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Food Self-Sufficiency in Thailand

Presented at The 2nd ASEAN Rice Trade Forum 4-5 June Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Dr. Apichart Pongsrihadulchai Advisor to the Minister Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives Thailand

Outline
Overview of Thailands agricultural sector Thailands Agricultural Development Plan Food security in Thailand

Thailands Strategic Plan for Food Security

Overview of Thailands Agricultural Sector

Population

Non-Agri.

Agri. 37.64%

62.36%

Percentage of Ag. Population and Ag. Labor Force


%
90
82.1 80.26

Ag.Population Ag.Labor Force


72.42

80

70
60 50 40

68.2 73.55 73.51 71.4 65.7

67.27

64.27

62.73

62.84

60.81 59.62 52.73

57.72 44.43

43.71

36.17

36.31

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plan1 plan2 plan3 plan4 plan5 plan6 plan7 plan8 plan9 plan10
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5

Ag. Population By Age Group (%),2009


14
12 10

8
6 4 2 0
6

Total Land Use 2012


1 ha. = 6.25 rais

107.24 m.Rais
Total area 320.70 million Rais (51.31 million ha.)
64.20 m.Rais

149.25 m.Rais (23.88mil.ha)

Irrigation
Irrigated Area 29.60 mil. Rais (4.74 mil.ha)
Total Agricultural area 149.25 million Rais (23.88 million ha.)

Non-Irrigated Area 119.65 mil.Rais (19.14 mil.ha)

1 ha. = 6.25 rais

Agricultural Production Index


115 110
105.86 108.03 107.61 111.79
111.44

105
100 95 90 85 80
87.73 89.50
94.29 91.20 89.73

104.03 102.98

100.00
94.28

Agricultural Production: Rice


Millions
35
32

3.10
32

Production (million tons)


30
28

2.90
2.74 2.72

Yiled (tons/ha)
25
20 24 2.43 17 2.00

2.70 2.50 2.30

20 15 10 5

17

2.19

2.10 1.90

1.74
1.74

1.70 1.50 1.30

1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010

Agricultural Production: Cassava


Millions
35

Production (million tons)

24
22.92

30

Yiled (tons/ha)
30 20.28

22 20

25

24 18.66 18.83 17.53 20 23

18
16

20
15.51
18

19 19

15.23
16 17 14.03

15

14.27

15 13.92

14
12.66 13.02

11

12 10 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010

Agricultural Production: Maize


Millions
6 5
5 4

Production (million tons) Yiled (tons/ha)


3.63 5

4.06

4.30
3.91

3.80

5 4

4
3

3 3.27

3.30
4

3
2.49

2.72

2.80 2.30

2 1

2.20

2.13 1.88 1.59

1.80

0 1.30 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010

Agricultural Production: Sugarcane


Millions
80 70 60
52.29

Production (million tons)


Yiled (tons/ha)
57.71 55.44 51.77 48.94 54 59.16

74 71.07

80 70
63.71 67

60 50

50 40 30
40.28

48
38 43

40 30

30 24.093113 21

20
13

20

10 10 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010

Agricultural Production: Oil Palm


10 9 8 7 6 5
13.70 15.64 9

22 20
8

Production (million tons) Yiled (tons/ha)


16.87

20.09

17.68

18 16

4
12.18

14.53

14.47

12.75 11.58 10.29 10.27 1 0 1 1 3 3

14 12 10

3 2 1

0 8 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010

Agricultural Production: Dairy-Cows


Quantity of fresh milk (Million Tons)
1.0

Millions

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0

0.89 0.73 0.73

0.91

0.52
0.29 0.38

2004

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Agricultural Production: Swine


Production (Heads)
14 13 12 11 10 9 8.04 8 7 6
1991
1992 1993

Millions

13.31 11.93 12.10

10.66
9.79

9.08

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Agricultural Production: Broilers


Production (Heads)
Millions

1,300 1,200 1,100 1,000 900 800 700 600 595 500
1991 1992

1,117 924 726


735 694
1997 2010
1993 1994 1995 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

971

880

Growth Rate of Yield of Food Crops


Year 1977-1986 1987-1996 1997-2006 2007-2009
Source : OAE

Rice 2.11 2.24 2.68 -1.62

Maize Cassava Sugarcane Oil Palm 3.95 5.50 2.73 0.96 -0.80 -0.78 3.70 -5.04 1.17 0.89 -0.26 3.22 -0.62 4.07 2.44 -3.34
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Agricultural Trade 2012


Value of agricultural products,2012 = 1,349 trillion baht or 19.02% of total exports value
Other agricultural products 16.33% Natural rubber 24.97%

Animal feed and products 1.04%

Vegetables and products 1.56% Products from chicken meat 5.04%


Cassava and products 6.26% Fruits and products 6.27%

Rice and products 11.77%

37.74% 62.26%

Shrimps and Sugar and products products Fishes 9.81% and 7.18% products 9.77%

Major Exports of Agricultural Products in Thailand


Item Total Export Value 2008 2009 2010
Mil. Baht (%)

