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sudden rises of pressure as well as to quickly provide extra water during a brief drop in pressure. A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.

Instantaneous Closure Neglecting Friction

Let:

Surge tank area / Pipe line area = the initial velocity of water in the pipe. = the instantaneous velocity in the pipe line t secs. after the change in load. = The height of the surge level above the surface of the reservoir t secs. after the change in load. = density of water. be the periodic time of the oscillation in the Surge Tank.

and by inspection . i.e. Differentiate the above equation: (7) But from equation (3) when : .At time the pressure at above normal flow conditions By Newtons second Law The pressure force on the water column in the pipe line = Mass multiplied to Acceleration (2) ( is called the Acceleration or Inertia head ) By Mass Continuity Flow in the surge tank = Flow in the pipe. (3) Or this can be written as: Differentiate: (4) Substituting equation (4) in equation (3) (5) But this is the equation for simple harmonic motion whose solution is: (6) When Hence: .

And also: Substitute in equation (7) If is the period of a complete oscillation: When: From equation (5) And since From equation (6) The following two graphs show the variation of both and with time. .

Notes: .

A Sudden Complete Valve Closure Allowing For Friction The height of the first maximum surge can then be found by putting the following equation.e. The maximum surge height occurs at time . A large value of i. Changes in reservoir level and the inertia of the water column in the surge tank have been neglected. i. a large surge tank area. and in .e. means a small but a longer periodic time .

after closure let the surge level be at a height above the reservoir level and let the pipe velocity be . is positive or negative depending whether the flow is towards the surge tank or away from it. Thus the excess pressure head at causing the deceleration of the water column is from Newton's second Law: Pressure force = Mass multiplied to Acceleration (9) But by continuity: (10) Hence: (11) . At the initial steady flow state the level in the surge tank will be below the reservoir level by an amount equal to the friction head lost in the pipe. is positive or negative depending upon whether the surge level is rising or falling. is added when the flow is towards the surge tanks and is subtracted if the flow is towards the reservoir.This equation can only be solved by trial and error but a first approximation neglecting friction and using will save work! And for the first minimum surge Note that in the theory is measured positively upwards from the reservoir level. For steady flow at velocity the level in the surge tank would be below the reservoir level. From the Darcy equation the friction head lost is: (8) This is usually written as where is a constant for the pipe line. At a time secs.

e. To eliminate : But: (13) Substitute in equation (8) Or: The solution of this equation is: It is now necessary to evaluate the constant When: . and : The height of the first maximum surge can then be found by putting and the above equation.Substituting from equations (10) and (11) in (9) i. (12) This is insoluble as it stands since we can not deal with the friction term. will save work! in . The equation can then only be solved by trial and error but a first approximation neglecting friction and using First Minimum Surge.

so the equations generated. during the consideration for sudden complete closure are modified as follows.Head at accelerating the column towards the reservoir is Equation (8) now becomes: And by continuity: Or: NOTE: the net effect of the flow reversal on the above equations is to change the sign of the term. Eliminating equation (13) becomes: Eliminating : Putting when : .

The following graphs show the variations of and with time. .

is positive or negative depending whether the flow is towards the surge tank or away from it. is added when the flow is towards the surge tanks and is subtracted if the flow is towards the reservoir. Gradual Valve Closure . is positive or negative depending upon whether the surge level is rising or falling.In all the above theory is measured positively upwards from the reservoir level.

The head at column is . at a time .Consider the instantaneous conditions at a time as shown. It is usual to assume that decreases uniformly from to zero in a time i.e. Thus: decelerating the And from the Continuity equation: Or: After the valve has closed in a time before remains zero and the equation becomes: as This can only be dealt with by numerical integration and even then the variation of with time must be known. .

For a sudden partial closure is assumed to fall instantaneously to the new steady value. For a gradual partial closure is assumed to fall linearly with time to the new constant value of Sudden Valve Opening On Increased Load. Take as positive downwards. Equations (12) and (5) still apply but does not now fall to zero. .Sudden Or Gradual Partial Closure. Note : Assume that the velocity at the valve increases instantaneously to the final steady velocity Consider the position shown.

The following equation gives the critical area ratio for stability. .Notes: The interaction of the turbine governing mechanism and the surge tank frequency must be studied so that surges are damped out by friction and not perpetuated and amplified by the action of the governor.

Where is the initial steady flow level in the surge tank above the turbine gate.57 . Example: $9.

55 $1.51 $8. $27.95 $6.00 .

$13.31 $13.57 .98 $9.48 $4.45 $6.

400 ft.[imperial] Example . Show that if the friction head is proportional to velocity squared . Find and if the Surge Tank diameter is 100 ft. pipe line diameter 15 ft. below the level in the reservoir. Equation (1) . Workings The head producing the deceleration of the water in the pipe is. the former having positive values when the flow along the pipeline is towards the Surge Tank and negative when reversed. the flow along the pipe-line from reservoir to surge tank is and the level in the Surge Tank is stationary. At the instant when the turbines are completely shut down. 3 ft. the oscillatory motion of the level in the Surge tank following a sudden complete shut down of then turbines is given by the equation taking the form: in which is the height at any instant of the Surge Tank level with reference to the reservoir level. using equation (7) (1) And from the continuity equation for an instant valve closure . and are constants.Example 1 Problem Describe the operation of a simple Surge Tank communicating with the pipe-line supplying the turbine in a hydro-electric plant. and the length of the pipe-line from reservoir to Surge Tank 2.

The head drop due to friction is 3 ft. and (2) will now by: will be above and the equations corresponding to (1) And: Which together will make negative. And: And: Refinements To Simple Surge Tanks Here are some refinements to simple surge tanks.(2) Differentiating: (3) Substituting equations (3) and (2) in equation (1) Where: And: When is towards the reservoir. .

Throttled Surge Tank . This arrangement provides a quick initial response followed by a slower change in levels and almost constant pressure in the larger chamber. Gallery assists demand for more water caused by an increased load on the turbine. Note that: Chamber caters for sudden valve closure.Variable Area Chamber The object is to limit the extremes of the surges.

Johnson Differential Surge Tank .The orifice will limit the total height of the surge by increasing the friction and velocity head losses at entry to the chamber.

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