging moments

Process facilities add weight high Not a big problem since L/B is low Critical conditions
Wind heel moments of the process plant in light ship condition Free surface effects in partially filled tanks

To avoid any special issues related to the process facilities, motions are commonly limited to: pitch within 10 degrees double amplitude (5 degrees) or similar roll within 20 degrees double amplitude (10 degrees) or similar.

Water Loads

Cylindrical Hull
Effect of wind direction and current is minimized Excellent motion characteristics No turret or swivel


Location: Overall length: Diam. in waterline: Displacement at 18m draft: Deck area capacity: Deck area: Accommodation: Mooring: Riser slots: Liquid production: Crude storage capacity: Export to shuttle tanker: Brazil 66 m 60 m 55,000 mT 5,000 mT 2,800 m2 63 persons 9 lines (anchor-chain-polyester-chain) 25 30,000 bbl/day 250,000 bbls/40,000 m3 1,800 m3/h


Location: Overall length: Diam. in waterline: Displacement at 18m draft: Deck area capacity: Deck area: Accommodation: Mooring: Riser slots: Liquid production: Crude storage capacity: Export to shuttle tanker: North Sea 66 m 60 m 55,000 mT 5,000 mT 3,200 m2 54 persons 12 lines (anchor-chain-polyester-chain) 10 30,000 bbl/day 270,000 bbls/43,000 m3 3,600 m3/h