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Antoni Gaud

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Antoni Gaud

Antoni Gaud in 1878

Personal Information Name Nationality Birth date Birth place Date of death Place of death Antoni Gaud Spani h !" #une 18"! Reu , or Riudom 1& #une 1'!( )arcelona Working Life Significant Buildings Significant Pro ects Sa*rada Familia, +a a ,il-, +a a )atll. /ark G0ell, +ol1nia G0ell

Antoni Gaud i !ornet (!" #une 18"! 2 1& #une 1'!() 2 al o kno3n 4y the +a tilian 5er ion of hi name, Antonio Gaud 2 3a a Spani h +atalan architect 3ho 4elon*ed to the ,oderni me (Art 6ou5eau) mo5ement and 3a famou for hi uni7ue tyle and hi*hly indi5iduali tic de i*n 8


1 9ife


181 )irth and


18! :i*her

18; <arly career 18= 9ater year ! Arti tic tyle ; >ntere t = /opularity " Social and political

influence ( ,a?or 3ork 7 >nfluence 8 6ote ' Reference 1& <@ternal link

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Birth and childhood

Gaud 3a 4orn in )ai@ +amp, in the pro5ince of Aarra*ona (+atalonia, Spain) in 18"!8 (While many 4elie5e hi 4irthplace to 4e the to3n of Reu , other claim it 3a in fact Riudom 8$!%) >t i certain that he 3a 4aptiBed in Reu a day after hi 4irth8 Ahe arti tC parent , France c Gaud Serra and Ant1nia +ornet )ertran, 4oth came from familie of metal mith 8 Ahe youn*e t of fi5e, Gaud found him elf una4le to play 3ith friend hi a*e 4ecau e of rheumati m (Althou*h ome 4elie5e he only had arthriti in hi hand , and 3ould

mainly take 3alk )8 )ecau e he 3a in con idera4le pain, he 3a rarely a4le to 3alk on foot and 3a forced to ride a donkey 3hen he 3anted to 5enture from hi home8 Ahat he remained clo e to home allo3ed him u4 tantial free time to in pect nature and it de i*n8$!% >t ha 4een hypothe iBed that it 3a thi e@po ure to nature at an early a*e that 4e*an to hone t3o of hi *reate t 7ualitie D o4 er5ation and the analy i of nature8


"igher education

Gaud, a an architecture tudent at the < cola AEcnica Superior dCAr7uitectura in )arcelona from 187; to 1877, achie5ed only mediocre *rade 4ut did 3ell in hi FArial dra3in* and pro?ect F cour e8$=% After fi5e year of 3ork, he 3a a3arded the title of architect in 18788 A he i*ned GaudC title, <lie Ro*ent declared, F> ha5e either found a lunatic or a *eniu 8F$;% Ahe ne3ly named architect immediately 4e*an to plan and de i*n and 3ould remain affiliated 3ith the chool hi entire life8 $edit%

#arly career

18782187'D 9amppo t for the /laGa Real at )arcelonaH 1878D Sho3ca e for *lo5e manufacturer +omella8 Iia thi 3ork, u ed at the WorldC Fair in /ari , <u e4i G0ell came to kno3 the architect8$"% 18782188!D Se5eral de i*n for the Obrera Mataronense at ,atar.8 Jnly a 5ery mall part of the e plan 3a 4uilt, 4ut it ho3 GaudC fir t u e of para4olic arche , here in a wooden tructure8 188;2188"D +a a Iicen H 188;2188"D Iilla F<l +aprichoF at +omilla (Santander)H 188=D Finca G0ellD <ntrance pa5illion and ta4le for the palace at /edral4e (fir t completed 4uildin* for <u e4i G0ell)H 188=218'1D +ompletion of the crypt of the Sa*rada Familia (the crypt had 4een tarted 4y the architect Franci co del Iillar in 188!, 3ho had to a4andon the pro?ect in 188;)H

188(2188'D /alau G0ellH 1887218';D <pi copal palace at A tor*aH 188'218'=D +ole*io Aere ianoH 18'1218';D Juter 3all of the a4 i of the Sa*rada FamiliaH 18'!218'=D +a a de lo )otine at 9e.n8


Later years

Ahe +a a ,il-, in the <i@ample, )arcelona8

Gaud 3a an ardent +atholic, to the point that in hi later year , he a4andoned ecular 3ork and de5oted hi life to +atholici m and hi Sagrada Famlia8 >t i for thi that Gaud i kno3n to many in Spain a FGodC ArchitectF8 Soon after, hi clo e t family and friend 4e*an to die8 :i 3ork lo3ed to a halt, and hi attitude chan*ed8 /erhap one of hi clo e t family mem4er 2 hi niece Ro a <*ea 2 died in 1'1!, only to 4e follo3ed 4y a Ffaithful colla4orator, France c )eren*uer ,e tre F t3o year later8 After 4oth tra*edie , )arcelona fell on hard time , economically8 Ahe con truction of La Sagrada Famlia lo3edH the con truction of La Colonia Gell cea ed alto*ether8 Four year later, <u e4i G0ell, hi patron, died8$(% /erhap it 3a 4ecau e of thi unfortunate e7uence of e5ent that Gaud chan*ed8 :e 4ecame reluctant to talk 3ith reporter or ha5e hi picture taken and olely concentrated on hi ma terpiece, La Sagrada Famlia8$(% Jn #une 8, 1'!(, Antoni Gaud 3a run o5er 4y a tram8 )ecau e of hi ra**ed attire and empty pocket , multiple ca4 dri5er refu ed to pick him up for fear that he 3ould 4e una4le to pay the fare8 :e 3a e5entually taken to a pauperC ho pital in )arcelona8 6o4ody reco*niBed the in?ured arti t until hi friend found him the ne@t day8 When they tried to mo5e him into a nicer ho pital, Gaud refu ed, reportedly ayin* F> 4elon* here amon* the poor8F :e died t3o day later on #une 1&, 1'!(, half of )arcelona mournin*

hi death8 >t 3a , perhap , fittin* that he 3a 4uried in the mid t of hi unfini hed ma terpiece, La Sagrada Famlia8$(% $edit%

