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Juan Crisostomo Ibarra left his native land, the Philippines, to study in Europe. Coming back after seven years absence, he learned that his father, Don Rafael Ibarra, a wealthy businessman and proprietor of vast areas of land, died in prison through the machinations of Fray Damaso, a Franciscan friar. Ibarra was engaged to Maria Clara, a beautiful and educated girl and an only child of the rich Don Santiago de los Santos, better known as Captain Tiago. Ibarra resolved to avoid further contact with his fathers enemies and to devote his time for the good of the land. To show the sincerity of his purpose he made known his plan to build a schoolhouse in San Diego at his own expense. On the occasion of the laying of the cornerstone, a fatal accident happened which ended in the death of a man. Were it not for the warning given by Elias, a curiously strange man, Ibarra would have been killed. The feast continued as if nothing happened. While the guests were seated at the table during dinner, Fray Damaso ridiculed Ibarra before all the guests and maligned even his dead father. The young man forgot all his good resolutions and right then and there he would have killed the priest were it not for Maria Claras intervention. Ibarras seeming irreverence caused him excommunication. Being in the good graces of the friars, and fearing their disfavor, Captain Tiago severed the connections between the young man and his daughter and looked with favor upon the suit of Alfonso Linares, a young Spaniard provided by Fray Damaso. Maria Clara became ill because of the different events that transpired. Dr. de Espadaa attended her. It seemed to all that she got well under his ministrations but the truth was that her cure was effected by the medicine that Ibarra secretly sent her through her friend Sinang. The young man was able to lift the excommunication given him as a punishment. However, before he could explain matters, an uprising against the Civil Guards occurred. This uprising was brought about by Fray Salvi to ruin Ibarra. Ibarra had been warned and advised by Elias to flee but he desired to see Maria first. The uprising broke out when he was at the house of Captain Tiago. Ibarra was arrested by the Civil Guards as the head of the movement and thrown into prison in Manila. A feast was held in the house of Captain Tiago in Manila to celebrate the engagement of Linares to Maria Clara. That evening Elias helped Ibarra escape from prison. He went to see Maria Clara and reproached her for her apparent fickleness and for the part she played in his ruin. Maria Clara explained everything to the young man. Ibarras letter which he sent to her before his

departure for Europe was taken from her by Friar Salvi in exchange for two letters written by her mother to Fray Damaso. When Fray Damaso was transferred to another town, Fray Salvi took his place in San Diego. The latter found two letters left by his predecessor. Those two letters which were written by Maria Claras mother revealed that the young womans real father was Fray Damaso. This co nflicting revelation pointed out that the marriage of Maria Clara to Linares would save the honor of her dead mother, of Captain Tiago, and of Fray Damaso. The young woman assured Ibarra, that although she would marry another, her heart would always belong to him. Ibarra left Maria Clara and took the banca of Elias which was lying in waiting for him. Ibarras escape was detected by the Civil Guards who readily pursued him. To thwart, the purpose, Elias jumped into the lake leaving Ibarra concealed underneath the grass piled high in the banca. The pursuers fired upon Elias who jumped into the lake believing that he was Ibarra. Elias arrived at the family cemetery of the Ibarras wounded and dying. There he came upon the boy Basilio weeping over the dead body of his mother, Sisa. Basilio served as a sexton to Fray Salvi and Sisa was the unfortunate wife of a profligate husband. She became insane after much humiliation and after supposing that her two sons were dead. It was Elias dying wish that his body together with that of Sisas be cremated. The news of Ibarras death spread all over the town and Maria Clara was beside herself with grief. In her despair she begged Fray Damaso to place her in a nunnery. He was loathed to do as she requested. He was unaware of Maria Claras knowledge of her true parentage. Fray Damaso tried to remonstrate saying that if she did not wish to marry Linares, she could choose another man for a husband, but because she insisted, she had her way. Fray Damaso died soon after. Fray Salvi served in the monastery within whose walls Maria Clara lived in confinement.

