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!"#$%&!&'() If a=b anu b=c, then a=c.

(2 things = to same thing aie =.)


%(+,($! #--&!&.$ /.%!01#!( 23456) The whole
segment is the sum of the paits.


-(7$ .7 ,&-/.&$! 23456)
The point that uiviues a segment into two equal paits



-(7$ !8/(% .7 #$+1( /#&"% 23496)

:;<=>?<?@ABCD) Two angles whose sum is 9u
u

'?CAEFB> #@G>?H) Angles cieateu when two lines
inteisect. They aie the angles acioss fiom
each othei
aie veitical angles
,&-/.&$! 7.",01# 234I6)

%0J%!&!0!&.$) If two "things' aie =, they can be switcheu
foi each othei
#$+1( #--&!&.$ /.%! 234K6)
(Whole=sum of paits)


-(7$ .7 #$+1( J&%(:!." 234K6)
A iay that uiviues an angle into two
angles.



%L==>?<?@ABCD) Two angles whose sum is 18u
u


1E@?BC /BEC) Two angles that foim a stiaight angle (18u
u
).
They shaie a veitex anu a common siue.



/8!M#+."(#$ !M, 234I6)


!
AB+ BC = AC
!
AM = MB
!
"1 & "3
"2 & "4
!
M =
x
2
+ x
1
2
,
y
2
+ y
1
2
"
#
$
%
&
'
!
"ABC ="ABD+"DBC
!
"
!
m"LJK = m"KJM
!
a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
#$+1( N %(+,($! /"./("!&(%
&,/."!#$! 7.",01#%
J
K
L
M
A
B
D
C
C A B
A B M
1
2
3
4
-&%!#$:( 7.",01# 234I6)

:.$$(:!&'&!8 /"./("!&(%


-(7$ .7 #$+1( J&%(:!." 234K6)
A iay that uiviues an angle into two angles.



:.$+"0($! :.,/1(,($!% !M, 254I6)
If two angles aie Complementaiy to same angle(oi 2 ),
then the two angles aie .

'("!&:#1 #$+1(% !M, 254O6)
veitical angles aie


#1!("$#!( &$!("&." #$+1(% !M, 2K456)
If two paiallel lines aie cut by a tiansveisal, then Alteinate
Inteiioi Angles aie


!M&"- #$+1(% !M, 29456)
In two tiiangles, if two paii of angles aie , then the thiiu
paii will also be .









"&+M! #$+1( :.$+"0($:( !M, 254I6)
All iight angles aie Congiuent

:.$+"0($! %0//1(,($!% !M, 254I6)
If two angles aie Supplementaiy to the same angle
(oi 2 ), then the two angles aie .


:.""(%/.$-&$+ #$+1(% /.%! 2K456)
If two paiallel lines aie cut by a tiansveisal, then the
coiiesponuing foimeu aie .



#1!("$#!( (P!("&." #$+1(% !M, 2K456
If two paiallel lines aie cut by a tiansveisal, then Alteinate
Exteiioi Angles aie .



&%.%:(1(% !"&#$+1( !M, 294Q6)
If two siues of a tiiangle aie then the angles
opposite them aie .


!
"
!
m"LJK = m"KJM
!
"#' s
!
"
!
"
!
"1 #"3
"2 #"4
!
"
!
Ex : "4 #"7
!
"
!
"
!
"#' s
!
"
!
"' s
!
"
!
Ex : "1 #"3
!
"
!
Ex : "3 #"5
!
"
!
"
!
"B #"C
!. /".'( #$+1(% :.$+"0($!R(S0#1
J
K
L
M
1
2
3
4
4
7
80 100 80
3
1
3
5
$;A?) use -(7&$&!&.$ .7 to switch
A
B C

-(7$ .7 ,&-/.&$! 23456)
The point that uiviues a segment into two equal paits


:.,,.$ %(+,($!% !M, 254O6)
uiven collineai points A, B, C, anu B
If





-(7$ .7 %0//1(,($!#"8 #$+1(% 234K6)
Two angles whose sum is 18u
u

%#,(4%&-( &$!("&." #$+1(% !M, 2K456)
If two paiallel lines aie cut by a tiansveisal, then Same-Siue
Inteiioi Angles aie Supplementaiy.