2011
Mil. Baht (%)

2012
Mil. Baht (%)

Mil. Baht (%) Mil. Baht (%)

5,850,777

5,194,445

6,176,170

6,707,851

7,091,162

Value of agricultural products


Natural rubber

1,054,073 18.02 964,945 18.58 1,135,750 18.39 1,447,716 21.58 1,349,335 19.03 241,314 22.89 174,984 18.13 296,380 26.10 440,890 30.45 336,304 24.92

Rice and products


Sugar and products Fishes and products
Source: OAE

213,421 20.25 183,433 19.01


54,748 5.19 107,812 10.23 68,748 7.12 97,566 10.11

180,727 15.91 210,527 14.54


76,327 99,039 6.72 116,949 8.08 8.72 112,150 7.75

158,434 11.74
132,137 9.79 131,562 9.75

Major Exports of Agricultural Products in Thailand (cont.)

Item
Shrimps and products
Fruits and products Cassava and products Product from chicken meat

2008
Mil. Baht (%)

2009
Mil. Baht (%)

2010

2011
(%)

2012
Mil. Baht (%)

Mil. Baht (%) Mil. Baht

84,403 8.01 93,605 9.70 101,141 8.91 110,643 7.64 96,630 7.16
59,785 5.67 60,757 6.30 63,072 5.55 81,513 5.63 84,374 6.25 46,159 4.38 50,581 5.24 66,889 5.89 77,689 5.37 84,322 6.25

51,621 4.90 48,847 5.06 52,223 4.60 60,293 4.16 67,849 5.03

Vegetables and products 19,271 1.83 19,482 2.02 19,238 1.69 21,425 1.48 21,035 1.56 Animal feed and products 14,499 1.38 14,891 1.54 18,023 1.59 19,582 1.35 16,772 1.24 Other agricultural 21 products 161,040 15.28 152,051 15.76 162,691 14.32 196,055 13.54 219,916 16.30

Major Customers of Thailands Agricultural Products: 2012

Source: OAE

Thailands Agricultural Development Plan

The Agricultural Development Plan


Vision
Objectives
1. To have a good quality of life, enough income for livelihood and proud to be farmers 2. To increase efficiency of agricultural production and food production, improve quality and quantity for demand, including valueadded creation, environmentfriendly production and balancing production allocation between food and energy 3. To manage agricultural resources in efficient, balanced, and sustainable manner

Farmers have good quality of life, people are food secured and agricultural sector is a major source revenue of the country

Indicators
1. Well-being of farmers 2. Growth rate of agricultural GDP 3. Well-maintained agricultural areas

Goals 1. Well-being of farmers rise to 80% in 2016 2. The average growth of GDP in agriculture sector is about 4% per annum 3. Suitable agricultural resources are increased

The 11th Agricultural Development Plan


Strategy 1 : Improve the quality of life of farmers
- stabilizing farm income - increasing knowledge of the farmers - strengthening the capability of farmer and community to cope with disasters - increasing food security and food safety for farm households - promoting and supporting young farmers in entering the agricultural sector - supporting the operations of agricultural organizations and institutions
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The 11th Agricultural Development Plan (cont.)


Strategy 2 : Strengthen the capability in production and management of agricultural products and food security -promoting green products
-promoting the stability of food and energy crop productions -developing agricultural production and creating the value-added products -supporting agricultural marketing system development -creating domestic and international network -promoting and developing agricultural research 26

The 11th Agricultural Development Plan (cont.)


Strategy 3 : Utilize agricultural resources effectively, balancing and sustainability
- promoting the sustainable utilization of natural resources and

developing agricultural infrastructure efficiency - promoting and supporting farmers in using production resources appropriately and sustainably - supporting and encouraging farmers participation in agricultural resource management - preparing for the adverse impact of climate change - setting up the system for protection and mitigation of natural disasters - developing relevant laws and agricultural resource management. appropriately and suitably for the current situation
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Food Security in Thailand

Definition of Food Security


Food security exists when all people at all times, have physical , social and economic access to sufficient , safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life

Source: State of Food Insecurity 2001 (SOFI, FAO)

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4 - Dimensions of Food Security


Food Security

Availability

Accessibility

Utilization

Stability

Includes Food Safety


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Source : FAO

Target of MDG and WFS


MDG 1.9
To reduce proportion of undernourished people by half in 2015

WFS
To reduce number of undernourished people by half in 2015

MDG: Millennium Development Goal of UN WFS: World Food Summit


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Food Security Ratio 2011-2013


Product Item
Stock (Mill.ton) Domestic Utilization (Mill.ton)

Year

2011
8.098 12.084

2012
9.070 13.177

2013
12.224 14.093

3-year average
9.797 13.118

Rice

FSR (%)
Stock (Mill.ton) Domestic Utilization (Mill.ton) FSR (%) Stock (Mill.ton) Domestic Utilization (Mill.ton)

67
1.364 4.356 31 1.610 2.350

69
1.699 4.670 36 3.991 2.400

87
2.040 4.634 44 3.957 2.545

75
1.701 4.553 37 3.180 2.432

Maize

Sugarcane

FSR (%)

69

166

155

131
32

Source: ASEAN Food Security Information System (AFSIS)

Food Security Ratio 2011-2013 (cont.)


