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A) Estimate is defined as calculation of probable cost of the project. The probable cost can be obtained by determining the quantities of construction work and current rates. B) Estimating is defined as the process of preparing the estimate. In this process first taking out the quantities of various items, and then abstracted to get the cost of work. C) Costing is defined as the determination of actual cost of work before its execution. Q.2 What is the purpose of estimating and costing? Ans. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. To know the approximate cost of work. To know the approximate quantity of the material and labour required. For technical sanction of the project. For inviting tenders and arranging contracts. To know the time period required for construction. To control over expenditure.

Q.3 What are the types of Estimate? Ans. Mainly there are two types of estimatea) Approximate estimate b) Detailed estimate Types of approximate estimatei. ii. iii. iv. v. Plinth area estimate Cube rate estimate Typical bay method Service unit method Approximate quantity estimate

Types of detailed estimatei. ii. iii. iv. v. Item rate method Revised estimate Supplementary estimate Supplementary and Revised estimate Annual repair estimate. Page 1

ESTIMATING AND COSTING Q. Explain any one method of approximate estimate in brief. Ans. i. Plinth area estimate

This method of estimate is based on plinth area of building. The rate per unit plinth area is determined by cost of construction of previously constructed building having same specification and locality. The plinth area of proposed new building is work out and multiply with rate to get the cost. Rate = Cost of construction/ plinth area Cost of new building = Plinth area x Rate Cube rate estimate

ii.

This method of estimate is based on cubical content of building. The rate per cubic unit is determined by cost of construction of previously constructed building having same specification and locality. Cubical content means volume of proposed new building is work out (L x B x H) and multiply with rate to get the cost. Rate = Cost of construction/ volume of existing building. Cost of new building = Volume of new building x Rate iii. Service unit method

Each building is constructed to serve some purpose Ex- hostel building, Hospital building. The rate per service unit is determined by cost of construction of previously constructed building having same specification and locality. Estimate is per student for hostel, per bed for hospital, per seat for cinema hall etc. Rate = Cost of construction/ total no. of service unit in existing building. Cost of new building = No. of service unit in new building x Rate iv. Typical bay method

This method of estimate is used for factory building. The estimate of one bay is determined by cost of construction of previously constructed factory building, using other methods and then estimate the cost of new building.

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ESTIMATING AND COSTING Q. Explain the various types of detailed estimate. Ans. 1) Item rate methodFor the detailed estimate, estimator should know all the items required to complete the project. For detailed estimate first calculate the exact quantity of various items of work in the measurement sheet. It requires the study of detailed drawing, specification and rates. For example if you want to prepare the detailed estimate of new residential building then following items requireda) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Clearing of site Excavation of foundation PCC Footings UCR masonry in plinth for wall foundation BBM in super structure RCC columns, slab, beams, lintels etc. Plaster Doors windows Paint etc.

1. State the requirements of an estimate? 2. Briefly Explain need for estimation? 3. What is work charged establishment 1. List the difference between centre line method and long wall-short wall method of taking out measurements. 2. What are the rules to be followed while taking the measurements? 3. Mention the units for the following items. a) flooring b) R.R. Masonry c) Plastering for pointing d) Damp proof course e) R.C. sunshade (Specified width and thickness)

I. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS: 1. List the factors to be consider while preparing detailed estimate and explain breifly? 2. What are the differences between plinth area method and Unit base method? 3. List the requirements of data preparation. For private circulation only @ M.D.J.I.T Page 3

ESTIMATING AND COSTING II ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS : 1. Prepare the approximate cost of building project (group HOuseing) i) No.of houses = 150 ii) Plinth area of each dwelling = 600m2 iii) Plinth area rate = Rs. 5,000/-per m2 iv) Cost of water supply & sanitary arrangements @12% v) Electrification at 7% of cost of builing. vi Cost of roads & Lawns @5% vii) Cost of P.S.& contingencies @4% 2. Prepare a rough cost estimate of a cinema theatre which accommodate 1700 seats. The cost of construction including all provisions is Rs.6000/- per seat. 3. What are the methods of preparation of approximate estimates and explain briefly. Short Answer Questions 1. The internal dimensions of a single roomed building are 5.75x3.75m. Find the Centre line length of room and parapet. If the wall thickness of room and parapet are 300mm and 250mm respectively. 2. The internal dimensions of a room are 6.25 x 4.25m. find the quantity of sand filling in basemet. the height and thickness of basement are 750mm and 450mm respectively the wall thickness of room is 230mm. Essay Type Questions: 1. The plan and section of one roomed building

Calculate the following quantities by a) central line method b) Long wall & shortwall method. i) Earth work excavation . ii) Cement Concrete for foundation. iii) Brick in CM 1:6 for footing. iv) Brick in CM 1:6 for walls excluding openings

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ESTIMATING AND COSTING 2) For a building drawing shown in figure calculate a) Brickwork in CM(1:6)in foundation footing. b) 12mm thick plastering the wall surfaces with CM (1:6) for all super structure walls by central line method. c) Earth work excavation for the foundation.

3) Repare the detailed estimate for the following items of work for the building shown in figure. a) R.C.C. (1:1.5:3) in columns upto ground level only. b) R.C.C. (1:2:4) in plinth Bleams c) R.C.C. (1:2:4) in slab.

4) Prepare the detailed estimate for the following items of work for a building shown . a) R.R. masonry in CM 1:6 for footings and basement. b) Brick work in CM 1:6 for super structure. c) Plastering for ceiling with CM 1:3

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5) From the Hipped roof shown in sketch, calculate a) Length of Hip rafter b) Ridge Piece

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ESTIMATING AND COSTING 6) For an R.C.C. Stair case shown in fig. Calculate the following contents. a) R.C.C. (1:2:4) for base beam, waist slab, Top and intermediate landings. b) Brick work in CM(1:4) for steps.

7) The section of steps at the front of a residential building is shown in fig. Calculate a) Volume of BM in CM (1:5) for all three steps. the length of steps is 2.1m b) Plastering with CM (1:4) for all three steps

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EXERCISE Short Answer Questions 1. Calculate the Cement contents for the following a) C.C.(1:5:10) using 40mm H.B.G.Metal for 25m3 work b) Brick work in CM (1:6) using country Bricks for 15m3 of work if Essay type Questions 1 Prepare a data sheet and calculate the cost of the items given below: a) Brick masonry in C.M. (1:6) with country bricks-unit Icum. b)P. C.C.(1:5:10) using 40mm HBG metal unit 1cum. c) Plaster work of 12mm thick, of 200sqm d) Flooring work of kota tile of 450mm x 600mm size tile, for room having area 75sqm. 1) Prepare the Bar bending schedule for the beam shown below.

2) Prepare the Bar bending schedule of a simply supported R.C.C. Lintels from the following specification: Size of lintel 300mm widex 200mm depth.Main bars in tension zone of Fe 250(grade I) 3 bars of 16mm dia., one bar is cranked through 450 at 170 mm from each end 2 No. anchor bars at top 8mm dia. Two legged stirrups@150mm c/c of 6mm dia. through out. Clear span of the lintel is 1150mm. Bearing on either side is 150mm.

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