Arti tic tyle

GaudC unfini hed ma terpiece, Sagrada Famlia

GaudC fir t 3ork 3ere de i*ned in the tyle of *othic and traditional Spani h architectural mode , 4ut he oon de5eloped hi o3n di tinct culptural tyle8 French architect <u*ene IiolletKleKLuc, 3ho promoted an e5ol5ed form of *othic architecture, pro5ed a ma?or influence on Gaud8 )ut the tudent urpa ed the ma ter architect and contri5ed hi*hly ori*inal de i*n 2 irre*ular and fanta tically intricate8 Some of hi *reate t 3ork , mo t nota4ly La Sagrada Famlia, ha5e an almo t hallucinatory po3er8
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Arch and piral tairca e8

:e inte*rated the para4olic arch and hyper4oloid tructure , natureC or*anic hape , and the fluidity of 3ater into hi architecture8 While de i*nin* 4uildin* , he o4 er5ed

the force of *ra5ity and related catenary principle 8$7% (Gaud de i*ned many of hi arche up ide do3n 4y han*in* 5ariou 3ei*ht on interconnected trin* , u in* *ra5ity to calculate catenarie for a natural cur5ed arch8) M in* the Ara*one e trencads techni7ue, Gaud often decorated urface 3ith 4roken tile 8$7% Ahe architectC 3ork ha 4een cate*oriBed a Art 6ou5eau architecture, a precur or to modern architecture8 )ut hi adoption of 4iomorphic hape rather than ortho*onal line put him in a cate*ory unto him elf (in 9atin, sui generis)8 :i tyle 3a later echoed 4y that of Au trian architect Frieden reich :undert3a er (1'!82!&&&)8 Ahou*h hailed a a *eniu , ome hypothe iBe that Gaud 3a color 4lind and that it 3a only in colla4oration 3ith #o ep ,aria #u?ol 2 an architect t3enty e5en year hi ?unior 3hom he ackno3led*ed a a *eniu in hi o3n ri*ht 2 that he produced hi *reate t 3ork 8$citation needed% $edit%

>ntere t

Gaud, throu*hout hi life, 3a fa cinated 4y nature8 :e tudied natureC an*le and cur5e and incorporated them into hi de i*n 8 >n tead of relyin* on *eometric hape , he mimicked the 3ay tree and human *ro3 and tand upri*ht8 Ahe hyper4oloid and para4oloid he 4orro3ed from nature 3ere ea ily reinforced 4y teel rod and allo3ed hi de i*n to re em4le element from the en5ironment8 )ecau e of hi rheumati m, the arti t o4 er5ed a trict 5e*etarian diet, u ed homeopathic dru* therapy, under3ent 3ater therapy, and hiked re*ularly8 9on* 3alk , 4e ide uppre in* hi rheumati m, further allo3ed him to e@perience nature8 $edit%


GaudC ori*inality 3a at fir t ridiculed 4y hi peer 8 >ndeed, he 3a fir t only upported 4y the rich indu triali t <u e4i G0ell8 :i fello3 citiBen referred to the Casa Mil a La Pedrera (Fthe 7uarryF), and Geor*e Jr3ell, 3ho tayed at )arcelona durin* the Spani h +i5il War, admittedly loathed hi 3ork8 A time pa ed, thou*h, hi 3ork 4ecame more famou , up to the point that he i no3 con idered one of SpainC 4e t and 4ri*hte t8 $edit%

Social and political influence

Ahe opportunitie afforded 4y +ataloniaC ocioeconomic and political en5ironment 3ere endle 8 +atalonian uch a Antoni Gaud often ho3ca ed the re*ionC di5er e art techni7ue in their 3ork 8 )y mimickin* nature, uch arti t ym4olically pu hed

4ack the pro5inceC e5erKincrea in* indu trial ociety8 Gaud, amon* other , promoted the +atalan nationali t mo5ement 4y incorporatin* element of +atalan culture in hi de i*n 8$7% $edit%

,a?or 3ork

Iie3 of the /ark G0ell, <l +armel, )arcelona8

Casa Vicens (18782188&) Palau Gell (188"2188') College of the eresianas (1888218'&) Cr!"t of the Church of Col#nia Gell (18'821'1() Casa Cal$et (18''21'&=) Casa %atll& (1'&"21'&7) Casa Mil (La Pedrera) (1'&"21'&7) Par' Gell (1'&&21'1=) Sagrada Famlia (188=21'!()



GaudC a4andoned plan for a 6e3 Nork ky craper hotel influenced the rede i*n of the World Arade +enter after the Septem4er 11, !&&1 attack 8 >n 1''!, fi5e arti t founded 9a A ociaci.n pro )eatificaci.n de Antoni Gaud8 Ahe ecular a ociation ha ince pu hed for the Roman +atholic church to declare Gaud 4le ed8$8% GaudC life and 3ork in pired Ahe Alan /ar on /ro?ect to create the 1'87 al4um Gaud8

GaudC 3ork in pired a hop o3ner in ,u 3ell :ill 9ondon to 4uild a hopfront in !&&= in the tyle of +a a )atll.8$'% Ahe ite ha encountered continual contro5er yH the local +ouncil feel it i architecturally inappropriate8 $1&%