Product Item
Stock (Mill.ton) Domestic Utilization (Mill.ton) FSR (%)
Stock (Mill.ton) Domestic Utilization (Mill.ton)

Year 2011
6.000
6.590

2012
2.306
7.103

2013
2.225
7.591

3-year average
3.510
7.098

Cassava

91
0.183 2.142

32
0.160 2.110

29
0.116 2.162

49
1.532 2.138

Soybean

FSR (%)
Stock (Mill.ton) Domestic Utilization (Mill.ton) FSR (%)

9
0.068

8
0.298

5
0.364

72
0.243

Oil Palm

0.90
8

0.93
32

0.98
37

0.94
26
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Source: ASEAN Food Security Information System (AFSIS)

Food Self-Sufficiency Ratio 2011-2013


Product Item
Production (Mill.ton)

2011

Year 2012

2013

3-year average

Rice

Domestic Utilization (Mill.ton) SSR (%)

Production (Mill.ton)

Maize

Domestic Utilization (Mill.ton) SSR (%) Production (Mill.ton)

Sugarcane

Domestic Utilization (Mill.ton) SSR (%)

23.76 12.08 197 4.81 110.32 4 10.05 2.35 428

22.83 13.18 173 4.86 104.07 5 10.25 2.40 427

24.90 14.09 177 4.86 104.97 5 10.38 2.54 408

23.83 13.12 182 4.84 4.45 109 10.23 2.43 421


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Source: ASEAN Food Security Information System (AFSIS)

Food Self-Sufficiency Ratio 2011-2013 (cont.)


Product Item
Production (Mill.ton) Domestic Utilization (Mill.ton) SSR (%) Production (Mill.ton)

2011

Year 2012

2013

3-year average

Cassava

Soybean

Domestic Utilization (Mill.ton) SSR (%) Production (Mill.ton) Domestic Utilization (Mill.ton) (only consumption) SSR (%)

Oil Palm

21.91 6.59 333 0.126 2.142 6 1.83 0.90 203

26.60 7.10 375 0.107 2.110 5 1.93 0.93 208

27.55 7.59 363 0.105 2.162 5 2.04 0.98 208

25.35 7.09 358 0.113 2.138 5 1.93 0.94 205


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Source: ASEAN Food Security Information System (AFSIS), Oil Palm from Office of Agricultural Economics

Food Self-Sufficiency Ratio 2010-2012


Product Item 2010

Year 2011

2012

3-year average

Egg

Broiler

Swine

Cow

Production (Mill.egg) Domestic Utilization (Mill.egg) SSR (%) Production (Mill.ton) Domestic Utilization (Mill.ton) SSR (%) Production (Mill.ton) Domestic Utilization (Mill.ton) SSR (%) Production (Mill.head) Domestic Utilization (Mill.head) SSR (%)

9,787 9,607 102 1.223 0.898 136 0.99 0.92 108 1.130 1.25 90

10,024 9,781 102 1.253 0.936 134 0.97 0.90 108 1.087 1.25 87

10,939 10,789 101 1.330 0.947 140 1.05 0.96 109 1.063 1.25 85

10,250 10,059 102 1.269 0.927 137 1.00 0.93 215 1.093 1.25 87
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Source: Office of Agricultural Economics

Number of People Under Poverty Line


Item
Poverty Line (Baht/Person/Month) Poverty Ratio (%) Number of the Poor (Mill.people)

2011
2,422 13.15 8.8

2010
2,305 16.91 11

2009
2,220 19.08 12.3

2008
2,170 20.49 13

2007
2,031 20.94 13.1
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Source : National Economic and Social Development Board

Thailands Strategic Plan for Food Security

Strategic Plan for Food Security in Thailand


11th National Economic and Social Development Plan (20112016)

Strategic Framework on Food Management of Thailand (2012-2016)


Strategic Framework on Food Security of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (2013-2016) ASEAN Plus Three Emergency Rice Reserve (APTERR) ASEAN Food Security Information System

(AFSIS)

Strategy of Food Security of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (2013-2016)


Vision: Thai people have sufficient good food for sustainable consumption
I.

Sufficient food for domestic consumption Increase productivity Develop infrastructure Minimize effects of climate change Support agriculture investment sector Strengthen farmers' capability

II.

People can access to food Promote community production Promote income increasing activities Restore food reserve culture Facilitate food logistics Promote social safety nets Prevent and establish revitalized measures to deal with natural disasters

III. Produce high quality food . Support food standard practices throughout the production chain Promote food nutrition for consumption Reduce wastes from food production Develop food information system

IV.

Stabilize food production Protect agricultural land Conserve biodiversity and enhance efficient resources management Allocate land for the needy farmers Allocate land and production for food and fuel production

Thank you

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