-(7$ .7 :.$+"0($! %(+,($!%)
If two segments aie =, then they aie .

0se uefinition of to switch







1&$(#" /#&" !M, 254I6)
If two angles foim a Lineai Paii, then they aie
Supplementaiy.










!
AM = MB
!
AB " CD, then AC " BD
!
"4 +"8 =180
!
"
!
"
!
" to =
= to "
!. /".'( %(+,($!% :.$+"0($!R(S0#1
A B M
C A B D
!. /".'( #$+1(% %0//1(,($!#"8
4
8
1 2


-(7$ .7 /#"#11(1 1&$(%2K436T
Lines that lie in the same plane, but uo not inteisect.
Symbol: !!



:.$'("%( .7 :.""(%/.$-&$+ /.%! 2K4K6)
If two lines aie cut by a tiansveisal so that a paii of
Coiiesponuing Angles aie congiuent, then the two lines aie
paiallel.



:.$'("%( .7 #1!("$#!( (P!("&." 2K4K6)
If Alteinate Exteiioi Angles aie , then the lines aie
paiallel.




/#"#11(1 1&$(% N %1./(% !M, 2K4U6)
Paiallel lines have equal slopes.
Note: slope:



:.$'("%( .7 %#,( %&-( &$!("&." 2K4K6)
If Same-Siue Inteiioi angles aie Supplementaiy, then the
lines that foim them aie paiallel


:.$'("%( .7 #1!("$#!( &$!("&." 2K4K6)
If Alteinate Inteiioi Angles aie V then the lines that foim
them aie paiallel



!W. /("/($-&:01#"% !M, 2K496)
If two lines aie both peipenuiculai to the same line, then
the two lines aie paiallel
Symbol:










!
"s
!
Corr "s # $ ll lines
!
"s
!
"
!
AEA " # ll lines
!
m =
rise
run
=
y
2
" y
1
x
2
" x
1
!
"s
!
"s
!
"
!
AIA " # ll lines
!
"
!
" ll lines
!. /".'( 1&$(% /#"#11(1

-(7$ .7 /("/($-&:01#" 1&$(% 2K496)
Lines that foim 9u
u
angles. Symbol:

/("/($-&:01#" !"#$%'("%#1 !M, 2K496)
If a tiansveisal is to one of two paiallel lines, then it is
to the othei line








%1./( 7.",01# 2K4U6)









:.$+"0($! 1&$(#" /#&" 2K496)
If two lines foim a lineai paii of congiuent angles, then the
lines aie

/("/($-&:01#" 1&$(% N %1./(% 2K4U6)
Lines aie peipenuiculai if theii slopes aie opposite
iecipiocals. (Theii piouuct = -1)








%1./( &$!(":(/! 7.",2K4I6)






!
"
!
"
!
"
!
m =
rise
run
=
y
2
" y
1
x
2
" x
1
!
"
!
y = mx + b
" "
slope y #intercept
!. /".'( 1&$(% /("/($-&:01#"
/"./("!&(% .7 1&$(%
!"&#$+1( %0, !M, 29456)
The sum of the angles in any tiiangle is

-(7&$&!&.$ .7 !"&#$+1(% 294K6)
If all six paits of 2 aie , then the must be


%#% :.$+"0($:( !M, 29496)
If two siues anu the incluueu angle of one tiiangle aie to
two siues anu the incluueu angle of anothei tiiangle, then
the tiiangles aie .





#%# :.$+"0($:( !M, 294U6)
If two angles anu the incluueu siue of one tiiangle aie to
two angles anu the incluueu siue of anothei tiiangle, then
the tiiangles aie




:.""(%/.$-&$+ /#"!% :/:!: 294I6)
If two aie , then all of the coiiesponuing paits in them
aie


!"&#$+1( (P!("&." #$+1(% !M, 29456)
The Exteiioi Angle of a tiiangle is equal to the sum of the
Remote Inteiioi Angles.