After a lapse of thirteen years Juan Crisostomo Ibarra came back to the Philippines disguised as a wealthy American jeweler. He was known far and wide as Simoun. The first to recognize his identity was Basilio. Basilio at the time was a medical student soon to finish his studies. It was Christmas Eve when Basilio went to visit the family cemetery of the Ibarras to meditate over his mothers grave. As he sat in the midst of the familiar surroundings, he recalled all that transpired that dark sad night like this, thirteen years ago he, with the help of a stranger, cremated the body of an unknown man and buried the corpse of Sisa, his mother. When he was about to depart for the town he became aware of the strange presence of Simoun in the vicinity. Disclosures followed. It was then that Simoun make known his one consuming wish of vengeance. He tried to win Basilio over to his side but Basilio did not wish to be involved saying that he wanted to finish his studies and to serve his native land as a doctor. But even after Basilios rejection of Simouns proposals, Simoun went to Basilio again to persuade him to head a group of rebels who should rescue Maria Clara on the night that Simouns men would begin their offensive in different parts of the city. Simoun was astounded at the news of Maria Claras death which occurred only that afternoon. He shuddered with pity and remorse for the death of the girl. Because of the sad even he had no heart to continue his scheme. Basilio was in love with a girl named Juli, daughter of Kabesang Tales. This man was deprived of his land by the friars. Although he brought the matter before the authorities, he did not get back his property. While he was guarding his land several outlaws captured him. Juli, besides herself with grief, offered her services as servant in the household of Hermana Penchang, a pious Catholic, in order to get the additional sum required for her fathers ransom. Basilio learned all those, so with his savings he freed the girl from all her obligations to Aling Penchang. Moreover, he bought a nipa shack that would serve as quarters for her and her grandfather, Tandang Selo. Tandang Selo was stricken dumb when Juli went to the house of her new mistress. The organization of young men of which Basilio was a member tried its best to establish a Spanish Academy for the study of the Spanish language. But the effort of the organization was spurned by those in power. The students took their disappointments to heart and one night

fourteen young men gathered at a restaurant to celebrate their frustrated efforts. Basilio at the time was kept at home by the illness of Captain Tiago. The next day the university did not open for classes as usual because of the discovery of libelous placards at the doors of the school. The students who were present at the gathering the night before were placed in custody, Basilio included. All the students were soon freed with his help of interested parties and friends. All, except poor Basilio for whom nobody interceded. And when Captain-General learned that Basilio was a mere servant and had no connections of importance and that no one seemed to care for him, Basilio was not released with the others, Juli suffered untold agonies. Although much against her will, she went to Father Camorra to seek aid from him on Basi lios behalf. The visit, however, proved fatal for it only ended in Julis leaping from the convent window resulting in her sudden death. It was Simoun who took Basilio out of prison. This time Basilio was an entirely changed man. He was now seething with a desire to avenge the wrong done him and he offered to join the band of rebels that Simoun had organized. When the students were in custody, a girl named Paulita Gomez spurned her lover Isagani for a hunchback Spanish mestizo, Juanito Pelaez by name. It was Simoun who made possible the speedy marriage of the two. Simoun offered a loan to Juanitos father so that he could purchase the house of the late Captain Tiago. It was Simoun who managed the whole affair. He caused a big kiosk built at the azotea where the guests would be served. Having the upper hand in all the preparations, he was able to place in every hidden nook and corner explosive powder. His gift to the newlyweds was a beautiful lamp which he contrived to fill with explosives. It had the power to blow up not only the improvised dining hall but the entire edifice. The explosion would serve as a signal to start the general revolution in Manila. Basilio knew everything that was going to happen. As he lingered reconnoitering the illfated house he saw Isagani and his heart went out in pity for the jilted man. He told Isagani to flee with him but Isagani was aware only of Paulitas danger. As he saw the lamplight beginning to wane, he seized the lamp and threw it down the river below. Thus Simouns schemes once more came to naught and now the found himself a fugitive from the law. He took refuge in the home of Father Florentino near the shore of the Pacific. Knowing that in no time the arms of the law could close on him, he took poison. Before he expired, he told the priest his dastardly acts, all done to goad his own fellowmen into a speedy revolt against the authorities. He told the priest that he used to doublecross his own men. He used to tell on them, to the Civil Guards and subject them to tortures. Thus he caused the Filipinos to feel a deadly hatred for the Spaniards and won them to his side.

Father Florentino counseled the dying man on all the wrong that he had done. He told the dying man that no good comes out of evil. All happened as God willed them, he concluded. When Simoun expired Father Florentino threw into sea Simouns casket of jewels. Lost thus, it could no longer be used as a weapon in the performance of evil, in the distortion of what was right, and in the seduction of the erring to the wrong path.

Reference: Filibusterismo ni Dr. Jose Rizal Isinalin sa Wikang Pambansa nina Andrea Amor Tablan at Salud R. Enriquez 1999 Edition, Marren Publishing House Inc.

Submitted by: Agulay, Joana Rhea S. Buenaobra, Ezra M. Concepcion, Noemi Salvador, Joshua B. Valenzuela, Mary Grace C.

Submitted to: Mrs. Bella G. Ramos