%%% :.$+"0($:( !M, 29496)
If thiee siues of one tiiangle aie to thiee siues of anothei,
then the tiiangles aie



##% :.$+"0($:( !M, 294U6)
If two angles anu the non-incluueu siue of one tiiangle aie
to the coiiesponuing angles anu non-incluueu siue of
anothei tiiangle, then the tiiangles aie




M1 :.$+"0($:( !M, 294U6
In two Right Tiiangles; If the hypotenuse anu leg of one
tiiangle aie to the hypotenuse anu leg of anothei tiiangle,
then they aie




!
180
!
"
!
"s
!
"
!
"s
!
"
!
"
!
"
!
"
!
"
!
"s
!
"
!
"
!
m"4 = m"1+ m"2
!
"
!
"
!
"
!
"
!
"
!
"
!CEB@G>? /C;=?CAE?H N !CEB@G>? :;@GCL?@F?
1
2 4

&%.%:(1(% !"&#$+1( !M, 294Q6)
If a tiiangle has two equal siues, then the
angles acioss fiom them aie

(S0&1#!("#1 !"&#$+1(!M, 294Q6)
If a tiiangle is equilateial, then it is
equiangulai.

!"&#$+1( ,&-%(+,($! !M, 2U496)
A miusegment of a tiiangle is paiallel to a siue
of the tiiangle, anu its length is half the
length of that siue.

:.$'X .7 /8!M#+."(#$ !M, 2U4O6)
If is iight
c is the squaie of the hypotenuse
a anu b aie the sum of the squaie of the legs

9U49U4YZ !"&#$+1( !M, 2U4Q6)
Isosceles Right Tiiangle

#$% & '() !*







:.$'X .7 &%.%: !"&#$+1( !M, 294Q6)
If a tiiangle has two equal angles, then the
siues opposite them aie equal ( )


(S0&#$+01#" !"&#$+1( !M, 294Q6)
If a tiiangle is equiangulai, then it is
equilateial


!"&#$+1( &$(S0#1&!8 !M, 2U4U6)
The sum of any two siues of a tiiangle is gieatei than the
thiiu siue length


/8!M#+."(#$ &$(S0#1&!&(% !M, 2U4O6)
If , then tiiangle is acute
If , then tiiangle is obtuse


7&"%! 5Z /("7(:!
%S0#"(%)




!
"
!
a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
, then "ABC
!
Leg =
hypot
2
" 2
!
"
!
a
2
+ b
2
> c
2
!
a
2
+ b
2
< c
2
!CEB@G>? /C;=?CAE?H N !CEB@G>? :;@GCL?@F?
x
1/2 x



KZ4IZ4YZ !"&#$+1( !M, 2U4Q6)
Bypotenuse is twice shoit leg
Long leg is times shoit leg
356 Chapter 5 Properties and Attributes of Triangles
Who uses this?
You can use properties of special
right triangles to calculate the correct
size of a bandana for your dog.
(See Example 2.)
A diagonal of a square divides it into two
congruent isosceles right triangles. Since
the base angles of an isosceles triangle are
congruent, the measure of each acute angle
is 45. So another name for an isosceles
right triangle is a 45-45-90 triangle.
A 45-45-90 triangle is one type of special
right triangle. You can use the Pythagorean
Theorem to find a relationship among the
side lengths of a 45-45-90 triangle.

a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
Pythagorean Theorem
x
2
+ x
2
= y
2
Substitute the given values.
2 x
2
= y
2
Simplify.

2 x
2
=

y
2
Find the square root of both sides.
x 2 = y Simplify.
In a 45-45-90 triangle, both legs are congruent,

and the length of the hypotenuse is the length


of a leg times 2 .
AC = BC = AB = 2
Theorem 5-8-1 45-45-90 Triangle Theorem
1 E X A MP L E Finding Side Lengths in a 45-45-90 Triangle
Find the value of x. Give your answer in simplest radical form.
A

By the Triangle Sum Theorem, the measure of the third angle of the
triangle is 45. So it is a 45-45-90 triangle with a leg length of 7.
x = 7 2 Hypotenuse = leg 2
Objectives
Justify and apply
properties of 45-45-90
triangles.
Justify and apply
properties of 30-60-90
triangles.
5-8
Applying Special
Right Triangles
ge07se_c05_0356_0362.indd 356 12/2/05 7:39:15 PM
358 Chapter 5 Properties and Attributes of Triangles
In a 30-60-90 triangle, the length of the hypotenuse is


is 2 times the length of the shorter leg, and the length of
the longer leg is the length of the shorter leg times 3 .
AC = s AB = 2s BC = s 3
Theorem 5-8-2 30-60-90 Triangle Theorem
3 E X A MP L E Finding Side Lengths in a 30-60-90 Triangle
Find the values of x and y. Give your answers in simplest radical form.
A

16 = 2x Hypotenuse = 2 (shorter leg)


Divide both sides by 2.
Longer leg = (shorter leg) 3
Substitute 8 for x.
8 = x
y = x 3
y = 8 3
B

11 = x 3 Longer leg = (shorter leg) 3


Divide both sides by 3 .
Rationalize the denominator.
Hypotenuse = 2 (shorter leg)
Substitute
11 3

_

3
for x.
Simplify.

11

_

3
= x

11 3

_

3
= x
y = 2x
y = 2
(

11 3

_

3

)

y =
22 3

_

3

Find the values of x and y. Give your answers in simplest
radical form.
3a.


3b.

3c.

3d.


If two angles of
a triangle are not
congruent, the shorter
side lies opposite the
smaller angle.
ge07se_c05_0356_0362.indd 358 12/2/05 7:39:20 PM



/.18+.$ #$+1( %0, !M, 2I436)
Sum of inteiioi angles in a convex polygon:

/"./("&!(% .7 /#"#11(1.+"#,% 2I456)
/#"! 3 /#"! 5







:.$-&!&.$% 7." /#"#11(1.+"#,% 2I4K6)
/#"! 3 /#"! 5




A paii of opposite
siues anu Both paiis of opposite siues


/"./("!&(% .7 "(:!#$+1(% 2I496)
If a quauiilateial is a iectangle, then it is:
/#"! 3 /#"! 5
Also a paiallelogiam Its uiagonals aie
!
",
!
AC " BD

/.18+.$ (P!("&." #$+1( %0, !M(."(, 2I436)
Sum of the exteiioi angles of any convex polygon
!
= 360


/#"! K /#"! 9




Biagonals bisect each




/#"! K /#"! 9




Biagonals bisect


/#"! U




:.$-&!&.$% 7." "(:!#$+1(% 2I4U6)
!
n "2 ( )180
!
opposite sides "
!
opposite "' s #
!
"
!
ll
!
"
SLB[CE>BA?CB> /C;=?CAE?H
A
C D
B
1
2
1
2
S
An angle is supplementaiy to both of
it's Consecutive
S
4
All paii of Consecutive
aie supplementaiy.

Both paii opposite
A paiallelogiam is a iectangle IF
/#"! 3


If it has at least 1 iight angle


/"./("!&(% .7 "M.,J0%(% 2I496)
If a quauiilateial is a ihombus, TBEN
/#"! 3 /#"! 5




then it is a paiallelogiam then its uiagonals aie
peipenuiculai (
!
")

:.$-&!&.$% 7." "M.,J0%(% 2I4U6)
A paiallelogiam is a ihombus IF
/#"! 3 /#"! 5



If one paii of if uiagonals aie
!
"
Consecutive siues

/"./("!&(% .7 \&!(% 2I4I6)
If a quauiilateial is a kite, TBEN
/#"! 3


/#"! 5



If its uiagonals aie



/#"! K




Then its uiagonals bisect the
!
"' s




/#"! K



If uiagonals bisect the
!
"' s




/#"! 5

!
"
!
"
Biagonals aie !
A paii of opposite aie"
/"./("!&(% .7 &%.%:(1(% !"#/(].&-% 2I4I6)
If a quauiilateial is an isosceles tiapezoiu, TBEN
/#"! 3 /#"! 5



Each paii of base
!
"' s is
!
" If a tiapezoiu has one
paii of base
!
"' s
!
",
then it is isosceles


!"#/(].&- ,&-%(+,($! !M(."(, 2I4I6)
The miusegmnet of a tiapezoiu is paiallel to each base

The length of the miusegment is V(sum of the 2 bases)
=
!
1
2
b
1
+ b
2
( )



S0#-"&1#!("#1 M&("#":M8 2I496)












/#"! K





Its uiagonals aie
!
"
!
AC " BD




















A B
C D
QUADRILATERAL
KITE
TRAPEZOID
RHOMBUS
PARALLELOGRAM
ISOSCELES
TRAPEZOID
REACTANGLE
SQUARE